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Events, deaths, births, of 16 NOV
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^  On a 16 November:
2003 World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963~], with White, wins against computer program X3D Fritz in the third game of a match which is now tied, whose first game was played on 11 November 2003, and which will end in a draw with its 4th game on 18 November 2003 (13 Nov Game 2). {to replay the games click here and then click the Archive tab}. Today's game:
1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 d5 4.d4 c6 5.e3 a6 6.c5 Nbd7 7.b4 a5 8.b5 e5 9.Qa4! Qc7 10.Ba3 e4 11.Nd2 Be7 12.b6 Qd8 13.h3 0-0 14.Nb3 Bd6?! 15.Rb1 Be7?! 16.Nxa5 Nb8 17.Bb4 Qd7 18.Rb2 Qe6 19.Qd1 Nfd7 20.a3 Qh6 21.Nb3 Bh4 22.Qd2 Nf6 23.Kd1 Be6 24.Kc1 Rd8 25.Rc2 Nbd7 26.Kb2 Nf8 27.a4 Ng6 28.a5 Ne7 29.a6 bxa6 30.Na5 Rdb8 31.g3 Bg5 32.Bg2 Qg6 33.Ka1 Kh8 34.Na2 Bd7 35.Bc3 Ne8 36.Nb4 Kg8 37.Rb1 Bc8 38.Ra2 Bh6 39.Bf1 Qe6 40.Qd1 Nf6 41.Qa4 Bb7 42.Nxb7 Rxb7 43.Nxa6 Qd7 44.Qc2 Kh8 45.Rb3 and X3D Fritz, with Black, resigns because the white rooks would double on the a-file, penetrate to a7 or a8, force exchanges, and finally the push of the b-pawn would be unstoppable, as in this continuation: 45.Rb3 Ne8 46.Rba3 Nc8 47.Nb4 Rab8 48.Ra8 Bg5 49.Rxb8 Rxb8 50.Ra6 Bd8 51.Qa4 Ne7 52.Ra8 Rxa8 53.Qxa8 or this one: 45.Rb3 Qc8 46.Rba3 g6 47.Nc7 Rxa3 48.Rxa3 Rb8 49.Qa2. or this one: 45.Rb3 Qf5 46.Nc7 Rxa2+ 47.Qxa2 Nd7 48.Qa7 or Be2
Gul before an Atatürk portrait2002 Turkey's President A. Necdet Sezer chooses as Prime Minister Abdullah Gul, 52 [photo with Atatürk portrait in the background >], among the names proposed by the AKP (Justice and Development Party), founded in 2001 by members of an Islamic party banned by the Constitutional Court and led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan, barred from parliament because of a conviction for inciting religious hatred, for whom Gul is a puppet. In the 03 November 2002 elections the AKP won the first majority (363 seats) since 1987 in the 550-member legislature, which has also 178 members of the secular CHP (Republican People's Party) and 9 independents. The parliament soon modifies the constitution to make Erdogan eligible. In a 09 March 2003 by-election, in Siirt, for 3 seats, Erdogan and the other 2 AKP candidates get 84.7% of the vote. Soon after, Gul resigns and Erdogan forms a new government.
^ 2001 (Friday) Football fan misses flight, disrupts air travel throughout US.
     In a hurry to catch a flight to a college football game, Michael S. Lasseter, 32, dashes past an airport security checkpoint and rushed to the gate. He missed the flight — and created hassles for travelers all over the US in the process.
      The security breach at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport prompted officials to shut down the airport for four hours and evacuate about 10'000 persons, delaying thousands of passengers across the country on a busy travel weekend.
      Lasseter, 32, told police he had passed the security screening when he first arrived at the airport, but returned to the terminal to find his camera bag. Rather than go through security a second time, he hurried down an up-escalator to circumvent the long lines at the checkpoint. A security agent saw the football fan in his Georgia T-shirt and jogging pants but couldn't catch up. Knowing only that an unchecked person was on the loose in the concourses, authorities evacuated about 10'000 persons as the National Guard, airport security and police searched for the man.
      The Federal Aviation Administration halted departures from Hartsfield, and planes in other cities destined for Atlanta were told to remain on the ground. International flights were allowed to land and passengers were held in the concourse.
      Lasseter was planning to fly to Memphis with his son and uncle and then driving to Oxford, Mississippi, where the University of Georgia was to play the University of Mississippi on Saturday 17 November. The son and uncle made the flight Lasseter missed.
      After evacuating and re-entering the airport with other passengers, Lasseter returned to the Northwest Airlines gate area to wait for another flight. He was arrested after a pilot recognized him from a security videotape. He could face federal charges. Lasseter told authorities that he didn't know anyone was looking for him.
      The breach will cost tens of millions of dollars, including costs from flight delays and cancellations, employee overtime and hotel rooms for stranded passengers. The ordeal taxed people's patience. Each car rental counter was packed with dozens of people late on 16 November, hoping to drive to their destinations.
      Airport security in the US has become paranoid, but not much more effective, after 11 September 2001, when terrorists hijacked four US planes almost simultaneously and crashed them into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and not the US Capitol, as they intended, but a Pennsylvania field. Airlines quickly moved to fortify their cockpit doors, and the government put air marshals on flights. US President Bush (Jr.) is about to sign a new aviation security bill that would also put at least one law enforcement officer at every screening post at major airports, increase bag screening, and eventually federalize passenger screening.
J. P. Hoffa2001 The results of the US Teamsters union elections are announced: James P. Hoffa, 60 [photo >], is reelected to his second term as president together with the other 25 candidates on his slate, by 64% of the vote. Besides truck drivers, The Teamsters1 1.4 million members include truck drivers, workers at rental car companies, airlines, Disney World and catering companies for airlines. Those industries are among the hardest his in the recession following the 11 September terrorist attacks on the US. J. P. Hoffa is the son of James R. Hoffa, corrupt Teamsters president who disappeared presumably murdered by the mafia.
2000 Al Gore won a legal fight to expand manual recounts as he struggled to trim George W. Bush's 300-vote lead in Florida's presidential race.
2000 Bill Clinton protagoniza la primera visita de un presidente estadounidense a Vietnam desde la derrota en 1973 de Estados Unidos en su guerra contra el país asiático.
2000 New URLs
 Aibo     ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) chooses the following new URL domain names: .biz (for businesses), .name, .info, .pro (for professionals), .museum, .coop, .aero (for aviation). It rejects (at least for now) .geo, .kids, .xxx, .health, .tel, .web, .iii, .yp ("yellow pages"), .ads, .agency, .aids, .air, .antiques, .art, .artists, .auction, .audio, .bbs, .books, .cafe, .cam, .card, .cars, .center, .city, .channel, .church, .club, .commerce, .computers, .consulting, .culture, .design, .digital, .direct, .dtv, .dvd, .factory, .fashion, .festival, .fiction, .film, .films, .foundation, .free, .fun, .fund, .funds, gallery, .games, .gay, .graphics, .group, .guide, .hotel, .help, .history, .index, .insurance, .jazz, .jobs, .lab, .mad, .mag, .magic, .mail, .mall, .market, .media, .men, .monitor, .movie, .music, .news, .now, .nyc, .one, .online, .opera, .page, .partners, .people, .planet, .politics, .power, .productions, .projects, .properties, .radio, records, .school, .service, .sex, .shoes, .shop, .show, .security, .society, .sound, .shareware, .shop, .site, .software, .solutions, .soup, .space, .sports, .star, .studios, .sucks, .svc, .systems, .tech, .temple, .theater, .time, .times, .toys, .trade, .travel, .voice, .war, .watch, .weather, .women, .world, .writer, .zine, .zone, .africa, .llc, .sansansan, .three33, .wap, .firm, .game, .inc, .ltd, .store, .tour, .find, and others.
2000 The 2nd Generation Sony AIBO ERS-210 [< photo] goes on sale for $1500. It is a dog-like robot, improved on the original which went on sale in June 1999, but which still does nothing useful.
^ 1998 Microsoft accused of unfair programming
      At the Microsoft antitrust trial on this day in 1998, an expert witness testified that Microsoft deliberately programmed Internet Explorer into Windows so that the two could not be separated. He added that many software companies did not want both products woven into one. In taped testimony later the same day, Bill Gates was shown fencing over definitions with government attorneys.
^ 1998 Network Solutions chief resigns
      The CEO of Network Solutions, Gabriel Battista, resigned to become the head of an upstart long-distance company called Tel-Save Holdings. Until the previous month, Network Solutions had held an exclusive contract with the United States government to sell Internet domain names. However, the government had recently ended the monopoly and transferred responsibility for assigning top-level domain names to the newly-formed non-profit Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names.
