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^  On a 12 November:
click for South Ossetia flag
2006 As they already did on 19 January 1992, a large majority of South Ossetians, in a referendum which will change nothing, endorse the fragile and unrecognized independence of South Ossetia from Georgia. In the presidential election held this same day, authoritarian Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoity [31 Oct 1964~] is re-elected. Georgia may consider him to be a nut, but it seems to have refrained from calling him Kokoinut or even Kokonut; and he is not related to Emperor Koko [830-887], Lord High Executioner Ko-Ko, King “Kokos” of Greece [02 June 1940~], Koko the Clown, Koko the gorilla, Koko the cat, or any Koko other than Kokoyty, Kokoiti, and Kokoyev}. —(061112)

2002
The American Public Health Association, at its annual meeting, adopts a policy urging the food industry, consumers, and the public health community to reduce sodium in diet, which could save 150'000 lives a year in the US. [see Your Guide to Lowering High Blood Pressure]
2002 Quality indicators on all 17'000 nursing homes in the US become available on the Web site http://www.medicare.gov/NHCompare/home.asp

2001
In Geneva, at a Phillips, de Pury & Luxembourg auction, a record 3.08 million Swiss francs ($1.88 million) gets one of only two existing 1944 Patek Philippe gold watches of a certain model which display the day, month and phases of the moon,

2000
On the eve of a federal court hearing on the Florida presidential election, advocates for George W. Bush and Al Gore previewed their legal strategies, with Democrats justifying painstaking recounts and Republicans saying the practice could result in political "mischief" and human error.
^ 2000 Jonathon Colombini, 5, arrives in Bahía Honda, Cuba, from Key West, Florida, aboard a sailboat with his mother, Arletis Blanco Perez, 29, her mate Agustín Lemus, 37, their daughter Jessica Lemus, 18 months, and Lemus's cousin Yuriel León Lemus, 21. Jonathon lived in Key Largo, and was taken to Cuba against the will of his separated father, Jon Colombini, 31. His mother then takes him to live with her mate's parents in Blanca Arena, 60 km west of Havana. The two Lemus are arrested by Cuban authorities.
1998 Elvira Lindo es galardonada con el Premio Nacional español de Literatura Infantil por Trapos sucios, la cuarta entrega de la serie dedicada a Manolito Gafotas.
^ 1996 Jesse Jackson threatens Texaco
      Reverend Jesse Jackson turned up the heat on Texaco on this day, threatening to lead a potentially crippling boycott against the company if the oil giant failed to settle a lingering racial-discrimination lawsuit. Six Texaco employees initially filed the $520 million suit in 1994; the ensuing years saw the case mushroom into a complaint backed by some 1400 workers. Despite growing pressure, Texaco was slow to respond to the case. However, Jackson's involvement, coupled with the revelation of a "secret" audio tape that captured Texaco executives making racial slurs and plotting to derail the lawsuit, helped bring the case to a close. On 15 November Texaco announced what was believed to be a $ 175 million settlement to the case, which included a one-time salary boost for minority employees, as well as the establishment of "diversity training and sensitivity programs".
1995 La Commonwealth admite entre sus miembros a Mozambique, ex colonia portuguesa.
1991 El escritor y académico Francisco Ayala es distinguido con el Premio Miguel de Cervantes de Literatura.
1991 Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev told a news conference he'd been warned by President George H.W. Bush and other US officials that a revolt was brewing before hard-liners staged their coup, but that he had discounted their information.
1991 Robert Gates was sworn in as CIA director.
^ 1990 Akihito enthroned as Emperor of Japan
      Crown Prince Akihito Tsugu-no-miya, the 125th Japanese monarch along an imperial line dating back to 660 BC, ascends the Chrysanthemum Throne as Emperor of Japan two years after the death of his father. Emperor Akihito, the only son of the late Emperor Showa Tenno Hirohito, is the only Japanese monarch to reign solely as an official figurehead.
      His father, Hirohito, began his reign in 1926 as theoretically absolute, although his powers were sharply limited in practice. After the Japanese defeat in World War II, Hirohito was formally stripped of his powers by the United States, and forced to renounce his supposed divinity. With the signing of the amended constitution of 1946 by Japan, the emperor became the official figurehead of Japan.
     Akihito caused controversy in 1959, when as heir to the Japanese throne he broke a 1500-year-old tradition and married a commoner, Shoda Michiko, the daughter of a wealthy businessman. The imperial couple have three children: Crown Prince Naruhito, born in 1960; Prince Akishino, born in 1965; and Princess Nori, born in 1969.
      Upon becoming emperor, Akihito, an amateur marine biologist and accomplished cellist, commences a new Japanese era, known as Heisei, or "Achievement of Universal Peace."
^ 1990 World Wide Web proposed
      Tim Berners-Lee circulated a draft of a proposal for a hypertext system, which he called the World Wide Web. Berners-Lee was a British computer scientist on fellowship at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. By 1990, he had created the basic parameters of the World Wide Web. A working version was posted on CERN's internal computers in May 1991. In August 1991, Berners-Lee released Web files and requested input from other developers, and by the beginning of the next year, the Web was widely discussed. In early 1993, when Marc Andreessen and other graduate students at the University of Illinois released the Mosaic browser (Netscape's precursor), the Web rapidly became a popular medium
1989 La guerrilla de El Salvador lanza una ofensiva a gran escala contra la capital.
^ 1989 IBM, Microsoft to support competing operating systems
      At a strained press conference in Las Vegas, Microsoft head Bill Gates and the head of IBM's personal computer business, Jim Cannavino, announced they would both support two operating systems: the flagging OS/2 operating system, which Microsoft had developed for IBM, and Microsoft's competitive Windows operating system. The companies said they would work together on a new version of OS/2 that would run on both low-end and high-end machines. IBM surprised some observers by saying it also supported Windows for lower-end users. The program had met unexpected success, at the expense of OS/2, earlier in the year. Many industry observers cited the press conference as a strategic blunder for IBM and a turning point for Windows, which became the industry's standard operating system.
1989 Brazil holds 1st free presidential election in 29 years
1987 Boris Yeltsin is fired as head of Moscow's Communist Party for criticizing the slow pace of reform.
1985 La Comisión de Descolonización de la ONU aprueba, por consenso, una resolución que insta a los Gobiernos de España y del Reino Unido a proseguir las negociaciones para una solución definitiva del contencioso sobre Gibraltar.
