a 12 November:
2006 As they already did on 19 January 1992, a large majority of South Ossetians, in a referendum which will change nothing, endorse the fragile and unrecognized independence of South Ossetia from Georgia. In the presidential election held this same day, authoritarian Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoity [31 Oct 1964~] is re-elected. Georgia may consider him to be a nut, but it seems to have refrained from calling him Kokoinut or even Kokonut; and he is not related to Emperor Koko [830-887], Lord High Executioner Ko-Ko, King “Kokos” of Greece [02 June 1940~], Koko the Clown, Koko the gorilla, Koko the cat, or any Koko other than Kokoyty, Kokoiti, and Kokoyev}. —(061112)
2002 The American Public Health Association, at its annual meeting, adopts a policy urging the food industry, consumers, and the public health community to reduce sodium in diet, which could save 150'000 lives a year in the US. [see Your Guide to Lowering High Blood Pressure]
2002 Quality indicators on all 17'000 nursing homes in the US become available on the Web site http://www.medicare.gov/NHCompare/home.asp
2001 In Geneva, at a Phillips, de Pury & Luxembourg auction, a record 3.08 million Swiss francs ($1.88 million) gets one of only two existing 1944 Patek Philippe gold watches of a certain model which display the day, month and phases of the moon,
2000 On the eve of a federal court hearing on the Florida presidential election, advocates for George W. Bush and Al Gore previewed their legal strategies, with Democrats justifying painstaking recounts and Republicans saying the practice could result in political "mischief" and human error.
| 1995 La Commonwealth admite entre sus miembros a Mozambique,
ex colonia portuguesa.
1991 El escritor y académico Francisco Ayala es distinguido con el Premio Miguel de Cervantes de Literatura.
1991 Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev told a news conference he'd been warned by President George H.W. Bush and other US officials that a revolt was brewing before hard-liners staged their coup, but that he had discounted their information.
1991 Robert Gates was sworn in as CIA director.
1987 Boris Yeltsin is fired as head of Moscow's Communist Party for criticizing the slow pace of reform.
| 1985 La Comisión de Descolonización de
la ONU aprueba, por consenso, una resolución que insta a los Gobiernos
de España y del Reino Unido a proseguir las negociaciones para una
solución definitiva del contencioso sobre Gibraltar.
1985 Los obispos chilenos acusan al Gobierno de Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte de terrorista.
1984 La República Árabe Democrática Saharaui es admitida en la OUA (Organización para la Unidad Africana) como miembro de pleno derecho, lo que provoca la retirada de Marruecos del organismo.
1980 El Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional queda aislado en el poder ante la retirada de las fuerzas políticas moderadas del gobierno de Nicaragua.
1980 Se inaugura en Madrid el XV Congreso de la Internacional Socialista.
1979 US halts Iranian oil imports & freezes Iranian assets
1975 Supreme Court Justice William O Douglas retired after 36 years
1974 Argelia y Estados Unidos reanudan sus relaciones diplomáticas, interrumpidas desde 1967.
| 1970 Chile y Cuba reanudan sus relaciones diplomáticas.
1969 La primera ministra de la India, Indira Gandhi Shrimati, es expulsada del Partido del Congreso.
1961 La ciudad de Stalingrad es rebautizada con el nombre de Volgograd.
1960 Fracasa en Vietnam una insurrección contra el presidente Ngo Dinh Diem.
1956 In Hungary, where the Soviet army has crushed the armed resistance to its invasion, the Hungarian Writers’ Union issues a protest against the Soviet intervention and the terror by the authorities. Among other bodies to endorse it are the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Hungarian News Agency MTI, the University Revolutionary Students’ Committee and the Revolutionary Committee of the Hungarian Intelligentsia. On the same day, the provisional executive committee of the students’ association Mefesz is formed, headed by István Pozsár.
1956 Largest observed iceberg, 335 by 97 km, 1st sighted
1955 Date returned to in "Back to the Future" & "Back to the Future II"
1954 Ellis Island, immigration station in NY Harbor, closed after processing more than 20 million immigrants since opening in 1892.
1951 The US Eighth Army in Korea is ordered to cease offensive operations and begin an active defense. — El general Matthew Ridgway ordena a sus tropas que renuncien a toda ofensiva en Corea.