1997 85% of voters of Hungary vote in favor of joining NATO.
1997 Es liberado en China el líder democrático Wei Jingsheng, el más célebre opositor interno al régimen comunista del país, en un gesto de agradecimiento a Estados Unidos por parte del presidente chino Jiang Zemin.
1997 The International Day of Prayer for the Suffering Church begins.
1995 Liamin Zerual gana las primeras elecciones presidenciales celebradas en Argelia, al obtener el 61,34% de los votos en unos comicios con una participación del 74,92%.
1994 El Parlamento de Ucrania aprueba la adhesión del país al Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear.
1993 The United Nations Security Council voted to end the manhunt for Somali warlord Gen. Mohammed Farah Aideed.
^ 1993 NAFTA good for stocks
      When it hit the House floor in 1993, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) incited controversy and stormy debates. While pro-NAFTA factions viewed the landmark free-trade bill as a potential boon to US fiscal health, a number of politicians and labor leaders feared that NAFTA would send American jobs to nations with cheaper labor in an effort to drive up corporate profits. For a while, it looked like NAFTA might stall in the House, but tireless advocacy from President Clinton, one of NAFTA's strongest supporters, helped win support for the bill. By this day in 1993, it was clear that NAFTA would pass through the House and become law. The news excited Wall Street, which had been pushing for NAFTA's passage. Traders celebrated by snapping up stocks and the Dow Jones Industrial Average picked up 33.25 points to close the day at 3700 points.
1992 prosecutors in Detroit filed second-degree murder charges against two police officers who allegedly beat black motorist Malice Green to death. Two other officers were charged with lesser offenses.
1992 a federal judge in Los Angeles refused to reconsider the Navy's appeal of an injunction that forced the service to reinstate sailor Keith Meinhold, the first openly homosexual person on active duty in the US military.
1991 former Democratic Governor Edwin Edwards of Louisiana is overwhelming elected governor again, defeating state representative David Duke, a former Ku Klux Klan leader.
1991 US House Democrats report that Salvadoran Defense Minister General Rene Ponce had planned the 1989 killings (on this very date) of six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her daughter.
1990 Manuel Noriega claims US denied him a fair trial
1990 The Soviet Union indicated its approval of the use of military force to oust Iraq from Kuwait.
1989 Se concede el Premio Miguel de Cervantes de Literatura al escritor paraguayo Augusto Roa Bastos.
^ 1988 Benazir Bhutto is elected Prime Minister
      In Pakistan, citizens vote in their first free election in 11 years, choosing as prime minister the populist candidate Benazir Bhutto, daughter of former Pakistani leader Zulfikar Bhutto. She was the first woman leader of a Muslim country in modern history.
      After General Mohammed Zia ul-Haq seized power in Pakistan through a military coup in 1977, Zulfikar Bhutto was tried and executed by General Zia. Benazir, Zulfikar Bhutto's political daughter, was placed under a seven-year house arrest. In 1984, Benazir Bhutto fled to England where she became the leader of the Opposition Pakistan People's Party. In 1988, General Zia was killed along with the American ambassador to Pakistan in a mysterious mid-air explosion of a Pakistani Air Force plane in which they were passengers. After General Zia's death, Bhutto returned to Pakistan and launched a nationwide campaign for open elections, and subsequently became a top candidate. In elections on 16 November 16, Bhutto's PPP wins a majority in the National Assembly, and on 01 December 1988 Bhutto would take office as prime minister of Pakistan. Her government fell in 1990, but from 1993 to 1996 she again served as Pakistani leader.
1988 Estonia declares sovereignty in internal affairs
1984 The space shuttle Discovery returns to Earth with the first two satellites ever plucked from space.
^ 1983 Feminist leader acquitted of murder charges
      A jury in Gretna, Louisiana, acquits Californian feminist leader Ginny Foat of the brutal murder of Argentine businessman Moses Chaiyo and the fatal shooting of another man during a robbery outside of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1965. Foat, a president of the California chapter of the National Organization of Women (NOW) during the 1970s, was charged with the murder in 1977, but eluded authorities until her capture in 1983. Although Foat's spouse at the time was a known criminal, and the two were said to hang around with bad company, Foat proclaimed to have "changed her life" since the time of the murders, and the jury could not, without reasonable doubt, convict her.
1980 Concluye en Madrid el XV Congreso de la Internacional Socialista, en el que Willy Brandt es reelegido presidente.
1977 Se aprueba por unanimidad el ingreso de España en el Consejo de Europa.
1976 Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte concede la libertad a 300 prisioneros políticos y propone el canje de Luis Corvalán, secretario general del Partido Comunista chileno, por Vladimir Bukovski, disidente soviético.
1973 President Nixon signs law authorizing construction of the Alaskan pipeline
1973 Skylab 3, carrying a crew of three astronauts, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on an 84-day mission. — Llega a la estación espacial Skylab la tercera y última tripulación destinada a dirigirla.
1970 España y Checoslovaquia establecen relaciones diplomáticas de carácter consular.
^ 1970 Ky defends South Vietnamese fighting in Cambodia
      South Vietnamese Vice President Nguyen Cao Ky, speaking at the US Military Academy at West Point, says Cambodia would be overrun by communist forces "within 24 hours" if South Vietnamese troops currently operating there are withdrawn. Ky described the Cambodian operation of the previous spring (the so-called "Cambodian Incursion," in which President Nixon had sent US and South Vietnamese soldiers into Cambodia to destroy North Vietnamese base camps) as the "turning point" of the war. He said that as a result of that operation, the enemy had been forced to revert to low-level guerrilla warfare. Ky also reported that his government was concerned that the Nixon administration might be yielding to the "pressure of the antiwar groups" and pulling out the remaining US troops too quickly.
1967 US planes hit Haiphong shipyard in North Vietnam for the first time.
1966 After 9 years in jail, Dr. Samuel H. Sheppard is acquitted by a jury in his second trial of charges he'd murdered his pregnant wife, Marilyn, in 1954.
1965 In the last day of the fighting at Landing Zone X-Ray, regiments of the US 1st Cavalry Division repulse NVA forces in the Ia Drang Valley.
1961 Kennedy decides to increase military aid to Saigon
      President John F. Kennedy decides to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing US combat troops. Kennedy was concerned at the advances being made by the communist Viet Cong, but did not want to become involved in a land war in Vietnam. He hoped that the military aid would be sufficient to strengthen the Saigon government and its armed forces against the Viet Cong. Ultimately it was not, and Kennedy ended up sending additional support in the form of US military advisors and American helicopter units. By the time of his assassination in 1963, there were 16,000 US soldiers in South Vietnam.
1960 After the integration of two all-white schools, 2000 whites riot in the streets of New Orleans.
1955 The Big Four talks, taking place in Geneva on German reunification, end in failure.
1955 Francia repone en el poder a Muhammad V ibn Yusuf ante la oleada de disturbios en Marruecos.
1953 The United States joins in the condemnation of Israel for its raid on Jordan.
1952 El Gobierno de Estados Unidos informa sobre los resultados positivos obtenidos en las pruebas realizadas con la bomba de hidrógeno.
1948 President Harry S Truman rejects four-power talks on Berlin until the blockade is removed.
1948 El Partido Independentista resulta vencedor en las elecciones parlamentarias de Sudán.
1947 Las tropas británicas empiezan a retirarse de Palestina.
^ 1945 Nazi rocket scientists brought to work for US
      In a move that stirs up some controversy, the United States ships 88 German scientists to America to assist the nation in its production of rocket technology. Most of these men had served under the Nazi regime and critics in the United States questioned the morality of placing them in the service of America. Nevertheless, the US government, desperate to acquire the scientific know-how that had produced the terrifying and destructive V-1 and V-2 rockets for Germany during WWII, and fearful that the Russians were also utilizing captured German scientists for the same end, welcomed the men with open arms.
      Realizing that the importation of scientists who had so recently worked for the Nazi regime so hated by Americans was a delicate public relations situation, the US military cloaked the operation in secrecy. In announcing the plan, a military spokesman merely indicated that some German scientists who had worked on rocket development had "volunteered" to come to the United States and work for a "very moderate salary." The voluntary nature of the scheme was somewhat undercut by the admission that the scientists were in "protective custody." Upon their arrival in the United States on November 16, newsmen and photographers were not allowed to interview or photograph the newcomers.
