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^  On a 11 November:
2004 School Stupidity Dept.: Deirdre Faegre, 11, is suspended for a week from San Jose-Edison Academy, in a San Gabriel Valley suburb of Los Angeles, for performing cartwheels and handstands during lunchtime recess, despite having been ordered not to. She has been doing gymnastics for five years. The Principal, Denise Patton, said that Deirdre could accidentally strike another student, or injure herself, and that other children could get hurt trying to imitate Deirdre. But the students are allowed to play basketball and other sports. So Deirdre's father, Leland Faegre, said: "Contact sports, apparently, are fine. But this one is so dangerous it requires the cartwheel cops".
2003
World chess champion Garry Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963-], with White, ties with computer program X3D Fritz in the first game of a match which will end in a draw with its 4th game on 18 November 2003 (13 Nov Game 2 — 16 Nov Game 3). {to replay the games click here and then click the Archive tab}
^ 2002 “50 Places to See Before You Die
      They are revealed by the BBC, according to the votes of some 20'000 of its viewers:
— 1 The Grand Canyon — 2 Great Barrier Reef and Whitsunday Islands — 3 Florida — 4 NZ South Island — 5 Cape Town — 6 Golden Temple —  7 Las Vegas — 8 Sydney — 9 New York — 10 Taj Mahal — 11 Canadian Rockies — 12 Uluru — 13 Chichen Itza - Mexico —  14 Machu Picchu ~ Peru — 15 Niagara Falls — 16 Petra ~ Jordan — 17 The Pyramids ~ Egypt — 18 Venice — 19 Maldives — 20 Great Wall of China — 21 Victoria Falls ~ Zimbabwe — 22 Hong Kong — 23 Yosemite National Park — 24 Hawaii — 25 Auckland ~ New Zealand — 26 Iguassu Falls — 27 Paris — 28 Alaska — 29 Angkor Wat ~ Cambodia — 30 Himalayas - Nepal — 31 Rio de Janeiro ~ Brazil — 32 Masai Mara - Kenya — 33 Galapagos Islands ~ Ecuador — 34 Luxor ~ Egypt — 35 Rome — 36 San Francisco — 37 Barcelona — 38 Dubai — 39 Singapore — 40 La Digue ~ Seychelles — 41 Sri Lanka — 42 Bangkok — 43 Barbados — 44 Iceland — 45 Terracotta Army ~ China — 46 Zermatt ~ Switzerland — 47 Angel Falls ~ Venezuela — 48 Abu Simbel ~ Egypt — 49 Bali —  50 French Polynesia

2001 On the third day of its meeting in Doha, Qatar, the World Trade Organization votes to accept Taiwan as its 144th member.
2001 Lazaro Cardenas Batel, of the Partido Revolucionario Democratico (PRD) is elected governor of Michoacan.
2000 US Republicans go to court, seeking an order to block presidential election manual recounts from continuing in Florida.
2000 National elections in Bosnia.
1998 Microsoft's interactive media chief resigns
      Newspapers reported that the head of Microsoft's interactive media group had resigned. Since 1993, the company had spent hundreds of millions of dollars developing online businesses, such as Microsoft Expedia, a travel service; Microsoft CarPoint, a car sales information service; and dozens of Web sites. Despite these efforts, Microsoft failed to achieve the same success online as companies like Yahoo and America Online. The company had revised its online strategy several times. Microsoft Network launched as a proprietary online service but failed to mount a serious challenge to AOL. It shifted its focus to the Web and developed flashy Web "shows" that failed to catch on and were canceled early in 1998. The company had also launched an entertainment guide service called Sidewalk, which it transformed into an online yellow-pages service in 1998.
1997 Intel confirms Pentium defect
      Intel confirmed that its Pentium chips contained a bug that hackers could exploit to crash computers, and the company released a fix by the end of the week. The first breed of Pentium chips, released in 1994, had been plagued by a bug that produced mathematical errors. After a public uproar, Intel agreed to replace those faulty chips with no questions asked.
