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Events, deaths, births, of 14 NOV
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^  On a 14 November:
2003 World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963~], with Black, loses against computer program X3D Fritz in the second game of a match, whose first game was a draw on 11 November 2003, and which will end in a match draw with its 4th game on 18 November 2003 (16 Nov Game 3). {to replay the games click here and then click the Archive tab}.
2002 The previous evening electric utility Aquila (ILA) reported cancellation of its dividend and a 3rd quarter 2002 loss of $1.85 per share, versus 3rd quarter 2001 net income of $0.58 per share. On the New York Stock Exchange, 13 million of the 180 million ILA shares are traded, falling from their previous close of $3.34 to an intraday low of $2.14, and closing at $2.16. They had traded as high as $26.73 as recently as 15 January 2002 and $37.55 on 21 May 2001.
2002 In Santa Barbara, California, Ronald Herrera, 57, is sentenced for stealing $11 worth of wine, lip balm and breath freshener, under a California law, passed in 1994, mandating 25 years to life for a felony committed by someone already convicted of two serious crimes. Herrera's record lists 17 serious felonies, including a 1971 home-invasion robbery and rape of a woman and her 15-year-old daughter, the shooting of a police dispatcher, and six armed robberies in Virginia. At trial, his lawyer said that Herrera has a brain injury that made him forget to pay. The US Supreme Court heard arguments earlier in November 2002 on whether such sentencing amounts to unconstitutionally cruel and unusual punishment.
2002 In Rome, Sicilian Benedetto Marciante, 50, in hiding after being sentenced to 30 years prison for murder and seven years for association with the Mafia, surrenders to police, without admitting to the crimes, after hearing the broadcast of the speech to Parliament by pope John Paul II.
2001 A prime number larger than any previously known is found by the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, which uses the idle idle time of the ordinary computers of some 130'000 volunteers, one of whom, Ontario resident Michael Cameron, 20, sees it appear on his computer. The number is 2^13'466'917 – 1. It is a Mersenne prime (the 39th known), i.e. 13'466'917 is a prime. Written in the usual decimal notation, it would be a 9 followed by 4'053'944 digits, which, on a computer screen like mine (40 lines of 150 characters each), would require 676 screens to show completely. The next largest prime (the 40th known Mersenne prime) would be discovered on 17 November 2003.
2000 Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris certified George W. Bush's 300-vote lead over Al Gore, hours after a judge refused to lift a 17:00 deadline; however, the judge gave Harris the authority to accept or reject follow-up manual recount totals.
2000 Después de dos años de negociaciones con el Gobierno, las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) rompen el diálogo y rechazan las propuestas de paz establecidas por el gobierno.
2000 Miss Schraeder, 16, is scheduled to report to an alternative school program in Detroit suburb Hazel Park. She has missed 523 school days since kindergarten. Her father, Bill Schraeder, 60, on 30 October, under a 1999 anti-truancy ordinance, was sentenced to 90 days in jail, 60 days being suspended as long as he satisfies probation requirements: attend parenting classes, get his daughter to school, under penalty of one day in jail for him for every day she is truant.
1997 La asamblea extraordinaria de la Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA) aprueba por aclamación la Convención Interamericana contra la fabricación y tráfico ilícito de armas de fuego, municiones y explosivos.
1996 Microsoft announces that it will spent $400 million to develop Internet content and would continue to pump money into online businesses at the same high rate until the businesses began to turn a profit. Although the company launched a series of ambitious Internet projects, most of them failed to outperform Yahoo and America Online over the next several years. In 1998, the head of Microsoft's interactive media group resigned.
1996 AOL chief Steve Case appoints Robert Pittman president of America Online. Previously, Pittman had helped found MTV, served as CEO of Time Warner Enterprises, and served as head of Six Flags Entertainment Corp. and Century 21 Real Estate. Pittman brought a flashy, high-profile style to America Online and helped make it a household name.
1995 El Ejército de Sri Lanka conquista el cuartel general de la guerrilla tamil en Jafna, en una ofensiva que costó la vida a 1300 guerrilleros y 300 militares.
1995 Congress having failed to pass on time the necessary appropriation bills, the US government partially shuts down, closing national parks and museums while most government offices operate with skeleton crews.
1994 US experts visit North Korea's main nuclear complex for the first time under an accord that opened such sites to outside inspections.
1994 Documento del Papa Juan Pablo II exhortando a la Iglesia a pedir perdón por los errores cometidos en los últimos mil años.
1994 Rafael Guillén logra el Premio Nacional español de Poesía por su obra Los estados inmortales.
^ 1994 Gates buys Leonardo da Vinci manuscript
      Bill Gates paid $30.8 million for a sixteenth-century Leonardo da Vinci manuscript, which depicted the motion of water and the principles of the steam engine. Gates' bid tripled the existing price for similar items. Beating out Italian bidders who had pledged to bring the treasure back to its home in Italy, Gates promised to leave the manuscript on public display at least 50% of the time. The manuscript, last sold to the Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center, had fetched a mere $5.6 million in 1980.
1992 El explorador francés Pierre Sauvadet completa con éxito, después de tres meses, la vuelta al Įrtico, proeza sólo conseguida anteriormente por Roald Engebrecht Amundsen.
1991 After 13 years in exile Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk returned to his homeland.
1991 The press reports that President Bush and the Senate are considering limits on credit card interest rates. The Dow-Jones Industrial Average loses 120 points.
1991 US and British authorities announced indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials in connection with the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland..
1989 The US Navy orders an unprecedented 48-hour stand-down in the wake of a recent string of serious accidents.
1988 Israeli President Chaim Herzog formally asked Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir to form a new government.
1988 Los ministros españoles de Asuntos Exteriores y de Defensa, Francisco Fernández Ordóñez y Narcís Serra i Serra, respectivamente, firman el protocolo de adhesión de España a la Unión Europea Occidental (UEO).
^ 1986 Insider trading confessed
     Ivan Boesky confesses to illegal stock trading activity Wall Street arbitrageur Ivan Boesky pleads guilty to insider trading and agrees to pay a $100 million fine and cooperate with the Securities and Exchange Commission's investigation. "Boesky Day," as the SEC would later call it, was crucial in exposing a nationwide scandal at the heart of the `80s Wall Street boom. Boesky testified that he had gained his $200 million fortune using illegal inside information about impending mergers to trade stock in the companies involved. As a result of Boesky's confession, subpoenas were issued to some of the world's most famous financiers, including "Junk Bond King" Michael Milken. Boesky's testimony brought Milken and Drexel Burnham Lambert, an investment banking company, to justice for their participation in the illegal schemes. Milken paid over a billion dollars in fines and restitution and was sentenced to two years in prison. In addition to his own financial penalty, Boesky received a three-year sentence, 22 months of which he served at Lompoc Federal Prison in California. Following this insider trading scandal, Congress increased the penalties for securities violations. After prison, Boesky divorced his wife and relocated to La Jolla, California. In contrast to Milken and others involved, Boesky has largely avoided public attention since the scandal, though he has surfaced to testify in still-unresolved legal proceedings. Despite his cooperation with the authorities, Ivan Boesky was demonized as a national symbol of greed and an example of the dangers of `80s-era excess.
      Until 1986, Ivan Boesky was one of wealthiest and most successful figures on Wall Street. But, after 14 November 1986, his name was inextricably linked with the scandal and corruption that engulfed the industry during the 1980s. Indeed, on this day, Boesky consented to a stern settlement on charges that he had engaged in insider trading. Specifically, he and Wall Street veteran Dennis B. Levine had been involved in an improper trade relationship: Levine furnished tips and information that Boesky then used to make big-money trades. In return, Boesky paid Levine a%age of the profits from these trades. The union proved to be quite lucrative, as Boesky reeled-in roughly $50 million from illegal trades. But, when the Securities and Exchange Commission started probing into Levine's affairs, he wilted under the heat and handed over his partner to the authorities. The ensuing settlement called for Boesky to return his illegally gained profits to the SEC, as well as pay a $50 million fine. Along with emptying his once-considerable coffers, the sentence also banned Boesky from the securities industry and called for him to serve a maximum of five years in prison.