1949 El mariscal Josip Broz Tito rescinde el tratado de amistad entre Yugoslavia y Albania.
1946 The Exchange National Bank in Chicago inaugurates the nation's first ten drive-up teller windows..
1942 The World War II naval Battle of Guadalcanal begins. (The US would win a major victory over the Japanese.) — Estallido de la batalla naval de Guadalcanal, en las islas Salomón, entablada entre estadounidenses y japoneses en el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial .
1942 Capturado en Francia, en calidad de rehén, el general Maxime Weygand por parte de los alemanes.
1939 Jews of Lodz Poland are ordered to wear yellow armbands
1938 Mexico agrees to compensate the United States for land seizures.
1938 Hermann Goering announces he wants Madagascar as a Jewish homeland
1936 Inauguración en San Francisco (Estados Unidos) del puente más largo del mundo hasta la fecha.
1934 The US Treasury Department's Treasury International Capital (TIC) initiative is started to investigate and report on the flow of international capital.
1933 Nazis receive 92% of vote in Germany
1933 1st known photo of Loch Ness monster (or whatever) is taken
1927 Canada is admitted to the League of Nations.
1927 Trotsky is expelled from Soviet Communist Party; Stalin becomes undisputed dictator
1926 Estallido en Indonesia de una insurrección contra la dominación holandesa.
1926 El presidente nicaragüense Adolfo Díaz solicita ayuda a los Estados Unidos para reprimir el levantamiento dirigido por el partido liberal.
1923 Adolf Hitler is arrested for his attempted German coup.
1921 Representatives of nine nations start the Washington Conference for Limitation of Armaments
1912 Se encuentran en el polo Sur los cadáveres de los componentes de la expedición capitaneada por Robert Falcon Scott.
1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont, a Brazilian residing in Paris, makes the first public heavier-than-air flight to go a distance of 220 m, in his 14-Bis. The Wright brothers had flown in secret, starting with 4 flights on 17 December 1903, the longest covering 260 m, and going on to longer flights, up to 38 km, before this flight of Santos-Dumont. Clément Ader [04 Feb 1841 – 05 Mar 1926] had flown his Éole 50 m on 09 October 1890.
1915 Britain annexes Gilbert and Ellice Islands
1903 The Lebaudy brothers of France set an air-travel distance record of 55 km in a dirigible.
1867 Mount Vesuvius erupts.
1861 Blockade Runner Fingal, bought by Confederates in England, arrives in Savannah, Georgia
1859 The first flying-trapeze circus act is performed by Jules Leotard at the Circus Napoleon, Paris. He also designed the garment that bears his name.
1851 Auguste Mariette découvre à Saqqara le Serapeum de Memphis et la nécropole des taureaux sacrés. L'archéologue va faire de l'égyptologie la discipline prestigieuse qu'elle est devenue.
1848 La nouvelle Constitution française est promulguée. Elle prévoit que le président sera élu au suffrage universel direct pour quatre ans et non rééligible. Il nommera et révoquera les ministres et les hauts fonctionnaires, et il disposera de la force armée. Le pouvoir législatif reste du ressort d'une assemblée de 750 membres élus pour trois ans au suffrage universel. L'Assemblée ne peut être dissoute que par le président. Le judiciaire reste indépendant et les juges sont inamovibles.
1847 Auparavant les opérations chirurgicales se pratiquaient sans anesthésie. Le britanique James Young Simpson fut le premier à utiliser le chloroforme après que de nombreux avants eurent expérémenté avec peu de succès divers autres gaz.
1803 Francia acepta la independencia de Haití.
1701 The Carolina Assembly passed a Vestry Act making the Church of England the official religion of the Carolina Colony. (Strong opposition by Quakers and other resident Nonconformists forced the colony's proprietors to revoke their legislation two years later.)
1660 John Bunyan is arrested for unlicensed preaching and sentenced to prison. While incarcerated this or other times, he wrote, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666) and The Pilgrim's Progress (1678) extraordinary Puritan classics.
1652 Louis XIV déclare coupables du crime de lèse-majesté le prince de Condé, la duchesse de Longueville et quelques autres seigneurs coupables d'avoir participé à la Fronde des Princes. C'est seulement après la paix des Pyrénées avec l'Espagne que les proscrits rentreront en grâce auprès du Roi-Soleil.