      A few days later, a source in Sweden claimed that the scientists were members of the Nazi team at Peenemeunde where the V-weapons had been produced. The US government continued to remain somewhat vague about the situation, stating only that "certain outstanding German scientists and technicians" were being imported in order to "take full advantage of these significant developments, which are deemed vital to our national security." The situation pointed out one of the many ironies connected with the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union, once allies against Germany and the Nazi regime during World War II, were now in a fierce contest to acquire the best and brightest scientists who had helped arm the German forces in order to construct weapons systems to threaten each other.
1945 El presidente Charle André de Gaulle dimite de la jefatura del Gobierno francés por desacuerdo con los comunistas.
^ 1943 British agents enter occupied France to organize prisoner escape.
      Six British special agents flew from Tangmere, England, to a hilltop landing strip near Angers, France. They were sent by the British Special Operations Executive to carry out Operation Conjuror. Three of the agents were arrested upon reaching Paris. One of the remaining agents, Victor Gerson, organized the "Vic" escape line for Allied prisoners-of-war and air crew evaders. One of twelve people who left the field on the return flight was Francois Mitterand (code name: Monier), who had been in charge of the "Morland" group for more than a year. The group was active in maintaining links with French prisoners-of-war and civilian deportees. Thirty-eight years later, in 1981, Mitterand was elected President of France.
^ 1943 American bombers strike Norwegian power station
      160 American bombers, flying from their bases in Britain, struck a hydro-electric power station and heavy-water factory in Vermork, Norway. The station was under the control of the German government. Twenty Norwegian civilians were killed in the raid. Though the bombs actually missed the factory itself, damage to the power station was so great that heavy water (a heat transfer agent for nuclear power reactors) could no longer be produced there. The stocks of heavy water that remained were ordered to be brought back to Germany. But Norwegian secret agents contacted London with this information, and plans were made to destroy these stocks on their journey.
1942 L'amiral Darlan vient de signer le 13 un accord avec les Américains, le maréchal Pétain le désavoue. Le 25 décembre, Darlan sera assassiné par Bouvier de la Chapelle. Il aura eu le temps de permettre l'entrée en guerre de l'Afrique française auprès des alliés anglais et américains.
1942 Las tropas del Eje invaden Túnez en el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial .
^ 1940 Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg
      Great Britain launched its first of many air raids on Hamburg, Germany. The attack was ordered in reaction to Germany's leveling of Coventry just two days before. Due to heavy clouds and severe icing, an accurate attack was near impossible. Intent on revenge, though, the Royal Air Force dropped its bombs anyway. Almost no strategic targets were struck, and 233 German civilians were killed. By the end of the war, the total death toll from British air attacks on Hamburg neared 50'000.
1938 El Vaticano protesta contra la "ley para la protección de la raza italiana", promulgada por el Gobierno italiano.
1933 Roosevelt establishes US diplomatic relations with USSR
1930 Victoria electoral de la coalición de Gobierno en Polonia.
1920 Finaliza en Rusia la Guerra Civil, iniciada en la primavera de 1918.
^ 1919 Elections législatives en France.
      Ouverture du premier scrutin depuis la fin de la guerre et la signature du traité de Versailles. Il n'y a pas eu d'élections en France depuis 1914. Le Bloc national, droite et centre droit, assure que " l'Allemagne paiera ". Ce bloc veut la stricte application du traité de Versailles, l'indemnisation des victimes de la guerre comme il veut défendre " la civilisation contre le bolchevisme ". Il y a de nombreux anciens combattants sur les listes de ce Bloc. On comptera 369 nouveaux députés sur un total de 616. Parmi eux des hommes qui furent quelques mois plus tôt des " poilus ". C'est leur présence massive dans l'hémicycle que l'assemblée élue doit sontnom, qui rappelle la couleur de l'uniforme des fantassins, " Chambre bleu horizon ".
1918 Hungarian People's Republic declared
1914 Federal Reserve System formally opens
1910 Convenio hispano-marroquí por el que España obtiene la devolución de Santa Cruz de Mar Pequeña y una indemnización en metálico por los gastos de la campaña del Rif.
^ 1907 Oklahoma becomes the 46th of the United States
      The Indian and Oklahoma territories jointly enter the United States as Oklahoma, the forty-sixth state. Oklahoma, with a name derived from the Choctaw Indian words "okla," meaning people, and "humma," meaning red, was first set aside as Indian Territory in 1834. By 1880, dozens of tribes, forced into relocation by European immigration and the US government, had moved to the territory. In 1889, the federal government, under pressure by cattlemen, opened nearly two million acres in central Oklahoma for settlement. At noon on 22 April a pistol shot signaled the opening of the new land, and tens of thousands of people rushed to stake claims. Those who had already made illegal entry to beat the starting gun were called "Sooners," hence Oklahoma's state nickname. In 1890, the region was divided into Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory, and seventeen years later was united into the State of Oklahoma.
     Oklahoma, with a name derived from the Choctaw Indian words okla, meaning "people," and humma, meaning "red," has a history of human occupation dating back 15'000 years. The first Europeans to visit the region were Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and in the 18th century the Spanish and French struggled for control of the territory. The United States acquired Oklahoma from France in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
      After the War of 1812, the US government decided to remove Indian tribes from the settled eastern lands of the United States and move them west to the unsettled lands of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. In 1828, Congress reserved Oklahoma for Indians and in 1834 formally ceded it to five southeastern tribes as Indian Territory. Many Cherokees refused to abandon their homes east of the Mississippi, and so the US Army moved them west in a forced march known as the "Trail of Tears." The uprooted tribes joined Plains Indians that had long occupied the area, and Indian nations with fixed boundaries and separate governments were established in the region.
      During the American Civil War, most tribes in Indian Territory supported the South. With the defeat of the Confederacy in 1865, the territory was placed under US military rule. White cattlemen and settlers began to covet the virgin ranges of Oklahoma, and after the arrival of the railroad in the 1870s, illegal white incursion into Indian Territory flourished. Most of these "Boomers" were expelled, but pressure continued until the federal government agreed in 1889 to open two million acres in central Oklahoma for white settlement. At noon on 22 April 1889, a pistol shot signaled the opening of the new land, and tens of thousands of people rushed to stake claims. Those who had already made illegal entry to beat the starting gun were called "Sooners," hence Oklahoma's state nickname. The following year, the region was divided into Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory.
      In 1907, Congress decided to admit Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory into the Union as a single state, with all Indians in the state becoming US citizens. Representatives of the two territories drafted a constitution, and on 17 September 1907, it was approved by voters of the two territories. On 16 November, Oklahoma is welcomed into the United States by President Theodore Roosevelt.
      Oklahoma initially prospered as an agricultural state, but the drought years of the 1930s made the state part of the Dust Bowl. During the Depression, poor tenant farmers known as "Okies" were forced to travel west seeking better opportunities. In the 1940s, prosperity returned to Oklahoma, and oil production brought a major economic boom in the 1970s.
1904 Estados Unidos compra a la Compañía de Panamá, por 40 millones de dólares, todos los derechos sobre el canal de Panamá.
1902 A cartoon [below] by Clifford Berryman (02 Apr 1869 — 11 Dec 1949) appears in the Washington Star, prompting the Teddy Bear craze, after President Teddy Roosevelt : (27 Oct 1858 – 06 Jan 1919) refused to kill a captive bear tied up for him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi..Berryman drew many other Theodore Roosevelt cartoons, including quite a few with the bear.
Drawing the line in Mississippi
1892 King Behanzin of Dahomey (now Benin), leads soldiers against the French.
1889 The Oahu Railway and Land Company (OR&L) begins operating on Hawai`i's third largest island.
1885 George Eastman, fundador de la empresa Kodak, inventa en Estados Unidos la película nitrocelulosa para impresionar imágenes.
1876 Tiene lugar la batalla de Tecoac (Puebla, México), en la que las fuerzas del general Ignacio Alatorre son vencidas por las del general Porfirio Díaz, que inicia un nuevo Gobierno.
1870 Las Cortes Españolas eligen rey de España a Amadeo de Saboya.
1864 Union General William T. Sherman and his troops depart from Atlanta and begin their "March to the Sea."
1863 Battle of Campbell's Station, Tennessee
1855 Scottish missionary-explorer David Livingstone first sees Victoria Falls (in modern Zimbabwe) which he names. — El misionero y viajero escocés David Livingstone descubre las cataratas Victoria en el curso del río Zambeze, en Rhodesia (hoy Zimbabwe).
1849 A Russian court sentences novelist and short-story writer Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky to death for his allegedly antigovernment activities linked to a radical intellectual group. His execution is stayed at the last minute.— MORE ON DOSTOEVSKY with links to his works in Russian and in English translations.