1983 The British government announced that US-made cruise missiles had arrived at the Greenham Common air base amid protests.
1983 El poeta Rafael Alberti obtiene el Premio Miguel de Cervantes de Literatura.
^ 1982 Walesa released from Communist internment.
     Lech Walesa, leader of communist Poland's outlawed Solidarity movement, returns to his apartment in Gdansk after 11 months of internment in a remote hunting lodge near the Soviet border. Two days before, hundreds of supporters had begun a vigil outside his home upon learning that the founder of Poland's trade union movement was being released. When Walesa finally did return home, on 14 November he was lifted above the jubilant crowd and carried to the door of his apartment, where he greeted his wife and then addressed his supporters from a second-story window.
      Walesa, born on 29 September 1943, was an electrician at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk when he was fired for union agitation in 1976. When protests broke out in the Gdansk shipyard over an increase in food prices in August 1980, Walesa climbed the shipyard fence and joined the thousands of workers inside. He was elected leader of the strike committee, and three days later the strikers' demands were met. Walesa then helped coordinate other strikes in Gdansk and demanded that the Polish government allow the free formation of trade unions and the right to strike. On 30 August, the government conceded to the strikers' demands, legalizing trade unionism and granting greater freedom of religious and political expression.
      Millions of Polish workers and farmers came together to form unions, and Solidarity was formed as a national federation of unions, with Walesa as its chairman. Under Walesa's charismatic leadership, the organization grew in size and political influence, soon becoming a major threat to the authority of the Polish government. On 13 December 1981, martial law was declared in Poland, Solidarity was outlawed, and Walesa and other labor leaders were arrested.
      In November 1982, overwhelming public outcry forced Walesa's release, but Solidarity remained illegal. In 1983, Walesa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Fearing involuntary exile, he declined to travel to Norway to accept the award. Walesa continued as leader of the now-underground Solidarity movement, and he was subjected to continual monitoring and harassment by the communist authorities.
      In 1988, deteriorating economic conditions led to a new wave of labor strikes across Poland, and the government was forced to negotiate with Walesa. In April 1989, Solidarity was again legalized, and its members were allowed to enter a limited number of candidates in upcoming elections. By September, a Solidarity-led government coalition was in place, with Walesa's colleague Tadeusz Mazowiecki as premier. In 1990, Poland's first direct presidential election was held, and Walesa won by a landslide.
      President Walesa successfully implemented free-market reforms, but unfortunately he was a more effective labor leader than president. In 1995, he was narrowly defeated in his reelection by former communist Aleksander Kwasniewski, head of the Democratic Left Alliance.
1982 Un comando de la banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) secuestra en Zumárraga (País Vasco) al industrial Saturnino Orbegozo.
1979 La ONU adopta una resolución en la que reclama la retirada de las tropas vietnamitas de Camboya.
1977 Egypt President Sadat repeats willingness to visit Israel to Cronkite
1975 Spain abandoned the Spanish Sahara
1974 El senegalés Mahtar M'bo reemplaza a René Maheu en el cargo de director general de la UNESCO.
1972 Nixon promises continued US support to South Vietnam
      One week after his re-election, President Richard Nixon extends to South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu his "absolute assurance" that the United States will "take swift and severe retaliatory action" if Hanoi violates the pending cease-fire once it is in place. Thieu responded with a list of 69 amendments that he wanted added to the peace agreement being worked out in Paris. Nixon instructed Henry Kissinger to present Le Duc Tho, the senior North Vietnamese negotiator in Paris, with Thieu's amendments. Kissinger protested that the changes were "preposterous" and might destroy chances for the treaty. Despite Kissinger's concerns, the indication that the peace accords were near completion resulted in the Dow Jones closing above 1000 for first time. In the end, however, Kissinger was correct and the peace talks became deadlocked and were not resumed until after Nixon ordered the December bombing of North Vietnam.
1972 Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 1000 for the first time (1003.16)
1970 UNESCO adopts the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. It would enter into force on 24 April 1972
^ 1969 Apollo 12 lifts off toward the Moon
      Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the Moon, is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, with astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr.; Richard F. Gordon, Jr.; and Alan L. Bean aboard. President Richard Nixon viewed the liftoff from Pad A at Cape Canaveral. He was the first president to attend the liftoff of a manned space flight.
      Thirty-six seconds after takeoff, lightning struck the ascending Saturn 5 launch rocket, which tripped the circuit breakers in the command module and caused a power failure. Fortunately, the launching rocket continued up normally, and within a few minutes power was restored in the spacecraft.
      On 19 November the landing module Intrepid made a precision landing on the northwest rim of the moon's Ocean of Storms. About five hours later, astronauts Conrad and Bean became the third and fourth humans to walk on the surface of the moon. During the next 32 hours, the two astronauts made two lunar walks, where they collected lunar samples and investigated the Surveyor 3 spacecraft, an unmanned US probe that soft-landed on the Moon in 1967. On 24 November Apollo 12 successfully returned to Earth, splashing down only five kilometers from one of its retrieval ships, the USS Hornet.
1964 The US First Cavalry Division battles with the North Vietnamese Army in the Ia Drang Valley, the first Vietnam ground combat for US troops.
1963 Iceland gets a new island when a volcano puches its way up out of the sea five miles off the southern coast.
1963 Greece frees hundreds who were jailed in the Communist uprising of 1944-1950.
1961 President Kennedy increases the number of US military "advisors" in Vietnam from 1000 to 16'000.
1960 La ONU acusa a Moïse Tshombe, a Joseph Kasavubu y a sus colaboradores del asesinato de Patrice Emery Lumumba.
1960 Cuba se retira del Banco Mundial.
1960 President Dwight Eisenhower orders US naval units into the Caribbean after Guatemala and Nicaragua charge Castro with starting uprisings.
1959 Kilauea's most spectacular eruption (in Hawaii)
^ 1951 US aid to independently communist Yugoslavia
      President Harry Truman asks Congress for US military and economic aid for the communist nation of Yugoslavia. The action was part of the US policy to drive a deeper wedge between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia ended World War II with the communist forces of Josip Broz Tito in control. The United States supported him during the war when his group battled against the Nazi occupation. In the postwar period, as Cold War hostilities set in, US policy toward Yugoslavia hardened. Tito was viewed as simply another tool of Soviet expansion into eastern and southern Europe.
      In 1948, however, Tito openly broke with Stalin, though he continued to proclaim his allegiance to the communist ideology. Henceforth, he declared, Yugoslavia would determine and direct its own domestic and foreign policies without interference from the Soviet Union. US officials quickly saw a propaganda opportunity in the fallout between the former communist allies. Although Tito was a communist, he was at least an independent communist who might prove a useful ally in Europe. To curry favor with Tito, the United States supported Yugoslavia's efforts in 1949 to gain a seat on the prestigious Security Council at the United Nations.
