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Events, deaths, births, of 13 NOV
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^  On a 13 November:
2012 Total eclipse of the sun, best seen at 40ºS 161ºW where it lasts 4 minutes.

2008 Cardinal Francis Stafford [26 Jul 1932~], head of the Apostolic Penitentiary in the Vatican, at the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family at the Catholic University in Washington DC 20017 (415 Michigan Ave. NE #225), makes a lecture entitled Pope Paul VI and Pope John Paul II: “Being True with Body and Soul”, which includes criticism of the pro-abortion campaign rhetoric of US president-elect Barack Hussein Obama [04 Aug 1961~]. The lecture is in three parts:
      1) the narrow, calculative, mathematical mind and its manipulation of the humanum and, more specifically, of human sexuality since 1968;
      2) the response of the Church’s magisterium in the encyclical letter of Pope Paul VI [26 Sep 1897 – 06 Aug 1978], Humanae Vitae (of 25 July 1968) and teachings of later Popes;
      3) other Catholic philosophical and theological responses to the increasingly disenchanted world in which we work and pray.
full prepared text —(081129)

2005 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] declares Blessed: Charles de Foucauld [15 Sep 1858 – 01 Dec 1916], Maria Pia Mastena [07 Dec 1881 – 28 Jun 1951], and Maria Crocifissa Curcio [30 Jan 1877 – 04 Jul 1957].
2004 In a letter to t
he faithful, Boston's Catholic archbishop Seán O'Malley [29 Jun 1944~] defends his plan to reduce from 357 to 282 the number of parishes of the archdiocese, whose financial status is "much worse than people realize", due to a 50% decline in contributions following the clergy sex abuse scandal , and to stock market losses; besides that, the priests are aging, as the yearly ordinations have declined from 50 to 7; and attendance is down. Parishioners from 8 churches that were to be shut down are holding round-the-clock prayer vigils in them to keep them open. On 06 November 2004, Immaculate Conception Church in Winchester, Massachusetts, was closed after parishioner Gene Sweeney, 69, was brutally arrested for refusing to leave after the final mass.
2002 After the pre-opening announcement that Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) would acquire Orapharma (OPHM) for $7.41 a share, OPHM on the NASDAQ surges from its previous close of $4.54 to an intraday high of $7.40 and closes at $7.28, as 4 million of its 13.6 million shares are traded. It had traded as low as $2.81 as recently as 06 May 2002. OPHM has started trading at $31.25 on 06 March 2000 and dropped to $6.75 on 10 April 2000.
2002 In the US House of Representatives, the Republican caucus decides without delay to go with DeLay. Creationist biologist Tom “the Hammer” DeLay, of Texas, currently majority whip, is unapposed to succeed as majority leader Dick Armey, also of Texas..
2001 The Taliban abandons Kabul and, contrary to the wishes of Pakistan espoused by the US, some Northern Alliance forces move in “to maintain order”.
2001 The US Conference of Catholic Bishops votes 186-to-63 to elect Bishop Wilton Gregory, 53, of Belleville, Illinois, its vice-president [at left in photo below], to a 3-year term as president, succeeding Bishop Joseph Fiorenza of Galveston-Houston, Texas [at right in photo]. Born in Chicago, Gregory was ordained a priest in 1973 and became a bishop in 1983, serving for 10 years as auxiliary bishop under the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin in Chicago. He was installed as Belleville's bishop in 1994.
     Bishop William Skylstad, 67, of Spokane, Washington, is elected vice president, which puts him next in line for the presidency in 2004. Skylstad defeated Archbishop Justin Rigali of St. Louis in a runoff, 141-110. Born in Omak, Washington, Skylstad has led the Spokane diocese since 1990. He has served as conference liaison to Catholic Charities USA and is a member of bishops' committees on social justice and interreligious affairs.
2000 Lawyers for George W. Bush failed to win a court order barring manual recounts of ballots in Florida. Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris announced she would end the recounting at 17:00 the next day, prompting an immediate appeal by lawyers for Al Gore.
2000 Philippines President Joseph Estrada is impeached by the Philippine House of Representatives, on charges that he received millions of dollars in payoffs from illegal gambling operators and tobacco taxes.
1998 Es detenido en Italia Abdulá Ocalan, líder del Partido de los Trabajadores del Kurdistán (PKK) y promotor de la principal guerrilla kurda en Turquía.
1997 Iraq expelled the American members of the UN team that'd been sent to verify Iraq's compliance with UN directives.— Los inspectores de la ONU abandonan Irak y el Congreso de Estados Unidos autoriza el uso de la fuerza militar en el Golfo Pérsico.
1997 El catedrático de Derecho Administrativo y antiguo director del CSIC, Alejandro Nieto, obtiene el Premio Nacional español de Ensayo por la obra Los primeros pasos del Estado constitucional.
1996 Microsoft says that it will work with British Telecom and MCI to offer intranet services to multinational businesses. British Telecom had announced a few days earlier that it would acquire MCI for $20 billion.
^ 1996 Novell and Sun team up
      Networking company Novell and Sun Microsystems announced on this day in 1996 that Novell would license several Java products from Sun while Sun would license Novell's directory technology for managing access to computer networks. The deal was perceived as an attempt to stall Microsoft's aggressive assault on the network computer market. Sun was advancing Java as an alternative to Windows for software developers.
1996 A grand jury in St. Petersburg, Fla., declined to indict police officer Jim Knight, who had shot Black motorist TyRon Lewis to death the previous month; the decision prompted angry mobs to return to the streets.
1996 An all-White jury in Pittsburgh acquitted a suburban police officer, John Vojtas, in the death of Black motorist Jonny Gammage in a verdict that angered Black activists.
1996 Sgt. Loren B. Taylor, a drill sergeant who'd had sex with three women recruits at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., is given five months in prison and a bad-conduct discharge in the first sentencing of the burgeoning Army sex scandal.
1996 A prime number larger than any previously known is found by the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, which uses the idle idle time of the ordinary computers of thousands of volunteers, one of whom, programmer Joel Armengaud, 29, from Paris, sees it appear on his computer. The number is 2^1'398'269 – 1. It is a Mersenne prime (the 35th known), i.e. 1'398'269 is a prime. Written in the usual decimal notation, it would be an 8 followed by 420'919 digits, which, on a computer screen like mine (40 lines of 150 characters each), would require 71 screens to show completely. The 39th known Mersenne prime would be discovered on 14 November 2001 and the 40th on 17 November 2003.
^ 1995 Budget gridlock shuts down US government.
      President Clinton vetoes a Republican bill to keep the government afloat for another four weeks. The president reasoned that the bill was loaded with political pork that would erode progress that Democrats had made to protect environmental and public health programs. House Speaker Newt Gingrich fired a sharp volley back at Clinton, reminding the president that the Republicans "were elected to change politics as usual." The net result of all the wrangling was a difficult political mess and an extended vacation for some 800'000 government workers.
^ 1994 Sweden votes to join the European Union
      In Sweden, voters narrowly approve their country's accession into the European Union (effective 01 Jan 1995) by 52.2% in a special referendum. The European Union, a more centralized version of the European Community, was established in 1991 with the drafting of the Maastricht Treaty. The agreement called for greater economic integration, common foreign and security policies, and cooperation between police and other authorities on crime, terrorism, and immigration issues. The treaty also laid the groundwork for the establishment of a single European currency. By 1993, twelve nations had ratified the Maastricht Treaty on European Union: Great Britain, France, Germany, the Irish Republic, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Denmark, Luxembourg, Belgium, and Holland. On 01 January 1995, Sweden, Austria, and Finland also become members of the EU.
1993 Pakistan's Foreign Minister Farooq Leghari was chosen president
1992 a group of Peruvian military officers tried unsuccessfully to assassinate President Fujimori and overthrow the government..
1991 The US House of Representatives approved a Senate-passed bill guaranteeing many workers up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family emergencies.
1991 El Gobierno y la guerrilla de Mozambique firman en Roma un acuerdo parcial para terminar con una guerra civil que dura ya 15 años y convocar elecciones democráticas.
click to ZOOM IN1986 US violates Iran arms boycott
1986 La URSS anuncia la retirada de todos sus misiles nucleares de medio alcance de la península de Kola y la mayor parte de los de Leningrado y el Báltico.
1982 The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington [with no redeeming artistic value]..
1979 Ronald Reagan in NY announces his candidacy for President
1978 Se inaugura en París una escultura monumental del escultor y pintor catalán Joan Miró Ferra. (20 Apr 1893 – 25 Dec 1983) — LINKS[Scupture by Joan Miró and Grande Arche at La Défense in Paris. Click to zoom in >].
1977 The comic strip "Li'l Abner" by Al Capp appeared in newspapers for the last time.
1975 La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara al mundo "libre de viruela" (no obstante, en 1977 se produjo todavía un foco importante con 2000 enfermos en Somalia).
1974 Yasser Arafat told the UN General Assembly that the goal of the Palestine Liberation Organization was to establish an independent state of Palestine.
1971 The US space probe Mariner 9 went into orbit around Mars. — Entra en órbita la sonda estadounidense "Mariner IX" con la misión de estudiar el planeta Marte.
1970 Lt Gen Hafez al-Assad becomes PM of Syria following military coup — El ministro de Defensa sirio, Hafez Assad, asume el poder mediante un golpe de Estado y disuelve la jefatura civil del partido Baas.
1970 Miembros del movimiento Tupamaro roban más de 300 millones de pesos (entre joyas y efectivo) en el departamento de préstamos del Banco de la República Uruguaya, en lo que fue uno de los robos más importantes de la historia del país.
^ 1970 Berkeley Computer Corporation shuts down
      The company had been formed in 1968 to build a supercomputer that could accommodate up to five hundred users at a time. The ambitious project attracted a group of enthusiastic young computer scientists, who produced groundbreaking developments, including virtual memory. However, the company struggled financially and finally folded. Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) snapped up six of the company's top people to work on its cutting-edge computer projects. PARC scientists developed the Alto in 1973, which boasted a graphic user interface, a mouse, and built-in networking. Xerox never marketed the Alto, but its concepts found their way into the Apple Lisa and Macintosh, after Apple founder Steve Jobs visited PARC in December 1979.