1846 General Zachary Taylor takes Saltillo, Mexico.
1841 N.E. Guerin of NY patents cork-filled life preserver
^ 1821 Becknell opens trade on the Santa Fe Trail
      Missouri Indian trader William Becknell arrives in Santa Fe, New Mexico, sells his goods at an enormous profit, and makes plans to return the next year over the route that will become known as the Santa Fe Trail. Pure luck made Becknell the first businessman to revive the American trade with Santa Fe. Fearing American domination of the region, the Spanish had closed their Southwest holdings to foreigners following the Pike expedition more than a decade earlier. They threw the few traders who violated the policy into prison and confiscated their goods. However, Becknell and other merchants continued to trade with the Indians on the American-controlled eastern slope of the southern Rockies. While on such an expedition in the fall of 1821, Becknell encountered a troop of Mexican soldiers. They informed Becknell that they had recently won their independence in a war with Spain, and the region was again open to American traders. Becknell immediately sped to Santa Fe, where he found a lucrative market for his goods, and his saddlebags were heavy with Mexican silver when he returned to his base in Franklin, Missouri. The next summer Becknell traveled to Santa Fe again, this time with three wagonloads of goods. Instead of following the old route that passed over a dangerous high pass, however, Becknell blazed a shorter and easier cutoff across the Cimarron Desert. Thus, while much of the route he followed had been used by Mexican traders for decades, Becknell's role in reopening the trail and laying out the short-cut earned him the title of "Father of the Santa Fe Trail." It became one of the most important and lucrative of the Old West trading routes; merchants and other travelers continued to follow the trail blazed by Becknell until the arrival of trains in the late 1870s.
1813 The British announce a blockade of Long Island Sound, leaving only the New England coast open to shipping.
1798 British seamen board the US frigate Baltimore and impress a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a practice that contributed to the War of 1812.
^ 1776 Hessians capture Fort Washington, Manhattan
      During the US Revolutionary War, Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen and a force of 3000 Hessian mercenaries lay siege to Fort Washington at dawn. For several hours, Knyphausen meets stiff resistance from the American riflemen inside, but by the afternoon the Patriots are overwhelmed, and Colonel Robert Magaw agrees to surrender the fort and his nearly 3000 men inside.
      Two weeks earlier, William Demont, the first traitor to the US cause in the Revolution, had deserted from the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion and given the British intelligence information concerning the Patriot defense of New York, including information about the location and defense of Fort Washington. Demont's treason significantly contributed to Knyphausen's swift victory.
1700 Philippe duc d' Anjou [19 Dec 1683 – 09 Jul 1746] acepta el trono de España, como Felipe V, y renuncia a sus derechos al trono de Francia. However the refusal of Louis XIV to exclude Philippe from the line of succession to the French throne resulted in the War of the Spanish Succession, started in 1701 and ended by the treaties of Utrecht (30 Jan 1713, 02 Apr 1713, 11 Apr 1713, 13 Jul 1713, 26 Jun 1714), the treaty of Rastatt (06 Mar 1714), and the treaty of Baden (07 Sep 1714). Felipe V abdicated from the Spanish throne in January 1724 in favor of his oldest son, Luis [25 Aug 1707 – 31 Aug 1724], but was persuaded to become king again after Luis died of smallpox.
^ 1676 Nantucket Island prison warden is hired
      On Nantucket Island, located in the English colony of Massachusetts, local authorities hire William Bunker to establish the first prison in the American colonies of Great Britain. For every year Bunker serves as a prison warden for Nantucket's rowdiest citizens, the court agrees to pay him "foeur pounds, halfe in wheat, the other in other graine." The necessity of a prison on Nantucket had been growing steadily since 1672, the year that the island's English residents, looking for an additional source of revenue, encouraged whaling men to settle on the island. Whales were abundant at the time and could be caught close to shore, and soon Nantucket's residents had learned the tricks of the trade from their new settlers. By 1712, the coastal population of whales had greatly diminished, so the Nantucket islanders, all rowdy whalers by now, took to the high seas in search of valuable sperm whales. By the early nineteenth century, Nantucket was one of the greatest whaling centers in the world, and the third largest city in Massachusetts.
1621 The Papal Chancery first adopted January 1st as the beginning of the calendar year. Previously, March was the first month, which explains why our modern names for the 9th–12th months begin instead with prefixes meaning "7" (sept_), "8" (oct_) "9" (nov_) and "10" (dec_).
1493 La expedición de Cristóbal Colón descubre la isla llamada Borinquen por los indios, que es bautizada desde entonces como San Juan Bautista (el actual Puerto Rico).
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 16 November:

2006 Milton Friedman, US economist, born on 31 July 1912, who made major contributions to the fields of macroeconomics, microeconomics, economic history and statistics while advocating laissez-faire capitalism. In Capitalism and Freedom (1962) he advocated minimizing the role of government in a free market in order to create political and social freedom. In 1976, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy. In statistics, he devised the Friedman test, a non-parametric analogue to the two-way analysis of variance. —(061117)
2005 Shannon Charles Thomas, 34, by lethal injection in Texas, for the 24 December 1993 murder of Victor Roberto Rios, 11, and Maria Elda Isabell Rios, 10, in their Baytown, Texas, home, just after his accomplice Keith Bernard Clay [18 Feb 1968 – 20 Mar 2003] had murdered the children's father, small-time marijuana dealer Roberto Rios, 32. Clay was executed for the 04 January 1994 murder of Melathethil Tom Varughese, in which Thomas was his accomplice.
2005 A suicide car bomber, and Abdul Hameed Naqash, Nazir Ahmad, Abdul Rehman Bhat, and security guard Ghulam Rasool, who was at the main gate of the Corporate Headquarters of Jammu and Kashmir Bank, in Srinagar, Indian-occupied Kashmir. 63 persons are injured by the 10:15 (04:45 UT) explosion, including Usman Majeed, a former minister in the PDP-led coalition government, whose car happened to be moving nearby. — (051117)
2005 Two policemen of the CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force), in an ambush in Indian-occupied Kashmir, on the Srinagar-Jammu highway at Awantipora.— (051117)
2004 Two officials and one of their Taliban attackers, in the afternoon, in Chorah district, Uruzgan province, Agfhanistan.
2004 Four policemen when their car is hit by the explosion of a roadside bomb or Taliban landmine some 2 km from Deh Rawud, Chorah district, Uruzgan province, Agfhanistan. Five policemen are wounded including Mohammad Ibrahim Akhunzada, the district security chief.
2003 Bettina Goislard, 29, shot in her car by the Taliban rider on a passing motorcycle, in the bazaar of Ghazni City, Afghanistan. She worked in the UN High Commission for Refugees and the car was clearly marked UNHCR. The Afghan driver is wounded. Shortly afterward, Afghan police shoot at the motorcycle, wounding one of the two Taliban terrorists, and arrest them both.
2003 Mas Merah, the last remaining Sumatran rhinoceros at the Sungai Dusun conservation center in Selangor, Malaysia.The other four died of an unknown ailmente in preceding two weeks, ending the breeding program. Sumatran rhinos are the hairiest and the most endangered species; no more than 300 are estimated 300 known to be surviving. — (051117)
2001 Don Wiley, 57, drowned (suicide?). His rental car is found abandoned with the keys in the ignition on a Mississippi River bridge at Memphis. On 20 December 2001, his body would be discovered snagged on a tree near a hydroelectric plant at Vidalia, Louisiana, some 500 km south of Memphis. He was a Harvard University biologist having no appearent reason for suicide.
2000 6-kg otter, and 40-kg anglerfish which swallowed it whole, near Aalesund, west Norway. The fish was caught shortly afterwards by a fisherman. Otter and fish will be stuffed and exhibited at the Atlantic Sea Park in Aalesund.
2000 Pit bull dog, beheaded and skinned.
     Jason Vincent Revels, 19, of Gastonia, North Carolina, is told by his mother to get rid of her mixed pit bull dog. So he beheads it and skins it. Police find the dog's corpse in the mother's yard together with the corpse of another dog. Revels has prior convictions for assault with a deadly weapon inflicting serious injury and possession of marijuana. He would plead guilty to a felony animal cruelty charge On 23 April 2001, Revels would be sentenced to three years probation, ordered to undergo a psychological evaluation, to take any treatment recommended, to reread the "Lassie" books, and forbidden to have pets during the probation, he would also be sentenced to six to eight months in jail, to be served if he violates probation.
