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^  On an 18 November:
2004 The dollar sinks to an all-time low against the euro, on European exchange markets: , € 0.7649 , down 37% from its late 2000 highs of € 1.22. The dollar also makes a four-and-half-year low against the yen: ¥ 103.65, its lowest since the dollar settled at ¥ 103.36 on 17 April 2000. The dollar also falls to 1069 South Korean wons, a seven-year low..
2004 Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol on global warming. Thus, now ratified by countries accounting for at least 55% of developed nations' greenhouse gas emissions, the treaty, starting on 16 February 2005, requires the 51 industrialized nations that are signatories to meet quantitative targets for reducing or limiting emissions of “greenhouse gases” that cause global warming. Only four industrialized nations have not yet ratified the Kyoto Protocol: Australia, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and the worst polluter of all, the United States.
2003 World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963~], with Black, draws against computer program X3D Fritz in the final and 4th game of a match which ends tied, whose first game was played on 11 November 2003 (13 Nov Game 2; 16 Nov Game 3). {to replay the games click here and then click the Archive tab}. Today's game:
1. d4 d5 2. c4 dxc4 3. Nf3 e6 4. e3 Nf6 5. Bxc4 c5 6. 0-0 a6 7. Bb3 cxd4 8. exd4 Nc6 9. Nc3 Be7 10. Re1 0-0 11. Bf4 Na5 12. d5 Nxb3 13. Qxb3 exd5 14. Rad1 Be6 15. Qxb7 Bd6 16. Bg5 Rb8 17. Qxa6 Rxb2 18. Bxf6 Qxf6 19. Qxd6 Qxc3 20. Nd4 Rxa2 21. Nxe6 fxe6 22. Qxe6+ Kh8 23. Rf1 Qc5 24. Qxd5 Rfxf2 25. Rxf2 Qxf2+ 26. Kh1 h6 27. Qh8+ Kh7 — draw

2002 En Barcelona la Policia ha informat del final de segrest a l'escola el Casal dels └ngels, situada al carrer de la Unió de l'Hospitalet del Llobregat, després que els quatre alumnes que restaven retinguts hagin estat alliberats, i el segrestador detingut. Un agent de paisà ha reduït al jove quan l'hi entregava una pizza, mentre que tots els alumnes es troben bé de salut. El sinistre ha començat al voltant de les 15:30h, quan el segrestador, armat amb una navalla, ha entrat al centre escolar, on ha retingut un grup de 20 alumnes d'entre 8 i 10 anys d'una classe de cinquè C de primària. Ha demanat un rescat d'un milió i mig d'euros, xifra que ha rebaixat després de negociar amb la Policia. El segrestador és Norberto Arambari Muñoz, de 17 anys, exalumne del centre i germà d'una de les alumnes de l'escola (que estava entre les 16 segrestades alliberates una hora i mitjà després de l'inici del segrest).
2000 George W. Bush's campaign fiercely attacked the hand-recounting of votes in Florida's presidential election, depicting a process riddled with human error and Democratic bias; Al Gore's lawyers defended the effort in papers filed with the state Supreme Court.
^ 1999 Dragging victim's third murderer gets life in prison.
      On 7 June 1998, in Jasper, Texas, three men, Lawrence Russell Brewer Jr., 31, John William "Bill" King, 23, and Shawn Allen Berry, 23, chained James Byrd Jr, a 49-year-old black man, to the back of a pickup truck and dragged him three miles down the road. Byrd was black; his three killers — whose guilt was never really in doubt — were white.
     Byrd, a black Jasper resident, got so drunk at a party that his friends and relatives refused to drive him home. So he walked. When three white men, Berry, Brewer and King, offered him a ride in Berry's primer-gray pickup, he apparently jumped right in. What happened next is hazy, but the four men didn't go home. Instead, they started swilling beer together and smoking cigarettes.
      Eventually, some combination of Berry, Brewer and King tired of the camaraderie and decided to chain their newfound companion by his ankles to the back of their pickup and drag him down a county road. Finally, Byrd's head hit a culvert and split, along with one arm, from the rest of his body. Brewer, Berry and King unchained the body and left it outside the gates of a local graveyard, then went their separate ways. Byrd's buttocks and heels were ground down almost to the bone. He was alive and probably conscious until his head hit the culvert. His last moments couldn't have been anything short of excruciating. Berry later said that he was a horrified bystander, not an active participant. He said that the other men threatened him, saying "the same thing can happen to a nigger lover."
     Brewer and King both had racist tattoos and open ties with a white supremacist group. While they were in jail in Jasper County, Brewer sent King a note proudly boasting that after Byrd's death, "we are bigger stars, or should I say hero of the day, than we ever expected." King first (23 February 1999), and then Brewer (September 1999) were tried and sentenced to death. Berry, who did not have the same racist antecedents as the other two, was sentenced to life in prison (parole possible after 40 years)(18 November 1999).
^ 1998 National Book Award to Charming Billy
      Alice McDermott beats out front-runner Tom Wolfe for the National Book Award with her novel Charming Billy. McDermott grew up on Long Island, which became the setting for much of her writing. She attended the State University of New York at Oswego, then worked in publishing for a year, hoping to rid herself of the writing bug. Failing that, she went to graduate school at the University of New Hampshire and soon began publishing short stories in women's magazines. Her first novel, A Bigamist's Daughter, came out in 1982. Her second was That Night (1987). McDermott and her husband, a neuroscientist, had three children and lived in San Diego and Pittsburgh before settling in Bethesda. She taught at Johns Hopkins University while continuing to write novels, including At Weddings and Wakes (1992) and Charming Billy (1998).
1997 Five suspected agents for Libya went on trial in Berlin for the 1996 bombing of a nightclub that killed three people.
1997 According to Microsoft executives, some 200'000 certificates of authenticity and 100'000 CD-ROMs have been stolen from Microsoft by armed robbers the previous week at a manufacturing facility in Scotland.
^ 1996 Seven years in prison for conservationist turned parrot smuggler.
      Tony Silva, a world-renowned expert and outspoken protector of exotic birds, is sentenced to seven years in prison without parole for leading an illegal parrot smuggling operation. Silva was only one of many to be arrested during "Operation Renegade," a three-year international probe into bird smuggling by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Division of Law Enforcement, although his case was by far the best known.
      Silva's indictment and guilty plea shocked the international community of academic experts, conservationists, zoologists, and collectors interested in exotic birds, most of whom had known and respected him as a benevolent bird lover. Since his childhood, Silva had championed the cause of protecting wildlife. His parents, who had emigrated to the US from Cuba when he was a boy, encouraged his love of birds, thinking it was a good way to keep their son out of trouble. Silva began breeding birds at a young age, and, by his 20s, he had already written hundreds of articles and authored two books on rare parrots. When he was just 30 years old, he was named curator of Loro Park, a wildlife sanctuary in the Canary Islands.
      However, Silva's image greatly changed when he was accused of smuggling 258 hyacinth macaws, valued at a total of $1.4 million, as well as 299 other exotic birds. Hyacinth macaws are extremely rare, having a wild population numbering between only 2000 and 5000. During smuggling operations, many of the birds die. In one instance, only two out of 35 birds survived.
      US District Court Judge Elaine Bucklo, shocked at the brutal treatment of the birds during the smuggling operations, handed down one of the most severe sentences ever imposed for bird smuggling. In addition to the 82-month prison term, she fined Silva $100,000 and ordered him to perform 200 hours of community service during a three-year supervised release program after his prison term. During the sentencing, Judge Bucklo said, "The real victims of these crimes were the birds themselves and our children and future generations who may never have the opportunity to see any of these rare birds."
      Silva later claimed that he was set up and had only been trying to protect the birds. In a 1998 interview, he spoke as if he had been on a religious mission to save endangered species: "I thought I could be Noah, that I could save a lot of these things." However, many disagree with Silva's interpretation of the events, citing the evidence from his trial, which included photographs of dead parrots, a book detailing his smuggling operations found at his home, and a taped conversation of Silva saying that he had 50 hyacinth macaws for sale.
1996 A 16-year CIA veteran and onetime station chief Harold J. Nicholson is arrested for spying as he tries to board a plane at Washington's Dulles International Airport. He is charged with selling top secrets to the Russians for more than $120'000. (Nicholson later pleaded guilty to espionage and was sentenced to 23 1/2 years in prison; for cooperating with investigators he was spared a life sentence)
1996 Hand-held computers introduced
      Four hardware makers present hand-held computers at an electronics show on this day in 1996. The computers were all designed to run Microsoft Windows CE, an operating system introduced at the show the previous day. The machines offered remote and wireless connections for checking e-mail and surfing the Web and allowed users to synchronize data with Windows programs. By 1999, the market for hand-held computers had grown to an estimated 5.7 million units, nearly fifty% greater than 1998 sales, according to the research firm Dataquest.
1995 With no relief in sight from a budget impasse that forced a partial federal shutdown, the House rebel against Republican leaders during a raucous Saturday session and vote to oppose formally adjourning the chamber until Monday. (Republican leaders put the chamber into recess anyway.)
1994 The US Commerce Department announces that the trade deficit was $10.3 billion during the previous September. In the 1980s, the US's trade deficit had become a multi-billion-dollar problem.
1994 Palestinian police open fire on Islamic militants outside a mosque in the Gaza Strip, provoking riots that kill at least 14 people and injured 200.
1993 South Africa's ruling National Party and leaders of 20 other parties representing blacks and whites approved a new national constitution that provides fundamental rights to blacks.