^ 1969 "March Against Death" in Washington, D.C.
      In Washington, as a prelude to the second moratorium against the war scheduled for the following weekend, protesters stage a symbolic "March Against Death." The march begins at 6 p.m. with over 45'000 participants, each with a placard bearing the name of a soldier who had died in Vietnam. The marchers began at Arlington National Cemetery and continued past the White House, where they called out the names of the dead. The march lasted for two days and nights. This demonstration and the moratorium that followed did not produce a change in official policy — although President Nixon was deeply angered by the protests, he publicly feigned indifference and they had no impact on his prosecution of the war.
^ 1967 Overly optimistic Vietnam War briefing of US President
     President Lyndon Johnson is briefed on the situation in Vietnam by Gen. William Westmoreland, Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, and Robert W. Komer, the head of the Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support program. They painted an optimistic picture that led Johnson to state on television on November 17 that, while much remained to be done, "We are inflicting greater losses than we're taking...We are making progress." Such pronouncements haunted President Johnson and his advisers only two months later, when the communists launched a massive offensive during the Tet New Year holiday in January 1968.
1967 Se presenta en Camiri el diario del Ernesto “Che” Guevara, con ocasión del juicio contra Régis Debray.
1962 The name of St. Joseph was added to the canon of the Roman Catholic mass. It constituted the first alteration made to this canon since the seventh century.
^ 1956 Bus segregation in US is ruled unconstitutional
      In an historic civil rights victory, the United States Supreme Court rules that segregation by race on public transportation is unconstitutional, unanimously striking down two Alabama laws requiring racial segragation on public buses. The decision comes after nearly a year of organized protest in Montgomery, Alabama, by the city's African-American citizens. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was ignited in December of 1955 after African-American Rosa Parks was arrested when she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a crowded bus. Parks violated a city law requiring her to relinquish her seat to the white citizen who wanted her seat. Four days later, Montgomery civil rights leaders, headed by a young Baptist minister named Martin Luther King, Jr., launched the Montgomery Bus Boycott, a nonviolent protest that crippled the city's transportation economy and helped motivate the civil rights movement in America. After a long year of boycotting, the Supreme Court finally strikes down the city bus law as a violation of the US Constitution. Thirty-six days later, the Montgomery Bus Boycott is called off when the Supreme Court decision takes effect. Martin Luther King, Jr., and Rosa Parks are among the first people to ride in Montgomery's newly integrated buses.
1954 Gamal Abdel Nasser derroca al presidente de Egipto, general Alí Naguib, con un golpe de Estado.
1954 Concesión del premio de novela corta Café Gijón a Carmen Martín Gaite, por El balneario, y María Josefa Canellada, por Penal de Ocaña
^ 1953 Robin Hood communistic, Indiana Textbook Commission member charges.
      In an example of the absurd lengths to which the "Red Scare" in America is going, Mrs. Thomas J. White of the Indiana Textbook Commission, calls for the removal of references to the story of Robin Hood from textbooks used by the state's schools.
     Robin Hood is a legendary (never proved to have a historical origin) outlaw hero of a series of English ballads, some of which date from at least as early as the 14th century. Robin Hood was a rebel, and many of the most striking episodes in the tales about him show him and his companions robbing and killing representatives of authority and giving the gains to the poor. Their most frequent enemy was the Sheriff of Nottingham, a local agent of the central government. Other enemies included wealthy ecclesiastical landowners. Robin treated women, the poor, and people of humble status with courtesy. A good deal of the impetus for his revolt against authority stemmed from popular resentment over those laws of the forest that restricted hunting rights. The early ballads, especially, reveal the cruelty that was an inescapable part of medieval life.
      Robin Hood ballads were the poetic expression of popular aspirations in the north of England during a turbulent era of baronial rebellions and agrarian discontent, which culminated in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. The theme of the free but persecuted outlaw enjoying the forbidden hunting of the forest and outwitting or killing the forces of law and order naturally appealed to the common people. Although many of the best-known Robin Hood ballads are postmedieval, there is a core that can be confidently attributed to the medieval period. These are Robin Hood and the Monk, Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, Robin Hood and the Potter, and A Geste of Robyn Hode.
      Mrs. Young claimed that there was "a Communist directive in education now to stress the story of Robin Hood…because he robbed the rich and gave it to the poor. That's the Communist line. It's just a smearing of law and order and anything that disrupts law and order is their meat." She went on to attack Quakers because they "don't believe in fighting wars." This philosophy, she argued, played into communist hands. Though she later stated that she never argued for the removal of texts mentioning the story from school textbooks, she continued to claim that the "take from the rich and give to the poor" theme was the "Communist's favorite policy." Reacting to criticisms of her stance, she countered that, "Because I'm trying to get Communist writers out of textbooks, my name is mud. Evidently I'm drawing blood or they wouldn't make such an issue out of it."
      The response to Mrs. White's charges was mixed. Indiana Governor George Craig came to the defense of Quakers, but backed away from getting involved in the textbook issue. The state superintendent of education went so far as to reread the book before deciding that it should not be banned. However, he did feel that "Communists have gone to work twisting the meaning of the Robin Hood legend." The Indianapolis superintendent of schools also did not want the book banned, claiming that he could not find anything particularly subversive about the story. In the Soviet Union, commentators had a field day with the story. One joked that the "enrollment of Robin Hood in the Communist Party can only make sensible people laugh." The current sheriff of Nottingham was appalled, crying, "Robin Hood was no communist."
      As silly as the episode seems in retrospect, the attacks on freedom of expression during the Red Scare in the United States resulted in a number of books being banned from public libraries and schools during the 1950s and 1960s because of their supposedly subversive content. Such well known books as John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath and Johnny Got His Gun, by Dalton Trumbo, were just some of the books often pulled from shelves. Hollywood films also felt the pressure to conform to more suitably "all-American" themes and stories, and rock and roll music was decried by some as communist-inspired.
The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood by Howard Pyle / Robin Hood by J. Walker McSpadden / Robin Hood by Henry Gilbert / Robin Hood and Other Outlaw Tales, edited. by Stephen Knight and Thomas Ohlgren.
1953 Sale de fábrica en Barcelona el primer vehículo de la SEAT, un turismo modelo 1400 D-A, con matrícula B 86223. 1952 Harvard's Paul Zoll becomes the first man to use electric shock to treat cardiac arrest.
1950 El Consejo permanente de ministros de Asuntos Exteriores de la OTAN exige una rápida decisión respecto a la creación de un ejército europeo.
1949 El Partido Nacional, dirigido por Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, obtiene todos los escaños del Parlamento portugués.
1946 1st artificial snow produced from a natural cloud, Mt Greylock, MA
1945 Charles de Gaulle is elected president of France. — La Asamblea Constituyente proclama unánimemente a Charles De Gaulle jefe del Gobierno provisional francés.
1945 Ahmed Sukarno asume la presidencia de Indonesia.
1942 En el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, las tropas británicas lideradas por Montgomery liberan la ciudad libanesa de Tobruk, tomada en junio por los alemanes.
1942 Lt Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower flies to Algeria to conclude an agreement with French Admiral Jean Darlan. The Admiral would be assassinated soon after.
^ 1942 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal rages
      The most furious sea battle of the Solomon Islands begins. Led by two battleships, a Japanese force came down "the Slot"—the passage between the adjacent islands of Rabaul and Guadalcanal—and delivered a heavy shelling attack on a much smaller American task force. The clash raged through the night, when smaller, more maneuverable American ships took advantage of the thick blanket of darkness. At times, the American ships drew so close to the enemy fleet that they had trouble depressing their guns. When the battle finally simmered down on the fifteenth, the Americans had claimed a moral victory. The Japanese battleship Hiei was heavily damaged and had been scuttled by its crew. It was the first Japanese battleship lost in the war. However, the US lost two cruisers, including the torpedoed Juneau, the sinking of which took the lives of five brothers from Waterloo, Iowa, the Sullivans. American journalists devoured the Sullivan brothers story, and a destroyer being built at that time in a San Francisco shipyard was named The Sullivans in their honor. Also, after their deaths, Navy regulations were changed so that close relatives could not serve on board the same ship.
1942 US minimum draft age lowered from 21 to 18
1940 US Supreme Court rules in Hansberry v. Lee that Negroes cannot be barred from white neighborhoods.
1936 El gobierno de Burgos ordena el estampillado de los billetes del Banco de España.
1935 Estallan multitud de revueltas antibritánicas en Egipto.
^ 1933 First sit-down strike in US
      In Austin, Minnesota, striking workers at the packing plant of George A. Hormel and Company, in Austin, MN, hold the first sit-down strike in American labor history. The technique is a variation on earlier methods of striking such as refusal-to-work strikes and stay-in strikes, and proves the most effective of the three in discouraging violence. Three days later, the Industrial Commission of Minnesota begins mediation hearings, and by mid-December the strike is peaceably resolved. During the 1960s, various types of protest movements adopt the sit-down technique, especially as a method of disarming overly aggressive authorities.
1927 Las tropas de Chiang Kai-Shek se apoderan de la ciudad de Han-keu, en China.
^ 1927 Holland Tunnel opened to cars
      The Holland Tunnel between New York City and Jersey City, New Jersey, was officially opened the previous day when President Calvin Coolidge telegraphed a signal from the presidential yacht, Mayflower, anchored in the Potomac River. Within an hour, over 20'000 people had walked the 2820-meter distance between New York and New Jersey under the Hudson River.
     On this day the tunnel, whose construction began on 12 October 1920, is opened to automobiles. The double-tubed underwater tunnel, the first of its kind in the United States, was built to accommodate nearly 2000 vehicles per hour. Chief engineer Clifford Milburn Holland created a highly advanced ventilation system that changed the air over thirty times an hour at the rate of over 85'000 cubic meters per minute.