      In 1951, President Truman asked Congress to provide economic and military assistance to Yugoslavia. This aid was granted. Yugoslavia proved to be a Cold War wild card, however. Tito gave tacit support to the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956, but harshly criticized the Russian intervention in Czechoslovakia in 1968. While the United States admired Tito for his independent stance, he could sometimes be a bit too independent. During the 1950s and 1960s he encouraged and supported the nonalignment movement among Third World nations, a policy that concerned American officials who were intent on forcing those nations to choose sides in the East-West struggle. Relations between the United States and Yugoslavia warmed considerably after Tito's denunciation of the Czech intervention, but cooled again when he sided with the Soviets during the Arab-Israeli conflict of 1973. Tito died in 1980
1956 The USSR crushes the Hungarian uprising.
1951 French paratroopers capture Hoa Binh capture Hoa Binh, Vietnam.
1947 La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas reconoce la exigencia de independencia coreana.
1946 Se concede al suizo Hermann Hesse el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
^ 1943 F. D. Roosevelt escapes death by US torpedo
      During World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt (a Democrat), Secretary of State Cordell Hull, and all of America's top military brass, narrowly escape disaster aboard the US battleship Iowa, when a live torpedo is accidentally fired at them from the US destroyer William D. Porter. The William D. Porter was one of the crafts escorting them across the Atlantic. The Iowa was just east of Bermuda at the time of the incident, en route to the Big Three Conference in Teheran, Iran, where Roosevelt was to meet with British prime minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
      To demonstrate to the president and his guests the defensive abilities of the Iowa, the battleship launched a series of weather balloons to use as anti-aircraft targets. On the nearby William D. Porter, Captain Wilfred Walker ordered his men to battle stations, and the ship began shooting down the balloons that the Iowa had missed. A simulated torpedo firing was ordered, and the torpedo room obliged. Unfortunately, torpedoer Lawton Dawson had neglected to disarm torpedo tube #3, and an actual torpedo was fired toward the Iowa. Moments later, the William D. Porter broke mandatory radio silence to inform the Iowa that the speeding torpedo was headed their way. The Iowa rapidly began evasive maneuvers, as all guns turned on the William D. Porter. Meanwhile, on the bridge of the Iowa, word of the firing reached President Roosevelt, who asked that his wheelchair be moved to the ship's railing so that he could watch the torpedo's approach. Fortunately, the torpedo exploded in the ship's massive wake.
      After the incident, the William D. Porter is ordered to return to Bermuda, and Captain Walker and the entire crew are arrested by a force of Marines upon docking. Torpedoer Lawton Dawson is subsequently court-martialed. The destroyer William D. Porter eventually reenters service, and is often hailed with the greeting "Don't shoot, we're Republicans" when she enters port or joins other naval ships.
1941 Los marines estadounidenses abandonan Shanghai, Peiping y Tientsin.
1936 El Gobierno alemán declara nulo el Tratado de Versalles y restablece su soberanía.
^ 1935 Philippines are proclaimed a free commonwealth
      Following the approval of a new constitution by the Philippine people, the Commonwealth of the Philippines is officially proclaimed by the first Philippine president, Luis Manuel Quezon, and US president Franklin D. Roosevelt. The US commonwealth status of the Philippines was adopted as part of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, an American resolution that called for the gradual transition toward complete Philippine independence by 1946. On 04 July 1946, despite the four-year Japanese occupation during World War II, the Philippines achieved full independence for the first time in over four hundred years.
1935 Victoria electoral de los conservadores en Gran Bretaña, que se aseguran una amplia mayoría en las cámaras.
1930 Right-wing militarists in Japan attempt to assassinate Premier Hamagushi.
1927 Atentado frustrado en México contra el ex presidente, general Įlvaro Obregón.
1925 Exposición surrealista en París, con obras de Max Ernst, Hans Arp, Man Ray, Joan Miró, Pablo Picasso y Giorgio de Chirico.
1922 British Broadcasting Corporation began its domestic radio service. — La BBC de Londres empieza a emitir sus espacios radiofónicos de actualidad que pueden captarse mediante radios de galena.
1921 The Cherokee Indians ask the US Supreme Court to review their claim to 400'000 hectares of land in Texas.
1918 Republic of Czechoslovakia created with Thomas G. Masaryk as President
1918 Jozef Pilsudski se convierte en Jefe de Estado en Polonia con plenos poderes dictatoriales.
1913 Exposición en el Salón de Otoño de Madrid de los pintores futuristas Francis Picabia, Albert Gleizes y Frantizek Kupka.
1912 El conde de Romanones, Įlvaro de Figueroa y Torres, es nombrado presidente del Consejo de Ministros español.
1910 Lieutenant Eugene Ely, US Navy, becomes the first man to take off in an airplane from the deck of a ship. He flew from the ship Birmingham at Hampton Roads to Norfolk. It was a Curtiss plane that made that takeoff. — 1910, un avion biplane décolle du croiseur américain Birmingham. C'est la naissance de l'aéronavale. Onze mois plus tard, le pilote Eugène Ely réussit l'opération dans les deux sens (décollage et atterrissage) sur une plate-forme spécialement aménagée à l'arrière du cuirassé Pennsylvania. Le porte-avions est né.
1908 Albert Einstein presents his quantum theory of light.— Albert Einstein pronuncia su primera lección sobre la teoría de las radiaciones ante tres oyentes.
1901 El médico vienés Karl Landsteine publica en una revista clínica vienesa un artículo sobre su descubrimiento de tres grupos sanguíneos.
1894 Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez
1889 New York World reporter Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane) began an attempt to surpass the fictitious journey of Jules Verne's Phileas Fogg by traveling around the world in less than 80 days. Bly succeeded by finishing the journey the following January in 72 days, 6 hours and 11 minutes.
1881 Charles J Guiteau goes on trial for President Garfield's assassination. Guiteau would be convicted and hanged the following year.
1863 Bedford Forrest is assigned to command of West Tennessee
1863 Skirmish at Danville, Mississippi
^ 1863 Lincoln approves doomed plan to take Richmond.
      President Lincoln approves of General Ambrose Burnside's plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. This was an ill-fated move, as it led to the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg on 13 December 1863, in which the Army of the Potomac was dealt one of its worst defeats at the hands of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.
      Lincoln approved Burnside's plan just five days after Burnside assumed command of the army. The general had replaced George McClellan, who led the force for more than a year. McClellan's tenure was marked by sharp disagreements with the administration and sluggishness in the field. Although McClellan was successful against Lee at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, Lincoln removed him from command because of McClellan's reluctance to attack the Confederate army in Virginia.
      After McClellan was removed, Burnside stepped up to take his shot at Lee. His plan called for the Army of the Potomac to move 60 km to Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock River. From there, his troops would advance south to the Confederate capital of Richmond. Lincoln appreciated the fact that Burnside's plan protected Washington, D.C. In spring 1862, McClellan had sailed the army down the Chesapeake Bay and landed it on the James Peninsula for an attempt on Richmond, a move that left the Union capital dangerously exposed. However, Lincoln and general in chief Henry Halleck were concerned that Burnside was focused solely on capturing Richmond; they believed that the goal should be to destroy Lee's army. However, Burnside's plan was an improvement over McClellan's operations.
      Lincoln approved the plan but warned Burnside that action needed to be taken quickly. By early December, Burnside had the army in motion. When the Yankees reached Fredericksburg, however, they experienced delays in crossing the Rappahannock, which allowed Lee to move his forces into place above the city. On 13 December, Burnside made a series of doomed attacks and the Army of the Potomac suffered one of the most costly and demoralizing defeats of the war.
1860 La Russie se fait céder par la Chine la bordure maritime de la Sibérie.
1834 William Thomson enters Glasgow University at 10 years 4 months
1832 1st streetcar (horse-drawn) (John Mason) debuts in NYC; fare 12 cents, rode on 4th Avenue between Prince & 14th Sts
1812 As Napoleon Bonaparte's army retreats from Moscow, temperatures drop to 20 degrees below zero.
^ 1805 Entrée de Napoléon à Vienne
      Napoléon 1er fait son entrée à Vienne à la tête de la Grande Armée. Le nouvel empereur des Français est au faîte de sa gloire. Un mois après que les Anglais aient constitué contre la France une troisième coalition, il a déjà reçu la capitulation d'une armée autrichienne à Ulm.