1985 Los obispos chilenos acusan al Gobierno de Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte de terrorista.
1984 La República Árabe Democrática Saharaui es admitida en la OUA (Organización para la Unidad Africana) como miembro de pleno derecho, lo que provoca la retirada de Marruecos del organismo.
^ 1982 Andropov assumes power in the USSR
      Following the death of long-time Soviet leader Leonid I. Brezhnev two days earlier, Yuri V. Andropov is selected as the new general secretary of the Communist Party's Central Committee. in the Soviet Union. It was the culmination of a long, but steady march up the Communist Party hierarchy for Andropov.
      Born in Russia in 1914, by the 1930s Andropov was an active participant in the Communist Youth League. During World War II, he led a group of guerilla fighters who operated behind Nazi lines. His work led to various positions in Moscow, and in 1954, he was named as Soviet ambassador to Hungary. During the Hungarian crisis of 1956, Andropov proved his reliability. He lied to Hungarian Prime Minister Imre Nagy about Soviet military intentions, and later assured Nagy that he was safe from Soviet reprisals. Soviet tanks rolled into Budapest in November 1956 and Nagy was captured and executed in 1958.
      Andropov's work in Hungary brought him back to Moscow, where he continued to rise through the ranks of the Communist Party. In 1967, he was named head of the KGB, Russia's secret police force. A hard-liner, he supported the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia and oversaw the crackdown on dissidents such as Andrei Sakharov and Aleksandr Solzhenitzyn. In 1982, with Brezhnev deathly ill and fading fast, Andropov left the KGB and began jockeying for power. When Brezhnev died on 10 November 1982, Andropov was poised to assume power. He was named general secretary on 12 November.
      His rule was short-lived, but eventful. At home, he tried to reinvigorate the flagging Russian economy and attacked corruption and rising alcoholism among the Soviet people. In his foreign policy, Andropov faced off against the adamantly anticommunist diplomacy of President Ronald Reagan. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were severely strained when Soviet pilots shot down a Korean airliner in September 1983. Later that year, Soviet diplomats broke off negotiations concerning reductions in Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces and the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Andropov had suffered from nearly debilitating illnesses since early 1983, and died on 09 February 1984. He was succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko.
1981 1st balloon crossing of the Pacific is completed (Double Eagle V)
1980 El Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional queda aislado en el poder ante la retirada de las fuerzas políticas moderadas del gobierno de Nicaragua.
1980 Se inaugura en Madrid el XV Congreso de la Internacional Socialista.
1979 US halts Iranian oil imports & freezes Iranian assets
1975 Supreme Court Justice William O Douglas retired after 36 years
1974 Argelia y Estados Unidos reanudan sus relaciones diplomáticas, interrumpidas desde 1967.
1971 Another 45'000 US soldiers to withdraw from Vietnam.
     President Richard Nixon sets 01 February 1972, as the deadline for the withdrawal of an additional 45'000 US soldiers. US troop withdrawals had begun in the fall of 1969. After the February withdrawals were complete, the total US force strength in South Vietnam was 139'000. Nixon said that most offensive activities were now being undertaken entirely by the South Vietnamese and that US ground forces were "now in defensive positions." He further stated that 80% of the forces that were in Vietnam when he took office had come home, and that US casualties had dropped to less than 10 a week.
1970 Chile y Cuba reanudan sus relaciones diplomáticas.
1969 La primera ministra de la India, Indira Gandhi Shrimati, es expulsada del Partido del Congreso.
^ 1969 My Lai atrocities revealed
      Seymour Hersh, an independent investigative journalist, in a cable filed through Dispatch News Service and picked up by more than 30 newspapers, reveals the extent of the US Army's charges against 1st Lt. William L. Calley at My Lai. Hersh wrote: "The Army says he [Calley] deliberately murdered at least 109 Vietnamese civilians during a search-and-destroy mission in March 1968, in a Viet Cong stronghold known as `Pinkville.'" The incident, which became known as the My Lai Massacre, took place in March 1968. Between 200 and 500 South Vietnamese civilians were murdered by US soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade of the Americal Division. During a sweep of the cluster of hamlets known as My Lai 4, the US soldiers — particularly those from Calley's first platoon — indiscriminately shot people as they ran from their huts, and then systematically rounded up the survivors, allegedly leading them to a ditch where Calley gave the order to "finish them off."
      The original investigation — which had been conducted in April 1968 by members of the 11th Infantry Brigade, the unit involved in the affair — concluded that no massacre had occurred and that no further action was warranted. However, when the cover-up was discovered, the Army Criminal Investigation Division conducted a new investigation. Additionally, Army Chief of Staff William C. Westmoreland appointed Lt. Gen. William R. Peers to "explore the nature and scope" of the original investigation to determine the extent of the cover-up. He found that 30 persons either participated in the atrocity or knew of it and failed to do anything about it. In the end, only 14 were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted, except Calley, who was found guilty of murdering 22 civilians and sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was reduced twice, first by the Court of Military Appeals and then by the Secretary of the Army. President Richard Nixon paroled him in November 1974.
^ 1969 Troops prepare against peaceful Vietnam War protest
     In Washington, D.C., the federal government begins to assemble 9000 soldiers to assist the police and National Guard with massive protests and demonstrations scheduled for November 14-15. The Defense Department announced that the troops were being made available at the request of the Justice Department and were to augment 1200 National Guardsmen and a 3700-man police force.
1968 The US Supreme Court voids an Arkansas law banning the teaching of evolution in public schools.
1961 La ciudad de Stalingrad es rebautizada con el nombre de Volgograd.
1960 Fracasa en Vietnam una insurrección contra el presidente Ngo Dinh Diem.
1956 In Hungary, where the Soviet army has crushed the armed resistance to its invasion, the Hungarian Writers’ Union issues a protest against the Soviet intervention and the terror by the authorities. Among other bodies to endorse it are the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Hungarian News Agency MTI, the University Revolutionary Students’ Committee and the Revolutionary Committee of the Hungarian Intelligentsia. On the same day, the provisional executive committee of the students’ association Mefesz is formed, headed by István Pozsár.