1996 IBM to start network computers division
      IBM announced it would form a new division focused on network computers, a new breed of scaled-down machines. With no internal storage or floppy drives, the computers were designed to run software and store files on network servers. This would save corporations money by reducing the cost of computers for simple tasks like word processing. In September, the company introduced the first Network Station computer, priced at about $700. Sun and Oracle had also introduced network computers in recent weeks.
1992 General Synod of the Church of England votes to ordain women as priests in the UK
1991 The US station- its first diplomat in Cambodia in 16 years, to help the war-ravaged nation arrange democratic elections.
^ 1989 Jaguar becomes a subsidiary of Ford
      In 1935, British car designer William Lyons introduced the SS Jaguar 100 as a new marquee for his Swallow Sidecar Company. Swallow Sidecar had been manufacturing complete luxury cars for four years, but the SS Jaguar 100 was Lyons's first true sports car. During World War II, Lyons dropped the Swallow Sidecar name, and the politically incorrect SS initials, and Jaguar Cars Ltd. was formally established. The first significant postwar Jaguar, the XK 120, was introduced in 1948 at the London Motor Show to great acclaim. Capable of speeds in excess of 120 mph, the XK 120 was the fastest production car in the world, and is considered by many to be one of the finest sports cars ever made. Over the next three decades, Jaguar became the epitome of speed coupled with elegance, and the company flourished as its racing division racked up countless trophies. On this day in 1989, Jaguar entered a new era when the company became a subsidiary of the Ford Motor Company. The integrity of the Jaguar marquee was recognized and maintained, and throughout the 1990s the company continued to produce distinguished automobiles such as the Jaguar XK8 and the luxurious Vanden Plas.
1988 Oldest known insect fossils (390 million years) reported in Science
1987 Judge Anthony M Kennedy nominated to the Supreme Court
1987 An unidentified buyer buys Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Irises" from the estate of Joan Whitney Payson for $53.9 million at Sotheby's in New York.
1986 Sperry Rand and Burroughs merge to become Unisys. While the deal cost $15 million in "changeover" expenses, it paid immediate dividends: Unisys shot to the number-two spot on the list of the nation's biggest computer companies.
1985 Optimism about US's fiscal future
      11 November 1985, did not have the makings of record-breaking day for stock markets: the economy was, at best, in middling health and a number of financial institutions were closed for Veterans Day. However, that didn't stop traders from feeling a growing sense of optimism about the nation's fiscal future. Their good tidings spilled over into the markets, as the Dow, New Stock Exchange, and Standard and Poor's index all reached new heights. What, then, caused Wall Street to feel so confident about the otherwise unspectacular state of the economy? Many traders pinned their hopes on declining interest rates, rising productivity, and the Fed's continued ability to reign in inflation to help spark profits. There were some dissenting voices, including a chorus of analysts who warned that the markets would suffer an inevitable "correction" before making any more big gains. Yet far from retreating downward, the markets kept picking up steam, charging into a record-setting bull run that lasted well into 1987.
1982 Solidarity leader Lech Walesa is let out of jail in Poland .
1981 Stuntman Dan Goodwin scales the outside of the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago in nearly six hours.
1975 Angola gains independence from Portugal (National Day)
1975 Australian PM removed by crown (1st elected PM removed in 200 years)
1973 Israel and Egypt sign a cease-fire.
1972 Long Binh base turned over to South Vietnam
     The massive Long Binh military base, once the largest US installation outside the continental United States, is handed over to the South Vietnamese. This logistical complex, which had been constructed on the outskirts of Bien Hoa near the outskirts of Saigon, included numerous ammunition depots, supply depots, and other logistics installations. It served as the headquarters for US Army Vietnam, 1st Logistical Command, and several other related activities. The handing-over of the base effectively marked the end, after seven years, of direct US participation in the war. After the Long Binh base was turned over, about 29'000 US soldiers remained in South Vietnam, most them advisors with South Vietnamese units, or helicopter crewmen, and maintenance, supply, and office staff.
1970 US Army Special Forces raid the Son Tay prison camp in North Vietnam but find no prisoners. The daring rescue raid lacked only one essential ingredient — POWs.