1543 El príncipe Felipe, futuro rey Felipe II de España, contrae matrimonio con su prima María Manuela de Portugal.
1537 Geneva's council votes to banish anyone who doesn't embrace its reformed confession of faith.
1276 Suspicious of the intentions of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the Prince of Wales, English King Edward I resolves to invade Wales.
0295 Origin of Era of Ascension
— 324 -BC- Origin of Era of Alexander
2005 Madhu Dandavate, Indian Socialist politician born on 21 January 1924. He was a five-time member of the Lok Sabha (Parliament lower house) from 1971 to 1990 from Rajapur in the Konkan region of Maharashtra and was a leader of the Opposition during the days of Indira Gandhi [19 Nov 1917 – 31 Oct 1984] (PM 19 Jan 1966 - 24 Mar 1977 and 15 Jan 1980 - 31 Oct 1984 ) and later her son and successor Rajiv Gandhi [20 Aug 1944 – 21 May 1991] (PM 31 Oct 1984 - 02 Dec 1989] as Prime Ministers. He was Railway Minister in the government (24 Mar 1977 - 15 Jul 1979) of Morarji Desai [29 Feb 1896 – 10 Apr 1995] in the post-Emergency years and Finance Minister in the short-lived (02 Dec 1989 - 10 Nov 1990) government of V. P. Singh [25 Jun 1931~]. He had also played a leading role in the conception of the Konkan railway project. Dandavate was also Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission twice: during 1990 and later during 1996-1998. In later years, Dandavate was associated with the Janata Dal (Secular) party led by former Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda [18 May 1933~] and was his close associate. Dandavate was also a scholar, financial expert, and social activist. — (051113)
2004 Four persons in westbound van which at 05:45 (11:45 UT) collides with 18-wheeler truck on Martin Luther King Bridge from East St. Louis, Illinois, to St. Louis, Missouri. The other three persons in the van and the truck driver are injured. Spilled diesel fuel from the truck caught fire but was soon extinguished. The RideFinders van was part of a program operated by Illinois' Madison County Transit, by which groups of 7 to 15 commuters share rides for a monthly fare. The bridge is one of three spanning the Mississippi at St. Louis; it has two lanes in each direction, separated by a double yellow line, which the van had crossed.
2003 Ann Cornelisen, on her 77th birthday, US author of Vendetta of Silence (1971), Women of the Shadows: Wives and Mothers of Southern Italy (1976), Strangers and Pilgrims: The Last Italian Migration (1980), Any Four Women Could Rob the Bank of Italy (1983), Where It All Began: Italy, 1954 (1990)
2003 Four suicide bombers in a car bomb and in a truck that precedes it, 9 other Iraqis, 2 Italian civilians, 4 Italian army soldiers, and 12 Carabinieri, at 10:45 (06:45 UT), at the headquarters of the Italian forces in Nasiriyah, Iraq [photo >], where some 340 Carabinieri and 110 Romanians are based. 20 Italians are wounded: 15 Carabinieri, one civilian, and four soldiers, one of whom, Pietro Petrucci, is declared brain dead the next day in a Kuwait City hospital. 64 other persons are wounded, including one of 3 months, and a boy, 1, who loses an eye and the nose.
Un camion forza il posto di blocco all'entrata della base e prosegue la sua corsa sino alla palazzina di tre piani che ospitava il dipartimento logistico italiano. C'è una sparatoria. Dietro al camion irrompe l'autobomba che finisce la sua corsa esplodendo e causando l'inferno. A compiere l'attentato sono stati "quattro kamikaze" su due veicoli con a bordo tra i 150 ed i 300 chili di esplosivo. Gli attentatori sono stati inizialmente "fermati da difese esterne", costituiti da reti e fili spinati. "Ma il quantitativo di esplosivo era cosě potente da aver distrutto quasi completamente la palazzina. L'esplosione è potentissima, fa crollare gran parte dell'edificio e danneggia una seconda palazzina dove ha sede il comando. I vetri delle finestre del complesso vanno in frantumi. Nel cortile davanti alla palazzina molti mezzi militari prendono fuoco. In fiamme anche il deposito delle munizioni, da cui provengono forti esplosioni.