1956 Largest observed iceberg, 335 by 97 km, 1st sighted
1955 Date returned to in "Back to the Future" & "Back to the Future II"
1954 Ellis Island, immigration station in NY Harbor, closed after processing more than 20 million immigrants since opening in 1892.
1951 The US Eighth Army in Korea is ordered to cease offensive operations and begin an active defense. — El general Matthew Ridgway ordena a sus tropas que renuncien a toda ofensiva en Corea.
1949 El mariscal Josip Broz Tito rescinde el tratado de amistad entre Yugoslavia y Albania.
^ 1948 Japanese War criminals sentenced      ^top^
      An international war crimes tribunal in Tokyo passes death sentences on seven Japanese military and government officials, including General Hideki Tojo, who served as premier of Japan from 1941 to 1944. Eight days before, the trial ended after thirty months with all twenty-five Japanese defendants being found guilty of breaching the laws and customs of war. In addition to the death sentences imposed on Tojo and others principles, such as Iwane Matsui, who organized the Rape of Nanking, and Heitaro Kimura, who brutalized Allied prisoners of war, sixteen others are sentenced to life imprisonment. The remaining two of the original twenty-five defendants are sentenced to lesser terms in prison.
      Unlike the Nuremberg trial of German war criminals, where there were four chief prosecutors representing Great Britain, France, the US, and the USSR, the Tokyo trial featured only one chief prosecutor — Joseph B. Keenan, a former assistant to the US attorney general. However, other nations, especially China, contributed to the proceedings, and Australian judge William Flood Webb presided. In addition to the central Tokyo trial, various tribunals sitting outside of Japan judged some 5000 Japanese guilty of war crimes, of whom more than 900 were executed.
     (If the US had lost the war, would the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been considered war crimes? The fire bombing of Dresden?).
1948 Capturado en la zona británica de Alemania Hjalmar Schacht, contra el que se inicia un proceso judicial por su adscripción al nazismo.
^ 1946 First Drive-In Banking Service
      The Exchange National Bank of Chicago, Illinois, instituted the first drive-in banking service in the US, and anticipated a cultural phenomenon that would sweep across the US in the coming decade. In 1946, the US's Big Three automobile companies were still engaged in the laborious process of retooling from war production to civilian automobile company. With the influx of returning soldiers, and economic signs pointing to a period of great US prosperity, market demand for automobiles was high. At first, US carmakers responded by offering their old prewar models, but beginning in 1949, the first completely redesigned postwar cars hit the market, and people in the US embraced the automotive industry as never before. By the early 1950s, the US was a nation on wheels, and with a seemingly endless reserve of cheap gas available, drive-in culture, featuring everything from drive-in movie theaters to drive-in grocery stores, flourished alongside the US's highways and main streets. In 1946, the Exchange National Bank of Chicago anticipated the rise of the US's drive-in society by several years, featuring such drive-in banking innovations as tellers' windows protected by heavy bulletproof glass, and sliding drawers that enabled drivers to conduct their business from the comfort of their vehicle.
1946 In a US Army contest, an abacus operator beat an adding machine operator in four out of five tests.
1946 The Exchange National Bank in Chicago inaugurates the nation's first ten drive-up teller windows..
1942 The World War II naval Battle of Guadalcanal begins. (The US would win a major victory over the Japanese.) — Estallido de la batalla naval de Guadalcanal, en las islas Salomón, entablada entre estadounidenses y japoneses en el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial .
1942 Capturado en Francia, en calidad de rehén, el general Maxime Weygand por parte de los alemanes.
^ 1941 SS general reports Russian winter demoralizing his troops.
      The temperature on the Moscow front plummets to twelve degrees centigrade below zero. For the first time, Soviet ski troops go into action. For many German soldiers, frostbite emerged as an unexpected, crippling foe. SS General Eicke reports back to headquarters that conditions were so bad, soldiers in his Death's Head Division were actually wounding themselves to escape further military service. Particularly frustrated among his ranks were ethnic Germans—soldiers of German culture and language who came from outside Germany. But native Germans themselves were beginning to feel the bleakness of the Russian campaign. Since entering the Soviet Union four months earlier, the Death's Head division had suffered almost 9000 casualties, more than half its initial strength. Meanwhile, back in Berlin, Hitler discussed his plans for Russia as if victory were already secured. He thought of the country as a vast farmland, where the natives would toil to supply Mother Germany: "We shall give the natives all they need: plenty to eat, and rot-gut spirits. If they don't work, they'll go to camp, and they'll be deprived of alcohol."
1940 Tropas británicas inician la ofensiva en el frente abisinio.
1939 Jews of Lodz Poland are ordered to wear yellow armbands
1938 Mexico agrees to compensate the United States for land seizures.
1938 Hermann Goering announces he wants Madagascar as a Jewish homeland
1936 Inauguración en San Francisco (Estados Unidos) del puente más largo del mundo hasta la fecha.
1934 The US Treasury Department's Treasury International Capital (TIC) initiative is started to investigate and report on the flow of international capital.
1933 Nazis receive 92% of vote in Germany
1933 1st known photo of Loch Ness monster (or whatever) is taken
1927 Canada is admitted to the League of Nations.
1927 Trotsky is expelled from Soviet Communist Party; Stalin becomes undisputed dictator
1926 Estallido en Indonesia de una insurrección contra la dominación holandesa.
1926 El presidente nicaragüense Adolfo Díaz solicita ayuda a los Estados Unidos para reprimir el levantamiento dirigido por el partido liberal.
1923 Adolf Hitler is arrested for his attempted German coup.
1921 Representatives of nine nations start the Washington Conference for Limitation of Armaments
^ 1920 Traité de Rapallo entre Italie et Yougoslavie
      L'Italie et la Yougoslavie signent le traité de Rapallo. C'est la première entorse aux traités de paix qui prétendent, mais en vain, installer un ordre pacifique en Europe. Dans la petite cité balnéaire des environs de Gênes, il est convenu que l'Italie annexe Zara, sur la côte dalmate, tandis que Fiume, autre ville de la côte dalmate, devient un état indépendant. Après la Grande Guerre de 14-18, beaucoup d'Italiens avaient reproché aux Alliés de ne pas accorder à leur pays les territoires promis en 1915 en échange de son entrée en guerre à leurs côtés. Ces territoires avaient été finalement cédés au royaume de Yougoslavie, né du dépècement de l'Autriche-Hongrie. En 1919, le poète Gabriele D'Annunzio occupe derechef la ville de Fiume avec quelques centaines de volontaires italiens. Le traité de Rapallo clôt provisoirement la querelle entre l'Italie et la Yougoslavie. Il offre aussi quelque réconfort aux "irrédentistes" italiens qui contestent les frontières issues des traités de paix d'après l'armistice. Mais ces nationalistes ne se tiennent pas quitte et restent animés par l'esprit de revanche. Un démagogue en tirera parti pour prendre le pouvoir dès 1922. Il s'agit de Benito Mussolini.