1968 Maldives (in Indian Ocean) become a republic (world's country most threatened by global warming).
1968 US attacks infiltration routes into South Vietnam
     US joint-service Operation Commando Hunt is launched. This operation was designed to interdict Communist routes of infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through Laos into South Vietnam. The aerial campaign involved a series of intensive air operations by US Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps aircraft and lasted until April 1972. During the course of the operation, nearly 3 million tons of bombs fell on Laos. While Communist infiltration was slowed by this campaign, it was not seriously disrupted. Commando Hunt was ultimately considered a failure.
1967 US offensive in Quang Nam and Quang Tin Provinces
     In Vietnam, the Americal (formerly Task Force Oregon) and 1st Cavalry Divisions combine to form Operation Wheeler/Wallowa in Quang Nam and Quang Tin Provinces, I Corps. The purpose of the operation was to relieve enemy pressure and to reinforce the III Marine Amphibious Force in the area, thus permitting Marines to be deployed further north. The operation lasted more than 12 months and resulted in 10'000 enemy casualties.
1967 Viet Cong release 3 US prisoners of war
      Three US prisoners of war, two of them African American, are released by the Viet Cong in a ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The three men were turned over to Tom Hayden, a "new left" antiwar activist. US officials in Saigon said that the released prisoners had been "brainwashed," but the State Department denied it. The Viet Cong said that the release was a response to antiwar protests in the US and a gesture towards the "courageous struggle" of blacks in the United States.
1965 Rhodesia declares independence from Britain
      The white-minority government of Rhodesia, the African country later known as Zimbabwe, unilaterally declares its independence from Britain to avoid granting power to Rhodesia's black majority. The British government strongly objects to the move, and in 1967 the United Nations opposes mandatory sanctions against Rhodesia. Over the next nine years, the white-minority regime of Prime Minister Ian Smith endures British pressure, economic sanctions, and guerilla attacks from black Rhodesian groups. Finally, in 1976, under pressure from his former supporters in South Africa, Smith agrees that majority rule will come within the next few years. In 1979, all of Rhodesia's black citizens are enfranchised. Subsequently, a black majority in the Assembly and Senate is elected, and the country's name is changed from Rhodesia to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. In 1980, Britain finally recognizes the independence of Zimbabwe, fifteen years after it was first declared.
1953 The polio virus is identified and photographed for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1944 Private Eddie Slovik is convicted of desertion and sentenced to death for refusing to join his unit in the European Theater of Operations. The Sad Story of Private Eddie Slovik
1942 During WW II Germany completes their occupation of France, violating the terms of the armistice. — Hitler declenche l'operation "Attila". En reponse au debarquement anglo-americain en Afrique du Nord, l'armee allemande franchit la ligne de demarcation qui separe la France occupee de la France dite "libre" depuis l'armistice de 1940. A Vichy, le gouvernement du marechal Petain et de Pierre Laval est place sous le controle direct de l'occupant. Il perd la fiction de son independance.
^ 1940 British raid aircraft carriers at Taranto
      The British Royal Navy makes the first major aircraft-carrier strike in history. The raid, originally scheduled for Trafalgar Day, 21 October, had been postponed due to a fire on a new aircraft carrier, Illustrious. This fire was not the only technical difficulty the Royal Navy had to overcome. Their carrier-based bombers, known as Swordfish, were already obsolete — far inferior to Japanese Kate planes and the US Navy's TBD Devastator Torpedo planes. When Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham ordered the attack, he was plagued by doubts.
       On the night of 11 November (Armistice Day), twelve Swordfish from the Illustrious took off for Taranto. The first six lit up the harbor with flares and bombs, peppering cruisers, destroyers, and harbor facilities as a diversionary tactic. The other Swordfish, armed with torpedoes, headed straight for six Italian battleships, sinking two of them. The second wave of Swordfish came forty minutes later and badly damaged a third Italian ship.
      The surprise attack on Taranto was a tremendous success. The Italian fleet was forced to withdraw to the west coast of Italy, assuring British control of the Mediterranean. In fact, the attack on Taranto was successful enough to inspire Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander in Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet, to plan his attack by aircraft carriers on Pearl Harbor.