      Napoléon jouit de son triomphe dans la capitale de l'empire autrichien, désertée par l'empereur François II de Habsbourg. Bientôt, le soleil d'Austerlitz et la paix de Presbourg abaisseront l'Autriche... mais pour quelques années seulement.
1784 Samuel Seabury, 55, is consecrated Bishop of Connecticut and Rhode Island, the first bishop of the American Protestant Episcopal Church, and the first Anglican bishop in the US.
1666 Samuel Pepys reports on 1st blood transfusion (between dogs)
1524 Francisco Pizarro sale de Panamá en su primera expedición hacia la costa del sur.
1501 Enrique VIII de Inglaterra contrae matrimonio con Catalina de Aragón, hija de los Reyes Católicos.
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< 13 Nov 15 Nov >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 14 November:

Kasi in 19932005 Olusoga Akinlemibola “Uncle Soga” [Jan 1964–], after 90 minutes of excessive exercise at the Ikoyi Club in Lagos, Nigeria. He was an assistant general manager at First Security Discount House Ltd. (owned by Hakeem “Keem” Belo-Osagie [02 Mar 1955~]) and head of security of Fountain of Life Church. — (051213)
2004 All 5 men aboard a Piper Navajo plane, owned by Dash Air Charter of San Antonio, coming from Dodge City, Kansas, which crashes at 17:10 (23:10 UT) 5 km short of San Antonio International airport, in Texas. The five dead are all from San Antonio: the pilot and his passengers, two fathers and two sons.
2003 Spc. Irving Medina, 22, of Middletown NY, in Baghdad, Iraq, when a roadside terrorist bomb exploded at the passage of the convoy in which he was. He served in the 4th Battalion, 1st Field Artillery Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division.
2003 Sgt. Jay A. Blessing, 23, of Tacoma WA, in Asadabad, Afghanistan, after the explosion of a terrorist bomb.He was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment.
2003:: 48 miners, by a gas explosion in the Jianxin Coal Mine, Fengcheng, Jiangxi province, China. There are more than 5000 deaths in coal mine accidents in China in 2003.
2002 Mir Ahmad Kasi (aka Mir Aimal Kansi) [1993 photo >], 38, Pakistani, executed in Virginia. He was sencenced to death on 23 January 1998 after being convicted on 10 November 1997 of the 25 January 1993 murder of CIA employees Dr. Lansing Bennett MD, 66, an intelligence analyst, and communications engineer Frank Darling, 28, an undercover agent, when shooting with an AK-47 assault rifle at employees arriving for work at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia. (on 12 November 1997 four US oil company auditors were shot dead in Pakistan, in retaliation for Kasi's conviction).Three others were wounded. Kasi fled to Pakistan on 26 January 1993. He was captured there by US and Pakistani agents on 17 June 1997 and confessed on the flight to the US. He said during his trial that he had been retaliating against US policies that hurt Muslim states. On 06 November 2002 the US State Department warned: “The potential exists for retaliatory acts against US or other foreign interests in response to the execution. These may include facilities where Americans or possibly other foreigners are generally known to congregate or visit, such as residential areas, clubs, restaurants, places of worship, schools, hotels, outdoor recreation events or resorts and beaches." It said that, after the 11 September 2001 attacks in New York and Washington, “attacks on places of worship and schools, and the murders of private American citizens and other Westerners, demonstrate that as security is increased at official US facilities, terrorists and their sympathizers will seek softer targets."
      Citing recent attacks in Bali and Kuwait, the State Department warned US citizens living abroad to be on alert for possible threats, including kidnapping or assassination.
Lancelot, Labrador retriever2002 (28 kartik 2059) At least 24 policemen, and uncounted civilians and Maoist rebels attacking a police post in Gorkha district, Nepal.
2002 Lancelot, 12 [< TV still], bitten all over the head, chest, legs, and face, by two pit bull dogs who jump the fence into his backyard in Lawrence, Kansas.
^ 2001 Mohammed Atef and 7 other al-Qaida members, by US bombing.
Atef was one of the 22 Most Wanted Terrorists
     Atef, the military chief of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaida terrorist network is killed along with seven colleagues in a US bombing raid in Afghanistan. The death of Atef is considered a major blow to al-Qaida, already reeling from the collapse of their Taliban hosts. An Egyptian believed to be about 57 years old, Atef wrote al-Qaida's terrorism manual and ran the organization's training camps. He was suspected of helping plan the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon that killed thousands.
      He directly planned the embassy bombings in Africa in 1998 that killed 224 persons, according to a US indictment that charged him with murder. He also was accused of helping plan a 1993 helicopter shootdown in Somalia that killed 18 US soldiers. Atef was a close confidant of bin Laden, and his daughter was married to bin Laden's son. He was often seen at bin Laden's left or right hand in photographs and videotapes taken in Afghanistan in recent years.
      He came to prominence after he moved from Egypt to Afghanistan in the mid-1980s to join Afghan guerrillas fighting Soviet forces. After the Soviets pulled out, he joined bin Laden's al-Qaida network. Days after the U.S began its airstrikes on Afghanistan, Atef warned, "America will not realize its miscalculations until its soldiers are dragged in Afghanistan like they were in Somalia."

2000 Mohammed Ijla, 13, Palestinian from Gaza City, by Israeli gunfire.
2000 Fader Barsh, 15, Palestinian from the West Bank refugee camp of Al Amari,. by Israeli gunfire.
2000 Mustafa Mahmud Musa ‘Alyan, 47, Palestinian killed by Israeli settlers throwing stones, near Kufur Malek, Ramallah district, West Bank.
2000 Alfred Harding, shot dead by police in La Clery, near St. Castries, St. Lucia. He is ordered by an off-duty police officer to lie down and shot twice, once in the thigh and once in the spine. The St. Lucia government would be highly critical of human rights advocates who seek to bring the perpetrators to justice and Amnesty International would take up his case.
1996 Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, 68, Archbishop of Chicago.
1992 Gregorio Prieto Muñoz, pintor español.
1990 Malcolm Muggeridge, 87, WW II spy for Britain, journalist. He became a Roman Catholic in his old age, wrote a skeptical life of Christ and The Third Testament, a look at some notable but eccentric Christians. He brought Mother Teresa to world attention.
^ 1985 Thousands dying in the mud a few hours after the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz
     Nevado del Ruiz is the northernmost and highest Colombian volcano with historical activity. With a summit elevation of 5389 m, the volcano is covered with 25 km2 of snow and ice even though it's located only 500 km from Earth's equator. From November 1984, the volcano began showing clear signs of unrest, including earthquakes, increased fumarolic activity from the summit crater, and small phreatic explosions.
      An explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on November 13, 1985, at 21:08 generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's broad ice-covered summit. Within minutes, pumice and ash began to fall to the northeast along with heavy rain that had started earlier in the day. The crater was enlarged slightly by the eruption, and the summit area was quickly covered with layers of pyroclastic flow deposits as thick as 8 m. This eruption was preceded by a strong phreatic (steam) explosion from the crater at 15:05.
     Hot rock fragments of the pyroclastic flows and surges quickly eroded and mixed with Ruiz's snow and ice, melting about ten% of the volcano's ice cover. In places, channels 100 m wide and 2-4 m deep were eroded into the icecap. Flowing mixtures of water, ice, pumice and other rock debris then poured from the summit and sides of the volcano into rivers draining the volcano. In one river, scientists found a piece of ice 2 m across about 3 km from the crater.
     Pumice and meltwater produced by the hot pyroclastic flows and surges swept into gullies and channels on the slopes of Ruiz as a series of small lahars. After descending several thousand meters and eroding loose rock debris from the sides of the volcano, the lahars were funneled into all six major river valleys leading from Ruiz.