Omaira 1998 Un número indeterminado de civiles, entre los que se encontraban seis misioneros católicos españoles, en una matanza perpetrada en una iglesia de Mindouli, en la República Democrática del Congo.
1997 Georges René Louis Marchais, político francés.
1989: six Jesuit priests: Ignacio Ellacuría Bescoetxea [09 Nov 1930–], Segundo Montes [15 May 1933–], Ignacio Martin-Baró [07 Nov 1942–], Joaquín López y López [16 Aug 1918–], Juan Ramon Moreno Pardo [29 Aug 1933–], Amado López [06 Feb 1936–]; their housekeeper, Julia Elba Ramos [05 Mar 1947–], and her daughter, Celina Marisela Ramos [23 Feb 1976–], murdered by the Salvadoran military on the campus of the University of Central America in San Salvador, El Salvador, because they had been labeled as subversives by the government, because it suspected the Jesuits of holding to the theology of liberation and therefore of favoring the leftist guerrillas of the FMLN. — case summary —(091115)

1985 Omaira Sánchez, 13 [photo >], in Armero, Colombia, of heart attack after being trapped for 60 hours up to her neck in lahar (mud flow) caused by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano shortly before midnight on November 13. The vain efforts to rescue her were shown on TV, but suitable equipment was not brought on the scene until too late. She is the last of some 23'000 to die from that eruption.

1982 Aleksandrov, mathematician.
1970 Luis Jiménez de Asúa, político español.
1965 Alexander King, 66, writer (Jack Paar Show)
1961 Sam T. Rayburn in Bonham, Texas, Speaker of the US House of Representatives for 17 years (since 1940 except for two terms).
1955 John Alfred Arnesby Brown, British painter born on 29 March 1866. — more with links to images.
1945 Blichfeldt, mathematician.
1922 Max Abraham, mathematician.
1917 Leopold Horowitz, Hungarian artist born on 11 January 1838.
1903 Lord Edwin Weeks (or Weecks), US artist born in 1849.
1894 Some 6000 Armenians, massacred by Turks in Kurdistan
1893 Reinhard Sebastian Zimmermann, German artist born on 09 February 1815.
1885 Louis Riel, 41, French rebel who fought against Canada, executed for high treason.
^ 1863: 174 Rebs and 218 Yanks at Battle of Campbell Station
      Confederates under General James Longstreet fail to defeat a Union force under General Ambrose Burnside near Knoxville, Tennessee. After the Battle of Gettysburg in early July, Army of Northern Virginia commander General Robert E. Lee allowed Longstreet to take two divisions to reinforce General Braxton Bragg's army around Chattanooga. The Confederate leadership realized that they were losing the war in the West, and relief was needed. Longstreet arrived just in time to execute a crucial attack in the Confederate victory at Chickamauga in northern Georgia. He stayed to help Bragg in the siege of Chattanooga, but the two men quarreled frequently. In late October, Union troops drove Longstreet's force away from Brown's Ferry, allowing the beleaguered Union troops in Chattanooga to resume shipping supplies via the Tennessee River. This led to a permanent split between the Confederate generals, and Bragg allowed Longstreet to head for eastern Tennessee in an attempt to secure that area for the Confederates. Campbell Station was the first engagement of his attempt to capture Knoxville, an area of intense anti-Confederate sentiment.
      Burnside had only about 5000 men in his command, but he hoped to keep Longstreet moving away from Chattanooga, where Union forces were pinned inside of a Confederate semicircle. Burnside allowed the Rebels to cross the Tennessee River but then realized that Longstreet could trap him along the river. He began a mad race to the strategic crossroads at Campbell Station, even abandoning many of his supply wagons in order to move more quickly. The Yankees reached the intersection first, and Burnside planned to fight a delaying action. Longstreet caught up with him by the late afternoon, and a short battle ensued. A poorly coordinated attack by the Confederates failed to turn Burnside's flank, and the Union repulsed them with ease. The fighting ended at nightfall, and Burnside escaped into the defenses around Knoxville. The Union lost 318 men killed and wounded; the Confederates lost 174.

1849 Etienne-Barthélémy Garnier, French artist born on 24 August 1759
1836 Lorenzo de Zavala, político e historiador mexicano.
1831 Carl von Clausewitz, in Breslau, Geboren am 01.06.1780 in Burg bei Magdeburg. Clausewitz war seit 1795 peußischer Offizier und nahm an zahlreichen Feldzügen teil. Er gehörte zum Kreis der preußischen Heeresreformer um Scharnhorst und Gneisenau. Zum Kampf gegen Napoleon trat er 1812 in russische Dienste. CLAUSEWITZ ONLINE: Vom Kriege
1827 Un terremoto destruye la población de Chaparral (Colombia).
1797 Federico Guillermo II, rey de Prusia.
1672 John Wilkins, mathematician.
^ 1632 (06 Nov Julian) The dead of the Battle of Lützen, including Gustav II Adolf, king of Sweden born on 19 (09 Julian) December 1594.
      The battle is fought by the Swedes to help their North German allies against the forces of the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II [09 Jul 1578 – 15 Feb 1637]. Having received the information that Albrecht von Wallenstein [24 Sep 1583 – 25 Feb 1634], the imperial commander, had sent Gottfried Heinrich, Graf zu Pappenheim [29 May 1594 – 17 Nov 1632], with a portion of his army on a separate mission, Gustav Adolf, with Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar [16 Aug 1604 – 18 Jul 1639], engages Wallenstein in battle outside Lützen in Saxony. Foggy weather delays the Swedish attack, and though Pappenheim, returning with his cavalry, is mortally wounded, Wallenstein's forces are almost victorious. When the Swedish king is killed, however, Bernhard assumes command of his army, retrieves the situation along the line, and captures the entire imperial artillery. The arrival of Pappenheim's infantry allows Wallenstein to retreat in good order.

      Gustav was the eldest son of Charles IX [04 Oct 1550 – 30 Oct 1611] and his second wife, Christina of Holstein. He was not quite 17 when he succeeded his father, and it was only in exchange for important constitutional concessions that the Swedish Estates (the Riksdag, or Assembly) permitted him to assume full control of the government. He found himself in an extraordinarily difficult position. Charles IX had usurped the throne, having ejected his nephew Sigismund III Vasa [20 Jun 1566 – 30 Apr 1632] (who was also king of Poland) in 1599, and the resulting dynastic quarrel involved Sweden and Poland in a war that continued intermittently for 60 years. Until 1629 Gustav had always to reckon with the danger of a legitimist invasion from Poland and the attempted restoration of the elder Vasa line. Charles had also begun a war in Russia in an attempt to put forward a Swedish candidate for the vacant Russian throne and then, when his armies were deeply committed in Russia, had rashly provoked war with Denmark. Not only had Charles placed Sweden in a calamitous situation internationally but he had left behind him a legacy of domestic troubles. His usurpation of the throne had meant not only the expulsion of a Roman Catholic sovereign whose rule seemed to threaten Sweden's Lutheranism but also the defeat of the aristocratic constitutionalism of the Council of State, and it had been followed by the execution of five leading members of the high aristocracy. Charles's rule had been arbitrary and violent; his religious views (he was suspected of leaning toward Calvinism) had involved him in an incessant struggle with the Lutheran church. At his death the country was exhausted by constant warfare, the monarchy was generally unpopular, and the accession of a new king seemed to offer the opportunity to extort from the crown guarantees against a recurrence of misgovernment.
      Thus, in 1611 Gustav had three foreign wars and a major constitutional crisis upon his hands.As the war with Denmark was as good as lost, he set about to end it on the best possible terms. By the Peace of Knäred (1613) Sweden was forced to leave its only North Sea port, Älvsborg, in Danish hands as security for the payment of an enormous war indemnity. That indemnity entailed crushing taxation and, even with the aid of last-minute loans by the Dutch, was not paid off until 1619. The war left bitter hatred behind it, and Gustav never forgot that Denmark was the national enemy and might be expected to take advantage of anySwedish weakness. Meanwhile, the war with Poland remained largely in abeyance, although in1617 Gustav sent an abortive expedition to seize the fortification of Dünamünde outside Riga (in present-day Latvia). The main danger, however, seemed to be Sigismund's attempts to pursue his claims by fifth-column activities in Sweden and propaganda in Europe.