1935 Albert Anderson and Orvil Anderson set a new altitude record in South Dakota, when they float to 22'500 m in Explorer 2 balloon.
^ 1933 Massive dust storm sweeps South Dakota
      A powerful wind strips the topsoil from desiccated farmlands in South Dakota, one of a series of disastrous windstorms that year. The drought-ridden land of the Southern Plains became known as the Dust Bowl; it was useless to farmers, and only exacerbated the economic problems of the Great Depression. Within two days, dust from the South Dakota storm had reached all the way to Albany, New York.
      Dust storms plagued the West throughout the 1930s and eventually the devastated area covered nearly 40 million hectares. Rising like ominous black clouds on the horizon, the dust storms destroyed crops, choked livestock to death, and damaged human health.
      During 1938, the worst year of the dust storms, it is estimated that 850 million tons of topsoil disappeared with the winds. The size and scope of the problem have led some historians to call the Dust Bowl the worst environmental disaster in American history.
      The cause of the Dust Bowl is still unclear. Widespread drought, which killed crops and turned the topsoil into a light powder, was undoubtedly a factor. However, some have argued that the farmers played their part by replacing native grasses with wheat and less hardy crops.
      Whatever the causes, the Roosevelt administration responded to the Dust Bowl with a billion- dollar program to aid and educate farmers in soil conservation techniques that have become standard practice. After the rains returned in 1941, the region bloomed once again. Severe droughts have occurred since, but none have been as devastating as the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s.
1925 Robert Millikan announces discovery of cosmic rays
1922 Canada's Vernon McKenzie urges to fight US propaganda with taxes on US magazines.
^ 1918 Un armistice met fin a la Grande Guerre
      Le 11 novembre 1918, a 11 heures, dans toute la France, les cloches sonnent a la volee. Au front, les clairons bondissent sur les parapets et sonnent le "Cessez-le-Feu", "Levez-vous", "Au Drapeau". La "Marseillaise" jaillit a pleins poumons des tranchees. Meme soulagement en face, dans le camp allemand. Pour la premiere fois depuis quatre ans, Francais et Allemands peuvent se regarder sans s'entretuer.
     La guerre dure depuis plus de quatre ans. Le generalissime des armees alliees, le marechal Foch, donne cet ordre du jour : " Vous avez gagne la plus grande bataille de l'histoire et sauve la cause la plus sacree, la liberte du monde. " Clemenceau, quant à lui, en tant que president du Conseil declare à 16 heures devant la Chambre : " En cette heure terrible, grande et magnifique, mon devoir est accompli... Au nom du peuple francais, au nom de la Republique francaise, j'envoie le salut de la France, unie et indivisible, à l'Alsace et à la Lorraine retrouvees. "
      L'armistice laisse derriere elle huit millions de morts et les survivants veulent croire que cette guerre qui s'acheve restera la derniere de l'Histoire, la "der des der"... Apres l'echec de leur contre-offensive de juillet 1918 et devant l'arrivee en masse des troupes des États-Unis, les Allemands ont compris qu'ils n'avaient plus d'espoir de vaincre. L'un apres l'autre, leurs allies de la guerre ont cesse les combats et signe des armistices. Une revolte ouvriere dans le port de Kiel, le 3 novembre, fait craindre une Revolution d'inspiration communiste dans l'ensemble du pays. Accule, l'empereur Guillaume II abdique le 9 novembre et cede la place au gouvernement republicain du chancelier Max de Bade. Son plenipotentiaire Matthias Erzberger demande et obtient l'armistice (cela lui vaudra d'etre assassine par les nationalistes allemands le 26 août 1921). L'armistice est signe dans le wagon du generalissime Foch, au carrefour de Rethondes, au milieu de la foret de Compiegne. Dans leur consternation, les citoyens allemands notent que leur pays n'a pas ete envahi et que leurs armees ne se sont pas effondrees. Apres avoir montre une extreme determination dans la guerre a outrance, Georges Clemenceau, le chef du gouvernement francais, n'a pas voulu profiter de son avantage militaire pour envahir l'Allemagne et signifier a celle-ci l'etendue de sa defaite. La demande d'armistice est elle-meme venue des representants civils et non militaires de l'Allemagne. Ces derniers echappent ainsi a l'infamie de la defaite. A Berlin, les representants de la jeune Republique accueillent les combattants en ces termes: "Soldats qui revenez invaincus,…". Deja, certains Allemands meurtris attribuent leur defaite a un "coup de poignard dans le dos", de la part des politiciens et des bourgeois cosmopolites ou juifs. En France, l'armistice reste une commemoration majeure de la vie nationale, avec depot de gerbes devant les monuments aux morts de chaque village et sur la tombe du Soldat inconnu, sous l'Arc de Triomphe de la place de l'Etoile, a Paris.