      Flowing downstream from Ruiz at an average speed of 60 km per hour, lahars eroded soil, loose rock debris and stripped vegetation from river channels. By incorporating water and debris from along river channels, the lahars grew in size as they moved away from the volcano — some lahars increased up to 4 times their initial volumes. In some of the narrow canyons downstream from the volcano, lahars were as thick as 50 m.
     Houses and towns located high enough above river channels escaped damage from the lahars. In the Gualí River valley, at least two lahar pulses were reported by eyewitnesses, separated by 5 to 15 minutes depending on distance from the volcano. Eyewitnesses reported that the noise created by the passage of each pulse made their houses and the ground shake and that conversation, even by shouting, was impossible.
     Within four hours of the beginning of the eruption, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 23'000 people killed, about 5000 injured, and more than 5000 homes destroyed along the Chinchiná, Gualí, and Lagunillas rivers. Hardest hit was the town of Armero at the mouth of the Río Lagunillas canyon. Three quarters of its 28'700 inhabitants perished. The last one to die was Omaira Sanchez, 13, trapped to her neck in the mud, who survived until November 16, while TV showed the vain efforts to rescue her.
      Accounts from survivors indicate Armero was inundated with several pulses of flowing material. The first arrived at 23:25 and consisted of a flood of cold relatively clean water that overflowed the Río Lagunillas channel, sweeping into downtown Armero. Only a few centimeters deep in town, this water was from a lake located just upstream that had been displaced when lahars entered the lake.
      The second pulse arrived at 23:35. This was the largest pulse and within 10 to 20 minutes, destroyed most of the buildings and swept away most of the people in Armero. Flow depths of the lahar ranged from 2 to 5 m. The third pulse arrived at 23:50 with a velocity of about half of the second one. Then, in the next hour or so, a series of smaller pulses (6 to 8) was experienced by survivors trapped in the mud. These pulses lifted people floating in the mud and pushed them a few meters ahead. One last pulse struck Armero a short time after 01:00 on 14 November.
           At 21:08 , Nevado del Ruiz, the highest active volcano in the Andes Mountains of Colombia, suffers a mild eruption that generates a series of lava flows and surges over the volcano's broad ice-covered summit. Flowing mixtures of water, ice, pumice and other rock debris pour off the summit and sides of the volcano, forming "lahars" that flood into the river valleys surrounding Ruiz. The lahars join normal river channels, and disastrous flooding and mudslides ensue. Within four hours of the eruption, the lahars travel over sixty miles, killing more than 23'000 people, injuring over 5000, and destroying more than 5000 homes. Hardest hit is the town of Armero, where three quarters of the 28'700 inhabitants die. The volcano first began showing signs of an imminent eruption a full year before, and most of the river valley's residents would have survived had they have moved to higher ground.
— Omaira Sánchez, 13, in Armero, Colombia, spends all day trapped up to her neck in lahar (mud flow) caused by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano shortly before midnight the day before.Vain efforts to rescue her begin, but TV reporters are entirely successful in broadcasting her ordeal, which her mother, who is away for a few days, sees. Omaira will spend 60 hours in the mud and die there of exposure on 16 November 1985. «Yo vivo porque tengo que vivir; y apenas tengo 13 años (...) Yo quiero cuando salga...» decía entre jadeos, con el agua llegando a su boca. Nunca salió.
1980 Gary Claeys, 28, and Matt Larson, 25, of hypothermia at the 3000-meter level of Mount Adams, Washington, in a 7-day snowstorm which dumped over a meter and a half of snow in a blizzard with winds in excess of 150 km-h. Their bodies are frozen in the ice and would not be recovered until 09 October 2001, as the snowpack melted to its lowest level in 70 years. They were tied together by a rope. There was no sign of trauma. They just went to sleep and didn't wake up. A hiker from Aloha, Oregon, found a rope near the Crescent Glacier a couple of days earlier and chipped away enough ice to realize the rope was connected to a body. A team from the Central Washington Mountain Rescue squad went onto the 4092-meter mountain in the Cascade Range on 09 October 2001 and chipped out the bodies, still encased in ice. Gary Claeys's brother David flew to Yakima from his home in Parsippany, New Jersey, to identify the climbers. He recognized his brother right away. The two climbers were employed as psychiatric aides at Dammash State Hospital in Wilsonville, Oregon, when they went on the fatal hiking trip, disappearing on 14 November 1980.
1980 Juan Lozano y Lozano, escritor, economista y político colombiano.
1971 Hanna Neumann, mathematician.
1970:: 75 persons as a Southern Airways jet carrying the Thundering Herd football team of Marshall University back to Huntington, West Virginia., from a close loss at East Carolina University, crashes into a hillside below the Tri-State Airport. The dead are 37 Marshall football players, plus coaches, administrators, students, boosters, and crew members. — (051108)
1968 Ramón Menéndez Pidal, filólogo e historiador español.
^ 1967 Major General Bruno Hochmuth, his aide Major Robert Crabtree, Captain Milton Kelsey, pilot, 1st Lieutenant Thomas Carter, copilot, crew chief Corporal Ronald Phelps, Vietnamese Liaison Major Nguyen Ngoc Chuong, as their helicopter crashes in Vietnam
      At about 10:40, Captain Milton George Kelsey, 24, pilot, 1st Lt. Thomas Anthony Carter, 23, copilot, and crew chief Cpl. Ronald Joseph Phelps, 20 (birthday the day before), lifted from VMO-3’s mat at Phu Bai in BUNO 153757, designated Scarface 1-0. At 11:45, they picked up Major General Bruno Arthur Hochmuth, 56, commander of the 3rd Marine division, his aide Major Robert Andrew Crabtree, 33, and Liaison Major Nguyen Ngoc Chuong to visit Vietnamese Brigadier General Ngo Quang Truong in Hue. The aircraft departed the hospital pad at Hue Citadel at 11:45, enroute to Dong Ha and was chased by an HMM-364 UH-34 piloted by Captain J. A. Chancey. At 11:50, the aircraft was flying northwest over Highway 1 at about 500 meters. At YD672266, Captain Chancey saw the aircraft’s nose yaw to the right twice and at the same instant the aft/engine section exploded in an orange fireball. The fuselage separated from the rotor and the aircraft fell in pieces. The fuselage landed inverted in a flooded rice paddy; the tail cone a short distance away.
      A Sparrowhawk was immediately dispatched, as well as an aircraft recovery team from VMO-3. Burning fuel on the surface of the paddy hampered recovery, however there was no evidence of explosion in the fuselage. The bodies were returned to Phu Bai and pronounced by Lt. John Parrish; all are believed to have been killed on impact. Immediately after the crash, and in the years since, a great many rumors circulated concerning the cause, ranging from enemy ground fire, to South Vietnamese artillery fire, to US friendly fire, and even sabotage. General Hochmuth was the first and only Marine general officer to die in Vietnam, and there was a good deal of pressure to list his death as combat-related. Moreover, this was VMO-3’s largest loss of life in Vietnam and it was difficult to accept that these squadron-mates could have died in anything but combat. In fact, the aircraft suffered a tail rotor gear box failure and the official findings on the incident, submitted by Brigadier GeneralRobert Keller in November 1967, states “there is no evidence to indicate this mishap was caused either by hostile action or inadvertent friendly fire.” — // http://www.scarface-usmc.org/the_price_we_paid.htm
^ 1965 First casualties at start of major battle in Vietnam
      In the first major engagement of the war between regular US and North Vietnamese forces, elements of the 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) fight a pitched battle with Communist main-force units in the Ia Drang Valley of the Central Highlands. On this morning, Lt. Col. Harold G. Moore's 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry conducted a heliborne assault into Landing Zone X-Ray near the Chu Pong hills. At about noon, the North Vietnamese 33rd Regiment attacked the US forces. The fight continued all day and into the night. UN soldiers received support from nearby artillery units and tactical air strikes. The next morning, the North Vietnamese 66th Regiment joined the attack against the US unit. The fighting was bitter, but the tactical air strikes and artillery support took their toll on the enemy and enabled the 1st Cavalry troopers to hold on against repeated assaults. At around noon, two reinforcing companies arrived and Colonel Moore put them to good use to assist his beleaguered soldiers. By the third day of the battle, the US troops had gained the upper hand.