^ 1918 Austria proclaimed a democratic republic
      One day after the end of World War I, Austria is declared an independent republic for the first time in its history. From the late thirteenth century to the end of World War I, the history of Austria was largely that of its ruling house, the Hapsburgs. After the fall of Napoleonic France in the early nineteenth century, the Hapsburg's Austrian Empire became the continent's dominant power. In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was established, with one Hapsburg monarch serving as both emperor of Austria and king of Hungary. In 1914, a Serbian nationalist's assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir apparent to his great-uncle, Emperor Francis Joseph, ignited World War I. Austria-Hungary joined the Central Powers with Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey, and the country was in economic and political ruin by the time of the Central Powers' defeat in 1918. In the aftermath of World War I, Austria and Hungary are declared independent republics, and Emperor Charles I, ruler of Austria-Hungary since 1916, is forced to abdicate. In 1919, Austria votes to abolish the monarchy, and over six hundred years of Hapsburg rule officially comes to an end.
1917 El general ruso Krasnov fracasa, con sus cosacos, en la tentativa de retomar Petrogrado para Aleksandr Feodorovich Kerenski.
1912 Se encuentran en el polo Sur los cadáveres de los componentes de la expedición capitaneada por Robert Falcon Scott.
1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont, a Brazilian residing in Paris, makes the first public heavier-than-air flight to go a distance of 220 m, in his 14-Bis. The Wright brothers had flown in secret, starting with 4 flights on 17 December 1903, the longest covering 260 m, and going on to longer flights, up to 38 km, before this flight of Santos-Dumont. Clément Ader [04 Feb 1841 – 05 Mar 1926] had flown his Éole 50 m on 09 October 1890.
1915 Britain annexes Gilbert and Ellice Islands
1903 The Lebaudy brothers of France set an air-travel distance record of 55 km in a dirigible.
1867 Mount Vesuvius erupts.
^ 1867 US plans subduing Plains Indians through false treaties
      After more than a decade of ineffective military campaigns and infamous atrocities, a conference begins at Fort Laramie to discuss alternative solutions to the "Indian problem" and to initiate peace negotiations with the Sioux.
      The United States had been fighting periodic battles with Sioux and Cheyenne tribes since the 1854. That year, the Grattan Massacre inspired loud calls for revenge, though largely unjustified, against the Plains Indians. Full-scale war erupted on the plains in 1864, leading to vicious fighting and the inexcusable Sand Creek Massacre, during which Colorado militiamen killed 105 Cheyenne women and children who were living peacefully at their winter camp. By 1867, the cost of the war against the Plains Indians, the Army's failure to achieve decisive results, and news of atrocities like those at Sand Creek turned the the US public and US Congress against the Army's aggressive military solution to the "Indian problem."
      Concluding that peaceful negotiations were preferable to war, the attendees at the Fort Laramie conference initiated talks with the Sioux. The talks bore results the following year when US negotiators agreed to abandon the US forts on the Bozeman Trail in Wyoming and Montana, leaving the territory in the hands of the Sioux. However, the promise of peace on the central plains was fleeting. Concern about wars between the different Indian tribes led the US to renege on its promise to provide guns to the Cheyenne, and the angry Indians took revenge on Kansas settlements by killing 15 men and raping five women. By late 1868, US soldiers were again preparing for war on the Plains.
^ 1864 The destruction of Atlanta begins
      Union General William Tecumseh Sherman orders the business district of Atlanta destroyed before he embarks on his famous March to the Sea. When Sherman captured Atlanta in early September 1864, he knew that he could not remain there for long. His tenuous supply line ran from Nashville, Tennessee, through Chattanooga, then 160 km through mountainous northern Georgia. The army he had just defeated, the Army of Tennessee, was still in the area and its leader, John Bell Hood, swung around Atlanta to try to damage Sherman's lifeline. Of even greater concern was the Confederate cavalry of General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Forrest was a brilliant commander who could strike quickly against the railroads and river transports on which Sherman relied.
      During the fall, Sherman conceived of a plan to split his enormous army. He sent part of it, commanded by General George Thomas, back toward Nashville to deal with Hood while he prepared to take the rest of the troops across Georgia. Through October, Sherman built up a massive cache of supplies in Atlanta. He then ordered a systematic destruction of Atlanta to prevent the Confederates from recovering anything once the Yankees had abandoned the city. By one estimate, 37% of the city was ruined. This was the same policy Sherman would apply to the rest of Georgia as he marched to Savannah. Before leaving on 15 November 1864, Sherman's forces had burned the industrial district of Atlanta and left little but a smoking shell.
1863 Confederate General James Longstreet arrives at Loudon, Tennessee, to assist the attack on Union General Ambrose Burnside's troops at Knoxville.
1861 Blockade Runner Fingal, bought by Confederates in England, arrives in Savannah, Georgia
1859 The first flying-trapeze circus act is performed by Jules Leotard at the Circus Napoleon, Paris. He also designed the garment that bears his name.
1851 Auguste Mariette découvre à Saqqara le Serapeum de Memphis et la nécropole des taureaux sacrés. L'archéologue va faire de l'égyptologie la discipline prestigieuse qu'elle est devenue.
1848 La nouvelle Constitution française est promulguée. Elle prévoit que le président sera élu au suffrage universel direct pour quatre ans et non rééligible. Il nommera et révoquera les ministres et les hauts fonctionnaires, et il disposera de la force armée. Le pouvoir législatif reste du ressort d'une assemblée de 750 membres élus pour trois ans au suffrage universel. L'Assemblée ne peut être dissoute que par le président. Le judiciaire reste indépendant et les juges sont inamovibles.
1847 Auparavant les opérations chirurgicales se pratiquaient sans anesthésie. Le britanique James Young Simpson fut le premier à utiliser le chloroforme après que de nombreux avants eurent expérémenté avec peu de succès divers autres gaz.