Grippe espagnole
      Les rejouissances consecutives a l'arret des combats sont, dans d'innombrables foyers, contrariees par une epidemie surprenante et tres mortelle. Pendant deux ans, en 1918 et 1919, un virus mysterieux se repand en Asie d'abord puis dans le reste du monde. Des poilus rescapes des tranchees sont tout d'un coup frappes par une fievre sans raison apparente et s'alitent pour ne plus se relever. Des familles entieres sont decimees... L'epidemie provoque au total pas moins de... 21 millions de morts, soit deux fois plus que la Grande Guerre. Les trois quarts des victimes se situent en Asie. Le virus est pudiquement appele "influenza" par les Anglo-Saxons et "grippe espagnole" par les Francais. En fait, il s'agit rien moins que d'une variante de la terrible peste noire qui a frappe l'Occident a plusieurs reprises depuis 1347. Comme l'epidemie de sida de la fin du XXe siecle, la grippe espagnole se solde par une addition de drames individuels sans repercussions notables sur la vie politique et sociale. Son souvenir s'est a peu pres completement efface des memoires et meme des livres d'Histoire.

Armistice Day-WW I ends (at 11:00 on Western Front)  
      At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the Great War ends. {It would have been a lot smarter to prevent it by an agreement at the 11th minute of the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of the 11th year of the century}
      At 05:00 that morning, Germany, bereft of manpower and supplies and faced with imminent invasion, signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiègne, France. The First World War left nine million soldiers dead and 21 million wounded, with Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, France, and Great Britain each losing nearly a million or more lives. In addition, at least five million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure.
      On 28 June 1914, in an event that is widely regarded as sparking the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire, was shot to death with his wife by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Ferdinand had been inspecting his uncle's imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the threat of Serbian nationalists who wanted these Austro-Hungarian possessions to join newly independent Serbia. Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the problem of Slavic nationalism once and for all. However, as Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm II that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention.
      On 28 July 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe's great powers collapsed. On 29 July, Austro-Hungarian forces began to shell the Serbian capital, Belgrade, and Russia, Serbia's ally, ordered a troop mobilization against Austria-Hungary. France, allied with Russia, began to mobilize on 01 August 1. France and Germany declared war against each other on 03 August 3. After crossing through neutral Luxembourg, the German army invaded Belgium on the night of 03 to 04 August, prompting Great Britain, Belgium's ally, to declare war against Germany.
      For the most part, the people of Europe greeted the outbreak of war with stupid jubilation. Most patriotically assumed that their country would be victorious within months. Of the initial belligerents, Germany was most prepared for the outbreak of hostilities, and its military leaders had formatted a sophisticated military strategy known as the "Schlieffen Plan," which envisioned the conquest of France through a great arcing offensive through Belgium and into northern France. Russia, slow to mobilize, was to be kept occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces while Germany attacked France.
      The Schlieffen Plan was nearly successful, but in early September the French rallied and halted the German advance at the bloody Battle of the Marne near Paris. By the end of 1914, well over a million soldiers of various nationalities had been killed on the battlefields of Europe, and neither for the Allies nor the Central Powers was a final victory in sight. On the western front (the battle line that stretched across northern France and Belgium} the combatants settled down in the trenches for a terrible war of attrition.