      The three-day battle resulted in 834 North Vietnamese soldiers confirmed killed, and another 1000 communist casualties were assumed. In a related action during the same battle, 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, was ambushed by North Vietnamese forces as it moved overland to Landing Zone Albany. Of the 500 men in the original column, 150 were killed and only 84 were able to return to immediate duty; Company C suffered 93% casualties, half of them deaths. Despite these numbers, senior American officials in Saigon declared the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley a great victory. The battle was extremely important because it was the first significant contact between US troops and North Vietnamese forces. The action demonstrated that the North Vietnamese were prepared to stand and fight major battles even though they might take serious casualties. Senior American military leaders concluded that US forces could wreak significant damage on the communists in such battles — this tactic lead to a war of attrition as the US forces tried to wear the communists down. The North Vietnamese also learned a valuable lesson during the battle: by keeping their combat troops physically close to US positions, US troops could not use artillery or air strikes without risking injury to US troops. This style of fighting became the North Vietnamese practice for the rest of the war.
1959 The Clutter family, murdered in Holcomb, Kansas. This would become the subject of Truman Capote's In Cold Blood.
1955 Robert E Sherwood, 59, dramatist (Abe Lincoln in Illinois)
1954 Fischer, mathematician.
1946 Manuel de Falla y Mateu, compositor español.
^ 1940: Hundreds in Coventry, on first of 2 days of German air raids
      To start a devastating two-day bombing of Coventry, a historical and industrial city in England, nearly five hundred Luftwaffe bombers strike after nightfall, destroying twelve factories and much of the city center, including a fourteenth-century cathedral. Nearly four hundred people are killed and over eight hundred injured. Winston Churchill later describes the attack on Coventry as "the most devastating raid which we sustained." However, the effect on the aircraft factories in the suburbs is slight and temporary, and Coventry is soon able to resume its contribution to the impending British victory in the Battle of Britain.
      The air raid followed Hitler's public promise, after the British bombing of Munich on 08 November, that "an attack on the capital of the Nazi movement would not go unpunished." The punishment was indeed thorough. German bombers decimated the city—dropping 150'000 fire bombs and 503 tons of high explosives, as well as 130 parachute mines. Seven vital war factories in Coventry were hit, halting production for months. The bombardment also caused a firestorm that leveled the city center. 60'000 of the city's 75'000 buildings were destroyed or badly damaged; 568 people were killed. Most of the victims were too badly burned to be identified and were buried in a communal grave. The attack lent a new verb to the German language: koventrieren. "To coventrate" means to annihilate, to reduce to rubble.
      After the war, historians surmised that Prime Minister Churchill had advance knowledge of the Coventry raids and chose not to inform city officials. If this was the case, Churchill's seemingly barbaric decision was actually an act of tactical genius. Had he informed Coventry officials, they would have ordered at least a partial evacuation of the city and saved hundreds. German pilots would have noticed such suspicious preparation, though, and reported back to Hitler. This would surely have revealed the existence of Ultra, Britain's top-secret system for decoding German communications. Ultra proved to be an indispensable resource for information about German troop movements throughout the war and ultimately saved thousands of British lives.
— La aviación alemana arrasa Coventry para asestar un golpe decisivo a la industria bélica británica, en el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial .
1939 Some 500 persons in oil refinery fire which destroys Lagunillas, Venezuela
1915 Booker T Washington, 59, educator/organizer, in Tuskegee, Alabama.
1908 Lorenzo Delleani, Italian artist born on 17 January 1840.
1908 Zaitian “Guangxu Emperor“ [14 Aug 1871–] (Guangxu means Glorious Succession), 10th emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and 9th Qing emperor to reign over China proper (from 25 Feb 1875). During his childhood Empress Dowager Cixi [29 Nov 1835 – 15 Nov 1908] remained regent, then from 1889 to 1898 he ruled under her influence. He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, but was abruptly stopped when Cixi launched a coup on 21 September 1898, after which he was put under house arrest until his death by arsenic poisoning, which she ordered. . —(081114)
1884 Frederick William Hulme, British artist born on 22 October 1816.
1884 Abraham Hulk I, Dutch British artist born on 01 May 1813.
1857 Cornelis Kruseman, Dutch artist born on 25 September 1797. — more with an image.
1813 Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Hoüel, French painter and engraver born in 1735. — more with a link to links.
1797 Januarius Johann Rasso Zick, German painter and architect born on 06 February 1730. — more
1793 (24 brumaire an II) Marie Jeanne Canu, veuve Fleury, couturière de flanelle, domiciliée à Rouen, département de la Seine Inférieure, condamnée à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département (et très probablement guillotinée le jour-même).
^ 1716 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, mathematician.
     Lutheran philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built a model of a calculating machine in 1673. Leibniz argued that the time and difficulty of performing complex calculations by hand limited scientific advancement, and he thus set out to develop a machine to ease the burden on scientists. His machine used gears and rods to keep track of numbers as they were added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided.
LEIBNIZ ONLINE: (en traductions françaises): Drôle de Pensée, touchant une nouvelle sorte de représentations (1675), Lettres et textes divers, La monadologie, Essai de théodicée - Préface et abrégé
1676 Jacques Courtois “le Bourguignon”, French painter specialized in cavalry battles, born on 12 February 1621. — MORE ON COURTOIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1673 Mario Nuzzi (de Fiori, della Penna), Italian artist born in 1603.
1625 Giulio Cesare Procaccini, Italian painter and sculptor born in 1570. — MORE ON PROCACCINI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1540 Giovanni Battista di Jacopo Rosso Fiorentino, Italian painter born on 08 March 1495.— MORE ON ROSSO AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.— (060307)
0565 Justinian, 82, Roman emperor who reunited the Eastern and Western empires politically and religiously, erected several basilicas and created an influential law Code.
 
< 13 Nov 15 Nov >
^  Births which occurred on a 14 November:

1957 Prohibido en otoño de Edgar Neville obtiene un gran éxito en el teatro Lara de Madrid.
1954 Condoleezza Rice, National Security Adviser to US minority-President George “Dubyu” Bush.
1948 Prince Charles Britain, Prince of Wales, heir to the throne of England.
1943 Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero, político y economista hondureño.
1938 Les Parents Terribles, comedia de Jean Cocteau se estrena en París.
1935 Hussein ibn Talal I, king of Jordan (1953-1999). He died on 07 February 1999. — Portrait of King Hussein (1958, 43x61cm; 382x281pix, 33kb) by Bernard Safran [03 Jun 1924 – 14 Oct 1995].
1926 Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera Botas, escritor y psiquiatra español.
1923 Carlos Seco Serrano, historiador español.
^ 1922 Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Egyptian scholar and statesman, first Arab and first African secretary-general of the United Nations (01 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1996)
      A descendant of one of Egypt's most distinguished Coptic Christian families, Boutros-Ghali received a bachelor's degree from Cairo University (1946) and a Ph.D. in international law from the University of Paris (1949). He then held a professorship at Cairo University and lectured in international law and international affairs at various universities and institutes in the United States, Europe, India, the Middle East, and Africa. He also wrote several scholarly books, published in French.