1923 Proclamación de la dictadura de Miguel Primo de Rivera.
1921 The US, France, Japan, and the British Empire sign a Pacific Treaty.
1920 Hudson River frozen at Albany (1820?)
1918 Se firma el armisticio entre Hungría y los Aliados en el contexto de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1918 La Rusia soviética deroga el tratado de paz de Brest-Litovsk con Alemania y propone nuevas negociaciones de paz.
1913 Se legaliza en China la disección de cadáveres.
^ 1909 US Taft administration turns against Teddy Roosevelt's conservationist policies.
      The Ballinger-Pinchot scandal erupts when Colliers magazine accuses Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger of shady dealings in Alaskan coal lands. It is, in essence, a conflict rooted in contrasting ideas about how to best use and conserve western natural resources.
      Ballinger was an appointee of President William Taft, the man who had succeeded the committed conservationist President Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt had developed most of his environmentally friendly policies with the assistance of his chief forester, Gifford Pinchot. By 1909, Roosevelt, Pinchot, and other conservationists feared that Taft, though a fellow Republican, and Ballinger were systematically undermining the accomplishments of the previous administration by reopening to exploitation public lands that had been closed.
      The Colliers article charged that Ballinger improperly used his office to help the Guggenheims and other powerful interests illegally gain access to Alaskan coal fields, confirming the worst fears of Pinchot and Roosevelt. Despite the fact that he had stayed on as chief forester in the Taft administration, Pinchot began to criticize openly both Ballinger and Taft, claiming they were violating the fundamental principles of both conservation and democracy. Livid with anger, Taft immediately fired Pinchot, inspiring yet another round of scandalous headlines.
      The controversy over the Ballinger-Pinchot affair soon became a major factor in splitting the Republican Party. After returning from an African safari, Roosevelt concluded that Taft had so badly betrayed the ethics of conservation that he had to be ousted. Roosevelt mounted an unsuccessful challenge to Taft on the independent Bull Moose ticket in 1912. In truth, subsequent scholarship has shown that Ballinger had not technically misused the power of his office and the charges of corruption were unjustified. However, the Ballinger-Pinchot scandal reflected the ongoing tension between those who emphasized the immediate use of natural resources and those who wanted them conserved for the future, a discussion that remains active today.
^ 1907 Premier vol en hélicoptère — French cyclist Paul Cornu flies a twin rotor helicopter, the first helicopter flight.
      En 1906, les frères Wright, pionniers de l'aviation, jugeaient que le décollage vertical n'avait pas d'avenir. Mais le 13 novembre de l'année suivante, près de Lisieux, un homme réussissait à s'élever pour la première fois à bord d'un hélicoptère. Ce jour-là, Paul Cornu atteignait l'altitude de... 1,5 mètre. Le mot hélicoptère a été forgé en 1861 par le vicomte Ponton d'Amécourt à partir du grec helix (spirale) et pteron (aile). Léonard de Vinci avait, quatre siècles plus tôt, pressenti le concept à en juger par certains croquis. Les hélicoptères ont prouvé leur utilité à partir de 1942 grâce à l'industriel américain d'origine russe Igor Sikorski. Ils rendent aujourd'hui des services dans les liaisons entre aéroports et centre-ville, dans les opérations de sauvetage et dans le soutien logistique des militaires en opération.
1905 El príncipe Carlos de Dinamarca gana el plebiscito que le convierte en rey de Noruega con el nombre de Haakon VII.
1898 Manifiesto de Joaquín Costa reclamando una revolución desde el poder (un "cirujano de hierro") para salvar a España.
1897 The first metal dirigible is flown from Tempelhof Field in Berlin.
1895 1st shipment of canned pineapple from Hawaii
1889 El cirujano estadounidense Charles McBurney muestra en Nueva York sus éxitos en las operaciones tempranas de apendicitis.
1879 NYSE Gets Connected The burgeoning communications industry joined hands with Wall Street on this day in 1879, as the New York Stock Exchange made the move to the modern era, installing telegraph and phone lines.
1878 New Mexico Governor Lew Wallace offers amnesty to many participants of the Lincoln County War, but not to gunfighter Billy the Kid.
1865 US issues 1st gold certificates.
1862 Alice's Adventures started
      Lewis Carroll, 30, writes in his diary, "Began writing the fairy-tale of Alice — I hope to finish it by Christmas." In fact, he did, and on 26 November sent the manuscript [sample below] of Alice's Adventures Under Ground as a Christmas present to Alice Liddell, 10 [photo >], to whom he had told the story orally some months before. Carroll did not intend publication, but when a friend noticed the manuscript and recommended that Carroll publish it, he revised it under the name Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and the first edition came out on 04 July 1865.
The Background & History of Alice In Wonderland
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
  • Alice's Adventures Under Ground
  • Complete on-line works and commentary
  • Complete Stories
  • Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879)
  • The Hunting of the Snark
  • The Nursery "Alice"
  • Sylvie and Bruno
  • Sylvie and Bruno Concluded
  • Through the Looking Glass
  • Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There
  • Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing
  • Phantasmagoria and Other Poems
  • ^ 1861 General discourteous to US President.
          President Lincoln pays a late night visit to General George McClellan, who Lincoln had recently named general in chief of the Union army. The general retired to his chambers before speaking with the president. This was the most famous example of McClellan's cavalier disregard for the president's authority. Lincoln had tapped McClellan to head the Army of the Potomac-the main Union army in the East-in July 1861 after the disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run. McClellan immediately began to build an effective army, and he was elevated to general in chief after Winfield Scott resigned on 31 October. McClellan drew praise for his military initiatives but quickly developed a reputation for his arrogance and contempt toward the political leaders in Washington. After being named to the top post, McClellan began openly to cavort with Democratic leaders in Congress and show his disregard for the Republican administration. To his wife, he wrote that Lincoln was "nothing more than a well-meaning baboon," and Secretary of State William Seward was an "incompetent little puppy."
          Lincoln made frequent evening visits to McClellan's house to discuss strategy. On 13 November, Lincoln, Seward, and Presidential Secretary John Hay stopped by to see the general. McClellan was out, so the trio waited patiently for his return. After an hour, McClellan came in and was told by a porter that the guests were waiting. McClellan headed for his room without a word, and only after Lincoln waited another half-hour was the group informed of McClellan's retirement to bed. Hay felt that the president should have been greatly offended, but Lincoln casually replied that it was "better at this time not to be making points of etiquette and personal dignity." Lincoln made no more visits to the general's home.
    1860 South Carolina's legislature calls a special convention to discuss secession from the Union.and resolves to raise 10'000 volunteers to defend the state
    1842 Estalla una insurrección que motivó el bombardeo de Barcelona por orden de Espartero, regente de España.
    1839 1st US anti-slavery party, Liberty Party, convenes in NY
    1835 Texans officially proclaim independence from Mexico, and calls itself the Lone Star Republic, after its flag, until its admission to the Union in 1845.
    1833 A meteor shower shakes up many New Englanders who believe the end of the world has come.
    1830 Oliver Wendell Holmes publishes "Old Ironsides"
    ^ 1805 L'armée française prend Vienne.
          Trois jours plus tôt Murat est arrivé devant Vienne, il en a attaqué les faubourgs et s'est rendu maître des ponts sur le Danube. Ce jour, il entre dans la ville suivi des grenadiers d'Oudinot et de la division de Suchet. Le lendemain, c'est le tour des troupes de Soult et de Davout. A Schönbrunn, Napoléon Ier écrit : " Le corps d'armée du maréchal Soult a traversé Vienne à 9 heures du matin. Celui du maréchal Davout la traverse en ce moment. " La nouvelle de la chute de Vienne fait chanter dans Paris : " Sans reprendre haleine / Comm' nous l'espérions / L'emp'reur est dans Vienne / Avec ses bataillons / Mais qu'il s'en revienne / Pour que nous le chantions. " Ils étaient fou ces Français !
    1797 Melchor Gaspar de Jovellanos es nombrado ministro de Gracia y Justicia de España.
    ^ 1794 Une émeute met fin au Jacobins
          "Les Jacobins à la rue!" "A bas les Jacobins!" et de "Vive la Convention!", c'est par ces cris que les Jacobins réunis au Palais-Royal dans leur club, sont dispersés à coups de gourdins par de jeunes muscadins. Les membres du club ne peuvent tenir tête à ces jeunes réactionnaires qui ont forcé les portes. Ils sont passés par les fenêtres et qui saccagent tout. Le Comité de sūreté générale ordonne la fermeture du club "en raison des violences provoquées par son existence ". Mais tout porte à croire que c'est le Comité même qui a provoqué cette manifestation, dont les muscadins n'auraient été que l'outil. Ainsi s'achève l'existence d'un club qui fut créé à Versailles en 1789 par des députés bretons des États Généraux. C'est à cause de leur installation dans les locaux d'un couvent dominicain de la rue Saint-Honoré à Paris que cet ex-club devait son nom.
    ^ 1789 The first US Presidential tour concludes
          George Washington, who was inaugurated as the first president of the United States in April, returns to Washington at the end of his first presidential tour. For four weeks, Washington traveled by stagecoach through New England, visiting all of the northern states that had ratified the US Constitution. Washington, the great war hero and first leader of the new republic, was greeted by enthusiastic crowds wherever he went. Major William Jackson, who was Washington's aide-de-camp during the Revolutionary War, accompanied the president, along with a private secretary and nine servants, including several slaves. The group traveled as far north as Kittering, Maine, which was still a part of Massachusetts at the time. Two years later, President Washington travels on his first presidential visit to the southern states, making a 3037-km round-trip journey from his estate in Mount Vernon, Virginia.
    1775 General Richard Montgomery leads American troops in the capture of Montreal. The American presence in Canada proved short-lived. Just weeks later, British victory at Quebec forced a hasty retreat to New York.