      In 1915, the Allies attempted to break the stalemate with an amphibious invasion of Turkey, which had joined the Central Powers in October 1914, but after heavy bloodshed the Allies were forced to retreat in early 1916. The year 1916 saw great offensives by Germany and Britain along the western front, but neither side accomplished a decisive victory. In the east, Germany was more successful, and the disorganized Russian army suffered terrible losses, spurring the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917. By the end of 1917, the Bolsheviks had seized power in Russia and immediately set about negotiating peace with Germany. In 1918, the infusion of American troops and resources into the western front finally tipped the scale in the Allies' favor. Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies on 11 November 1918.
      World War I was known as the "war to end all wars" because of the great slaughter and destruction it caused. Unfortunately, the 1919 the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, which officially ended the conflict, forced punitive terms on Germany that destabilized Europe and laid the groundwork for World War II.
1909 Construction begins on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
1895 Bechuanaland becomes part of the Cape Colony
1889 Washington admitted as 42nd US state
1872 Fire engulfs Boston. The impact of the fire could be felt in New York, where nervous traders sent stocks tumbling. Although the markets made a brief comeback in December, the Boston blaze cast a pall over Wall Street that stretched well into the new year.
1864 Sherman's troops destroy Rome, Georgia
1863 Skirmish in the Fouche-le-Faix Mountains of Arkansas
^ 1852 Louisa May Alcott publishes her first story
      The Saturday Evening Gazette publishes The Rival Painters: A Story of Rome, by Louisa May Alcott, 19, who will later write the beloved children's book Little Women (1868). Alcott, the second of four daughters, was born in Pennsylvania but spent most of her life in Concord, Massachusetts. Her father, Bronson, was close friends with Transcendentalist thinkers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, whose progressive attitudes toward education and social issues left a strong mark on Louisa. Her father started a school based on Transcendentalist teachings, but after six years it failed, and he was unable to support the family and, afterward, Louisa dedicated most of her life to supporting them. After the publication of her first story, she made a living off sentimental and melodramatic stories for more than two decades.
      In 1862 she went to work as a nurse for Union troops in the Civil War until typhoid fever broke her health. She turned her experiences into Hospital Sketches (1863), which earned her a reputation as a serious literary writer.
      Looking for a bestseller, a publisher asked Alcott to write a book for girls. Although reluctant at first, she poured her best talent into the work, and the first volume of the serialized (beginning 30 October 1868) novel Little Women became an instant success. She wrote a chapter a day for the second half of the book. Her subsequent children's fiction, including Little Men (1871), An Old-Fashioned Girl (1870), Eight Cousins (1875), and Jo's Boys (1886), while not as popular as Little Women, are still enjoyed today. She also wrote many short stories for adults. She became a strong supporter of women's issues and spent most of her life caring for her family's financial, emotional, and physical needs. Her father died in March 1888, and she followed him just two days later.
ALCOTT ONLINE:
  • Behind a Mask: or, A Woman's Power
  • Eight Cousins
  • Eight Cousins
  • Flower Fables
  • Hospital Sketches (1863)
  • Jack and Jill
  • Little Men
  • Little Men
  • An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Little Women (parts 1 and 2)
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women (part 1, UK)
  • Good Wives (part 2 of Little Women)
  • The Mysterious Key, and What it Opened
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • 1811 Cartagena Colombia declares independence from Spain
    1648 Dutch and French agree to divide St Maarten, Leeward Islands
    1647 Massachusetts passes 1st US compulsory school attendance law .
    1630 La "Journee des dupes" . Marie de Medicis deteste Richelieu, elle est determinee à le perdre. Au palais du Luxembourg, elle fait mander son fils Louis XIII et lui demande la disgrace du cardinal. Celui-ci apparait, elle l'injurie. Bouleverse, le roi se retire sans un regard pour son ministre. Richelieu se croit perdu. Les grands se pressent vers la reine, convaincus qu'elle vient de l'emporter. Le lendemain, le roi convoque le cardinal dans son pavillon de chasse de Versailles. Le cardinal se jette aux pieds du roi, qui le releve et le prie de rester. C'est à la reine que le roi ordonne de prendre le chemin de l'exil au chateau de Compiegne. Avant que sa mere ne parte, le roi lui dit à propos de Richelieu : "C'est le plus grand serviteur que jamais la France ait eu."