1803 Francia acepta la independencia de Haití.
^ 1799 First meteor shower on record
      Andrew Ellicott Douglass, an early US astronomer born in Vermont, witnesses the Leonids meteor shower from a ship off the Florida Keys. Douglass, who later would became an assistant to the famous astronomer Percival Lowell, writes in his journal that the "whole heaven appeared as if illuminated with sky rockets, flying in an infinity of directions, and I was in constant expectation of some of them falling on the vessel. They continued until put out by the light of the sun after day break." Douglass's journal entry is the first known record of a meteor shower in North America.
      The Leonids meteor shower is an annual event that is greatly enhanced every three decades or so by the appearance of the comet Tempel-Tuttle. When the comet returns the Leonids can produce rates of up to several thousand meteors per hour that can light up the sky on a clear night. Douglass witnessed one such manifestation of the Leonids shower, and the return of the Tempel-Tuttle in 1833 is credited as inspiring the first organized study of meteor astronomy.
1775 General Washington forbids recruiting officers to enlist Negroes
1701 The Carolina Assembly passed a Vestry Act making the Church of England the official religion of the Carolina Colony. (Strong opposition by Quakers and other resident Nonconformists forced the colony's proprietors to revoke their legislation two years later.)
1660 John Bunyan is arrested for unlicensed preaching and sentenced to prison. While incarcerated this or other times, he wrote, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666) and The Pilgrim's Progress (1678) extraordinary Puritan classics.
1652 Louis XIV déclare coupables du crime de lèse-majesté le prince de Condé, la duchesse de Longueville et quelques autres seigneurs coupables d'avoir participé à la Fronde des Princes. C'est seulement après la paix des Pyrénées avec l'Espagne que les proscrits rentreront en grâce auprès du Roi-Soleil.
1543 El príncipe Felipe, futuro rey Felipe II de España, contrae matrimonio con su prima María Manuela de Portugal.
1537 Geneva's council votes to banish anyone who doesn't embrace its reformed confession of faith.
1276 Suspicious of the intentions of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the Prince of Wales, English King Edward I resolves to invade Wales.
0295 Origin of Era of Ascension
— 324 -BC- Origin of Era of Alexander
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 12 November:

2005 Madhu Dandavate, Indian Socialist politician born on 21 January 1924. He was a five-time member of the Lok Sabha (Parliament lower house) from 1971 to 1990 from Rajapur in the Konkan region of Maharashtra and was a leader of the Opposition during the days of Indira Gandhi [19 Nov 1917 – 31 Oct 1984] (PM 19 Jan 1966 - 24 Mar 1977 and 15 Jan 1980 - 31 Oct 1984 ) and later her son and successor Rajiv Gandhi [20 Aug 1944 – 21 May 1991] (PM 31 Oct 1984 - 02 Dec 1989] as Prime Ministers. He was Railway Minister in the government (24 Mar 1977 - 15 Jul 1979) of Morarji Desai [29 Feb 1896 – 10 Apr 1995] in the post-Emergency years and Finance Minister in the short-lived (02 Dec 1989 - 10 Nov 1990) government of V. P. Singh [25 Jun 1931~]. He had also played a leading role in the conception of the Konkan railway project. Dandavate was also Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission twice: during 1990 and later during 1996-1998. In later years, Dandavate was associated with the Janata Dal (Secular) party led by former Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda [18 May 1933~] and was his close associate. Dandavate was also a scholar, financial expert, and social activist. — (051113)
2004 Four persons in westbound van which at 05:45 (11:45 UT) collides with 18-wheeler truck on Martin Luther King Bridge from East St. Louis, Illinois, to St. Louis, Missouri. The other three persons in the van and the truck driver are injured. Spilled diesel fuel from the truck caught fire but was soon extinguished. The RideFinders van was part of a program operated by Illinois' Madison County Transit, by which groups of 7 to 15 commuters share rides for a monthly fare. The bridge is one of three spanning the Mississippi at St. Louis; it has two lanes in each direction, separated by a double yellow line, which the van had crossed.
2003 Ann Cornelisen, on her 77th birthday, US author of Vendetta of Silence (1971), Women of the Shadows: Wives and Mothers of Southern Italy (1976), Strangers and Pilgrims: The Last Italian Migration (1980), Any Four Women Could Rob the Bank of Italy (1983), Where It All Began: Italy, 1954 (1990)
destroyed Italian headquarters2003 Four suicide bombers in a car bomb and in a truck that precedes it, 9 other Iraqis, 2 Italian civilians, 4 Italian army soldiers, and 12 Carabinieri, at 10:45 (06:45 UT), at the headquarters of the Italian forces in Nasiriyah, Iraq [photo >], where some 340 Carabinieri and 110 Romanians are based. 20 Italians are wounded: 15 Carabinieri, one civilian, and four soldiers, one of whom, Pietro Petrucci, is declared brain dead the next day in a Kuwait City hospital. 64 other persons are wounded, including one of 3 months, and a boy, 1, who loses an eye and the nose.
     Un camion forza il posto di blocco all'entrata della base e prosegue la sua corsa sino alla palazzina di tre piani che ospitava il dipartimento logistico italiano. C'è una sparatoria. Dietro al camion irrompe l'autobomba che finisce la sua corsa esplodendo e causando l'inferno. A compiere l'attentato sono stati "quattro kamikaze" su due veicoli con a bordo tra i 150 ed i 300 chili di esplosivo. Gli attentatori sono stati inizialmente "fermati da difese esterne", costituiti da reti e fili spinati. "Ma il quantitativo di esplosivo era cosě potente da aver distrutto quasi completamente la palazzina. L'esplosione è potentissima, fa crollare gran parte dell'edificio e danneggia una seconda palazzina dove ha sede il comando. I vetri delle finestre del complesso vanno in frantumi. Nel cortile davanti alla palazzina molti mezzi militari prendono fuoco. In fiamme anche il deposito delle munizioni, da cui provengono forti esplosioni.
http://www.repubblica.it/2003/k/sezioni/esteri/iraq5/nassi/nassi.html
xdfotos
     The Italian dead are:
Carabinieri:
  • Domenico “Mimmo” Intravaia, 46, from Monreale.
  • Orazio Majorana, 29, from Catania.