The Italian dead are:
2002 (possible date) Patricia Harris, 43, UK paranoid schizophrenic, sitting in her kitchen with the curtains drawn and her back to the door. On 14 November 2002 newspapers would report that Helen Redmond and another worker from the mental health charity Mind let themselves into Harris' home (on 12 Nov?). After saying hello, they tried talking to Harris, but when she failed to respond they left, as she didn't seem to want them there. The next day (13 Nov?), two other health workers on a follow-up visit discovered that she was dead.
2001: Five persons on the ground and all 251 passengers and 9 crew members aboard American Airlines Flight 587 originating from Boston, an Airbus A300 bound for the Dominican Republic, that loses its tail, then its two engines, and crashes at 09:17 (15:17 UT), 103 seconds after takeoff from Kennedy Airport, New York, about 8 km away in the Rockaway residential neighborhood in Queens. On the ground some 30 persons are injured and 12 houses catch fire. Three years later the investigating board would conclude that the tail breaking off was caused by First Officer Sten Molin, the co-pilot, moving the plane's rudder back and forth after takeoff, in reaction to turbulence; neither the manufacturer nor his trainers had warned him of this danger.
2001 Palestinian boy, 12, of the Gaza Strip refugee camp of Khan Yunis, critically wounded in the head on 09 December by gunfire from Israeli troops, who say that he appeared to be at least 16 and was carrying a large bag as he tampered with a security fence in an area of recent infiltrations, and that after warning him and they shot toward his lower body. The body count of the al-Aqsa intifada started on 28 September 2000 now stands at 753 Palestinians and 197 Israelis.
2001 Muhammed Hassan Reihan, 25, by large-caliber bullets from Israeli troops surrounding his house in Tell, a town of 3000 south of Nablus, West Bank which Israeli tanks entered at about 02:30. Reihan, a senior member of Hamas had just picked up a rifle and gone outside. He had been on Israel's wanted list since 1998 for the killing of Harel Ben-Nin and Shlomo Liedman, of the nearby Jewish enclave settlement Yitzhar.
2000 Leah Rabin, 72, outspoken campaigner for Mideast peace following the 1995 assassination of her husband, former Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
1997 Pakistani driver Anwar Mirza; and J. Enlo, T. Ritchie, E. Egbu, and L. Jennings, US auditors for Union Texas Petroleum, shot in Karachi in retaliation for the 10 November conviction in Virginia of Mir Ahmad Kasi, who on 25 January 1993 murdered two CIA employees arriving for work at CIA headquarters.
1996: 349 persons as a Saudi Boeing 747 jetliner collides shortly after takeoff from New Delhi, India, with a Kazak Ilyushin-76 cargo plane.
1996 Baby Grossberg, killed at birth by parents, college freshmen, Amy Grossberg and Brian Paterson, who eventually would be sentenced to 2-1/2 and 2 years in prison respectively.
1989 Dolores Ibárruri Gómez, "Pasionaria", dirigente comunista española.
1984 Chester Bomar Himes, escritor estadounidense.
1970 Thousands die as the worst cyclone of the 20th century reaches East Pakistan. Its worst damage will be done the next day, which will end with some 500'000 dead.
1956 Juan Negrín López, científico y político español.
1944 Some 8000 Japanese soldiers in four transport ships, which US planes sink together with their six escorting destroyers.
1944 The German battleship Tirpitz is sunk in a Norwegian fjord.
1921 Fernand Khnopff, Belgian artist born on 12 September 1858. — MORE ON KHNOPFF AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images. —(051111)
1889 Albert Ruger, pioneering panoramic map artist.
1881 Jan Michiel Ruyten, Belgian artist born on 09 April 1813.
1869 Johann Friedrich Overbeck, German painter born on 03 July 1789. — more with links to three images.
1857 Manuel Ceferino Oribe Viana, born on 26 August 1792, Urugayan general and politician; president from 1835 to 1838, later leader of the Blanco faction in a long civil war. — Portrait of Oribe (210x149cm; 1078x750pix, 201kb) by Manuel Rosé [09 Jan 1882 – 16 Jan 1961] — (051111)
1848 Rudolf Ribalz, Austrian artist born on 30 May 1848.
1844 Jerónimo Merino, "el cura Merino", fallece en Alençon, sacerdote y guerrillero héroe de la Guerra de la Independencia española contra los franceses.