    1644 Baptists are banished from Massachussetts.
    1618 In the Dutch commune of Dordrecht, the Synod of Dort convened to discuss the Arminian controversy vexing the Reformed faith, but invites no Arminians for another month. In the end, about 200 Arminian (Remonstrant) ministers were deposed and fifteen were placed under arrest and later expelled from the country. One was beheaded for high treason..
    1564 Pius IV ordered his bishops and scholars to subscribe to "Professio Fidei," the Profession of the Tridentine Faith recently formulated at the Council of Trent (1545_63) as the new and final definition of the Roman Catholic faith.
    1494 Derrota de los guanches en los alrededores de La Laguna, que supuso la conquista por parte de los españoles de la isla canaria de Tenerife.
    1474 In the Swiss-Burgundian Wars, Swiss infantry shatters the army of Charles the Bold at Hericourt near Belfort, countering his march to Lorraine.
    1332 La ville de Lucerne s'allie aux cantons paysans dans leur lutte contre la tutelle des Habsbourg. C'est l'ébauche de la future confédération helvétique.
    < 12 Nov 14 Nov >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 13 November:

    2006 Artemio Benítez Pérez; Filemón (and Antonio Mayo?) Benitez Pérez; María Pérez Pérez; Marta (or Martha) Pérez Pérez*, María Pérez Hernández (or María Pérez González)*, María Núñez González*, Petrona Núñez González*; Pedro Núñez Pérez*; Eliver (or Elizabeth) Benítez Pérez*; Antonio (or Hilario) Pérez López*; Dominga (or Domingo) Pérez López*; Felícitas (or Felicito) Pérez Parcero*; Noilé (or Noyli) Benítez Pérez*, 8; and a newborn not yet baptized*; some or all of them Tzeltal Amerindians among the group illegally occupying (since 1986) the communally farmed Ejido Dr. Manuel Velasco Suárez II (“Viejo Velasco Suárez”) in the remote Monte Azules region of the municipio Ocosingo in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. They are killed in an attack by a group of the rightful ejidatarios, who are Lacandon Amerindians (some of which may be among the dead). Warnings of threats to this and 3 other similar communities ((Flor de Cacao, Ojo de Agua El Progreso, and San Jacinto Lacanjá) have been purposefully ignored by the authorities. (the names were compiled from a list of 11 and a list of 14, those on both lists, possibly with variants of names as noted, are marked with *) —(061115)
    2005 Michael F. Borden, 50, and his wife Cathryn Lee Borden, 50, shot in their L, Pennsylvania, home by David G. Ludwig, 18, after a 1-hour argument about his secretly mating with their daughter Kara Beth Borden [21 May 1991~]. The Bordens have 4 other children: David Borden, 9, an older daughter still living at home, and 2 adult sons. — (011120)
    2005 Brian Jackson, 28, Dallas (Texas) policeman, shot once under his right arm, near his protective vest, by the man he was pursuing on foot, Mexican immigrant Juan Lizcano, 28, who, early in the day, had visited his ex-mate, Marta Cruz, threatening her with a gun, shooting into the air. When she said she would phone the police, he replied: "Go ahead and call the damn cops. I'll take them down too. Next time, it will be you” and fled. Cruz phoned the police. Jackson responded to her home. About 45 minutes later, a second call came in reporting that Lizcano had returned. Jackson and another policeman saw him with a gun running into the backyard and chased him through alleys and between houses. — (051116)
    2005 Eduardo Gory “Eddie” Guerrero Llanes, born on 09 October 1967, wrestler from El Paso, Texas, of heart failure in a hotel in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Other wrestlers in his family: his father, Gory Guerrero [11 Jan 1921 – 18 Apr 1990]; his three brothers Hector Guerrero [01 Oct 1954~], “Mando” Guerrero [1952~], and “Chavo” Guerrero [07 Jan 1949~]; his uncle Enrique “Llanes” Yañez; his cousin Javier Llanes; Chavo's son, Chavo Guerrero, Jr. [07 Jan 1971~]. — (051116)
    2004 Carmen Stepp, 49, of the 10'000 block of Olga, El Paso, Texas, at 23:20 (06:20 Nov 14 UT) on Marshall Road at Railroad Drive, after her 2003 Saturn Vue, in which she was not wearing a seat belt, is hit by the 2002 Chevrolet Trailblazer SUV driven into oncoming traffic by Corina Snyder, 30, with passengers Rodney Snyder, 32, and Cheyenne Snyder, 7, all three of the 10'600 block of Springwood, wearing seat belts, who are injured.
    2004 Some 20 sailors, in 100 km/h winds near Algiers, as Algerian cargo ship Bechar sinks and a Turkish merchant ship runs aground.
    2003 Pfc. Jacob S. Fletcher, 28, of Bay Shore NY, after a roadside terrorist bomb explodes at the passage of the bus in which he was riding, in Samara, Iraq. He was assigned to Company C, 2nd Battalion (Airborne), 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade.
    2003 Pietro Petrucci, 22, of Casavatore (Naples province), Italian army caporalmaggiore, is declared brain dead in a hospital in Kuwait City to which he had been transfered after being wounded in the 12 November 2003 truck bomb attack on the Italian headquarters in Nassiriyah, Iraq.
    2003 More than 50 persons, by floods and landslides in central Vietnam, from 11 to 13 November, during which 50cm of rain fall on the region.
    JDL symbol2002 Irv Rubin, 57, chairman of the terrorist Jewish Defense League, at 23:45 (07:45 14 Nov UT). He was in a medically induced coma since his 05:00 (13:00 UT) 04 November 2002 cutting his throat with a razor blade and falling head first 6 meters over a railing in California prison while awaiting trial for conspiring to plant bombs at the King Fahd Mosque in the Los Angeles suburb of Culver City and an office of Representative Darrell Issa, a California Republican descended from Lebanese Christians. — MORE
    2002 Some 210 fishermen drowned in Bangladesh, having ignored warnings of tropical storm which sinks ten boats off Cox's Bazar (150 men drowned) and eight off Barisal district (60 men drowned).
    2000 Ahmed Hassan Dahlan, 19, nephew of Palestinian Authority Gaza security chief Mohammed Dahlan, at Tel Aviv's Ichilov Hospital. Dahlan from wounds received in a confrontation with Israeli soldiers on 001111 in the Gaza Strip.
    1995 Two Indians and five US Americans, in two bomb blasts at a US-operated Saudi National Guard training and communications center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Osama bin Laden denies involvement but praises the attack
    ^ 1985 Thousands killed by lahars from the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz
         Nevado del Ruiz is the northernmost and highest Colombian volcano with historical activity. With a summit elevation of 5389 m, the volcano is covered with 25 km2 of snow and ice even though it's located only 500 km from Earth's equator. From November 1984, the volcano began showing clear signs of unrest, including earthquakes, increased fumarolic activity from the summit crater, and small phreatic explosions.
         When the seismograph began to record the violent earth-shaking caused by yet another eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia, no one thought that a few hours later more than 23'000 people would be dead, killed by lahars (volcanic debris flows) in towns and villages several tens of kilometers away from the volcano. Before the fatal eruption the volcano was being monitored by scientists at a seismic station located 9 kilometers from the summit, and information about the volcano's activity was being sent to Colombian emergency-response coordinators who were charged with alerting the public of the danger from the active volcano. Furthermore, areas known to be in the pathways of lahars had already been identified on maps, and communities at risk had been told of their precarious locations.
          Unfortunately, a storm on 13 November 1985, obscured the glacier-clad summit of Nevado del Ruiz. On that night an explosive eruption tore through the summit and spewed approximately 20 million cubic meters of hot ash and rocks across the snow-covered glacier. These materials were transported across the snow pack by avalanches of hot volcanic debris (pyroclastic flows) and fast-moving, hot, turbulent clouds of gas and ash ( pyroclastic surges). The hot pyroclastic flows and surges caused rapid melting of the snow and ice, and created large volumes of water that swept down canyons leading away from the summit. As these floods of water descended the volcano, they picked up loose debris and soil from the canyon floors and walls, growing both in volume and density, to form hot lahars. In the river valleys farther down the volcano's flanks, the lahars were as much as 40 meters thick and traveled at velocities as fast as 50 kilometers per hour. Two and a half hours after the start of the eruption one of the lahars reached Armero, 74 kilometers from the explosion crater. In a few short minutes most of the town was swept away or buried in a torrent of mud and boulders, and three quarters of the townspeople perished.
          An explosive eruption from Ruiz's summit crater on 13 November 1985, at 21:08 generated an eruption column and sent a series of pyroclastic flows and surges across the volcano's broad ice-covered summit. Within minutes, pumice and ash began to fall to the northeast along with heavy rain that had started earlier in the day. The crater was enlarged slightly by the eruption, and the summit area was quickly covered with layers of pyroclastic flow deposits as thick as 8 m. This eruption was preceded by a strong phreatic (steam) explosion from the crater at 15:05.
         Hot rock fragments of the pyroclastic flows and surges quickly eroded and mixed with Ruiz's snow and ice, melting about ten% of the volcano's ice cover. In places, channels 100 m wide and 2-4 m deep were eroded into the icecap. Flowing mixtures of water, ice, pumice and other rock debris then poured from the summit and sides of the volcano into rivers draining the volcano. In one river, scientists found a piece of ice 2 m across about 3 km from the crater.
         Pumice and meltwater produced by the hot pyroclastic flows and surges swept into gullies and channels on the slopes of Ruiz as a series of small lahars. After descending several thousand meters and eroding loose rock debris from the sides of the volcano, the lahars were funneled into all six major river valleys leading from Ruiz.
          Flowing downstream from Ruiz at an average speed of 60 km per hour, lahars eroded soil, loose rock debris and stripped vegetation from river channels. By incorporating water and debris from along river channels, the lahars grew in size as they moved away from the volcano — some lahars increased up to 4 times their initial volumes. In some of the narrow canyons downstream from the volcano, lahars were as thick as 50 m.