1991 The Lebanese Shiite Moslem faction of the Islamic Jihad free hostages Church of England envoy Terry Waite and US professor Thomas Sutherland, dean of agriculture at the American University of Beirut.
1990 Saddam offers to free an estimated 2000 men held in Kuwait
1990 US President Bush begins a series of meetings in Paris with allied leaders aimed at solidifying support for his Persian Gulf policies.
1990 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met at the Vatican with Pope John Paul II, who says that all possible efforts should be made to avoid war in the Persian Gulf.
^ 1987 US Congress issues Iran-Contra Affair report
      The congressional committee on the Iran-Contra affair issues their final report, stating that President Ronald Reagan failed in his constitutional duty as president and bore "the ultimate responsibility" for the wrongdoing of his aides, who are said to have "subverted" the rule of law on a number of occasions. The Iran-Contra affair first became public in late 1986, when it was revealed that members of the Reagan administration, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the armed forces were illegally selling arms to Iran for two purposes: to help secure the release of American hostages held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian groups, and to raise funds for the illicit support of the Contras in their guerrilla war against Nicaragua's Communist government. Revelations about the Iran-Contra connection cause outrage in Congress, which in 1983 had passed the Boland amendments prohibiting the Defense Department, the CIA, or any other government agency from providing military aid to the Contras. In December 1986, Lawrence E. Walsh was named special prosecutor to investigate the matter, and over the course of the investigation thirteen top White House, State Department, and intelligence officials are found guilty of charges ranging from perjury to charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States. Although President Reagan is heavily implicated in the final congressional report, neither he nor Vice President George Bush is directly indicted in the subsequent criminal trials.
     After nearly a year of hearings into the Iran-Contra scandal, the joint Congressional investigating committee issues its final report. It concluded that the scandal, involving a complicated plan whereby some of the funds from secret weapons sales to Iran were used to finance the Contra war against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua, was one in which the administration of Ronald Reagan exhibited "secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law." Naming several members of the Reagan administration as having been directly involved in the scheme (including National Security Advisor John Poindexter and deceased CIA Director William Casey), the report stated that Reagan must bear "ultimate responsibility." A number of government officials were charged and convicted of various crimes associated with the scandal.
      A minority opinion by some of the Republican members of the committee contained in the report argued that the hearings had been politically motivated. They also suggested that while Reagan administration officials might have used poor judgment, the ultimate end-continuing the fight against the leftist regime in Nicaragua-was a worthy goal.
      The differences in opinion, while partially reflective of partisan biases, were also evidence of a question that had plagued US policy makers since the early days of the Cold War: in the battle against communism, were the ends more important than the means?
^ 1987 Sony buys CBS Records
      After an intense two-month courtship, Sony Corp. struck a deal to acquire CBS Records. For $2 billion, the Japanese electronics giant snagged the world's biggest record company and label of hit-making heavyweights such as Bruce Springsteen and Michael Jackson. The deal also included CBS's global array of manufacturing plants and subsidiary companies, as well as 10'000 employees and Columbia House, a direct-mail music club. While the acquisition instantly boosted Sony's position in the music industry, it was also the capstone of a major corporate makeover for CBS. During the past year, CBS's new chairman, Laurence A. Tisch, aggressively moved to re-shape the company, selling off non-broadcast affiliates and divisions. Though some may have grumbled about Tisch's decision to peddle the music industry's biggest prize, the infusion of a few billion dollars won praise from Wall Street, as shares of CBS's stock posted a $8.625 gain to close the day at $176.
1987 Used car sold for $1'600'000
     A special edition 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO hardtop is sold for $1'600'000 at an automobile auction in Italy, setting a new public auction record. Enzo Ferrari first introduced the GTO in 1954, and public demand for the series was so great that Ferrari was motivated to build its first assembly line. The 250 series, the most popular of which were the Testa Rossa and the GT Spyder, made Ferrari a legend. The 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO was a limited edition variant on the 1962 GTO. The engine featured a 12-cylinder engine with a maximum power output of 290 bhp at 7400 rpm. The 1963 GTO variant featured larger tires and the hardtop design, and was significant because of its release during the 250 GTO's last major year of production.
1984 The Soviet Union helps deliver American wheat during the Ethiopian famine
1983 Argentina announces its ability to produce enriched uranium for nuclear weapons.
1976 Spain's parliament approved a bill to establish democracy after 37 years of Franco dictatorship
^ 1970 Nixon appeals to Congress for funds for Cambodia
      President Nixon asks Congress for supplemental appropriations for the Cambodian government of Premier Lon Nol. Nixon requested $155 million in new funds for Cambodia - $85 million of which would be for military assistance, mainly in the form of ammunition. He also asked for an additional $100 million to restore funds taken from other foreign appropriations during the year by "presidential determination" and given to Cambodia. Nixon wanted the funds to provide aid and assistance to Lon Nol to preclude the fall of Cambodia to the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies.
      Lon Nol was a Cambodian general who had overthrown the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk in March 1970. He and his army, the Forces Armees Nationale Khmer (FANK), were engaged in a desperate struggle with the communists for control of the Cambodian countryside. The Nixon administration had initiated a program of aid to Lon Nol in April 1970 with $7.5 million in arms and supplies. This aid did not have an immediate impact as the government forces reeled under heavy communist attacks. Besides trying to get additional funds for more military aid for Cambodia, Nixon also committed US aircraft in direct support of Cambodian government troops and initiated a program whereby US Army Special Forces would train Lon Nol's troops.
      With this US support, Lon Nol was able to successfully withdraw most of his forces (which numbered over 200'000) from the rural areas to the larger urban centers, where they were able to hold out against the communist attacks. The fighting continued, but generally a stalemate prevailed so that neither side gained the upper hand. This situation changed in 1973 after the signing of the Paris Peace Accords. Under the provisions of that agreement, the United States withdrew its forces from South Vietnam and both the Cambodians and South Vietnamese found themselves fighting the communists alone.
      Without US support, Lon Nol's forces succumbed to the Khmer Rouge in April 1975. During the five years of bitter fighting, approximately 10% of Cambodia's 7 million people died, but the suffering of the Cambodian people did not end with the communist takeover. The victorious Khmer Rouge evacuated Phnom Penh and set about to reorder Cambodian society, which resulted in a killing spree and the notorious "killing fields." During this period, hundreds of thousands of Cambodians died from murder, exhaustion, hunger, and disease.
1967 British government devalues pound from US equivalent of $2.80 to $2.40
1966 This is the last required meatless Friday for American Roman Catholics, in accordance with a decree of Pope Paul VI earlier this year and decision of US bishops.
1964 In the largest air assault of the Vietnam war thus far, 116 US and South Vietnamese aircraft fly 1100 South Vietnamese troops into Binh Duong and Tay Ninh Provinces to attack what is believed to be a major communist stronghold. General Nguyen Khanh personally directed the operation, but the troops made only light contact with the Viet Cong.
1964 J Edgar Hoover describes Martin Luther King as "most notorious liar"
1963 The first push-button telephone went into service on this day in 1963. Touch-tone service, first available in two Pennsylvania cities, was available as an option for an extra charge. The phone had ten buttons and was made by Western Electric Manufacturing.
^ 1960 The end of the DeSoto car.
      The Chrysler DeSoto was a hit even before the first model was built in the summer of 1928. When Walter P. Chrysler announced that his Chrysler Corporation intended to build a mid-priced vehicle boasting six-cylinders, dealerships signed on immediately, and in the first twelve months of production the DeSoto set a sales record that stood for thirty years. The automobile, named after Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto, was a large and powerful vehicle marketed to the average American car buyer. The innovative designs of the DeSotos of the 1930s were as daring as their namesake — 1934 saw the introduction of America's first affordable automobile with aerodynamic styling, and the 1937 DeSoto was hailed for its safety innovations. In the late 1930s, lackluster US sales prompted Chrysler to introduce a more conservative line of DeSotos. The large and gracious 1940 DeSoto was advertised as "America's Family Car," and the American family agreed, giving DeSoto its best sales in the first few years after World War II.
      During the 1950s, the DeSoto became adventurous again, and the 1955 DeSoto featured power styling to match its powerful engine. By 1956, DeSoto was eleventh in the industry, but the dynamics of its demise were already in motion at Chrysler. Disorganization in the management of the Chrysler Corporation, along with general quality issues in Detroit in the late 1950s, led to several years of popular but flawed DeSotos. In 1958, DeSoto's designers introduced their most flamboyant cars ever, the Firesweeps, Firedomes, and Fireflites, but the public failed to embrace these new models, and all but the Fireflite was dropped in 1959. In 1960, William C. Newberg, the new president at Chrysler, decided to limit the DeSoto program, and the uninspired 1961 DeSoto was doomed for failure. On this day, just two weeks after the 1961 DeSoto was introduced to an uninterested market, Chrysler announced the termination of the DeSoto marquee.
1959 "Ben-Hur," the Biblical movie starring Charlton Heston, has its world premiere in New York. It is based on the novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ by Lew Wallace
1949 The US Air Force grounds B-29s after two crashes and 23 deaths in three days.
^ 1940 Hitler scolds Italy for failed Greek campaign
      Adolf Hitler scolded Count Ciano of Italy for his failed campaign in Greece. Ciano's Italian troops, bolstered by Albanian soldiers, had attacked Greece on October 28. The tough Greek Army had not only repulsed them, but swept through them into Italian-occupied Albania. Italy was humiliated, and Hitler was up in arms. The Fuhrer warned Ciano about the ramifications of Italy's ongoing war with Greece. If Britain were to acquire an air base in Athens as a result of the Greece-Italy conflict, they would be able to bomb vital Romanian oil wells at Ploesti. To prevent this, Germany would have to intervene, which they would not be able to do until mid-March.