  • Alfio Ragazzi, 39, maresciallo who belonged to the RIS (Reparto di Investigazioni scientifiche) of Messina.
  • Giuseppe Coletta, 38, a vicebrigadiere from San Vitaliano.
  • Giovanni “Serpico” Cavallaro, 47, maresciallo nato in provincia di Messina e residente a Nizza Monferrato.
  • Ivan Ghitti, 30, from Milan.
  • Daniele Ghione, 30, maresciallo from Finale Ligure (Savona).
  • Enzo Fregosi, 56, ex comandante dei Nas di Livorno dove viveva.
  • Alfonso Trincone, 44, era originario di Pozzuoli (Napoli) ma risiedeva a Roma
  • Massimiliano Bruno, maresciallo di origine bolognese, biologo in forza al Raggruppamento Investigazioni scientifiche (Racis) di Roma.
  • Andrea Filippa, 33, from Turin, who lived in San Pier D' Isonzo.
  • Filippo Merlino, 40, maresciallo from Sant' Arcangelo (Potenza).
    Italian army:
  • Massimo Ficuciello, son of General Alberto Ficuciello.
  • Silvio Olla, 32, noncom from Isola di Sant' Antioco (Cagliari).
  • Emanuele Ferraro.
  • Alessandro Carrisi.
    Italian civilians:
  • Stefano Rolla, regista cinematografico, produttore della "Gabbiano Film". Stava facendo un sopralluogo per un film del regista Massimo Spano.
  • Marco Beci, 43, operatore nella cooperazione internazionale, originario di Pergola, nelle Marche.

    2002 (possible date) Patricia Harris, 43, UK paranoid schizophrenic, sitting in her kitchen with the curtains drawn and her back to the door. On 14 November 2002 newspapers would report that Helen Redmond and another worker from the mental health charity Mind let themselves into Harris' home (on 12 Nov?). After saying hello, they tried talking to Harris, but when she failed to respond they left, as she didn't seem to want them there. The next day (13 Nov?), two other health workers on a follow-up visit discovered that she was dead.
    2001: Five persons on the ground and all 251 passengers and 9 crew members aboard American Airlines Flight 587 originating from Boston, an Airbus A300 bound for the Dominican Republic, that loses its tail, then its two engines, and crashes at 09:17 (15:17 UT), 103 seconds after takeoff from Kennedy Airport, New York, about 8 km away in the Rockaway residential neighborhood in Queens. On the ground some 30 persons are injured and 12 houses catch fire. Three years later the investigating board would conclude that the tail breaking off was caused by First Officer Sten Molin, the co-pilot, moving the plane's rudder back and forth after takeoff, in reaction to turbulence; neither the manufacturer nor his trainers had warned him of this danger.
    2001 Palestinian boy, 12, of the Gaza Strip refugee camp of Khan Yunis, critically wounded in the head on 09 December by gunfire from Israeli troops, who say that he appeared to be at least 16 and was carrying a large bag as he tampered with a security fence in an area of recent infiltrations, and that after warning him and they shot toward his lower body. The body count of the al-Aqsa intifada started on 28 September 2000 now stands at 753 Palestinians and 197 Israelis.
    2001 Muhammed Hassan Reihan, 25, by large-caliber bullets from Israeli troops surrounding his house in Tell, a town of 3000 south of Nablus, West Bank which Israeli tanks entered at about 02:30. Reihan, a senior member of Hamas had just picked up a rifle and gone outside. He had been on Israel's wanted list since 1998 for the killing of Harel Ben-Nin and Shlomo Liedman, of the nearby Jewish enclave settlement Yitzhar.
    2000 Leah Rabin, 72, outspoken campaigner for Mideast peace following the 1995 assassination of her husband, former Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
    1997 Pakistani driver Anwar Mirza; and J. Enlo, T. Ritchie, E. Egbu, and L. Jennings, US auditors for Union Texas Petroleum, shot in Karachi in retaliation for the 10 November conviction in Virginia of Mir Ahmad Kasi, who on 25 January 1993 murdered two CIA employees arriving for work at CIA headquarters.
    1996: 349 persons as a Saudi Boeing 747 jetliner collides shortly after takeoff from New Delhi, India, with a Kazak Ilyushin-76 cargo plane.
    1996 Baby Grossberg, killed at birth by parents, college freshmen, Amy Grossberg and Brian Paterson, who eventually would be sentenced to 2-1/2 and 2 years in prison respectively.
    1989 Dolores Ibárruri Gómez, "Pasionaria", dirigente comunista española.
    1984 Chester Bomar Himes, escritor estadounidense.
    1970 Thousands die as the worst cyclone of the 20th century reaches East Pakistan. Its worst damage will be done the next day, which will end with some 500'000 dead.
    1956 Juan Negrín López, científico y político español.
    1944 Some 8000 Japanese soldiers in four transport ships, which US planes sink together with their six escorting destroyers.
    1944 The German battleship Tirpitz is sunk in a Norwegian fjord.
    1921 Fernand Khnopff, Belgian artist born on 12 September 1858. — MORE ON KHNOPFF AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images. —(051111)
    ^ 1916 L'administrateur colonial de Batna en Algérie.
          Les premières insurrections anticoloniales eurent lieu même avant le début des années 20, où tout incitait les Algériens à se révolter contre l’injustice coloniale et à s'organiser pour refuser leur condition misérable : la révolution d’octobre en Russie, la dette de guerre que la France n’avait pas réglée aux Algériens et la fameuse Déclaration du Président américain Wilson défendant ouvertement pour la première fois « le droit des peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes ».
          De premiers soulèvements sont constatés chez la tribu des Béni Chougrane, dans les monts de Mascara, en 1914-1915. Les fellahs refusent qu’on les enlève à leur terre pour aller combattre les Allemands. Pourquoi défendraient-ils la France ? En 1916, dans les Aurès, dans la région de Mac Mahon, le drapeau de la sédition est levé.
          Dans la nuit du 11 au 12 novembre 1916, un groupe de villageois se révolte et prend les armes tuant l’administrateur et blessant le sous-préfet de Batna. Dans les années 20 se multiplièrent les groupes organisés dirigés par des bandits d’honneur, des Robin des djebels, qui donnèrent du fil à retordre aux colons: Ben Zalmat dans les Aurès, Ghomri dans la région d’Akbou et Béjaïa… La répression fut féroce. Ghomri fut fusillé en public. Avant de mourir, il a crié : «Vive l’Algérie!»