         Houses and towns located high enough above river channels escaped damage from the lahars. In the Gualí River valley, at least two lahar pulses were reported by eyewitnesses, separated by 5 to 15 minutes depending on distance from the volcano. Eyewitnesses reported that the noise created by the passage of each pulse made their houses and the ground shake and that conversation, even by shouting, was impossible.
         Within four hours of the beginning of the eruption, lahars had traveled 100 km and left behind a wake of destruction: more than 23'000 people killed, about 5000 injured, and more than 5000 homes destroyed along the Chinchiná, Gualí, and Lagunillas rivers. Hardest hit was the town of Armero at the mouth of the Río Lagunillas canyon. Three quarters of its 28'700 inhabitants perished. The last one to die was Omaira Sanchez, 13, trapped to her neck in the mud, who survived until November 16, while TV showed the vain efforts to rescue her.
          Accounts from survivors indicate Armero was inundated with several pulses of flowing material. The first arrived at 23:25 and consisted of a flood of cold relatively clean water that overflowed the Río Lagunillas channel, sweeping into downtown Armero. Only a few centimeters deep in town, this water was from a lake located just upstream that had been displaced when lahars entered the lake.
          The second pulse arrived at 23:35. This was the largest pulse and within 10 to 20 minutes, destroyed most of the buildings and swept away most of the people in Armero. Flow depths of the lahar ranged from 2 to 5 m. The third pulse arrived at 23:50 with a velocity of about half of the second one. Then, in the next hour or so, a series of smaller pulses (6 to 8) was experienced by survivors trapped in the mud. These pulses lifted people floating in the mud and pushed them a few meters ahead. One last pulse struck Armero a short time after 01:00 on 14 November.
               At 21:08, Nevado del Ruiz, the highest active volcano in the Andes Mountains of Colombia, suffers a mild eruption that generates a series of lava flows and surges over the volcano's broad ice-covered summit. Flowing mixtures of water, ice, pumice and other rock debris pour off the summit and sides of the volcano, forming "lahars" that flood into the river valleys surrounding Ruiz. The lahars join normal river channels, and disastrous flooding and mudslides ensue. Within four hours of the eruption, the lahars travel over sixty miles, killing more than 23'000 persons, injuring over 5000, and destroying more than 5000 homes. Hardest hit is the town of Armero, where three quarters of the 28'700 inhabitants die. The volcano first began showing signs of an imminent eruption a full year before, and most of the river valley's residents would have survived had they have moved to higher ground.
         The 1985 Ruiz eruption offers a tragic example of the need to understand the entire history of a volcano in assessing hazards. The town of Armero, Colombia — buried by mudflows triggered by the 1985 eruption at Nevado del Ruiz — was located on a debris fan that was overrun by destructive mudflows in the year 1595, shortly after the arrival of the Spanish colonists, and again in 1845, killing hundreds of people in each instance. During the ensuing 140-year period of inactivity, people forgot and the town was rebuilt at the same site and grew in population. Although a preliminary hazard-zone map for Ruiz, completed one month before the November 1985 eruption, clearly delineated Armero as being especially vulnerable to mudflows, emergency-response measures taken during the eruption were entirely inadequate to save the more than 23'000 lives lost when the mudflows struck.
         [Map showing hazards expected from an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia. Such a map was prepared by INGEOMINAS (Colombian Institute of Geology and Mines) and circulated one month prior to the 13 November 1985, eruption of Nevado del Ruiz. Map shows danger from mudflows in the valley occupied by the town of Armero, Colombia, as well as areas affected by the hazards that resulted from this eruption.]
    1975 Seis muertos en Jerusalén por un atentado reivindicado por la OLP (Organización para la Liberación de Palestina).
    ^ 1974 Karen Gay Silkwood, 28, whistle-blower killed in a car crash under suspicious circumstances
         Karen Silkwood, union activist, the daughter of William and Merle Silkwood, was born on February 19, 1946, in Longview, Texas. She was raised at Nederland and studied medical technology at Lamar State College in Beaumont on a scholarship from the Business and Professional Women's Club. In 1965 she married William Meadows, with whom she had three children. She left her husband and three young children (Kristi, 5, Michael, 3, and Dawn, 18 months) in 1972 and went to Oklahoma City, where she was employed briefly as a clerk in a hospital before being hired as a metallography laboratory technician at the Cimarron River plutonium plant of Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation.
          She lived for a time with Drew Stephens, who introduced her to auto racing through the Sports Car Club, and soon joined the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union; she participated in the union's strike against the company. In 1974 Silkwood became the first female member of the union bargaining committee in Kerr-McGee history. On her first assignment to study health and safety issues at the plant, she discovered evidence of spills, leaks, and missing plutonium.
          As environmental concerns increased in the 1970s, Kerr-McGee faced litigation involving worker safety and environmental contamination, and Silkwood testified to charges before the Atomic Energy Commission that she had suffered radiation exposure in a series of unexplained incidents. On November 13, 1974, she was killed in an automobile crash while on her way to meet with an Atomic Energy Commission official and a New York Times reporter.
         Though Silkwood's death was ruled an accident — an autopsy revealed Quaaludes in her system, which may have caused her to fall asleep at the wheel and run her white Honda off the road — unanswered questions prompted speculation about foul play. She had carried a file folder of secret documents to her aborted rendezvous with a New York Times reporter and a union official, but none was found in her car, and there were fresh dents and traces of rubber in the rear bumper and fender.
          Whether or not due to foul play, her death led to a federal investigation into plant security and safety, and a National Public Radio report about forty-four to sixty-six pounds of misplaced plutonium. An autopsy showed Silkwood's body had been contaminated by plutonium. Her case, which began in 1974, emphasized the hazards of nuclear energy and raised questions about corporate accountability and responsibility. According to the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union, the Kerr-McGee plant had manufactured faulty fuel rods, falsified product inspection records, and risked employee safety. Eventually, Kerr-McGee closed the plant.
          Silkwood was the subject of a motion picture, Silkwood, released in 1984. Karen Silkwood was buried in Danville Cemetery, Kilgore, Texas.
         After Silkwood's death, her father, Bill, asked Kerr-McGee for $5000 in compensation for her household goods, all lost to radiation contamination. When the company responded with $1500, Bill sued for $11.5 million. The case dragged on and was finally settled out of court in 1986 with $1.6 million for the children, minus $1 million in legal and administrative fees, and $160,000 for Bill.. Kerr-McGee did not admit liability in settling the case.
    ^ 1970 Some 500'000 as cyclone devastates East Pakistan.
          Tidal waves and storm surges strike the shores of the Ganges Delta, wreaking lethal damage on the people of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). A 150-km/h tropical cyclone spurred the deadly flood of ocean water that washed over scores of coastal islands and devastated the densely populated delta region. An estimated 500'000 people were killed in the 20th century's worst disaster by cyclone.
          Bangladesh, squeezed between India and Burma on the Bay of Bengal, is routinely struck by tropical cyclones that form in the warm waters of the giant bay, which is actually an extension of the Indian Ocean. Hurricanes and typhoons are also tropical cyclones, but these terms are local words used to describe cyclones that develop in specific parts of the globe. Tropical cyclone is the universal name for these storms.
          In Bangladesh, two great river systems, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, converge to form the largest delta in the world. These rivers carry silt from as far away as the Himalayas into the low-lying floodplain of Bangladesh, creating one of the world's most fertile croplands. A third of the country is less than 6 meters above water, and the floodplain is densely populated. This overpopulation has forced farmers farther and farther out into the delta, where they face great dangers during the annual cyclone season. The shape of the coastline acts as a natural funnel for storm surges during this time, easily drawing deep water up the river channels.
          Throughout history, the Ganges Delta had suffered many furious storms, but the November 1970 cyclone was the worst natural disaster in the region's recorded history. It made landfall on 12 November 1970 and raged the strongest on 13 November 1970. The resulting storm surge, more than 6 meters high and topped by huge tidal waves, washed over offshore islands and carried ocean water many miles inland. The storm and flood destroyed the entire infrastructure of the country's southern coast and killed an estimated 500'000 persons, though some researchers estimate that the death count was more than a million. The failure of the West Pakistani government to respond quickly to the crisis contributed to the political turmoil that produced an independent Bangladesh in 1971.
    1960 Fire in movie theater kills 152 children (Amude Spain)
    1943 Maurice Denis, French Nabi [“prophet”] religious painter and theoretician of modern art, born on 25 November 1870, author of Théories (1912) and Histoire de l'art religieux (1939). — MORE ON DENIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER 25 with links to images.
    1941 HMS Ark Royal, Great Britain's premier aircraft carrier sunk by torpedoes from German U-boat U-81.
    1938 The Roman Catholic church names Francis Xavier Cabrini, founder of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, the first US saint.
    1924 El redactor gráfico del periódico Heraldo de Aragón es asesinado en Zaragoza.
    1923 Walter Dendy Sadler, British painter born on 12 May 1854. — MORE ON SADLER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1907 Francis Thompson, the English poet who wrote the Hound of Heaven showing how God in grace pursued him, after he had wrecked his life with opium addiction. He had trained for the priesthood. "Power is the reward of sadness. It was after Christ had wept over Jerusalem that he uttered some of his most august words; it was when his soul had been sorrowful even unto death that his enemies fell prostrate before his voice. Who suffers, conquers." THOMPSON ONLINE: New Poems, Poems, Shelley: An Essay, Sister Songs
    1903 Jacob Camille Pissarro, French Pointillist and Impressionist painter specialized in landscapes, born on 10 July 1830. — MORE ON PISSARRO AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1901 (or 20 Nov) Egisto Sarri, Italian artist born in 1837.
    1868 Gioacchino (Antonio) Rossini , 76, composer (Barber of Seville)
    1862 Julio Arboleda Pombo, poeta, militar y estadista colombiano.
    1861 Arthur Hugh Clough, author. CLOUGH ONLINE: Amours de Voyage, Amours de Voyage, editor of Dryden's translation of Plutarch's Lives.