1939 The Irish Republican Army explodes three bombs in Picadilly Circus.
1938 Union members elected John L. Lewis as the first president of the recently formed, and newly independent, Congress of Industrial Organizations.
^ 1937 La Cagoule démasquée.
      Le journaliste Maurice Pujo revèle à la France ce qu'il appelle " la Cagoule " . C'est un groupe du parti national révolutionnaire d'extrême droite qui a été fondé en 1935 par le polytechnicien Eugène Deloncle. Le public stupéfait apprend que les attentats et les meurtres qui ont ponctué la vie politique depuis deux ans sont leur faits. En 1936, elle s'est associée l'organisation secrète d'action révolutionnaire nationale, qu'on appellera le CSAR, dirigée par le général d'aviation Arthur Duseigneur et son ami le duc Pozzo di Borgo. Leur ambition est simplement de renverser le régime républicain. Ils ont été exécutés Jean-Baptiste Maurice, Dimitri Navachine, Maurice Juif, LŠtitia Tonneaux, les frères italiens antifascistes Rosselli. C'est à eux aussi que l'on doit les plasticages de la place de l'Etoile et de l'aéroport de Toussus-le-Noble. C'est à eux encore que l'on doit les bombes qui ont explosé rue de Presbourg, à la Confédération générale du patronat français, et rue Boissière, au siège de l'Union des industries métallurgiques. Les cagoulards sont arrêtés.
1936 Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy recognize Falangist Spanish government of Francisco Franco, fighting to overthrow democracy..
1936 The main span of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is joined.
1929 Large quake in Atlantic breaks Transatlantic cable in 28 places
1926 Pope Pius XI encyclical On the persecution of the Church in Mexico
^ 1925 New Evidence exculpates Sacco and Vanzetti
of the murders in South Braintree, Mass., on April 15, 1920, of F.A. Parmenter, paymaster of a shoe factory, and Alessandro Berardelli, the guard accompanying him, in order to secure the payroll that they were carrying.
      On 05 May Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists who had immigrated to the United States in 1908, one a shoemaker and the other a fish peddler, were arrested for the crime. On May 31, 1921, they were brought to trial before Judge Webster Thayer of the Massachusetts Superior Court, and on July 14 both were found guilty by verdict of the jury. Socialists and radicals protested the men's innocence.
      Many people felt that there had been less than a fair trial and that the defendants had been convicted for their radical, anarchist beliefs rather than for the crime for which they had been tried. All attempts for retrial on the ground of false identification failed. On Nov. 18, 1925, one Celestino Madeiros, then under a sentence for murder, confessed that he had participated in the crime with the Joe Morelli gang. The state Supreme Court refused to upset the verdict, because at that time the trial judge had the final power to reopen on the ground of additional evidence. The two men were sentenced to death on 09 April 1927.
      A storm of protest arose with mass meetings throughout the nation. Governor Alvan T. Fuller appointed an independent advisory committee consisting of President A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard University, President Samuel W. Stratton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Robert Grant, a former judge. On 03 August 1927, the governor refused to exercise his power of clemency; his advisory committee agreed with this stand.
      Demonstrations proceeded in many cities throughout the world, and bombs were set off in New York City and Philadelphia. Sacco and Vanzetti, still maintaining their innocence, were executed on 23 August 1927.
      Opinion has remained divided on whether Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty as charged or whether they were innocent victims of a prejudiced legal system and a mishandled trial. Some writers have claimed that Sacco was guilty but that Vanzetti was innocent. There is widespread agreement, however, that the two men should have been granted a second trial in view of their trial's significant defects.
      In 1977 the governor of Massachusetts, Michael S. Dukakis [03 Nov 1933~], issued a proclamation stating that Sacco and Vanzetti had not been treated justly and that no stigma should be associated with their names.
1918 Latvia declares independence from Russia
1916 British commander ends bloody Battle of Somme
      Douglas Haig, commander of the British Expeditionary Force in World War I, calls off the Battle of the Somme in the Somme River region of France after nearly five months of mass slaughter. The massive Allied offensive began at 07:30. on 01 July 1916, with an intense bombardment of 250'000 British shells along the Western Front, followed by the explosion of mines planted under the German trenches. Before the dust cleared, 100'000 British soldiers poured out of their trenches and across no-man's-land. Unfortunately, they were met with a lethal barrage of machine gun fire from the enforced German trenches, which had survived the artillery onslaught. By nightfall, 20'000 British were dead, including 1000 officers, and 40'000 were injured. . It was the single heaviest day of casualties in British military history.
      The next day, both sides settled down to a war of attrition, characterized by ineffectual but costly offensives and the horrendous conditions of trench life. Even Britain's 15 September introduction of tanks into warfare for the first time in history failed to break the deadlock along the Western Front. In October, heavy rains turned the battlefield into a sea of mud. On 18 November 1916, Haig ended the Battle of the Somme. The offensive amounted to a total gain of just 320 square kilometers, at a cost of over 600'000 British and French soldiers killed, wounded, or missing in action. German casualties were over 650'000. Although Haig was severely criticized for the costly battle, his willingness to commit massive amounts of men and resources to the stalemate along the Western Front eventually contributed to the collapse of an exhausted Germany in 1918.
1912 Albania declares independence from Turkey
1912 Cholera breaks out in Constantinople, in the Ottoman Empire.
1909 US invades Nicaragua, later overthrows President Zelaya
1906 Anarchists bomb St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
1905 The Norwegian Parliament elects Prince Carl of Denmark to be the next King of Norway. Prince Carl takes the name Haakon VII.
1903 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gives US exclusive canal rights in Panama
1901 The second Hay-Pauncefote Treaty is signed. The United States is given extensive rights by Britain for building and operating a canal through Central America.
1894 1st newspaper Sunday color comic section published (NY World)
1883 North American time zones created, needed by railroads.
      Four standard time zones for the continental USA. are introduced at the instigation of the railroads. At noon the US Naval Observatory changes its telegraphic signals correspondingly and US and Canadian railroads begin using the time zones, ending the confusion of dealing with thousands of local times.
      The need for continental time zones stemmed directly from the problems of moving passengers and freight over the thousands of miles of rail line that covered North America by the 1880s. Since human beings had first begun keeping track of time, they set their clocks to the local movement of the sun. Even as late as the 1880s, most towns in the US had their own local time, generally based on "high noon," or the time when the sun was at its highest point in the sky. As railroads began to shrink the travel time between cities from days or months to mere hours, however, these local times became a scheduling nightmare. Railroad timetables in major cities listed dozens of different arrival and departure times for the same train, each linked to a different local time zone.
      Efficient rail transportation demanded a more uniform time-keeping system. Rather than turning to the federal governments of the United States and Canada to create a North American system of time zones, the powerful railroad companies took it upon themselves to create a new time code system. The companies agreed to divide the continent into four time zones; the dividing lines adopted were very close to the ones we still use today.
      Most Americans and Canadians quickly embraced their new time zones, since railroads were often their lifeblood and main link with the rest of the world. However, it was not until 1918 that Congress officially adopted the railroad time zones and put them under the supervision of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1861 First session of the Provisional Confederate Congress meets in Richmond, Virginia.
1860 Georgia legislature votes $1'000'000 to arm the state
^ 1820 A US sailor sights Antarctica
      US Navy Captain Nathaniel B. Palmer, aboard the Hero, a 13-meter sloop, becomes the first person from the US to sight the continent of Antarctica. Palmer, who discovered the Antarctica peninsula later named Palmer's Peninsula in his honor, did not realize the scope of his discovery. Very little was known about the continent at the time, and there were no recorded sightings before January of the same year, when Russian Thaddeus von Bellingshausen became the first person to sight part of Antarctica. Palmer, only nineteen years old in 1820, was dispatched from sealing grounds in the South Shetlands along with his five crewmen to search for land to the south. In February of 1821, John Davis, a sealer from Connecticut who had been searching the South Shetlands for seals, arguably became the first person to set foot on the continent when he went ashore at Hughes Bay. In December of that year, Nathaniel Palmer made another important discovery when he found the South Orkney Islands along with British sealer George Powell.
1803 Battle of Vertieres, in which Haitians defeat French
1776 Hessians capture Fort Lee, NJ
^ 1738 Fin de la Guerre de Succession de la Pologne
      Le traité de Vienne met fin à la guerre de la Succession de Pologne. Cinq ans plus tôt, Stanislas Leszczynski avait été élu pour la deuxième fois roi de Pologne. Désavouant ce choix de la Diète polonaise, la tsarine de Russie, Catherine II, et l'empereur d'Allemagne, Charles VI de Habsbourg, envoyèrent des troupes contre lui. Mais Stanislas avait un allié de choix en la personne de son gendre, rien moins que le roi de France Louis XV, qui avait épousé sa fille Marie.
      La guerre se prolongea plus que de raison et, pour en finir, le ministre Fleury imposa sagement au beau-père de Louis XV de renoncer à la Pologne. En échange, Stanislas obtint les duchés de Bar et de Lorraine que la France convoitait depuis plusieurs décennies. François de Lorraine, le gendre de l'empereur, reçut le grand-duché de Toscane en compensation de la cession de son duché à Stanislas. L'infant don Carlos d'Espagne, qui régnait sur la Toscane, obtint la Sicile et Naples, qui formeront le royaume des Deux-Siciles.