    1912 José Canalejas Méndez, político, escritor y notable jurisconsulto, nacido en El Ferrol, el 31 Jul 1854, presidente del Consejo de Ministros español, es víctima de un atentado anarquista, en la madrileña Puerta del Sol.
    1889 Albert Ruger, pioneering panoramic map artist.
    1881 Jan Michiel Ruyten, Belgian artist born on 09 April 1813.
    1869 Johann Friedrich Overbeck, German painter born on 03 July 1789. — more with links to three images.
    1857 Manuel Ceferino Oribe Viana, born on 26 August 1792, Urugayan general and politician; president from 1835 to 1838, later leader of the Blanco faction in a long civil war. — Portrait of Oribe (210x149cm; 1078x750pix, 201kb) by Manuel Rosé [09 Jan 1882 – 16 Jan 1961] — (051111)
    1848 Rudolf Ribalz, Austrian artist born on 30 May 1848.
    1844 Jerónimo Merino, "el cura Merino", fallece en Alençon, sacerdote y guerrillero héroe de la Guerra de la Independencia española contra los franceses.
    1829 Jean-Baptiste Regnault, baron, French painter born on 19 October 1754, academician and a representatives of neoclassicism. — MORE ON REGNAULT AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images. —(061111)
    1772 Jan Morits Quinckhardt, Dutch artist born on 28 January 1688.
    1754 Jakob de Wit (or Witt), Dutch painter born in 1695. — MORE ON DE WIT AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1722 Adriaan van der Werff, Dutch painter of religious and mythological scenes and portraits, active mainly in Rotterdam, born on 21 January 1659. — MORE ON VAN DER WERFF AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1672 Jean Nocret, French artist born on 26 October 1615. — more
    1662 Adriaen Pieterszoon van der Venne, Dutch artist born in 1589. — MORE ON VAN DE VENNE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1630 Maria van Oosterwyck, Dutch artist born on 20 August 1630.
    1623 Josaphat Kuntsevich, born Johannes Kuntsevich in 1580 in what is now Lithuania, but was then subject to Poland, and where the Ruthenian Church, a branch of the Orthodox, predominated. On 09 October 1696 the main part of the Ruthenian Church, while keeping its rites, was united to the Catholic Church under the Pope. But a schismatic faction persisted in bitter opposition. In 1604 Kuntsevich became a Basilian monk, taking the name Josaphat. Eventually he was ordained a deacon, and, in 1609, a priest. On 12 November 1617 he was consecrated Bishop of Vitebsk. He became archbishop of Polotsk in 1618. A schismatic mob murdered him on 12 November 1623. He was canonized a saint of the Catholic Church (the first from an Eastern rite) in 1867. —(071111)
    1434 Luis de Anjou, en Nápoles, principal contendiente de Alfonso V el magnánimo en sus aspiraciones al trono de Nápoles.
    ^ 1035 Canute I "The Great", 41, Danish king of England (1016-1035), of Denmark (as Canute II; 1019-1035), and of Norway (1028-1035), who was a power in the politics of Europe in the 11th century, respected by both emperor and pope.(my ancestor?). The ruthless king restored churches and monasteries in his kingdom and built several new ones. He is famous for demonstrating that his power did not extend to commanding the tide.
         Canute (who is known as Knud in Denmark and Knut in Norway) had learned that his flattering courtiers claimed he was "So great, he could command the tides of the sea to go back". Now Canute was not only a religious man, but also a clever politician. He knew his limitations — even if his courtiers did not — so he had his throne carried to the seashore and sat on it as the tide came in, commanding the waves to advance no further. When they didn't, he had made his point that, though the deeds of kings might appear 'great' in the minds of men, they were as nothing in the face of God's power: "Let all men know how empty and worthless is the power of kings. For there is none worthy of the name but God, whom heaven, earth and sea obey". So spoke King Canute the Great, the legend says, seated on his throne on the seashore, waves lapping round his feet.
     —     Le roi Knud le Grand meurt à Shaftesbury, en Angleterre. Avec lui cesse la domination des Danois sur l'Angleterre. La suprématie retourne aux Saxons avant que ceux-ci ne soient renversés par le Normand Guillaume le Conquérant.
    0607 Boniface III, Pope
     
  • < 11 Nov 13 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 12 November:

    2004 Sheila and Sharon, conjoined at chest and abdomen, by caesarean section after 34 week gestation (instead of normal 40), at Hospital de la Familia (of FEMAP: (Federación Mexicana de Asociaciones Privadas) in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. They share a single heart, liver, and bladder.
    1945 Tracy Kidder, writer (Among Schoolchildren, Old Friends)
    1934 Charles Manson [No Name Maddox], Cincinnati OH, criminal (Tate-Labianco)
    1929 Grace Kelly, US actress, then Princess of Monaco.
    ^ 1927 Holland Tunnel is opened
          The Holland Tunnel between New York City and Jersey City, New Jersey, was officially opened on this day when President Calvin Coolidge telegraphed a signal from the presidential yacht, Mayflower, anchored in the Potomac River. Within an hour, over 20'000 people had walked the 2820-meter distance between New York and New Jersey under the Hudson River, and the next day the tunnel opened for automobile service. The double-tubed underwater tunnel, the first of its kind in the United States, was built to accommodate nearly 2000 vehicles per hour. Chief engineer Clifford Milburn Holland created a highly advanced ventilation system that changed the air over thirty times an hour at the rate of over 85'000 cubic meters per minute.
    1926 Ann Cornelisen, who would become a US author and die on her 77th birthday.
    1922 Charlotte MacLeod, mystery writer (Rest You Merry, Maid of Honor).
    1920 Mattia Moreni, Italian artist.
    1915 Roland Barthes French literary critic (L'Empire des Signes) Le philosophe Roland Barthes est né à Cherbourg le 12 novembre 1915.
    1914 Edward Schillebeeckx, teólogo holandés.
    1911 José María Sánchez Silva, escritor español.
    1908 Harry A Blackmun, Illinois, Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court [from 1970]: wrote the majority opinion in Roe v. Wade. He died on 04 March 1999.