    1849 William Etty, British painter specialized in nudes, born on 10 March 1787. — MORE ON ETTY AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1836 Salvador Molet, Spanish artist born in 1773.
    1829 Sam Patch loses his life in a 38-meter dive into Genessee Falls
    1819 Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern, German artist born on 22 September 1738. — more with links to two images.
    1681 Jacob Salomonszoon Ruisdael (or Ruysdael), Dutch artist born in 1630.
    1671 Jan van Bijlert (or Bylert), Dutch painter born in 1603. — MORE ON VAN BIJLERT AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1460 Henry the Navigator, 66, prince of Portugal.
    0687 Ervigio, rey de los visigodos en España.
    ^ 1002 Beaucoup de danois en Angleterre: massacre de la Saint Brice — English king Ethelred II starts massacre of Danish settlers.
          Le roi anglo-saxon Ethelred II massacre un grand nombre de Danois qui s'étaient établis de force sur ses terres. Parmi les victimes figurent la soeur et le beau-frère du roi de Danemark, Sven à la Barbe fourchue. Celui-ci, en redoutable chef viking, a déjà mené des guerres victorieuses contre les Allemands et les Norvégiens. En réplique au "massacre de la Saint-Brice", il entreprend de conquérir toute l'Angleterre, ainsi nommée d'après les envahisseurs germaniques qui ont remplacé les Romains.
    Les premiers Anglo-Saxons
          Venus de l'Allemagne actuelle, les Angles et leurs cousins Saxons ont débarqué sur l'île de Bretagne au Ve siècle après Jésus-Christ. Ils ont peu à peu chassé des plaines les premiers habitants, des Celtes dénommés Bretons, Scots ou encore Pictes. Ces derniers se sont réfugiés dans les montagnes d'Ecosse, du pays de Galles ou de Cornouaille. Quelques-uns ont traversé la Manche et se sont établis à la pointe de la Gaule, en des lieux austères, désertés par les Gallo-Romains, qui prendront le nom de "petite Bretagne". Les farouches Anglo-Saxons adorent les dieux du panthéon germanique, Odin, Thor, Freya,... dont ils entretiennent le souvenir dans les jours de la semaine: Wednesday, Thursday, Friday. A la même époque, l'île voisine d'Irlande, épargnée par les invasions barbares, conserve son identité celte et se voue au catholicisme sous l'impulsion de saint Patrick. Des ermites vont alors restaurer avec passion la culture latine et les traditions de l'église des premiers temps. Pour des raisons de sécurité, ils prennent l'habitude de se mettre en communauté, sous l'autorité d'un abbé. Ces moines actifs vont bientôt convertir les peuplades germaniques du continent ainsi que les Anglo-saxons de Grande-Bretagne. En Angleterre, ils entrent en concurrence avec les moines bénédictins venus de Rome, à l'initiative du pape Grégoire 1er. Ces derniers fondent l'archevêché de Cantorbéry. Le premier titulaire, Augustin, n'a de cesse de réunir tout le clergé de l'île sous son autorité.
    Invasions vikings
          La Grande-Bretagne et le Continent font connaissance avec les Vikings au début du IXe siècle, à l'époque de Charlemagne. Les Vikings sont des hommes épris d'aventure qui se refusent à vivre dans les communautés paysannes de leurs contrées du grand nord de l'Europe. Ils se forment en bandes et naviguent vers l'ouest, en quête d'épopées. C'est ainsi que des bandes de Vikings atteignent l'Islande vers 860. Le chef Erik le rouge aborde au Groenland (le "pays vert") vers 982. Son fils Leif Eriksson est le premier Européen à poser le pied sur le continent américain, du côté de Terre-Neuve. C'est ainsi aussi que plusieurs milliers de Danois s'établissent sur les rivages occidentaux de la Grande-Bretagne, en Est-Anglie. Parmi les différents rois saxons qui se partagent l'île, l'un d'eux, Alfred le Grand, roi du Kent, laisse le souvenir d'avoir résisté avec efficacité à la pression danoise. Il bat l'armée des envahisseurs à Ethandum en 878. Fort de sa victoire, il unifie les royaumes anglo-saxons et constitue un semblant d'Etat monarchique.
    Un éphémère royaume danois
          Les sucesseurs d'Alfred le Grand n'ont pas sa vigueur. Ethelred II, après le massacre de la Saint-Brice, se montre incapable de faire face à l'offensive victorieuse de Sven à la Barbe fourchue. Le Danois remonte la Tamise, prend Cantorbéry et exécute l'archevêque. Son malheureux rival ne trouve d'autre moyen pour le convaincre de repartir que d'imposer les terres de ses sujets et de lui verser la collecte. C'est le Danegled, l'argent des Danois. Ce tribut n'a d'autre effet que de rendre les Danois plus exigeants. Sven confie son royaume de Danemark à son fils aîné et, avec l'aide du second, Knut, repart à la conquête de l'Angleterre. Ethelred s'enfuit en Normandie, chez son beau-frère, le duc Richard. A la mort de Sven, son fils Knut (ou Canut) doit battre en retraite au Danemark, non sans avoir au préalable fait couper le nez, les oreilles et les mains des prisonniers anglais. Ayant redébarqué en force, Knut reprend le combat contre le courageux fils d'Ethelred II, Edmond Ironside ("Côte-de-fer"). Les deux rivaux se partagent dans un premier temps le pays. Le 18 octobre 1016, enfin, Knut bat Edmond à Ashingdon, dans l'Essex. Bientôt, les nobles saxons, réunis en conseil, ne voient d'autre issue que de confier la couronne au vainqueur. Knut le Grand, en habile homme d'Etat, traite à égalité les vaincus et les vainqueurs. Lui-même épouse Emma, la veuve d'Ethelred II. Par la conquête et les héritages, il adjoint à la couronne d'Angleterre celles d'Ecosse, du Danemark et de Norvège, constituant ainsi un original empire anglo-scandinave. Mais cette construction ne lui survivra pas et à sa mort, le 12 novembre 1035, la couronne anglaise retournera à un Saxon, Edouard le Confesseur, deuxième fils du roi Ethelred II. A sa mort, c'est un autre descendant de Viking, le Normand Guillaume le Conquérant, qui s'appropriera la couronne d'Angleterre.
    0867 St Nicholas I (the Great) pope (858-867) He was one a strong advocate for Roman primacy in the church.
    < 12 Nov 14 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 13 November:

    ^ 1940 The Jeep, prototype completed (not yet under that name).
          In 1939, the US Army asked the US's automobile manufacturers to submit designs for a simple and versatile military vehicle. It would be two full years before the official US declaration of war, but military officials, who knew this declaration to be inevitable, recognized the need for an innovative troop-transport vehicle for the global battlefields of World War II. The American Bantam Car Company, a small car manufacturer, submitted the first design approved by the army, but the production contract was ultimately given to Willys-Overland, a company that had a larger production capability and offered a lower bid.
          The Willys Jeep, as it would become known during the war, was similar to the Bantam design, and featured four-wheel drive, an open-air cab, and a rifle rack mounted under the windshield. On this day, the first Willys-Overland Jeep prototype is completed, and submitted to the US Army for approval. One year later, with the US declaration of war, mass production of the Willys-Overland Jeep began. By the war's end in 1945, some 600'000 Jeeps had rolled off the assembly lines and onto the battlefields of Asia, Africa, and Europe.
          The efficient and sturdy four-wheel drive Jeep became a symbol of the US war effort: no obstacle could stop its advance. Somewhere along the line the vehicle acquired the name "Jeep," likely evolving from the initials G.P. for "general purchase" vehicle, and the nickname stuck. In 1945, Willys-Overland introduced the first civilian Jeep vehicle, the CJ-2A, the forefather of today's sport utility vehicles (SUVs).
    1939 The Grapes of Wrath de John Steinbeck se publica.
    1934 Carl Sagan, científico americano.
    1929 Jaime Gil de Biedma, escritor español.
    1923 Roger Somville, British artist.
    1923 Pío Cabanillas Gallas, abogado y político español.
    1914 Julio Caro Baroja, historiador y antropólogo español.
    1914 The brassiere, invented by Caresse Crosby, is patented.
    1898 Fidencio Constantino Síntora “el Niño Fidencio”, in Iramuco, Guanajuato state, Mexico. During his life, and even more so after his death, he was and is still reputed as a holy worker of miracle cures, whose seekers flock to hamlet El Espinazo (where he lived from 1921), municipio de Mina, Nuevo León state, especially on the anniversaries of his 19 October 1938 death there, and of his falsely assumed 19 March birthday..
    1878 Max Dehn, mathematician.
    1876 Wilczynski, mathematician.
    ^ 1862 Mary Henrietta Kingsley, English explorer of West and Central Africa and writer who died on 03 June 1900.
          She was the first European to visit parts of Gabon. Kingsley was born in London, the daughter of a medical doctor who traveled extensively. Mary Henrietta Kingsley made her first visit to Africa in 1893, following the deaths of her parents. She sailed to the Gulf of Guinea port of Calabar, on the coast of what is now Nigeria, and from there traveled inland. From the Niger River region to the north, she traveled southward as far as the lower Congo River region in what is now northern Angola. Throughout the trip she studied African religious practices.
          She returned to England in 1894. Kingsley went again to West Africa later that year, stopping first on the coast of what are now Cameroon and Gabon. In Gabon she traveled by steamboat up the Ogooué River. At Lambaréné, she continued her river journey by canoe into the Great Forest region, territory that was then seldom visited by Europeans. After studying the life and culture of the region's Fang people, she returned to the Cameroon coast. Before her return to England in 1895, she climbed Mount Cameroon, the area's highest peak (4095 m).