      Enfin, le roi de France reconnut — mais du bout des lèvres — la Pragmatique sanction de l'empereur. Celui-ci, qui n'avait pas de fils, prévoyait par cette ordonnance de transmettre le patrimoine des Habsbourg et le titre impérial à sa fille Marie-Thérèse. Stanislas eut à coeur d'embellir sa nouvelle capitale, Nancy, et à sa mort, en 1766, ses duchés de Bar et de Lorraine furent annexés par la France, comme prévu.
La France abandonne la Pologne.
      Il a fallu trois ans de négociations pour que la France, qui a soutenu la cause du roi de Pologne Stanislas Leszczynski, beau-père de Louis XV, accepte enfin de signer le traité Traité de Vienne. Leszczynski renonce au trône de Pologne ; il reçoit les duchés de Lorraine et de Bar, qui reviendront à sa mort au roi de France. François de Lorraine reçoit Parme et la Toscane. L'infant don Carlos d'Espagne obtient la Sicile et Naples, qui formeront le royaume des Deux-Siciles.
1626 In Rome, the newly completed St Peter's Basilica was consecrated by Urban VIII. St. Peter's is presently the largest church in Christendom, with a length of 189 m..
1525 Grebel, Manz and Blaurock, Anabaptist leaders, are sentenced to bread and water in prison.
1497 Bartolomeu Dias discovers Cape of Good Hope
^ 1477 The first English printed book
      At his wooden press in Westminster, William Caxton completes a translation by Earl Rivers from the French of Dictes or Sayengs of the Philosophers, the first book to be printed in England. During the early 1470s, the English-born Caxton learned the art of printing in Cologne, Germany, and in 1475, produced the first book ever printed in English, Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. In 1476, he returned to England to set up his press in Westminster. Caxton's press, like other early presses in Germany, used printing types that imitated handwriting. Artistically, Caxton was the finest printer of his day, using his famed Black Letter type that imitated the calligraphy of Haarlem monks. During his career as a printer, Caxton went on to print almost one hundred books in England, including the Canterbury Tales, the late fourteenth-century masterpiece by English poet Geoffrey Chaucer.
Parution du premier ouvrage imprimé en Angleterre
      Il sort des presses de William Caxton qui devient ainsi le premier imprimeur anglais après avoir été marchant de tissus prospère et etimé, puis écrivain. Séjournant à Cologne (Allemagne) entre 1470 et 1472, Caxton entend parler de l'imprimerie et 'y intéresse. De retour à Londres en 1476, il installe ses presses près de l'Abbaye de Westminster. Encouragé par le roi d'Angleterre Édouard VI, il éditera de nombreux ouvrages (une centaine en quinze ans)
1307 William Tell shoots apple off his son's head
1302 Pope Boniface VIII published the bull "Unam Sanctam." It was the first papal writing to decree that spiritual power took precedent over temporal power, and that subjection to the pope was necessary to salvation. He declared that there is "One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church" outside of which there is "neither salvation nor remission of sins." Emphasizing the pope's position as Supreme Head of the Church, it demanded that civil powers subjugate themselves to spiritual. Boniface claimed the title Vicar of Christ but died mad a few weeks later.
1210 Pope Innocent III excommunicates emperor Otto IV.
^ 1095 Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont.
      Summoned to plan the First Crusade, it was attended by over 200 bishops. Among its official policies, the Council decreed that a pilgrimage to Jerusalem made every other penance superfluous.
     For a thousand years Christianity steadily expanded throughout Europe. Yet by the eleventh century it was threatened in the place where it started. The Turks had conquered Jerusalem and were at the door of Constantinople. Eastern Christians pleaded with Rome to send help, and on this day, 18 November1095, Pope Urban II called 600 clergymen and laymen to the Council of Clermont to take action. Pope Urban II addressed the Council with a sermon that tugged at the heart strings of Christians everywhere. He asked Europe to recapture the Holy Land from the Turks and to free Antioch, where men had first been called Christians.
      When the pope declared: "The way is short, the toil will be followed by an incorruptible crown," the people replied, "God wills it." Urban II then said: "Let these words be your war-cry when you unsheathe the sword. You are soldiers of the cross. Wear it as a token that His help will never fail you, as the pledge of a vow never to be recalled." (Some have said that the pope's message that day has to be ranked as one of the most "effective" sermons ever preached.
      In the first crusade Jerusalem was captured by the Europeans on July 15, 1099, but the victory did not last. The Holy Land was not won nor was the advance of Islam checked. Because of the Crusades there was increased enmity between Moslems and Christians, and a wider split between the Eastern and Western Church.
      When we hear the word "crusade," we think of a lofty, moral ideal. But the aims of the original crusaders raise important issues for some Christians: First, Christ's church has never been a place, such as Jerusalem, but rather it is the body of believers in Jesus as the Son of God. Secondly, Jesus taught by word and example that His church should not be built by warfare. He said: "They that take the sword shall perish by the sword." (Matthew 26:52)
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^  Deaths which occurred on an 18 November:

2005 Sharon Beshendsky, 38, unarmed police woman wearing body armor, shot by three burglars fleeing from a travel agency in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. Wounded in the shoulder is the other policewoman with her, Teresa Milburn, 37, married with a 16-year-old son, who joined the police in April 2003. Beshendsky joined the police on 07 February 2005 after working with it for almost two years as a community support officer. She has three children (the youngest born on 18 November 2001) and two step children. — (051119)
2005 Two persons in the crash of a light plane outside Kaduna, Nigeria. — (051210)
2005 (Friday) Some 80 persons including 2 suicide bombers in two Shi'ite mosques in majority-Kurdish Khanaqin, Diyala province, Iraq, at 12:30 (09:30 UT). Some 80 persons are injured. — (051118)
2005 Three men, 1 woman, 3 children, plus 2 suicide truck bombers, at 08:20 and 08:21 (05:20 and 05:21 UT), outside the Hamra hotel in the Jadriyah neigborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, at a concrete security barrier which the first explosion failed to breach for the second truck to get to the hotel. Some 40 persons are injured. — (051119)
2004 Danilo Anderson, late in the day, by bomb in his car, in a suburb of Caracas, Venezuela. He was the chief prosecutor investigating several hundred opposition politicians, lawyers, businessmen, and ex-military officers, who backed the 12 April 2002 failed coup against leftist President Hugo Chávez [28 Jul 28, 1954~].
2004 Amer Abu Bakr Amer, Hani Ali Sobhi al-Naggar, and Mohammed Abdel Fattah, Egyptian policemen, on the Egyptian side of the Gaza border, at 03:00 (01:00 UT) by an Israeli tank shell “intended for terrorists who were laying a mine about 200 meters away”.
2003 Patricia Broderick, 78, of cancer, US painter and writer of plays and movie scripts. She had actors as husband, James Broderick [–1982], and son, Mathew Broderick.
2003 Sargoun Nanou Murado, murdered after being abucted on his way to work at the municipal council of Basra, Irak, where he represented the Assyrian Democratic Movement.
2003 Basanti Tripura, 38, and the 3-meter-long python who killed her and swallowed her up to her waist, and was killed when her body was retrieved. She was collecting fruit with a friend in a forest in southeastern Bangladesh.
2001 US Navy Electronics Technician 3rd Class Benjamin Johnson, 21, and Engineman 1st Class Vincent Parker, 38, from the Spruance-class destroyer USS Peterson, drowned in the northern Persian Gulf, as sinks Iraqi freighter, Motor Vessel Samra, which they had boarded as part of an eight-man security team. — (051108)
^ 2000 Wang Huachen, 32, Falun Gong member, dies in a hospital of injuries he got jumping out of a 4th-story window at a police station in Huludao, northeastern China.
      On 07 December AP would reveal that two more members of the banned Falun Gong spiritual movement have died in police custody, bringing to at least 74 the death toll in China's 17-month crackdown on the sect.
      Chemical factory worker Wang died 18 November in a hospital of injuries he got jumping out of a fourth-story window at a police station in the northeastern city of Huludao. Wang jumped after police allegedly beat him for two hours with wooden poles on 07 November, the day they arrested him for refusing to leave Falun Gong
      Zhao Jing, 19, was arrested on 23 November on a train in the northern province of Hebei while traveling to Beijing with other Falun Gong followers. Three days later, police notified her family that she was dead. Police said she died after falling in an escape attempt, but her companions said they heard her cries as police beat her.
      Chinese officials have declined to discuss individual reports of police abuse but deny that any followers have died from mistreatment. At least 74 Falun Gong followers have died in detention since China banned the group in July 1999, but Falun Gong says the number is much higher. Falun Gong attracted millions of members in the 1990s with its health exercises and eclectic mix of Taoism, Buddhism and the ideas of its founder, former government clerk Li Hongzhi, who eventually fled to the US. China outlawed Falun Gong as an “evil cult that caused the death of at least 1500 followers”. Communist Party leaders apparently fear the group's size and organization could challenge their monopoly on power.
1999 Paul Bowles, 88, in Morocco, US author and composer, best known for The Sheltering Sky and other novels set in North Africa.
1999 12 persons as a bonfire under construction at Texas A&M University collapses..
^ 1986 Helle Crafts, murdered by husband Richard Crafts.