      In October 1977 Boutros-Ghali was appointed Egypt's minister of state for foreign affairs, and on 19 and 20 November 1977 he accompanied President Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981] on his historic trip to Jerusalem after Egypt's foreign minister resigned in protest against the Egyptian-Israeli rapprochement. Boutros-Ghali became deputy prime minister in 1991.
      As UN secretary-general from 1992, Boutros-Ghali vigorously supported UN mediation in post-Cold War strife. His term saw lengthy and difficult peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, and Rwanda. In 1995, he led the international celebration of the UN's 50th anniversary. The government of the United States, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, after shamelessly blocking any UN action to counter the 1994 Rwandan genocide (800'000 murders), became dissatisfied with Boutros-Ghali's independent leadership and by its veto made him in 1996 the first UN secretary-general to be denied a second term.
     Boutros-Ghali has published two memoirs: Egypt's road to Jerusalem (1997) and Unvanquished: A U.S.-U.N. Saga (1999).
1921 El Partido Comunista de España (PCE) se constituye por fusión del Partido Comunista y del Partido Obrero.
^ 1914 The first Dodge car
      John and Horace Dodge complete their first Dodge vehicle, a car informally known as "Old Betsy." The same day, the Dodge brothers gave "Old Betsy" a quick test drive through the streets of Detroit, Michigan, and the vehicle was shipped to a buyer in Tennessee. John and Horace, who began their business career as bicycle manufacturers in 1897, first entered the automotive industry as auto parts manufacturers in 1901. They built engines for Ransom Olds and Henry Ford among others, and in 1910 the Dodge Brothers Company was the largest parts-manufacturing firm in the United States. In 1914, the intrepid brothers founded the new Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company, and began work on their first complete automobile at their Hamtramck factory.
      Dodge vehicles became known for their quality and sturdiness, and by 1919, the Dodge brothers were among the richest men in America. In early 1920, just as he was completing work on his 110-room mansion on the Grosse Point waterfront in Michigan, John fell ill from respiratory problems and died. Horace, who also suffered from chronic lung problems, died from pneumonia in December of the same year. The company was later sold to a New York bank and in 1928 the Chrysler Corporation bought the Dodge name, its factories, and the large network of Dodge car dealers. Under Chrysler's direction Dodge became a successful producer of cars and trucks marketed for their ruggedness, and today Dodge sells a lineup of over a dozen cars and trucks.
1913 Du côté de chez Schwann publié à compte d’auteur par Marcel Proust. Il ajoutera 6 tomes* à ce livre pour en faire le roman le plus long et l’un des plus beaux de la langue française sous le titre Ą la recherche du temps perdu. Au total 17 ans de travail acharné. — * Ą l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs (1919), Le Côté de Guermantes (1921), Sodome et Gomorrhe (1922), La Prisonnière (1923), Albertine disparue (1925), Le Temps retrouvé (1927)
1913 Mariano Navarro Rubio, político y abogado español.
1912 Barbara Hutton heiress (Woolworth)
1909 Joseph R. McCarthy (Sen-R-WI), anti-Communist demagogue who died discredited on 02 May 1957.
1908 Harrison E Salisbury journalist/writer (50th Anniv of Soviet Union)
1907 Astrid Lindgren, Swedish children's writer (Pippi Longstocking).
1907 Pedro Arrupe Gondra, eclesiástico jesuita español.
1904 Marya Mannes writer (The Reporter)
1904 Michael Ramsey, English archbishop who died on 23 April 1988.
1900 Aaron Copland, Brooklyn, composer (Billy the Kid, Appalachian Spring, Fanfare for the Common Man.). He died on 02 December 1990.
1889 Jawaharlal Nehru, first Indian PM (1947-64). He died on 27 May 1964.
^ 1888 L'Institut Pasteur est inauguréà Paris par le président de la République Sadi Carnot. Financé par une souscription internationale de deux millions de francs, ce centre de recherche sur les virus comble les voeux du plus populaire savant qu'ait connu l'humanité.
      Né à Dole, dans le Jura, le 27 décembre 1822, Louis Pasteur suit des études scientifiques et entre à l'Ecole normale supérieure. Le jeune chercheur se passionne pour les fermentations et découvre qu'elles prennent naissance dans des microorganismes. C'en est fini de la croyance en la génération spontanée! Il met au point une technique de chauffage destinée à protéger les liquides tels que la bière ou le lait contre les ferments. C'est la "pasteurisation". Comme une mystérieuse maladie affecte les mūriers de la vallée du Rhône, des arbres dont se nourrissent les vers à soie, le savant met en évidence l'existence d'un "microbe" responsable de la maladie.
      Le corps médical et le public découvrent ainsi qu'il est possible, grâce à l'hygiène, de se protéger contre les maladies transmises par les microbes. Il s'ensuit une amélioration notable de l'espérance de vie partout dans le monde. Ses succès valent à Louis Pasteur fortune et considération. Mais le meilleur reste à venir. Le 6 juillet 1885, tandis que la France de la IIIe République est à son zénith, Louis Pasteur reçoit dans son cabinet parisien un petit berger alsacien, Joseph Meister. Celui-ci a été mordu par un chien enragé et exige des soins immédiats. Indifférent à notre "principe de précaution", Louis Pasteur prend le risque de lui inoculer un nouveau vaccin de son invention. Et à son grand soulagement, l'enfant sort guéri de l'épreuve (il deviendra plus tard le dévoué gardien de l'Institut Pasteur et lorsqu'en 1940, des officiers allemands demanderont à se recueillir devant la tombe du grand homme, il choisira de se suicider plutôt que de les laisser entrer).
      Au comble de la gloire, Pasteur en profite pour lancer une souscription en vue de fonder l'Institut qui portera son nom. "Il n'est pas une pierre qui ne soit le signe d'une généreuse pensée", dit-il de l'édifice élevé au sud de Paris, dans le quartier de Vaugirard. Il le dirigera jusqu'à sa mort, le 28 septembre 1895, et y repose depuis lors. Les succès sont au rendez-vous. Les collaborateurs et les successeurs de Louis Pasteur multiplient les découvertes que viennent couronner huit prix Nobel, dont les professeurs Jacob, Monod et Wolff en 1965. En 1921, Albert Calmette et Camille Guérin mettent au point le vaccin BCG contre la tuberculose. En 1983, le professeur Luc Montagnier découvre le virus du sida
1885 Sonia Delaunay, Russian-born French painter and designer who died on 05 December 1979. — MORE ON SONIA DELAUNAY AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1882 Robert Moore, mathematician.
1863 Leo Baekeland Belgian chemist (Bakelite)
1852 Antonio Mancini, Italian artist who died on 28 December 1930.
^ 1851 Moby Dick by Herman Melville, published
     Harper & Brothers in New York publishes Moby Dick, by Herman Melville. The book flopped, and it was many years before the book was recognized as an American classic. Melville was born in New York City in 1819. A childhood bout of scarlet fever left him with weakened eyes. At age 19, he became a cabin boy on a ship bound for Liverpool. He later sailed to the South Seas on a whaler, the Acushnet, which anchored in Polynesia. He took part in a mutiny, was thrown in jail in Tahiti, escaped, and wandered around the South Sea islands from 1841 to 1844. In 1846, he published his first novel, Typee, based on his Polynesian adventures. His second book, Omoo (1847), also dealt with the South Seas. The two novels became popular, although his third, Mardi (1849), more experimental in nature, failed to catch on with the public. Melville bought a farm near Nathaniel Hawthorne's house in Massachusetts, and the two became close friends, although they later drifted apart. Melville wrote for journals and continued to publish novels. Moby Dick was coolly received, but his short stories were highly acclaimed. Putnam's Monthly published Bartleby, the Scrivener in 1853 and Benito Cereno in 1855. In 1866, Melville won appointment as a customs inspector in New York, which brought him a stable income. He published several volumes of poetry. He continued to write until his death in 1891, and his last novel, Billy Budd, was not published until 1924.