          Kingsley made her final trip to Africa in 1899, planning to visit West Africa again, but the outbreak that year of the Boer War in South Africa led her to travel there instead. While working in Cape Town as a nurse caring for Boer prisoners of war, she contracted typhoid fever and died at the age of 38. Kingsley wrote several books about her experiences in Africa, including Travels in West Africa (1897), West African Studies (1899), and The Story of West Africa (1899).
    1860 Antonio Zoppi, Italian artist who died on 28 April 1926.
    1856 Louis D Brandeis, Massachusetts, the first Jew to be a US Supreme Court Justice (1916-1939). He died on 05 October 1941.
    1854 maréchal Lyautey, à Nancy
    ^ 1850 Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson, Scottish novelist and poet, author of Treasure Island and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, in Scotland.
          Stevenson studied civil engineering and law, but decided to pursue a career as a writer and began publishing essays and travel pieces. His decision alienated his parents, who expected him to follow the family trade of lighthouse keeping. The family wasn't reconciled for years.
          In 1876, Stevenson fell in love with an American woman named Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne, who was separated from her husband. When she returned to San Francisco in 1879, Stevenson followed her. The couple married and returned to Scotland in 1880. Stevenson published a collection of essays in 1881, and Treasure Island, one of his most popular books, in 1883. In 1885, he published the first version of the popular nursery-rhyme book A Child's Garden of Verses. In 1846, he published Kidnapped, and in 1886 he published The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
          In 1888, the family set off for the South Seas, seeking a healthier climate for Stevenson's tuberculosis. The family finally settled in Samoa, where Stevenson died on 03 December 1894.
    —     D'abord étudiant en droit, il se met ensuite à écrire des livres pour enfants dont L'Īle au Trésor, un vrai chef d'oeuvre. Puis, c'est Le cas du docteur Jekyll et de Mr Hyde. En raison de sa santé, il se retire dans l'île de Samoa, dans le Pacifique, où il devient l'ami des indigènes, et où il mourra.
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Treasure Island
  • Kidnapped
  • Kidnapped
  • Across the Plains
  • Across the Plains
  • The Art of Writing
  • Ballads
  • The Black Arrow
  • Catriona
  • Essays of Travel
  • Fables
  • In the South Seas
  • An Inland Voyage
  • An Inland Voyage
  • Underwoods
  • Vailima Letters
  • Lay Morals, and Other Papers
  • The Master of Ballantrae
  • The Master of Ballantrae
  • Memoir of Fleeming Jenkin
  • Memories and Portraits
  • The Merry Men
  • Moral Emblems
  • New Arabian Nights
  • New Poems
  • Prince Otto: A Romance
  • Prince Otto: A Romance
  • Records of a Family of Engineers
  • The Silverado Squatters
  • The Silverado Squatters
  • Songs of Travel and Other Verses
  • St. Ives
  • Edinburgh: Picturesque Notes
  • The Beach of Falesa
  • Familiar Studies of Men and Books
  • Island Nights' Entertainments
  • The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
  • The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
  • A Child's Garden of Verses
  • A Child's Garden of Verses, and Underwoods; with Life of R. L. Stevenson by Alexander Harvey
  • Tales and Fantasies (includes The Story of a Lie)
  • Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes
  • Virginibus Puerisque and Other Papers
  • The Weir of Hermiston: An Unfinished Romance
  • A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa
  • A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa
  • The Pocket R.L.S., Favourite Passages from Stevenson
  • Prayers Written at Vailima, and A Lowden Sabbath Morn
  • The Letters of R. L. Stevenson, volume 1 , volume 2
    co-author of:
  • The Dynamiter
  • The Dynamiter
  • The Ebb-Tide
  • The Wrecker
  • The Wrong Box
  • The Plays of W. E. Henley and R. L. Stevenson
  • 1838 Joseph F Smith 6th President of Mormon church
    1832 Eugenio Montero Ríos, político español.
    1831 James Maxwell Edinburgh Scot, physicist (Treatise on Electricity)
    1819 Estanislao Figueras, político español.
    1792 Edward John Trelawney, English traveler and author (Adv of Younger Son). He died on 13 August 1881.
    ^ 1761 John Moore, British general who died in action on 16 January 1809.
          He was born in Glasgow, the son of John Moore [1729-1802], a doctor and writer. A career soldier he joined the British Army in 1776, an ensign in the 51st Foot then based on Minorca. He first saw action in 1778 during the American Revolutionary War under the 8th Duke of Hamilton. In 1783 he returned to Britain and in 1784 he was elected to Parliament for Lanark, Selkirk, Peebles and Linlithgow.
          In 1787 he was made a Major and joined the 60th briefly before returning to the 51st. In 1791 his unit was assigned to the Mediterranean and he was involved in campaigning in Corsica and was wounded at Calvi. He was given a Colonelcy and became Adjutant-General to Sir Charles Stuart. Personal problems in Corsica led to him being reassigned to Sir Ralph Abercromby [07 Oct 1734 – 28 Mar 1801] in the West Indies. In 1798 he was made a Major-General and served in Ireland.
          In 1799 he commanded a brigade in the expedition to Egmont-op-Zee, his force was badly defeated and he was seriously injured himself. He recovered to lead the 52nd regiment during their campaigns in Egypt. He returned to England in 1803 to head the training of the army at Shorncliffe camp. In 1804 Moore was knighted and promoted to Lieutenant-General. In 1806 he returned to active duty in the Mediterranean and then in 1808 in the Baltic to assist the Swedish. Disagreements with Gustav IV Adolf [01 Nov 1778 – 07 Feb 1837 ] led to him being soon sent home where he was ordered to Portugal.
          Moore took comand of the British forces in the Iberian peninsula following the return of more senior commanders to Britain to face an inquiry over the Convention of Cintra. When Napoleon arrived in Spain with 200'000 men Moore was forced to retreat northwards over winter to La Coruña. The British forces rallied to hold the town while they were evacuated and Moore was killed during the battle of La Coruña (16 Jan 1809) (at the time known in English as Corunna) and was buried in the ramparts of the town. When the French took the town a monument was built over his grave by the orders of Soult [29 Mar 1760 – 26 Nov 1851]. The monument was rebuilt and made more permanent in 1811.
    — Commissioned at 15, Sir John Moore served in the US War of Independence and within eight years was a member of parliament. In 1794 he was involved with the British backing of Paoli's conquest of Corsica and then served in West Indies. Becoming a major general in 1798, Moore then took part in operations in Holland and Egypt, where he was a leading player in defeating the French at the second battle of Aboukir.
          Sir John Moore's main contribution, however, to Britain was his training of light infantry and his military changes earned him a lieutenant generalcy. He became the commander of British troops in Portugal following the removal of Sir Harry Burrard for his signing of the Convention of Cintra and advanced in to Spain to back local forces against the French. Moving to attack the dispersed French forces he found himself cut off from his supply lines and began a horrific retreat to La Coruña. There he organised a skillful rearguard battle that kept the French from attacking his embarking army but he was mortally wounded during the engagement. His French counterpart, Marshal Soult, was so impressed by Moore that he ordered a monument erected to his fallen foe as a sign of respect.
    ^ 1595 Georg Wilhelm, who became elector of Brandenburg in 1619, and died on 01 December 1640.
          Though a Calvinist, George William was persuaded by his Roman Catholic adviser Adam von Schwarzenberg to stay out of the struggle between the Holy Roman emperor and the German Protestant princes. His neutrality won him the hostility of both sides. In 1631 Gustav II Adolf [19 Dec 1594 – 16 Nov 1632] of Sweden occupied Brandenburg, forcing the elector to join the Protestants, but, after the Swedish defeat by an imperial army at Nördlingen (1634), George William withdrew from the conflict.
    ^ 1567 Maurice, Prince Of Orange, Count Of Nassau, hereditary stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, who died on 23 April 1625. He developped military strategy, tactics, and engineering that made the Dutch army the most modern of his time in Europe.
          Maurice was the second son of William I the Silent [24 Apr 1533 – 10 Jul 1584]. Although known as the prince of Orange, he did not actually inherit that principality until 1618, on the death of his elder half brother. A child of William's disastrous marriage to the schizophrenic Anna of Saxony and delicate as a youth, Maurice was shuffled from place to place during the years of his father's struggle against Spanish tyranny. His boyhood was further overshadowed by the desertion and betrayal of his father by former allies and finally by William's assassination. It was hardly surprising that these experiences deepened his natural reserve, leaving him suspicious of friends as well as of enemies.
          At the time of his father's death, Maurice was still a student at the newly founded University of Leiden, but the States of Holland swiftly invested him as stadholder (chief executive). He later also became stadholder of Zeeland, Utrecht, Overijssel, and Gelderland. The years 1584–1586 were critical. English help for the Netherlands revolt had finally materialized in the person of the Earl of Leicester, who headed an English expeditionary force, temporarily strengthening the provinces' defenses but imperilling the cause of the rebels by political blunders. Fortunately for Maurice, he had the assistance of the master politician Johan van Oldenbarnevelt [14 Sep 1547 – 13 May 1619], landsadvocaat (pensionary) of Holland. With Maurice's cousin and loyal supporter, William Louis [13 Mar 1560 – 13 Jul 1620], stadholder of Friesland, Oldenbarnevelt and Maurice formed a powerful triumvirate. Under the three, the northern provinces steadily consolidated their position against Spain, grew progressively richer by trade and shipping, and prepared themselves for independence.
          Oldenbarnevelt took control of domestic and foreign affairs; Maurice, as federal commander in chief, attended to military matters with the aid of William Louis. Mathematics, ballistics, and military engineering had fascinated Maurice since childhood; now he was in a position to put his theories to the test. His first task was to reduce the army's size and improve its organization. He did his best to remove the perpetual curse of all contemporary armies, mutiny, by ensuring that his soldiers were properly and promptly paid, equipped with better arms, given improved and more regular training, and instructed in the science of fortification and siege warfare. The secret of Maurice's military planning was to bring to the art of siege warfare (the dominant type of warfare of his century) those habits of steady, close observation and attention to detail so characteristic of the Dutch in all the arts and sciences of the time. He was also greatly helped by the advice of Simon Stevin [1548-1620], the great mathematician and philosopher of Bruges, then living in Holland, whose lectures attracted his attention.