      On 10 January 1987, a search for evidence in the disappearance and probable murder of Helle Crafts begins on the snow-covered banks of the Housatonic River in Connecticut. Investigators had finally narrowed the search to this area after Helle, a Pan Am flight attendant, had vanished on 18 November 1986. Although her body was never found, authorities did find enough evidence to convict her husband, Richard, of murder. Following her disappearance, friends immediately suspected Richard Crafts because his answers about his wife's whereabouts had been so evasive. When police got involved, Crafts' version of the events began to crumble. Although he claimed he had not left the house on 19 November, credit card records showed he had purchased new bedding. Further inquiry showed that he had bought a chest freezer and a wood chipper in the days right before Helle's disappearance. Two witnesses then came forward, saying that they had seen a wood chipper near the Housatonic River. A search of the Craft house revealed a blood smear on the mattress that turned out to be consistent with Helle's blood type. Detectives also found an envelope addressed to Helle near the river. Divers found a chain saw and serrated cutting bar, which had human hair and tissue embedded in the teeth. This led to the meticulous search on January 10, 1987. Thawing the snow and sifting the soil, detectives found 2000 hairs, 100 grams of human tissue, two fingernails, two tooth caps, and five droplets of blood. From this minute evidence, doctors were able to prove that Richard Crafts had disposed of his wife's body with a wood chipper near the river. The most important evidence was that the tooth caps matched Helle's dental records. Crafts' first trial in 1988 ended with a deadlocked jury, but the following year he was convicted of murder and sentenced to 50 years in prison. Until recent advances in forensic science, a murder conviction without a dead body was nearly impossible. But as this case proved, it is more difficult than ever to get away with murder.
^ 1978 Rep. Leo J. Ryan and 4 with him murdered, then 912 members of Peoples Temple led James Warren Jones, by suicide or murder.
      People's Temple leader Jim Jones leads hundreds of his followers in a mass murder-suicide at their “Jonestown” agricultural commune in remote northwestern Guyana. The few cult members who refused to take the cyanide-laced fruit-flavored concoction were either forced to do so at gunpoint or shot as they fled. The final death toll was 913, including 276 children. [list of the dead]
      James Warren “Jim” Jones (born 13 May 1931) was a charismatic churchman who founded the initially Christian sect The Wings of Deliverance (precursor of The Peoples Temple) on 04 April 1955, in Indianapolis. He preached against racism, and his integrated congregation attracted mostly African Americans. In 1965, he moved the group to northern California, settling in Ukiah and after 1971 in San Francisco. In the 1970s, his church was accused by the press of financial fraud, physical abuse of its members, and mistreatment of children. In response to the mounting criticism, Jones led several hundred of his followers to South America in 1977 and set up a utopian agricultural settlement called Jonestown in the jungle of Guyana.
      A year later, a group of ex-members convinced US Congressman Leo Ryan, a Democrat of California, to travel to Jonestown and investigate the commune. On 17 November 1978, Ryan arrived in Jonestown with a group of journalists and other observers. At first the visit went well, but the next day, as Ryan's group was about to leave, several People's Church members approached members of the group and asked them for passage out of Guyana. Jones became distressed at the defection of his members, and one of Jones' lieutenants attacked Ryan with a knife. Ryan escaped from the incident unharmed, but Jones then ordered Ryan and his companions ambushed and killed at the airstrip as they attempted to leave. The congressman and four others were murdered as they attempted to board their charter planes.
      Back in Jonestown, Jones directed his followers in a mass suicide in a clearing in the town. With Jones exhorting the "beauty of dying" over a loudspeaker, hundreds drank a lethal cyanide and Kool-Aid drink. Those who tried to escape were chased down and shot by Jones' lieutenants. Jones died of a gunshot wound in the head, probably self-inflicted. Guyanese troops, alerted by a cult member who escaped, reached Jonestown the next day. Only a dozen or so followers survived, hidden in the jungle. Most of the 913 dead were lying side by side in the clearing where Jones had preached to them for the last time.
— Some of the dead children and their parents, with date (M/D/yyyy) and place of birth (and home town), are:
  • JACKSON, Jonathan 5/7/1978 Jonestown, Guyana (Parents are Kathryn and Ralph Jackson) — his mother JACKSON, Kathryn Denise 9/24/1952 California (San Francisco, California 94115) — his father JACKSON, Ralph Edwin 6/9/1952 California (Fremont, California)
  • MINOR, Cuyana Lynette 4/30/1978 Guyana (Mother is Cassandra Minor) — MINOR, Cassandra Yvette 10/15/56 California (Redwood Valley, California 95470)
  • MARSHALL, Shaunte 4/11/1978 Guyana — Father is Charles Marshall MARSHALL, Charles 2/16/57 Texas (San Francisco, California 94132)
  • JONES, Marchelle Jacole 2/14/1978 Jonestown, Guyana (Mother is Ava Jones, AKA Ava Cobb) — her mother JONES, Ava Phenice (AKA Cobb, Ava; Cobb-Brown, Ava) 8/6/51 Indiana (San Francisco, California)
  • McMURRY, Takiyah Chanée 3/12/1978 Guyana (Father is Theodore McMurry) — McMURRY, Theodore Devanulis 6/7/58 Washington (Oakland, California 94609)
  • GRIFFITH, Camella (Kamilah) 10/29/1977 Parents (Gloria and Emmett Griffith) — Griffith, Gloria, see WARREN, Gloria Faye WARREN, Gloria Faye (AKA Griffith, Gloria) 1/9/59 Mississippi (San Francisco, California 94115) — GRIFFITH, Emmett Alexander, Jr. 7/11/1958 California (San Francisco, California 94124) (Redwood Valley, CA)
  • JONES, Monyelle Maylene 2/14/1978 Guyana (Parents are Sandy Cobb and Tim Tupper Jones) — her mother COBB, Sandra Yvette (AKA Jones, Sandy) 11/16/1956 (Peoples Temple records say birthdate is 12/16/56) Indiana (San Francisco, California 94107) — her father is not listed as dead
  • HENDERSON, Kenya Lakiah aka Kenya Newman 7/27/1977 California Mother (Darlene Newman) (San Francisco) — NEWMAN, Darlene Rudeltha 3/12/48 Texas (San Francisco, California 94117)
  • BACON, Monique 5/25/1977 California (San Francisco)
  • CARTER, Kaywana Mae 4/4/1977 (Peoples Temple records list birthdate as 5/10/1977) (Georgetown, Guyana)
  • JONES, Chaeoke Warren 4/4/1977 Georgetown, Guyana
  • DAVIS, Deron Kentae 1/14/1977 (Mother is Michele Wagner) — WAGNER, Michelle 5/18/54 California
  • DAVIS, Gerina Maxine 1/3/1977 California; Mother (Margaret Davis aka Margarita Davis) and sibling (Celeste Marie Vento aka Celeste Davis) (n.b. Another Peoples Temple record says parents were Vicky and Danny Marshall, both of whom died in Jonestown (San Francisco, CA) — DAVIS, Margaret Virginia (AKA Davis, Margarita) 1/10/1950 Pennsylvania (San Francisco, California) — DOVER, Vicky Lynn (AKA Marshall, Vicky Lynn) 1/20/58 Indiana (Redwood Valley, California 95470) — MARSHALL, Danny Leon 12/24/54 Texas (San Francisco, California 94132)
  • JOHNSON, Maisha Danika 12/28/1976 California; Mother (Bessie Marie Johnson)
  • CORDELL, Natasha LaNa 8/17/1976 California; Nine family members, including mother (Teresa Cordell AKA Shawnterri Hall) and legal guardian (Barbara Jeanne Cordell) — CORDELL, Teresa Laverne (AKA Hall, Shawnterri) 3/11/1958 Georgia (San Francisco, California 94115) — CORDELL, Barbara Jeanne 8/14/1938 Michigan (Redwood Valley, California 95470)
  • CARROLL, Rangell Dwayne Smith 7/25/1976 California (San Francisco, CA)
  • SIMON, Summer Rene 6/29/1976 California (Parents are Alvin and Bonnie Simon) — SIMON, Bonnie Jean 3/23/1949 Ohio (Cotati, California 94928) — SIMON, Alvin Harold, Jr. 10/8/1972 California (Parents are Alvin and Bonnie Simon)
  • SIMON, Aisha Kizuwanda 6/10/1976
  • JOHNSON, Koya Tynsia 6/5/1976 California
  • HOLLIDAY, Tani Claudine-La Dese 3/17/1976 California; (Mother is Toi Fonzelle) — FONZELLE, Toi 1/17/1955 California (Los Angeles, California 90011)
  • AUGUSTINE, Dante (AKA Carroll, Dante) 8/28/1974 Berkeley, California
  • ANDERSON, Shantrell 11/6/1971 California (San Francisco, CA)
  • ARTERBERRY, Traytease Lanette 4/6/1971 California; Mother (Linda Theresa Arterberry) (San Francisco, CA) — her brother ARTERBERRY, Ricardo D. 1/15/1968 California; Mother (Linda Theresa Arterberry) — their mother ARTERBERRY, Linda Theresa (AKA Pierce, Linda) 12/6/1948 California (San Francisco, California 94115)

    — Some of the oldest dead are:
  • EVER REJOICING (AKA Pointdexter, Amanda) 10/9/1881 Virginia (Redwood Valley, California)
  • McGOWAN, Alluvine 3/13/1888 Texas (San Francisco, California 94117)
  • LOWE, Love Life Georgia Belle (AKA Owens, Georgia) 12/2/1888 Missouri (Redwood Valley, California)
  • ROSS, Elsie Zilpha 7/15/1889 Louisiana (San Francisco, California 94117)
  • BELLE, Ethel Mathilda 4/13/1890 West Indies (Peoples Temple records list birthday as 4/7/1892)
  • McCLAIN, Allie 6/25/1890 Arkansas (Los Angeles, California)
  • DYSON, Florine 12/06/1890 Virginia (San Francisco, California 94109)
  • JOY, Love M. 12/18/1891 Oklahoma (San Francisco, CA)
  • JOHNSON, Berda Truss (AKA Johnson, Birdie) 4/2/1892 Mississippi (Los Angeles, California 90007)