      The war in Russia was much more serious, and it was here that Gustav, in a succession of difficult and indecisive campaigns, learned the rudiments of warfare. It dragged on until ended by the Peace of Stolbova in 1617, by which time it had clearly changed its character. Charles IX had intervened in Russia to prevent the Poles from placing their own candidate on the Russian throne; the election of the Russian Michael Romanov in 1613 had ended that danger, and Gustav continued the struggle with the deliberate intention of annexing as much of Russian territory as possible. He feared Russia's military and naval potential; he feared that once the country's position was stabilized, a new tsar might try to make Russia a Baltic maritime power. He was determined, therefore, to exploit Russia's momentary weakness to cut it off from direct maritime contact with the West and to channel Russian trade through Swedish middlemen, thus enriching his impoverished exchequer with tolls and duties. In this last respect the outcome proved disappointing, but politically and strategically Stolbova was a treaty of European importance. By annexing Ingria and Kexholm, Sweden came to possess a continuous belt of territory connecting Finland with the Swedish province of Estonia. It thus cut Russia off entirely from the Baltic, thrust it back toward Asia, and postponed its emergence as a major European power until the time of Peter the Great.
     Meanwhile, the internal tensions that Gustav Adolf had inherited had been largely resolved.The charter that the Estates extorted from Gustav when he became king in 1611 might well have entailed the virtual subjection of the monarchy to the council and the high aristocracy. This, however, did not happen; for the man who had drawn the charter, the chancellor Axel Oxenstierna [16 Jun 1583 – 28 Aug 1654], became, in fact, the king's closest collaborator and remained so for the whole of the reign, a great historic partnership in which the temperaments and gifts of each supplemented those of the other. The king observed the spirit of the charter, and the aristocracy did not always insist on the observance of its exact provisions. They found in Gustav a king favorable to their interests. He enlisted the nobility in the service of the state and thus provided them with numerous economic benefits. It was one of the healthiest features of Swedish society during this period that the nobility served the state, prepared to sacrifice even its privileges in the interests of the country. Thus the long-standing constitutional struggle between crown and aristocracy was suspended during his reign, largely because of the personality of the sovereign and the unique collaboration between himself and Oxenstierna. In this improved climate it was possible to undertake measures of sweeping reform.
      The first decade of the reign, therefore, saw the creation of a new Supreme Court (1614) and the establishment of the Treasury and the Chancery as permanent administrative boards (1618), and by the end of the reign an Admiralty and a War Office had been created, each presided over by one of the great officers of state. The Form of Government of 1634 summed up these reforms in a general statute giving Sweden a central administration more modern and efficient than that of any other European country. Stockholm became a true capital with a permanent population of civil servants, the most important of whom were noblemen. And in the 1620s a thorough reform professionalized local government and placed it securely under the control of the crown. The Council of State became, for the first time, a permanent organ of government, able to assume charge of affairs while the king was fighting overseas. An ordinance of 1617 fixed the number of Estates in the Riksdag at four (nobles, clergy, burghers,and peasants) and regulated its procedures on a basis that lasted until 1866. Both council and Riksdag were identified with the king's policies, not least because of Gustav's brilliant gift for expounding them: his speeches reveal him as a master of debate and an orator of extraordinary eloquence and force. And the decisions were always his, though they were usually arrived at after intimate consultation with Axel Oxenstierna. His hesitations, his vacillation in the face of grave decisions (such as that of intervening in the Thirty Years' War in Germany), reflect his profound sense of responsibility to the nation. Of all these domestic reforms, however, none had a more enduring and more beneficial effect upon his country than his work for education: his creation of the Gymnasia in the 1620s gave Sweden, for the first time, an effective provision for secondary education; his splendid munificence to the University of Uppsala gave it the financial security that was essential to its development; and his foundation of the University of Dorpat (now Tartu State University) provided the first center for higher learning in the Baltic languages.
      In 1620 he married Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. In 1621, taking advantage of a Turkish attack upon Poland, Gustav renewed the war with Sigismund. His capture of Riga was followed by a gradual conquest of Livonia (present-day Latvia and Estonia). His object was to compel Sigismund to renounce his claims to Sweden, and he hoped to gain his end by the economic pressure that would result from Poland's loss of access to its main export routes to western Europe. It was in pursuit of this policy that, in 1626, he transferred the seat of war to Prussia: a stranglehold on the Vistula River, he hoped, would bring Poland to its knees. But already he was concerned with the larger question of the danger to German Protestantism entailed by the victorious campaigns of the Habsburg commanders, Johann Tserclaes von Tilly [Feb 1559 – 30 Apr 1632] and Albrecht von Wallenstein. He saw his Polish campaigns as one aspect of the general struggle of Protestantism against the Counter-Reformation: if Sigismund were restored to the Swedish throne, the re-Catholicization of Scandinavia would follow soon after, the Habsburgs and their allies would be able to close the passage into the Baltic to Dutch shipping, and the United Netherlands might then be unable to continue their struggle against Spain.
      Thus, the fate of Europe was bound up with what happened in Livonia or Prussia. Protestant Europe was slow to appreciate the connection, but as the Protestant cause plunged to disaster in Germany, its leaders increasingly turned their eyes to Gustav as a possible savior. But before he was prepared to commit himself to any Protestant league and undertake a military campaign in Germany, Gustav required adequate assurance of support. The disastrous defeat (1626) of Christian IV [12 Apr 1577 – 28 Feb 1648] of Denmark, who had intervened in Germany without such an assurance, justified his caution, but it also made Swedish intervention inevitable. The Habsburg forces' occupation of the German Baltic shore and their plans for a Habsburg-Polish navy seemed to pose a direct threat of invasion. In this emergency, Gustav and Christian joined forces to send an expedition to Stralsund, the last remaining Protestant bastion in Pomerania, which arrived just in time to prevent its capture by Wallenstein (1628). From this moment, full-scale involvement in the German war became simply a question of time. The Polish war was resolved in 1629 by the Truce of Altmark, and Gustav was at last free to turn his attention to Germany. In June 1630 the Swedish expeditionary force landed at Peenemünde.
      The motives prompting his intervention have long been a subject of historical controversy. Anolder generation of historians saw him, as his contemporaries did, simply as the Protestant Hero, the “Lion of the North”; later, he was viewed as having been moved by purely political considerations; and in recent days he has been characterized as an economic imperialist whosought to remedy Sweden's poverty by seizing control of the whole Baltic coastline, and thus to monopolize trade between Russia and western Europe. The most probable explanation, however, is the one which he himself adduced: that he sought security from dangers which seemed to threaten the Swedish state and the Swedish church; that he considered his actions essentially defensive; and that he had no precise long-range plans, either economic or political, when he landed on German soil.
      He had, however, an army of unusual quality, fighting in a style new to Germany, and he combined tactical innovations with a grander concept of strategy than Europe had seen for many years. By reducing the size of the tactical unit, by opposing a flexible linear formation to the cumbrous massive formations of his opponents, by solving (at least for his time) the perennial problem of combining infantry and cavalry, missile weapons and shock, and, lastly, by producing the first easily maneuverable light artillery, he completed the transformation of the art of war begun by the Dutch commander Maurice of Nassau, prince of Orange [13 Nov 1567 – 23 Apr 1625], earlier in the century. The vastness of his operations in Germany initiated a permanent increase in the size of European armies. The whole process had profound social effects on the history of Europe.
      Gustav landed in Germany without allies. Whatever the feelings of the Protestant populations, the Protestant princes resented Swedish interference, and the refusal of George William of Brandenburg [13 Nov 1595 – 01 Dec 1640] to cooperate with the Swedes thwarted Gustav's attempts to save Magdeburg from capture and sack at the hands of Tilly's armies. His position was strengthened, however, by the Treaty of Bärwalde in January 1631, an alliance with France in which almost all the advantage lay with Sweden; in June he extorted by force the reluctant collaboration of Brandenburg; in September John George [05 Mar 1585 – 08 Oct 1656] of Saxony, provoked by violations of his neutrality, formally allied himself with Sweden. On 17 September 1631, at Breitenfeld, the Swedish-Saxon forces shattered Tilly's army in a battle that was a landmark in the art of war and a turning point in the history of Germany. In the ensuing months Gustav swept triumphantly through central Germany, systematically consolidating his base areas as he advanced; by Christmas he had established himself at Mainz. It seemed that the fate of Germany lay in his hands.