          The fruits of his efforts were harvested in the 1590s. Beginning with Breda (the Nassau family seat), Maurice captured one enemy stronghold after another. In a series of actions, remarkable less for their audacity than for cool and systematic planning, the Spanish front lines were pushed back to the north, east, and south until the republic's territory began to assume something very much like its modern shape. Joyfully the Holland towns paid homage to their savior; Maurice was hailed (literally) as the engineer of victory.
          He had less success in the south. With great reluctance, Maurice was persuaded by the impatient Oldenbarnevelt to try to reunite the northern and southern Netherlands, divided by Spanish conquests. His attempt to invade Flanders and rouse it to repel its Spanish conquerors failed completely. After an initial victory at Nieuwpoort in 1601, Maurice was compelled to withdraw. Later, Oostende had to be surrendered. Oldenbarnevelt's optimism had proved totally misplaced. The southerners were apathetic, even hostile, to the appeals of the Hollanders. Even Maurice, with his doubts about the wisdom of undertaking such a campaign, was taken by surprise by its outcome. The defeat revealed that there was one department of military reform he had overlooked, intelligence {in this he was not the last}. Unwillingly, and with bitterness, Maurice had to bow to facts. He agreed first to an armistice (1607) and then a 12-year truce with Spain (1609). The division of the Netherlands was to continue.
         The problems of war had brought out the strength of Maurice's character. An English visitor noted that he was “of great forwardness, good presence and courage, flaxen haired, endued with a singular wit.” With growing confidence, he stood up for his own interests as well as those of his people against the English queen, Elizabeth I, and her emissaries as well as those of France. As Maurice's stature grew to match his responsibilities, he increasingly resented the continual interference by Oldenbarnevelt in military matters. The unsuccessful foray into Flanders was a special cause of friction, and the long siege of Oostende put a heavy strain on their relations. Estrangement was made worse by the negotiations for the truce; Maurice suspected Oldenbarnevelt of sacrificing Dutch independence in his anxiety for a peace with Spain, while Oldenbarnevelt suspected Maurice of attempting to acquire sovereign power.
          During the decade after the truce, the partnership turned into a war, as yet private and undeclared, for supremacy. Maurice's mastery of strategy again stood him in good stead. While Oldenbarnevelt was more deeply drawn into the bitter theological politics of the times, Maurice patiently waited for his moment, quietly consolidating his support in Zeeland and Amsterdam. Oldenbarnevelt, confident of his power in the Holland states, emerged as the champion of Erastianism (which advocated dominance of the state over the church) and of those moderate Protestants who wanted religious toleration, in opposition to the intolerance of the orthodox Dutch Calvinists.
          It was 1617 before Maurice came out publicly as protector of the Calvinists (the so-called Counter-Remonstrants). When Oldenbarnevelt obtained authority for his supporters in the towns to raise levies of professional soldiers (waardgelders), Maurice acted swiftly. Marching to the Brill (in South Holland) on 28 and 29 September 1617, he disbanded the levies. Next, he took advantage of his legal right to approve appointments in the local governments in order to purge each vroedschap (council) of his opponents. By the summer of 1618 he had forcibly dismissed all the waardgelders. It then only remained to remove Oldenbarnevelt. On 29 August 1618, the old statesman was arrested, and on 13 May 1619, he was executed. The long political trial was marked by persistent bias, petty spite, and inexcusable cruelty and injustice. Maurice did not himself dictate the sentence, but he ostentatiously refrained from exercising his prerogative of pardon, and he personally endorsed the demand for the probably illegal forfeiture of Oldenbarnevelt's property. The trial and execution of his old ally remain a blot upon his character and career.
          After this victory, Maurice wielded unprecedented power. In all but name the Stadholder was king. Yet, having forged his alliance with orthodox Calvinism, created an Orangist Party, and packed local, provincial, and federal offices with his supporters, Maurice pressed his “revolution” no further. In 1621 he ended with a flourish the truce with the Spanish that he had detested for 12 long years. Ironically, the Calvinist hero was quickly faced by a Habsburg threat so dangerous that he was compelled to conclude an alliance with Roman Catholic France. Just as he was dying (of a liver complaint), Breda, the scene of his first spectacular victory against the Spanish, was again being lost to the enemy, and it surrendered on 02 June 1625. Diego Velázquez [06 Jun 1599 – 06 Aug 1660] made it the subject of his famous painting La Rendición de Breda, known as Las Lanzas (1635, 307x367cm)
          The last 10 years of his life added nothing to Maurice's reputation. He was a great soldier but not a great statesman. In peace he had few of the sympathetic qualities that had drawn men to his father to settle issues by advice and discussion. His greatest claim to fame was his repulsion of the Spanish from 1590 to 1609 and the extension and securing of the frontiers of the Dutch Republic. Yet his achievement fell short of reunifying the whole of the Netherlands, and his vindictive pursuit of Oldenbarnevelt helped to divide the republic permanently into Orangists and anti-Orangists. For the latter, Oldenbarnevelt's martyrdom provided a focus and a rallying cry down to the French Revolution.
          Maurice's was an involuted and contradictory character. The circumstances of his childhood left him vulnerable to fears, suspicions, and resentments; yet he was also a man of great courage, capable of magnanimity on the battlefield. His natural caution did not inhibit his capacity for swift and decisive action. Coldly logical, he enjoyed a joke, albeit a sarcastic one. His lack of passion may have prevented him from marrying but did not prevent him from fathering a brood of illegitimate children.
    — See the portrait Maurice, Prince of Orange (1620) by Miereveld.
    1486 Johann Albert Eck, German theologian who died on 10 February 1543.
    1312 Edward III, his name as king of England from 1327, who won victories against such renowned foes as Baybars, Llewellyn, and Wallace. Edward III died on 21 June 1377.
    ^ 0354 Saint Augustine of Hippo Numidia (Algeria), convert/Christian philosopher, greatest of the Early Latin Church Fathers. Of his many writings, two have endured: "Confessions" describes the circumstances leading to his conversion to the Christian faith, and "The City of God" was written as a Christian view of the sacking of Rome by the Visigoths in the year 410.
         Aurelius Augustinus, qui sera plus connu sous le nom de saint Augustin, nait à Thagaste, dans l'actuelle Algérie.
         In North Africa in the fourth century when the Roman empire was still powerful, a Christian girl named Monica and her non-Christian husband, had a son named Augustine who was born on this day. Augustine was destined to become one of the most important church leaders of all time. As a growing boy, his mother instructed him in the ways of the Lord, but Augustine ignored her. At sixteen he went to Carthage and began living an immoral life. Although Augustine ignored his mother's warning to avoid evil, he could not escape her constant prayers that God would draw Augustine back to Himself.
          In early manhood, Augustine became a Manichaean, a religion which said that Good and Evil, Light and Darkness are in an eternal war. Augustine liked this religion because it did not require him to live a moral life. In his late twenties, however, he felt growing dissatisfaction with his philosophy. He crossed the sea to Rome, studied Plato, and began teaching rhetoric, but he became increasingly skeptical of ever finding the truth.
          Augustine's mother Monica followed him to Italy and she attended church in Milan. The pastor there was the famous Ambrose. He befriended Augustine and helped him to understand the Bible. One day, after reading Paul's epistle to the Romans, Augustine accepted Jesus Christ. In later years, Augustine looked back on his life and saw clearly that his salvation was the direct result of his mother's constant prayer. At the time of his conversion, neither Augustine nor Monica could have foreseen that Augustine's own ministry and influence would continue over the centuries, become foundational for Middle Ages Catholicism and even influence men such as Luther and Calvin in reforming and strengthening the church. His classic writings The Confessions, and The City of God are still widely published and read to this day. Saint Augustine died on 28 August 430.
  • Confessiones
  • de Civitate Dei
  • de Trinitate
  • de Dialectica
  • de Fide et Symbolo
  • de Catechizandis Rudibus
  • Sermones
  • Regula Sancti Augustini
  • The City of God
  • Confessions
  • Confessions
  • Confessions
  • Dialectics
  • Enchiridion
  • Expositions on the Book of Psalms
  • On Christian Doctrine

    Holidays Grenada, New Zealand : Remembrance Day / Laos : King's Birthday

    Religious Observances RC : St Didacus, confessor / RC-US : Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini, virgin [15 Jul 1850 – 22 Dec 1917] / Santos Arcadio, Diego de Alcalá, Estanislao de Kostka, Leandro, Nicolás I, Pascasio. / Saint Brice est un enfant trouvé que saint Martin confie au monastère de Marmoutier. Bien que prêtre indigne, Brice succède à son bienfaiteur à la tête du diocèse de Tours en 397. Il finit par se ranger jusqu'à mériter d'être canonisé!
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    Thoughts for the day:
    Communism will work when love, not greed, inspires it.”
    “In war there is no substitute for victory.”
    Gen. Douglas MacArthur [26 Jan 1880 – 05 Apr 1964].
    “In the Korean War there was a substitute for MacArthur, but there was no US victory.”
    "In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes."
    — Ben Franklin [17 Jan 1706 – 17 Apr 1790], in a 13 Nov 1789 letter to a friend.
    "Education ... has little to do with school or college." — Lillian Smith, US writer and social critic [12 Dec 1897 – 28 Sep 1966]. {Does that make taxes less certain?}
    updated Saturday 29-Nov-2008 18:53 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.a0 Tuesday 13-Nov-2007 0:42 UT
    v.6.a1 Wednesday 15-Nov-2006 17:28 UT
    Sunday 20-Nov-2005 19:53 UT
    Sunday 21-Nov-2004 0:45 UT
    Thursday 11-Dec-2003 1:54 UT

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