  • RODGERS, Mary Flavia 9/16/1892 Louisiana (Los Angeles, California 90003)
  • MASON, Irene 11/15/1892 Alabama (Los Angeles, California)
  • JACKSON, David Bettis 12/1/1892 Louisiana (Los Angeles, California)
  • HILTON, Osialee 1/4/1894 Arkansas (Los Angeles, California 90001)
  • COLEMAN, Mary 7/23/1894 Texas (San Francisco, California)
  • PARKER, Beatrice Lucy 8/27/1894 North Carolina (San Francisco, California 94109)
  • DOMINICK, Katherine Martha (Peoples Temple records say name is "Domineck") 10/27/1894 Texas (San Francisco, California 94121)
  • McKNIGHT, Earl 2/18/1895 Mississippi (San Francisco, California 94117)
  • JONES, Bossie 3/5/1895
  • JACKSON, Beatrice Alberta 12/22/1896 Texas (San Francisco, California 94115)
  • GEE, Herman W. 3/27/1897 Texas (Oakland, California 94606)
  • JACKSON, Luvenia 7/5/1897 Louisiana (Los Angeles, California)
  • MURPHY, Lela Loenma 7/17/1897 Ontario, Canada
  • KING, Charlotte 10/26/1897 Alabama (San Francisco, California 94109)
  • MURPHY, Mary E. 1/8/1898 Texas (San Francisco, CA)
  • CARROLL, Mildred Ada (AKA Mercer, Mildred) 2/19/1899 Virginia (San Francisco, California 94109)
  • PAYNEY, Lucille Estelle 9/4/1899 Illinois (Ukiah, California)
  • MOSES, Eura Lee 9/12/1899 Texas (Los Angeles, California 90003)
  • DASHIELL, Hazel Frances 12/16/1899 Rhode Island (San Francisco, California 94117)
  • O'BRYANT, Winnieann (AKA O'Bryant, Zelline) 2/2/1900 (Peoples Temple records say birthyear is 1899) Oklahoma (Redwood Valley, California)

    — Some of those who died on their birthday are:
  • DANIEL, Steve Nathaniel III, 11/18/1974 (Mother is Betty Daniel) — DANIEL, Betty L. 5/4/1951 Texas (San Francisco, California 94102)
  • WALKER, Derek Dean III, 11/18/1965 California (Mother is Gloria Dawn Parker, not listed as dead) (Oakland, CA)
  • BUCKLEY, Frances Elizabeth 11/18/1964 Mississippi (San Francisco, California 94107)
  • HOLLEY, Patricia Ann (AKA Rhea, Patricia Ann Holley; Thea, Pat) 11/18/1957 Washington (San Francisco, California 94115)
  • KICE, Thomas David 11/18/1935 Missouri (Redwood Valley, California 95470)
  • BARRETT, Ben Franklyn 11/18/1934 Texas (Ukiah, California 95482)
  • 1976 Emanuel Radnitsky “Man Ray”, US artist born on 27 August 1890. — MORE ON MAN RAY AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1969 60 South Vietnamese and 14 North Vietnamese in a Mekong Delta battle.. A South Vietnamese spokesman said that the high South Vietnamese casualties were "due to bad fighting on our part." The battle was the first major action in the northern delta since the US 9th Division was withdrawn and the South Vietnamese assumed responsibility for the area.
    ^ 1969 Joseph P. Kennedy, 81, in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts
          He became a bank president at age twenty-five and a millionaire by age thirty. Kennedy dabbled in less savory affairs as well, running a lucrative bootleg liquor operation that helped fuel the family fortune. He retired from investment banking in 1929 — before the markets could deflate his wealth — but he remained a prominent figure on Wall Street. Looking to expand his power and fortune, Kennedy became involved in politics and also took a failed stab at running a movie studio. Kennedy died on this day in 1969 in Hyannis Port, Massachussets, at age 81.
    1962 Niels Bohr, 77, mathematician, physicist who won the Nobel Prize in 1922
    1959 Khinchin, mathematician.
    ^ 1949 Frank Jewett, research pioneer
          Frank Jewett, a pioneer in telephone, radar, recording, and other fields, became president of Bell Telephone Laboratories and helped build the company into a major research center. Jewett was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology until 1904, when he joined AT&T. There he designed long-distance telephone lines, including a transcontinental line linking New York and San Francisco. His work eventually led to the first transatlantic phone call. Later, he became president of Bell Telephone Laboratories and a vice president at AT&T. He directed research on a number of influential projects, such as the dial telephone, sound motion picture, and the electric phonograph. He also served as president of the National Academy of Sciences from 1939 to 1947.
    ^ 1943 John White, 52 other British airmen, 131 Berliners, as Royal Air Force bombs Berlin
          Two days after the American raid on the power station in Vermork, Norway, 440 British bombers swooped down on Berlin at night. The raid was not overly successful. Though 131 Berliners were killed, the Royal Air Force struck very few of the industrial areas they intended to hit. Even worse, nine British bombers were shot down, and fifty-three aircrew members killed. One of the victims was Wing Commander John White, who had played a significant role in the successful bombing of Peenemunde.
    ^ 1949 Marcel Proust, French novelist, born on 10 July 1871. He is famous for └ la recherche du temps perdu, a novel based on his life told psychologically and allegorically; it consists of seven volumes: Du côté de chez Schwann (1913), └ l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs (1919), Le Côté de Guermantes (1921), Sodome et Gomorrhe (1922), La Prisonnière (1923), Albertine disparue (1925), Le Temps retrouvé (1927)
         Marcel was the son of Adrien Proust, an eminent physician of provincial French Catholic descent, and his wife, Jeanne, née Weil, of a wealthy Jewish family. After a first attack in 1880, he suffered from asthma throughout his life. His childhood holidays were spent at Illiers and Auteuil (which together became the Combray of his novel) or at seaside resorts in Normandy with his maternal grandmother. At the Lycée Condorcet (1882–1889) he wrote for class magazines, fell in love with a little girl named Marie de Benardaky in the Champs-Élysées, made friends whose mothers were society hostesses, and was influenced by his philosophy master Alphonse Darlu. He enjoyed the discipline and comradeship of military service at Orléans (1889–1890) and studied at the School of Political Sciences, earning licences in law (1893) and in literature (1895). During these student days his thought was influenced by the philosophers Henri Bergson (his cousin by marriage) and Paul Desjardins and by the historian Albert Sorel. Meanwhile, via the bourgeois salons of Mesdames Straus, Arman de Caillavet, Aubernon, and Madeleine Lemaire, he became an observant habitué of the most exclusive drawing rooms of the nobility.
          In 1896 he published Les Plaisirs et les jours, a collection of short stories at once precious and profound, most of which had appeared during 1892–1893 in the magazines Le Banquet and La Revue Blanche. From 1895 to 1899 he wrote Jean Santeuil, an autobiographical novel that, though unfinished and ill-constructed, showed awakening genius and foreshadowed À la recherche. A gradual disengagement from social life coincided with growing ill health and with his active involvement in the Dreyfus affair of 1897–1899, when French politics and society were split by the movement to liberate the Jewish army officer Alfred Dreyfus, unjustly imprisoned on Devil's Island as a spy. Proust helped to organize petitions and assisted Dreyfus' lawyer Labori, courageously defying the risk of social ostracism. (Although Proust was not, in fact, ostracized, the experience helped to crystallize his disillusionment with aristocratic society, which became visible in his novel.) Proust's discovery of John Ruskin's art criticism in 1899 caused him to abandon Jean Santeuil and to seek a new revelation in the beauty of nature and in Gothic architecture, considered as symbols of man confronted with eternity: “Suddenly,” he wrote, “the universe regained in my eyes an immeasurable value.” On this quest he visited Venice (with his mother in May 1900) and the churches of France and translated Ruskin's Bible of Amiens and Sesame and Lilies, with prefaces in which the note of his mature prose is first heard.
          The death of Proust's father in 1903 and of his mother in 1905 left him grief stricken and alone but financially independent and free to attempt his great novel. At least one early version was written in 1905–1906. Another, begun in 1907, was laid aside in October 1908. This had itself been interrupted by a series of brilliant parodies — of Balzac, Flaubert, Renan, Saint-Simon, and others of Proust's favorite French authors — called “L'Affaire Lemoine” (published in Le Figaro), through which he endeavored to purge his style of extraneous influences. Then, realizing the need to establish the philosophical basis that his novel had hitherto lacked, he wrote the essay Contre Sainte-Beuve (published 1954), attacking the French critic's view of literature as a pastime of the cultivated intelligence and putting forward his own, in which the artist's task is to release from the buried world of unconscious memory the ever-living reality to which habit makes us blind. In January 1909 occurred the real-life incident of an involuntary revival of a childhood memory through the taste of tea and a rusk biscuit (which in his novel became madeleine cake); in May the characters of his novel invaded his essay; and, in July of this crucial year, he began À la recherche du temps perdu. He thought of marrying “a very young and delightful girl” whom he met at Cabourg, a seaside resort in Normandy that became the Balbec of his novel, where he spent summer holidays from 1907 to 1914; but, instead, he retired from the world to write his novel, finishing the first draft in September 1912.