MELVILLE ONLINE:
  • Complete on-line works
  • Bartleby, the Scrivener
  • Bartleby, the Scrivener
  • Benito Cereno
  • The Piazza Tales
  • Moby Dick
  • Moby Dick
  • The Confidence-Man
  • The Encantadas, or Enchanted Isles
  • The Lightning-Rod Man
  • Billy Budd
  • Omoo
  • Typee
  • Typee
  • Typee
  • 1845 Dini, mathematician.
    1842 Walter Williams claimed to be last survivor of US Civil War (d 1959)
    1840 Claude Monet, French painter who died on 05 December 1926. — MORE ON MONET AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to many images.
    1833 William Trost Richards, US painter who died on 08 November 1905. — MORE ON RICHARDS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER 08 with links to images.
    1829 Hendrik Dirk Kruseman van Elten, Dutch artist who died on 12 July 1904.
    ^ 1828 Charles-Louis de Saulces de Freycinet, French politician who died on 15 May 1923. He served in 12 different governments, including four terms as president du conseil; he was primarily responsible for important military reforms instituted in the last decade of the 19th century.
          Freycinet graduated from the École Polytechnique and entered government service as a mining engineer, eventually rising to the position of inspector general of mines in 1883. Upon the establishment of the French Republic in September 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, he offered his services to Léon Gambetta [02 Apr 1838 – 31 Dec 1882], who appointed him prefect of Tarnet-Garonne and, in October, chief of the military Cabinet of the provisional government of national defense at Tours. It was largely Freycinet's powers of organization that enabled Gambetta to muster forces with which to oppose the advancing German armies. Freycinet's account of his experience, La Guerre en Province pendant le siège de Paris, 1870–1871 was published in 1871.
          Freycinet was elected to the Senate in 1876. Joining the government of Jules-Armand Dufaure [04 Dec 1798 – 28 Jun 1881] as minister of public works the next year, he directed a policy, often called the Freycinet Plan, whereby the government purchased railroads and built extensive new railways and waterways. In December 1879 he became président du conseil for the first of four terms, but the issue of state support for religious organizations soon brought about the fall of his Cabinet.
          Freycinet headed a new government and simultaneously served as foreign minister in January–August 1882; this time it fell because of his decision to occupy the Isthmus of Suez. He was in and out of governments for the next 17 years; in 1887 he lost the presidential election to Sadi Carnot [11 Aug 1837 – 24 Jun 1894]. In April 1888 he became the first civilian war minister since 1848. For the next five years, in five successive governments, including one of his own (1890–1892), he directed an impressive reform of the Army, which included the introduction of three-year terms of service, the establishment of a general staff, and the creation of a supreme war council. In January 1893 he was forced to resign as war minister because of a financial scandal over the proposed construction of a Panama canal. He returned to the War Ministry briefly in 1899 and then served as minister without portfolio in 1915–1916.
          Freycinet became a member of the Académie Française in 1890. In addition to many technical and scientific works, he wrote his memoirs, Souvenirs, 1848–1878 (1912).
    ^ 1803 Jacob Abbott, US teacher and writer, best known for his many books for young readers. Author of 180 books and coauthor or editor of 31 others, notably the "Rollo" series (28 volumes). To accompany the earlier books (Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play), Abbott wrote a volume for teachers, The Rollo Code of Morals; or, The Rules of Duty for Children, Arranged with Questions for the Use of Schools (1841). In following Rollo's world travels with his all-knowing Uncle George, the young reader could improve his knowledge of ethics, geography, science, and history. Abbott also wrote 22 volumes of biographical histories and the Franconia Stories (10 volumes). He died on 31 October 1879.
    ONLINE:
  • Friskie, the Pony; or, Do No Harm to Harmless Animals (1865) [“Friskie, the Turtle” just didn't seem a good alternative]
  • Gentle Measures in the Management and Training of the Young
  • Harlie's Letter: or, How to Learn With Little Teaching [yes... but has anyone written “How to Teach With Little Learning”?]
  • The Harper Establishment: or, How the Story Books Are Made (1855)
  • Marco Paul's Voyages and Travels
  • Rollo's Travels (1855)
  • Rollo Learning to Read [the sequel “Rollo Learning to Breed” was never published, or even written]
  • The Teacher: Moral Influences Employed in the Instruction and Government of the Young
  • 1800 Robert Léopold Leprince, French artist who died on 06 February 1847.
    1797 Sir Charles Lyell, Scottish geologist who died on 22 February 1875. He was largely responsible for the general acceptance of the view that all features of the Earth's surface are produced by physical, chemical, and biological processes through long periods of geological time. The concept was called uniformitarianism (initially set forth by James Hutton [03 Jun 1726 – 26 Mar 1797]). Lyell's achievements laid the foundations for evolutionary biology as well as for an understanding ofthe Earth's development. — LYELL ONLINE: The Student's Elements of Geology (1870) — Travels in North America, Canada, and Nova Scotia: With Geological Observations: volume I _ volume II (1855) [page images]
    1779 Adam Gottlob Oehlenschlager Denmark, poet (National Poet 1849)
    1776 René-Joachim-Henri Dutrochet, French physiologist who died on 04 February 1847. He discovered and named the process of osmosis and was the first to recognize the importance of green pigment in the use of carbon dioxide by plant cells.
    1765 Robert Fulton, US inventor who built the first commercial steamboat. He died on 24 February 1815.
    1650 (04 Nov Julian) Willem Hendrik, prins van Oranje, who would become William III, stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (from 1672) and, reigning jointly with Queen Mary II [30 Apr 1662 – 28 Dec 1694], king of Great Britain (from 23 February 1689, which is 13 Feb 1688 Julian, in which New Year is 25 Mar). He directed the European opposition to Louis XIV [05 Sep 1638 – 01 Sep 1715] of France and, in Great Britain, secured the triumph of Protestantism and of Parliament. He died on 19 (08 Julian) March 1702.
     
    Holidays Cayman Islands : Remembrance Day / English commonwealth : Prince Charles' Birthday (1948) / Jordan : King's Birthday (1935)

    Religious Observances Buddhist-Bhutan : Buddha's Descension / RC : Nicholas Tavelic & Companions, martyrs / old RC : St Josaphat, archbishop of Polotsk, martyr / Ang, RC : Consecration of Samuel Seabury, 1st US bishop / Santos Clementino, Demetrio, Jocundo, Lorenzo, Serapión y santa Veneranda. / Né à Lyon dans une vieille famille de la noblesse romaine, Sidoine Apollinaire devint évêque de Clermont après avoir mené une vie tranquille de propriétaire terrien. Mort vers 489, il a fait le récit des invasions barbares de son temps.

    click
    click.

    Thoughts for the day:
    “Democracy will continue as long as people have faith in the people they are going to elect next.” — {even if they have lost faith in those they elected last}
    "Democracy will continue as long as the violent overthrow of the government seems more difficult than buying elections."
    "An honest politician is one which, when bought, stays bought.”
    “You can't fool all the people all the time, but a politician is satisfied with fooling a plurality of the people at election time.”
    “Rewards and punishments are the lowest form of education.” —
    Chuang-tzu, Chinese writer [369 BC – 286 BC].
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “TODAY IN HISTORY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4nov/h4nov14.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4nov/h4nov14.html
    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov14.html
    updated Thursday 27-Nov-2008 18:03 UT
    Principal updates:
    Wednesday 08-Nov-2006 2:25 UT
    v.5.b0 Tuesday 13-Dec-2005 20:20 UT
    v.4.61 Sunday 21-Nov-2004 3:38 UT
    Thursday 11-Dec-2003 1:40 UT

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