      These developments forced Gustav to reassess the limited and vague plans with which he had embarked on the expedition. In 1630 he had defined his aims as security and indemnity, the indemnity to be a cash payment to cover his war expenses, the security to be provided bya permanent Swedish alliance with Pomerania. By the close of 1631, with most of northern and central Germany under his control and the liberation of the southern German Protestant states already in prospect, his plans had broadened. He had always insisted that the German Protestant princes must work for their own salvation, and he saw the best hope for their futurepreservation in the creation of a comprehensive, permanent Corpus Evangelicorum (or Protestant league). His experience of the feckless and selfish German princes convinced him that such a league could be effective only if it were organized and directed by himself, and military necessity in any case demanded a unified command that could not be directed by anyone other than himself. Security, then, was to be achieved by a Protestant league of which he would be patron, military director, and political head. For indemnity he no longer claimed monetary compensation but large territorial cessions, particularly, the transference of Pomerania to Sweden. Thus, the old security had become the new indemnity. Many Germans feared, and some Swedish diplomats now believed, that a final settlement must probably entail the deposition of the German emperor Ferdinand II and the election of Gustav as emperor in his place. It was a solution he must certainly have contemplated, but there is no firm evidence of his attitude; probably he considered it only as a last resort. Certainly it wouldhave alienated those German allies who had no wish to exchange a Habsburg domination for a Swedish one. They already resented Gustav's dictatorial methods as well as the Swedish army's practice of making war support war. A Swedish administration was being organized in the occupied areas; Gustav rewarded his generals and supporters by conferring the conquered lands on them; in some of the treaties he concluded with German princes there was more than a hint that he regarded them as his feudal inferiors. In October 1632 he did, indeed, lay the basis for a league of Protestant princes; but it was confined mainly to southern Germany, where the peril from a Catholic reaction was greatest, and the two greatest Protestant states, Saxony and Brandenburg, never became part of it.
     The prospect of success depended upon the outcome of the campaign of 1632, which was designed to cripple Bavaria as a preliminary to the conquest of Vienna in 1633. Up to a point, it was highly successful. The brilliant crossing of the Lech River in Bavaria, in the face of Tilly's armies, opened the way to the occupation of Munich. In this crisis, Wallenstein, whom the emperor had dismissed from his service in 1630, was recalled to lead the imperial armies. His threat to Nürnberg forced Gustav to leave Bavaria in order to relieve the city. His attack on Wallenstein's entrenchments on the Alte Veste was unsuccessful. It was an operation that probably no other contemporary commander would have attempted. For the next few weeks there followed a tense war of maneuver that ended when Gustav fell upon Wallenstein's army at Lützen (06 Nov 1632) as it was dispersing to winter quarters. Morning mist robbed Gustav of the advantage of surprise and gave Wallenstein time to reunite his forces. The fight raged fiercely all day, but when night fell the Swedes had won an important victory. It was, however, dearly bought, for while leading a cavalry charge Gustav became separated from his men and perished in the melee.
      His death came at a moment when it had already begun to appear that the victory he believed to be essential to the stability of Germany and the security of Sweden might be more difficult to achieve than he had imagined. But he had lived long enough to deflect the course of German history. His intervention in the Thirty Years' War, at a moment when the armies of the Habsburg emperor and the German princes of the Catholic League controlled almost the whole of Germany, ensured the survival of German Protestantism against the onslaughts of the Counter-Reformation. The consequences, for Germany and for Europe, extended far beyond the religious field. By supporting the German princes against the emperor, Gustav Adolf defeated the attempts of the Habsburgs to make their imperial authority a reality and thus played a part in delaying the emergence of a united Germany until the 19th century. As a military commander, he was responsible for military innovations that marked an epoch in the history of the art of war. But from the point of view of his own country, these achievements were less significant than his domestic labors, his extraordinarily wide-ranging creative work in the fields of administrative organization, economic development, and education.
Gustave II Adolphe roi de Suède, meurt à la bataille de Lutzen.
      En intervenant dans le conflit religieux qui dechire l'Allemagne, et que l'Histoire baptisa guerre de Trente ans, Gustave Adolphe révèle ses dons de stratège et d'organisateur. Son armée est la plus moderne qui soit. En quelques campagnes-éclair, le roi fait de son pays la principale puissance de l'Europe du Nord. Mais sa dernière victoire, à Lutzen, cause sa mort. La reine Christine lui succède. La Suède, épuisée par les aventures militaires, entamera un lent déclin.
     Il fut aussi surnomme Gustave le Grand. Il participe à la Guerre de Trente Ans, où de 1618 à 1648, s'opposent en Allemagne protestants et catholiques. Gustave-Adolphe, roi protestant, fait débarquer en Allemagne une armée bien entrainée et equipées d'armes à feu perfectionnées ; il remporte la victoire de Lutzen en 1632, mais y trouve la mort.
—     The Battle of Lutzen — one of the most crucial in the Thirty Years War is fought on this day. The horror of the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century was ghastly. Out of a German population of sixteen million people, only four million survived. Before the war, Augsburg had 80'000 people; only l8'000 were left in the town at the war's end. 30'000 villages were destroyed. Peaceful peasants were hunted down for sport. Farms lay in such waste that forests soon sprang up to completely cover them. Crime was rampant.
      The war started in Bohemia. Emperor Ferdinand II, a staunch Roman Catholic, strongly opposed all Protestants. He forbade them to hold meetings, abolished their civil privileges, tore down their churches and schools, and publicly hanged them in every village. A Protestant revolt in Prague soon spread across the Austrian empire. Surprisingly, help came to the Protestants from King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. A devout Lutheran, Gustavus believed God had called him to win religious and political liberty for Europe. As king, he had brought Sweden prosperity, new schools, hospitals, libraries, and just laws. But Gustavus' great moral strength came from his humility and love of God.
      King Gustavus landed on German soil in 1630, and at once went into battle with the Catholic Austrian army. He won victories in Pomerania, Saxony, the Rhine, and Bavaria. Victory also came at Lutzen on November 16, 1632, but sadly, Gustavus was surrounded by enemy soldiers. Before taking his life, they demanded his name. Gustavus replied, "I am the King of Sweden! And this day I seal with my blood the liberties and religion of the German nation."
1613 Andrés Rey de Artieda, escritor español.
^ 1533 Massacre par Pizarre qui s'empare de l'Inca Atahualpa
      L'Inca Atahualpa se rend en grande pompe auprès de Francis Pizarre dans l'espoir de sauver son pays, l'empire inca.
      Francis Pizarre est un soldat espagnol brutal et illettré. Après la découverte du Nouveau Monde par Christophe Colomb, il a quitté l'Estrémadure natale et s'est embarqué en quête d'aventures. Déjà quinquagénaire, il rêve de renouveler l'exploit d'Hernan Cortez, un aristocrate de sa région qui a soumis le royaume aztèque, dans l'actuel Mexique. Pizarre s'associe avec un autre "conquistador" de son espèce, Diego de Almagro. Ensemble, ils explorent la côte occidentale de l'Amérique du sud. Forts de leurs découvertes, ils obtiennent le soutien de l'empereur Charles Quint pour la conquête de l'empire inca, au coeur de la chaîne montagneuse des Andes.
      C'est ainsi qu'ils débarquent à Tumbes, au nord du Pérou, à la tête de 183 aventuriers... et avec 37 chevaux. La petite troupe s'engage dans l'ascension de la cordillère des Andes, à la rencontre de l'Inca, ou "fils du Soleil", le souverain de ces montagnes. En chemin, Pizarre obtient confirmation de l'existence de fabuleuses mines de métaux précieux, or et argent. Le conquérant apprend aussi que l'Inca Atahualpa est en butte à une rébellion conduite par son propre frère Huascar. Il joue de la rivalité entre les deux hommes pour imposer sa médiation. C'est ainsi qu'il invite Atahualpa à lui rendre visite dans la localité de Cajamarca.
Un crime crapuleux
      Quand l'Inca arrive avec sa suite, le chapelain espagnol l'exhorte à se convertir et lui tend la Bible. L'Inca la rejette. Le chapelain, alors, se tourne vers son chef et lui dit: "Je vous absous" (sous-entendu: pour tous les crimes que vous allez commettre). A ce signal, les cavaliers dissimulés derrière les maisons massacrent les Indiens au canon et à l'arquebuse. Plusieurs milliers succombent.
      Atahualpa disait: "Dans ce royaume, aucun oiseau ne vole, aucune feuille ne bouge, si telle n'est pas ma volonté". L'Espagnol n'en a cure et se saisit de lui. Le prisonnier promet une rançon fabuleuse contre la promesse de la vie sauve. Pendant des mois, les sujets de l'Inca amènent à Pizarre des caravanes chargées de métaux précieux. Au total l'équivalent de 4'600'000 ducats espagnols.
      Enfin comblé, Pizarre fait étrangler l'Inca dans sa cellule le 29 août 1533. L'empereur Charles Quint condamnera vivement ce crime mais n'y pourra rien changer. C'est la fin de l'empire inca qui domina les Andes pendant quelques décennies et développa une civilisation originale, fondée sur l'adoration du soleil et la culture de la pomme de terre. Pizarre achève la conquête du pays et fonde la ville de Lima.