          The first volume, Du côté de chez Swann, was refused by the best-selling publishers Fasquelle and Ollendorff and even by the intellectual La Nouvelle Revue Française, under the direction of the novelist André Gide, but was finally issued at the author's expense in November 1913 by the progressive young publisher Bernard Grasset and met with some success. Proust then planned only two further volumes, the premature appearance of which was fortunately thwarted by his anguish at the flight and death of his secretary Alfred Agostinelli and by the outbreak of World War I.
          During the war he revised the remainder of his novel, enriching and deepening its feeling, texture, and construction, increasing the realistic and satirical elements, and tripling its length. In this majestic process he transformed a work that in its earlier state was still below the level of his highest powers into one of the greatest achievements of the modern novel. In March 1914, instigated by the repentant Gide, La Nouvelle Revue Française offered to take over his novel, but Proust now rejected them. Further negotiations in May–September 1916 were successful, and in June 1919 À l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs was published simultaneously with a reprint of Swann and with Pastiches et mélanges, a miscellaneous volume containing “L'Affaire Lemoine” and the Ruskin prefaces. In December 1919, through Léon Daudet's recommendation, À l'ombre received the Prix Goncourt, and Proust suddenly became world famous. Three more installments appeared in his lifetime, with the benefit of his final revision, comprising Le Côté de Guermantes (1921) and Sodome et Gomorrhe (1922). He died in Paris of pneumonia, succumbing to a weakness of the lungs that many had mistaken for a form of hypochondria and struggling to the last with the revision of La Prisonnière. The last three parts of À la recherche were published posthumously, in an advanced but not final stage of revision: La Prisonnière (1923), Albertine disparue (1925), and Le Temps retrouvé (1927)
          Proust's enormous correspondence (3000 letters have appeared in print; many more await publication), remarkable for its communication of his living presence, as well as for its elegance and nobility of style and thought, is also highly significant as the raw material from which a great artist built his fictional world. For À la recherche du temps perdu is the story of Proust's own life, told as an allegorical search for truth.
          At first, the only childhood memory available to the middle-aged narrator is the evening of a visit from the family friend, Swann, when the child forced his mother to give him the goodnight kiss that she had refused. But, through the accidental tasting of tea and a madeleine cake, the narrator retrieves from his unconscious memory the landscape and people of his boyhood holidays in the village of Combray. In an ominous digression on love and jealousy, the reader learns of the unhappy passion of Swann (a Jewish dilettante received in high society) for the courtesan Odette, whom he had met in the bourgeois salon of the Verdurins during the years before the narrator's birth. As an adolescent the narrator falls in love with Gilberte (the daughter of Swann and Odette) in the Champs-Élysées. During a seaside holiday at Balbec, he meets the handsome young nobleman Saint-Loup, Saint-Loup's strange uncle the Baron de Charlus, and a band of young girls led by Albertine. He falls in love with the Duchesse de Guermantes but, after an autumnal visit to Saint-Loup's garrison-town Doncières, is cured when he meets her in society. As he travels through the Guermantes's world, its apparent poetry and intelligence is dispersed and its real vanity and sterility revealed. Charlus is discovered to be homosexual, pursuing the elderly tailor Jupien and the young violinist Morel, and the vices of Sodom and Gomorrah henceforth proliferate through the novel. On a second visit to Balbec the narrator suspects Albertine of loving women, carries her back to Paris, and keeps her captive. He witnesses the tragic betrayal of Charlus by the Verdurins and Morel; his own jealous passion is only intensified by the flight and death of Albertine. When he attains oblivion of his love, time is lost; beauty and meaning have faded from all he ever pursued and won; and he renounces the book he has always hoped to write. A long absence in a sanatorium is interrupted by a wartime visit to Paris, bombarded like Pompeii or Sodom from the skies. Charlus, disintegrated by his vice, is seen in Jupien's infernal brothel, and Saint-Loup, married to Gilberte and turned homosexual, dies heroically in battle. After the war, at the Princesse de Guermantes's afternoon reception, the narrator becomes aware, through a series of incidents of unconscious memory, that all the beauty he has experienced in the past is eternally alive. Time is regained, and he sets to work, racing against death, to write the very novel the reader has just experienced.
          Proust's novel has a circular construction and must be considered in the light of the revelation with which it ends. The author reinstates the extratemporal values of time regained, his subject being salvation. Other patterns of redemption are shown in counterpoint to the main theme: the narrator's parents are saved by their natural goodness, great artists (the novelist Bergotte, the painter Elstir, the composer Vinteuil) through the vision of their art, Swann through suffering in love, and even Charlus through the Lear-like grandeur of his fall. Proust's novel is, ultimately, both optimistic and set in the context of human religious experience. “I realized that the materials of my work consisted of my own past,” says the narrator at the moment of time regained. An important quality in the understanding of À la recherche lies in its meaning for Proust himself as the allegorical story of his own life, from which its events, places, and characters are taken. In his quest for time lost, he invented nothing but altered everything, selecting, fusing, and transmuting the facts so that their underlying unity and universal significance should be revealed, working inward to himself and outward to every aspect of the human condition. À la recherche is comparable in this respect not only with other major novels but also with such creative and symbolic autobiographies as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Dichtung und Wahrheit and the Viscount de Chateaubriand's Mémoires d'outretombe, both of which influenced Proust.
          Proust projected his own homosexuality upon his characters, treating this, as well as snobbism, vanity, and cruelty, as a major symbol of original sin. His insight into women and the love of men for women (which he himself experienced for the many female originals of his heroines) remained unimpaired, and he is among the greatest novelists in the fields of both heterosexual and homosexual love.
          The entire climate of the 20th-century novel was affected by À la recherche du temps perdu, which is one of the supreme achievements of modern fiction. Taking as raw material the author's past life, À la recherche is ostensibly about the irrecoverability of time lost, about the forfeiture of innocence through experience, the emptiness of love and friendship, the vanity of human endeavor, and the triumph of sin and despair; but Proust's conclusion is that the life of every day is supremely important, full of moral joy and beauty, which, though man may lose them through faults inherent in human nature, are indestructible and recoverable. Proust's style is one of the most original in all literature and is unique in its union of speed and protraction, precision and iridescence, force and enchantment, classicism and symbolism.
    1919 Adolf Hurwitz, mathematician.
    1891 Wolstenholme, mathematician.
    1886 Chester A. Arthur (21st US President), 56, in NY
    1876 Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña , French Barbizon School painter specialized in landscapes born on 20 August 1807. — MORE ON DIAZ AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1689 Jacob van der Ulft, Dutch artist born on 21 December 1627.
    1630 Esaias van de Velde, Dutch painter specialized in landscapes, born in 1589 give or take a couple of years. — MORE ON VAN DE VELDE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1421 Some 10'000 in Netherlands as Zuider Zee floods 72 villages.
     
    < 17 Nov 19 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on an 18 November:

    2003 Bayan Jassem, Iraki Kurd girl, in Dakuk, near Kirkuk, Iraq, whose mother is Iman Majia and father is Abdullah. The baby is born with transposition of the great arteries to the heart. All that keeps her alive is a little duct, which will soon close, giving her a life expectancy of two weeks. There is nowhere she can be treated in Iraq. But she is discovered on 19 November by a US Army cardiologist who runs a weekly clinic for children in Kirkuk. The baby and her parents are taken to the Save a Child's Heart project at the Wolfson Medical Center in Holon, Israel, where an 11-hour corrective operation is performed on Bayan on 26 November. However she develop bleeding in her lungs and other complications that led to a multiple failure of vital functions and she dies on 17 December 2003.
    2002 Fondazione del movimento Libertà e Giustizia, in Milano. Non è un partito, non punta a diventarlo né a sostituire quelli esistenti: nasce per raccogliere e dare sbocco all'insoddisfazione che cresce, anche tra i moderati, verso la politica, e si pone l'obiettivo di trasformare il mugugno e la protesta sterile in partecipazione e proposta.
    1939 Margaret Atwood, Canadian writer (The Edible Woman, The Handmaid's Tale, Cat's Eye, Dancing Girls & Other Stories).
    ^ 1928 Mickey Mouse of Walt Disney's debuts in NY in "Steamboat Willie", the first successful sound-synchronized animated cartoon
    —     Le 18 novembre 1928, les spectateurs new-yorkais du Colony Theater applaudissent Mickey Mouse dans le film "Steamboat Willie". Il s'agit d'une parodie parlante d'un succès de Buster Keaton.
          Inventé par un Français, Emile Raynaud, en 1892, le dessin animé a connu un bref essor avec un autre Français, Emile Cohl. Il est entré dans l'ère industrielle au début des années 1920 avec la mise en oeuvre de la taylorisation et de la fragmentation des tâches pour aboutir à des productions à moindre coűt.
          Grâce au génie de Walt Disney, assisté de son frère Roy et du dessinateur de talent Ub Iwerks, le dessin animé devient une fructueuse affaire commerciale. Il va rester le domaine réservé des Américains jusqu'à la révélation des réalisations japonaises au début des années 80.