    1896 Arturo Duperier Vallesa, físico español.
    ^ 1889 DeWitt Wallace St Paul MN, publisher, founded Readers Digest (1921)
         Son of a minister and his wife, Wallace, after high school, worked in a bank and began keeping an index-card file of his favorite magazine articles. He later attended the University of California at Berkeley. While visiting friends in Oregon, he met his future wife, Lila Bell Acheson, also the child of a minister. After condensing some government pamphlets into booklets, Wallace became convinced he could create a popular periodical by condensing other readings, but his plan was interrupted by World War I. He joined the Army and was wounded. While recovering, he began to explore his idea, assembling a sample issue and sending it to publishers, who consistently rejected the idea. He proposed to Lila, and the pair married in 1922, in Pleasanton, New York, the future home of Reader's Digest. They decided to start the magazine themselves.
          Working out of a basement in Manhattan, the couple published their first issue in February 1922, with an initial run of 1500 copies. By 1929, circulation had reached 200'000 and was growing. In 1933, the magazine began publishing original articles, and the following year began to condense books. The magazine continued growing rapidly and by the end of the 20th century had the largest circulation of any publication in the world, with more than 17 million readers in dozens of countries and some 20 languages. The Wallaces donated much of their resulting wealth to philanthropic causes. They also purchased an impressive art collection, which they hung in the offices of their employees in the Pleasanton headquarters.
    1880 Enrique Alfredo Olaya Herrera, presidente de Colombia.
    1866 Sun Yat-sen, Chinese revolutionary who founded the Nationalist Party,.father of modern China (ROC & PRC) (traditional)
    1866 Carl Wilhelm Wilhelmson, Swedish painter and lithographer who died on 24 September 1928. — more
    1841 Lord Rayleigh England, physicist/chancellor of Cambridge (1908-14)
    1841 Diego Euclides de Angulo y Lemos, político y estadista colombiano.
    1840 Auguste Rodin France, would be famous as a sculptor, but would also be an author and painter. Rodin would die on 17 November 1917. — MORE ON RODIN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1833 (31 Oct Julian) Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin, Russian chemist remembered as a nationalist composer, member of “the Five” (with Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky, Balakirev, and Cui). Borodin died on 27 (15 Julian) February 1887. Some of his best known works are the opera Prince Igor and the tone poem In the Steppes of Central Asia.
    1833 Martín Rico y Ortega, Spanish painter and engraver who died on 13 April 1908. — more
    1827 Edouard Moyse, French artist.
    1825 Jean-Pierre Lays, French artist who died in 1887.
    1820 Edmund Mahlkn
    1817 Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh), founder of the Baha'i faith, who died on 29 May 1892. (both dates celebrated by Baha'is)
    1815 Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in Johnstown NY, activist for the rights of women in the US. She died on 26 October 1902.
    1746 Jacques-Alexandre-César Charles, French mathematician, physicist, and inventor, who died on 07 April 1823. He was the first, with Nicolas Robert, to ascend in a hydrogen balloon (1783). About 1787 he developed Charles Law: the volume of a gas at constant pressure is proportional to its absolute temperature.
    1657 Fray José Agramunt, religioso dominico español.
    ^ 1651 Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (Juana Inés Ramírez de Asbaje), en San Miguel de Neplanta, México
          Hija natural de la criolla Isabel Ramírez de Asbaje. Entra al servicio de los virreyes de Nueva España en 1664, hasta que decide profesar con las jerónimas a los veintiún años. La vida de Juana Inés de la Cruz, que acabó a causa de una epidemia en 1695, fue una búsqueda apasionada e incesante del conocimiento, su «negra inclinación» desde que tiene memoria de sí misma: «podía conmigo más el deseo de saber que el de comer», como explica en su Carta Respuesta a Sor Filotea de la Cruz, intenso ensayo autobiográfico y declarativo de principios intelectuales, y que fue el principio de su fin en una sociedad inquisitorial y patriarcal que no podía admitir la genial libertad de espíritu, sobre todo en una mujer.
          Espíritu lúcido y crítico, su formación fue febril y autodidacta, enciclopédica y reflexiva: todo lo aprendió en los textos sola, sin maestros ni condiscípulos e, incluso, durante una temporada en la que se le prohibió la lectura, no se pudo conseguir con ello que no estudiara, pues lo hacía «en todas las cosas que Dios crió, sirviéndome ellas de letras, y de libro toda esta máquina universal».
          Su obra literaria es principalmente poética, aunque cultivó con maestría también el teatro de corte claramente calderoniano, como el espléndido auto sacramental El Divino Narciso. De su extensa obra destaca la silva, al modo gongorino de las Soledades, el Primero Sueño, entramada red alegórica de su búsqueda interior.. La virreina y mecenas de Sor Juana, su amiga Leonor Carreto, se encargó de la primera publicación de su obra, la colección poética Inundación Castálida.
    SOR JUANA ONLINE: Biografía y selección de poemas
    Poemas: Los empeños de una casaQue contiene una fantasía contenta con amor decente —. Procura desmentir los elogiosFeliciano me adora y le aborrezcoEscoge antes el morir que exponerse a los ultrajes de la vejezEn que da moral censura a una rosaEn que satisface un recelo con la retórica del llanto
    1615 Richard Baxter, English Puritan minister, author of Call to the Unconverted, The Reformed Pastor — BAXTER ONLINE: The Saints Everlasting Rest The Reformed Pastor
     
    Holidays Austria : Republic Day (1918) / Bermuda : Rememberance Day / Saudi Arabia : Coronation Day / Taiwan : Sun Yat Sen's Birthday (1866) / Women's Organizations : Elizabeth Cady Stanton Day (1815) / West Germany : Repentance Day ( Wednesday )

    Religious Observances Old RC : Martin I, pope (649-55) / RC : St Josaphat Kuncevyc, bishop/martyr / Ang : Charles Simeon, priest / Santos Aurelio, Isaac, Mateo, Millán, Paterno, Benigno y Josafat. / Saint Christian est un moine polonais qui fut massacré avec ses compagnons par des païens de son pays en 1003. Il figure parmi les saints patrons de la Pologne.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “To have what you want, want what you have.”
    “Progress is made by people who want what they don't have.”
    “Only the doctor can suffer from good health."
    — {also the pharmacist, the drug manufacturer, the nurse, the hospital worker, the annuity payer, the undertaker, and the hypochondriac}
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    updated Friday 31-Oct-2008 18:59 UT
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