1829 Jean-Baptiste Regnault, baron, French painter born on 19 October 1754, academician and a representatives of neoclassicism. — MORE ON REGNAULT AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images. —(061111)
1772 Jan Morits Quinckhardt, Dutch artist born on 28 January 1688.
1754 Jakob de Wit (or Witt), Dutch painter born in 1695. — MORE ON DE WIT AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1722 Adriaan van der Werff, Dutch painter of religious and mythological scenes and portraits, active mainly in Rotterdam, born on 21 January 1659. — MORE ON VAN DER WERFF AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1672 Jean Nocret, French artist born on 26 October 1615. — more
1662 Adriaen Pieterszoon van der Venne, Dutch artist born in 1589. — MORE ON VAN DE VENNE AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1630 Maria van Oosterwyck, Dutch artist born on 20 August 1630.
1623 Josaphat Kuntsevich, born Johannes Kuntsevich in 1580 in what is now Lithuania, but was then subject to Poland, and where the Ruthenian Church, a branch of the Orthodox, predominated. On 09 October 1696 the main part of the Ruthenian Church, while keeping its rites, was united to the Catholic Church under the Pope. But a schismatic faction persisted in bitter opposition. In 1604 Kuntsevich became a Basilian monk, taking the name Josaphat. Eventually he was ordained a deacon, and, in 1609, a priest. On 12 November 1617 he was consecrated Bishop of Vitebsk. He became archbishop of Polotsk in 1618. A schismatic mob murdered him on 12 November 1623. He was canonized a saint of the Catholic Church (the first from an Eastern rite) in 1867. —(071111)
1434 Luis de Anjou, en Nápoles, principal contendiente de Alfonso V el magnánimo en sus aspiraciones al trono de Nápoles.
2004 Sheila and Sharon, conjoined at chest and abdomen, by caesarean section after 34 week gestation (instead of normal 40), at Hospital de la Familia (of FEMAP: (Federación Mexicana de Asociaciones Privadas) in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. They share a single heart, liver, and bladder.
1945 Tracy Kidder, writer (Among Schoolchildren, Old Friends)
1934 Charles Manson [No Name Maddox], Cincinnati OH, criminal (Tate-Labianco)
1929 Grace Kelly, US actress, then Princess of Monaco.
1922 Charlotte MacLeod, mystery writer (Rest You Merry, Maid of Honor).
1920 Mattia Moreni, Italian artist.
1915 Roland Barthes French literary critic (L'Empire des Signes) Le philosophe Roland Barthes est né à Cherbourg le 12 novembre 1915.
1914 Edward Schillebeeckx, teólogo holandés.
1911 José María Sánchez Silva, escritor español.
1908 Harry A Blackmun, Illinois, Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court [from 1970]: wrote the majority opinion in Roe v. Wade. He died on 04 March 1999.
1896 Arturo Duperier Vallesa, físico español.
1866 Sun Yat-sen, Chinese revolutionary who founded the Nationalist Party,.father of modern China (ROC & PRC) (traditional)
1866 Carl Wilhelm Wilhelmson, Swedish painter and lithographer who died on 24 September 1928. — more
1841 Lord Rayleigh England, physicist/chancellor of Cambridge (1908-14)
1841 Diego Euclides de Angulo y Lemos, político y estadista colombiano.
1840 Auguste Rodin France, would be famous as a sculptor, but would also be an author and painter. Rodin would die on 17 November 1917. — MORE ON RODIN AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1833 (31 Oct Julian) Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin, Russian chemist remembered as a nationalist composer, member of the Five (with Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky, Balakirev, and Cui). Borodin died on 27 (15 Julian) February 1887. Some of his best known works are the opera Prince Igor and the tone poem In the Steppes of Central Asia.
1833 Martín Rico y Ortega, Spanish painter and engraver who died on 13 April 1908. — more
1827 Edouard Moyse, French artist.
1825 Jean-Pierre Lays, French artist who died in 1887.
1820 Edmund Mahlkn
1817 Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh), founder of the Baha'i faith, who died on 29 May 1892. (both dates celebrated by Baha'is)
1815 Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in Johnstown NY, activist for the rights of women in the US. She died on 26 October 1902.
1746 Jacques-Alexandre-César Charles, French mathematician, physicist, and inventor, who died on 07 April 1823. He was the first, with Nicolas Robert, to ascend in a hydrogen balloon (1783). About 1787 he developed Charles Law: the volume of a gas at constant pressure is proportional to its absolute temperature.
1657 Fray José Agramunt, religioso dominico español.