    1927 Britton, mathematician.
    1907 Yves Brayer, French painter who died in 1990. — MORE ON BRAYER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1904 Jean-Paul Lemieux, Canadian painter who died in 1990. — MORE ON LEMIEUX AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1901 George Gallup Jefferson Iowa, journalist and public opinion pollster (Gallup Poll). He became famous by predicting FDR's 1936 win
    1900 Howard Thurman theologian/author (Deep River, Deep in the Hunger)
    1882 Jacques Maritain France, Catholic philosopher (exponent of St Thomas)
    1882 Percy Wyndham Lewis, Canadian British writer and painter, born on a yatch near Amherst, Nova Scotia. He died on 07 March 1957 in London. He founded the abstract Vorticist movement, which, in painting and literature before WW I, sought to relate art to the industrial process. — MORE ON LEWIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1879 Viggo Thorvald Edvard Weie, Danish artist who died in 1943. — more
    ^ 1874 Clarence Shepard Day, NYC, stockbroker, author.
         His first book, This Simian World, a collection of humorous essays and illustrations, appeared in 1920. This was followed by The Crow's Nest (1921) and Thoughts Without Words (1928). He achieved great success with God and My Father (1932), Life with Father (1935), and Life with Mother (1936). Drawn from his own family experiences, these were pleasant and gently satirical portraits of a late Victorian household dominated by a gruff, opinionated father and a warm, charming mother. He suffered from arthritis most of his life. He died on 28 December 1935.
    1874 The Women's Christian Temperance Union is founded in Cleveland. Claiming the power of the Holy Spirit, Protestant women march into saloons and demand they be closed. It was the largest women's organization in the US before 1900.
    1872 Vacca, mathematician.
    ^ 1865 The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County by Mark Twain, 29, is published
         Twain had heard this story when he stayed at a mining camp in the Tuolumne Hills, in California. Published in a New York periodical, The Saturday Press, the story was an immediate hit when it was reprinted in newspapers far and wide. Written much in the manner of the Southwestern humor popular in Twain's youth, this fine tall tale brought not only his first national fame but also the first approval of his work by several discerning critics.

    TWAIN ONLINE:
  • The Pirates of Penzance
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1st ed.)
  • Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • Tom Sawyer
  • Tom Sawyer, Detective
  • Tom Sawyer Abroad
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • What Is Man?
  • Songs of a Savoyard
  • A Dog's Tale
  • Eve's Diary
  • A Horse's Tale
  • A Horse's Tale
  • A Horse's Tale
  • The Innocents Abroad
  • A Tramp Abroad
  • The Bridge-Builders
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • Roughing It
  • Roughing It
  • A Tramp Abroad
  • 1601
  • Concerning the Jews
  • Concerning the Jews
  • Christian Science
  • A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
  • A Connecticut Yankee
  • The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc volume 1 / volume 2
  • A Double-Barrelled Detective Story
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson
  • The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
  • The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg
  • Extract From Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven
  • Captain Stormfield
  • Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • Chapters From My Autobiography
  • King Leopold's Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule
  • Mark Twain's Speeches
  • translator of Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter (in German, English, and French)
  • Engaged
  • 1860 Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Polish pianist, composer (opera Manru, Symphony in B Minor) , and statesman, who was prime minister of Poland in 1919 (17 Jan — 27 Nov). He resided in Switzerland about half his life. He died on 29 June 1941 in New York City.
    1858 Luigi Pastega, Italian artist who died on 27 January 1927.
    ^ 1852 Le Bon Marché
         Un nouveau style de magasin ouvre sur les bords de Seine à Paris. C'est rue de Sèvres, à l'enseigne du Bon Marché que ce genre va bouleverser le commerce français. Aristide Boucicaut en est le fondateur. Il a choisi de casser les prix en limitant ses marges bénéficiaires. Sa nouveauté la plus suptile est d'indiquer un prix qui ne peut plus être négocié. L'habitude du marchandage est remise en cause, ce n'est pas évident d'imposer celle-ci car l'habitude est encrée depuis des années. L'entrée est libre. Les badauds peuvent entrer, flâner, regarder, essayer. Ils n'ont aucune obligation d'achat. Les rayons sont spécialisés. Le client peut en outre rendre la marchandise qui ne lui convient pas et être intégralement remboursé. Le succès de la formule est immédiat. S'il fait un chiffre de 450'000 francs à la fin de l'année, dès 1869, il annoncera un chiffre d'affaires de 20 millions de francs. Ce type de vente est devenu une plaie pour les petits qui se battent encore contre.
    1844 Wangerin, mathematician.
    1836 Cesare Lombroso (professor of psychiatry: founder: criminology: identifying criminals by personality types)
    ^ 1836 William Schwenck Gilbert, English playwright and humorist best known for his collaboration with Arthur Sullivan in comic operas.
         Many of Gilbert's original targets are no longer topical — Pre-Raphaelite aesthetes in Patience; women's education (Princess Ida); Victorian plays about Cornish pirates (The Pirates of Penzance); the long theatrical vogue of the "jolly jack tar" (H. M. S. Pinafore); bombastic melodrama (Ruddigore) — but Gilbert's burlesque is so good that it creates its own truth.
          In 1861, Gilbert had begun to contribute comic verse to Fun, illustrated by himself and signed "Bab." These pieces were later collected as The "Bab" Ballads (1869), followed by More "Bab" Ballads (1873); the two collections, containing the germ of many of the later operas, were united in a volume with Songs of a Savoyard (1898).
          Gilbert's dramatic career began with Dulcamara, or the Little Duck and the Great Quack. In 1870 Gilbert met Sullivan, and they started working together the following year. Thespis, or the Gods Grown Old (1871) and Trial By Jury (1875), a brilliant one-act piece, were followed by four productions staged by Richard D'Oyly Carte: The Sorcerer (1877), H. M. S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance (1879), and Patience, or Bunthorne's Bride (1881). The "Savoy Operas," performed in the Savoy Theatre, include Iolanthe, or the Peer and the Peri (1882), Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant (1884), The Mikado, or the Town of Titipu (1885), Ruddigore, or the Witch's Curse (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), and The Gondoliers (1889).
          Gilbert and Sullivan were then estranged until 1893, when they again collaborated, producing Utopia, Limited and later The Grand Duke (1896). Gilbert had meanwhile written librettos for other composers; the music for his last opera, Fallen Fairies: or, The Wicked World (1909), was by Edward German. His last play, The Hooligan, was performed in 1911. Gilbert died on 29 May 1911 of a heart attack brought on by rescuing a woman from drowning in a lake on his country estate.
    GILBERT ONLINE:
  • The Pirates of Penzance
  • The Complete Plays of Gilbert and Sullivan
  • Fallen Fairies: or, The Wicked World (PDF)
  • The "Bab" Ballads
  • Fifty "Bab" Ballads
  • More "Bab" Ballads
  • H. M. S. Pinafore
  • The Happy Land
  • Haste to the Wedding
  • The Yeomen of the Guard
  • Songs of a Savoyard
  • Iolanthe
  • The Mikado
  • No Cards
  • Patience
  • Foggerty's Fairy
  • The Princess
  • Princess Ida
  • Princess Toto
  • Ruddigore
  • Selected Works
  • The Gondoliers
  • The Grand Duke
  • The Sorcerer
  • Sweethearts
  • Thespis
  • Tom Cobb
  • Trial By Jury
  • Utopia, Limited
  • Ages Ago
  • Engaged
  • 1810 Asa Gray Sauquoit NY, botanist (Flora of North America, Gray's Manual)
    1789 Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, French theater scene painter, physicist, inventor of the first practical process of photography, the daguerreotype.
    1786 Carl von Weber, German composer.
    1785 Sir David Wilkie, Scottish painter who died on 01 June 1841. — MORE ON WILKIE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1736 Anton Graff “van Dyck of Germany”, Swiss German painter specialized in portraits who died on 22 June 1813. — MORE ON GRAFF AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1732 Per Hilleström, Swedish artist who died on 13 August 1816. — more with link to an image.
    1647 Pierre Bayle, French philosopher and writer
    1584 Gaspar de Crayer, Flemish artist who died on 27 January 1669. — MORE ON CRAYER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1573 Ambrosius Bosschaert I, Flemish painter specialized in still life and flowers, who died in 1621. — MORE ON BOSSCHAERT AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    0009 Vespasien, empereur romain Son règne se signalera par la prise et la destruction du Temple de Jérusalem. Un conseiller s'étant inquiété de collecter de l'argent sur les latrines publiques, l'empereur répondit: "non olet" ou encore: "il (l'argent) n'a pas d'odeur". C'est pourquoi nous avons adopté son nom pour baptiser nos vespasiennes.
     
    Holidays Albania Independence Day 1912 / Haiti : Army Day / YWCA : World Fellowship Day / Morocco : Independence Day / Oman : National Day

    Religious Observances RC : Dedication of Basilicas of Peter & Paul, Rome (opt) / Ang : Hilda, Abbess of Whitby / Sainte Aude figure parmi les pieuses compagnes de Geneviève, qui protégea Paris contre Attila et les Huns. Elle devint la conseillère de Clovis sur ses vieux jours.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Le passé, non seulement n'est pas fugace, il reste sur place.”
    — Marcel Proust [10 Jul 1871 – 18 Nov 1922]
    “If we were intended to talk more than we hear, we'd have two mouths and only one ear.” [it would also be more convenient for talking while eating]
    “If we were intended to think more than we talk, we'd have a brain bigger than our mouth.”
    “Families is where wings take dream.” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
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