      Bientôt, il ne tarde pas à se disputer avec ses compagnons de fortune. Il fait exécuter Almagro mais mourra lui-même assassiné par les amis de ce dernier le 26 juin 1541... La colonisation espagnole peut commencer. Sur les ruines de l'empire inca naîtront le Pérou, l'Equateur et la Bolivie. Leurs origines dramatiques leur valent encore de nos jours un sort pitoyable.
^ 1533 Pizarro massacres Peruvians and captures Atahualpa.
     Atahuallpa (or Atahualpa) was born approximately in 1502 and was murdered on 29 August 1533, in Cajamarca, Inca empire [now in Peru]. 13th and last emperor of the Inca, who was victorious in a devastating civil war with his half brother, only to be captured, held for ransom, and then executed by Francisco Pizarro. Atahuallpa was a younger son of the Inca ruler Huayna Capac and an Ecuadorian princess; although not the legitimate heir, he seems to have been his father's favorite. When the old Inca chief died (about 1527), the kingdom was divided between Atahuallpa, who ruled the northern part of the empire from Quito, and Huáscar, the legitimate heir, who ruled from Cuzco, the traditional Inca capital. Depicted by contemporary chroniclers as brave, ambitious, and extremely popular with the army, Atahuallpa was soon embroiled in a civil war with his older half brother for control of the empire. The war ravaged Inca cities, wreaked havoc on the economy, and decimated the population. Early in 1532, near Cuzco, Atahuallpa's army defeated the army of Huáscar in what was perhaps the greatest military engagement in Inca history. Huáscar and his family were captured and later executed under Atahuallpa's orders. While Atahuallpa was enjoying the hot springs in the small Inca town of Cajamarca, preparatory to entering Cuzco in triumph, Francisco Pizarro entered the city with a force of about 180 men.
      On 15 November 1532, Pizarro and Atahuallpa met in what was to prove one of the most fateful encounters in the New World. Invited by the Spaniard to attend a feast in his honor, the Inca chief accepted. The next day, he arrived at the appointed meeting place with several thousand unarmed retainers; Pizarro, prompted by the example of Hernán Cortés and Montezuma in Mexico, had prepared an ambush. Atahuallpa rejected demands by the friar Vicente de Valverde, who had accompanied Pizarro, that he accept the Christian faith and the sovereignty of Charles V of Spain, whereupon Pizarro signaled his men. Firing their cannons and guns and charging with their horses (all of which were unknown to the Inca), the conquistadores captured Atahuallpa and slaughtered thousands of his men. Perceiving the avarice of his captors, Atahuallpa offered to fill a room with gold as a ransom for his release. Pizarro accepted the offer, and from throughout the empire the Incas brought gold and silver statues, jewelry, and art objects. The Spaniards had the Indians melt it all down into bullion and ingots, accumulating 24 tons of gold and silver, the richest ransom ever received. Once the full amount was acquired, the conquistadores ordered Atahuallpa burned to death (29 August 1533). When Atahuallpa was at the stake, de Valverde offered him the choice of being burned alive or dying by the more merciful garrote if he became a Christian. Atahuallpa, who had resisted proselytization throughout his captivity, agreed to the conversion and so died that day by strangulation. The execution of Atahuallpa, the last free reigning emperor, marked the end of the Inca civilization.
— El imperio inca de Perú cae en manos de Francisco Pizarro, que ocupa el Cuzco y reconoce como soberano inca a Manco Cápac II.
1322 Nasr I, sultán de Granada.
1200 Saint Hugh of Avalon. This noble-minded bishop of Lincoln was beloved by the people because of his kindness to them and his fearless rebuke of wicked authorities. His tomb became a pilgrim shrine.
 
< 15 Nov 17 Nov >
^  Births which occurred on a 16 November:

1999 Chancellor Lee Adams, 10 weeks premature, by Caesarean section, after his mother, Cherica Adams, 24, has been shot at about 01:00 (she will die of the wounds on 14 December) in a drive-by shooting contracted by her lover and the baby's father, football player Rae Carruth, 25, so as to avoid having to pay child support. The baby has severe cerebral palsy
1959 The Sound of Music, Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, opens on Broadway.
1935 Elizabeth Drew journalist (Politics & Money: The Road to Corruption)
1933 Divinas palabras, de Ramón María del Valle Inclán, se estrena en el teatro Español de Madrid.
1930 Chinua Achebe Nigerian writer (Christmas in Biafra)
1927 Hosea Williams, 74, in Atlanta, civil rights activist.
1922 José Saramago, escritor portugués
1922 Darcy Ribeiro, etnólogo, antropólogo y sociólogo brasileño.
1920 The first Pitney Bowes postage meter: metered mail is born in Stamford, Connecticut.
^ 1914 The Federal Reserve Bank
      By 1913, the nation had seen its share of bank crises, including an especially severe one in 1907. The seemingly continuous cycle of panics prompted the formation of the National Monetary Commission, a committee charged with diagnosing and prescribing a remedy for the all-too-frequent bank panics. The Commission found that the nation's banks were so "unrelated and independent of each other that the majority of them had simultaneously engaged in a life and death contest with each other." The report triggered the passage of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913, which in turn paved the way for the formation of the Federal Reserve Bank. This bank, which officially opened for business on November 16, 1914, was initially designed as a more or less "passive" institution, focused primarily on staving off any future bank panics. Over the years, though, the Fed has taken on a more active role in guiding and stabilizing the financial services industry.
1913 A la Recherche du Temps Perdu, primer volumen, de Marcel Proust, aparece.
1897 Shtokalo, mathematician.
1895 Michael Arlen Armenia, English writer (An American Verdict)
1895 Paul Hindemith Hanau Germany, composer (Tutti Funtchen)
1889 George S. Kaufman Pittsburgh PA, playwright (The Cocoanuts, A Night at the Opera, [w/Moss Hart]: The Man Who Came to Dinner, You Can't Take It with You, This is Show Business)
1888 Henri Bosco, écrivain, à Avignon.
1886 Marcel Riesz, mathematician.
1865 William Samuel Horton, US painter who died in 1936. — more with links to images.
1839 Louis-Honore Frechette, Canadian poet.
1835 Eugenio Beltrami, mathematician.
1823 Amsler, mathematician
1811 John Bright, British Victorian radical who founded the Anti-Corn Law League.
1787 François Joseph Navez, French painter active in Brussels, who died on 12 October 1869. — MORE ON NAVEZ AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1722 Clément Louis Marie Anne Belle, French artist who died on 29 September 1806. — more
1682 Jan Josef Horemans Sr. “Le Brun”, Flemish artist who died on 07 August 1759. — more with a link to an image.
— 42 -BC- Tiberius Cesar 2nd Roman emperor (14-37 AD)
 
Holidays Oklahoma : Admission Day (1907)
Religious Observances Greek church : Saints Matthew & Paul of the Cross / Ang, RC : Margaret, Queen of Scotland (opt) / Santos Edmundo, Marcos, Marino, Roque González, Rufino y Valerio. Santas Margarita de Escocia, Inés y Gertrudis. / Sainte Marguerite: Fille d'un prince anglo-saxon chassé de son pays par Guillaume le Conquérant, Marguerite (ou Margaret) épouse le roi d'Ecosse Malcolm III en 1070. Elle introduit douceur et vertu dans son pays d'adoption. / RC : Saint Gertrude, virgin, patroness of West Indies (opt)

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Thoughts for the day:
“God never imposes a duty without giving time to do it.” — {and all other needed conditions, including free will}
“God never gives time without imposing a duty or choice of duties to do in it.”
“No matter how dull, or how mean, or how wise a man is, he feels that happiness is his indisputable right.” —
Helen Keller, US blind-deaf author and lecturer [27 Jun 1880 – 01 Jun 1968].
"No matter how deaf, or how blind, or how courageous Helen Keller was, happiness was her indisputable right."
“No matter how happy, or indisputable, or right a man feels, he may be dull, or mean, or wise.”
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http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov16.html
updated Monday 16-Nov-2009 1:11 UT
Principal updates
v.8.90 Friday 31-Oct-2008 19:11 UT
v.6.a0 Friday 17-Nov-2006 18:12 UT
v.5.a1 Friday 18-Nov-2005 0:23 UT
Saturday 20-Nov-2004 20:59 UT
Monday 17-Nov-2003 16:03 UT

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