    ^ 1620 The Mayflower Compact
          Two days after sighting land, the Mayflower comes to anchor in what is today Provincetown Harbor in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The same day, the Mayflower Compact is drafted and signed by the forty-one male passengers on the ship, commonly known as the pilgrims. The majority of the signatories are Puritan Separatists, who traveled to America to escape the jurisdiction of the Church of England, which they believed violated the biblical precepts for true Christians. However, other pilgrims aboard were loyal to England's church, but came to the New World for its economic opportunities. The Mayflower Compact is signed in the name of God, the Christian faith, England, and King James I, who granted the pilgrims an implicit assent to practice their religion in New England. The text of the Compact calls for the establishment of a "civil Body Politick" to enact "just and equal laws" for the governance of the first English colony in New England. In later years, the Mayflower Compact is hailed as the origin of all the democratic institutions that evolved in the colonies and in the US formed from them, although the agreement was not a revolutionary departure from English precedent. Nevertheless, the Compact establishes the first basis for written laws in New England, and during the next month the pilgrims establish a permanent settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts.
         Democratic in form, the Compact comprised the first written American constitution, and remained in force until 1691
    1500 Traite de Grenade, les rois Louis XII et Ferdinand d'Aragon se partagent le royaume de Naples.
    ^ 1417 La papaute refait son unite a Constance
         A Constance, un concile met fin au Grand Schisme d’Occident. Humiliee par le roi de France, un siecle plus tot, la papaute avait oublie son combat contre l'empereur allemand et les grands de ce monde pour imposer le regne de Dieu sur terre. Le pape avait quitte Rome pour s'installer a Avignon, sous la ferule du puissant roi de France. L'Eglise s'etait ensuite laissee entrainer dans des querelles de factions grotesques, au grand scandale des fideles. La revolte gronde. L'Anglais John Wyclif et le Tcheque Jan Hus appellent a une Reforme de l'Eglise et a un retour aux commandements de l'Evangile. La France, ravagee par la querelle des Armagnacs et des Bourguignons, est impuissante a agir. C'est l'empereur allemand Sigismond, excede, qui impose la reunion d'un concile sur les bords du lac de Constance. Le concile met fin a la scandaleuse divistion de la papaute. C'en est fini des papes et des anti-papes qui se sont entredechires pendant un demi-siecle, de Rome a Avignon. Le college des cardinaux revoque les trois papes du moment et en elit un et un seul. Celui-ci, Oddone Colonna, appartient a la noblesse romaine. Il n'est pas encore pretre et recoit en hate les nominations appropriees a sa nouvelle fonction. Prenant le nom de Martin V, il s'etablit definitivement a Rome. Il n'empeche que le mal a ete fait. La revolution religieuse en germe dans l'Empire allemand triomphera un siecle plus tard avec Martin Luther.
    1215 The Fourth Lateran Council (12th ecumenical council) is convened in Rome by Pope Innocent III. It was the council which first defined "transubstantiation," the Catholic belief that the bread and wine of the Eucharist change invisibly into the body and blood of Christ.
    — 43 avant JC: Un triumvirat pour succeder a Cesar (certaines sources donnent le 26 novembre)
          Antoine, Lepide et Octave se font nommer par le Senat romain pour exercer un gouvernement a trois. C'est le second triumvirat (tres viri reipublicae constituendae). Dominant tout le bassin mediterraneen, Rome a besoin d'institutions mieux adaptees que l'ancienne Republique. Cesar l'avait bien vu mais il a paye de sa vie son empressement a prendre le titre de roi. Les trois pretendants a sa succession cessent un moment de se combattre. Allies au sein du triumvirat, ils ordonnent des proscriptions contre le parti republicain accuse d'avoir complote contre Cesar. Ciceron et beaucoup d'autres y trouvent la mort. Puis, les triumvirs ne tardent pas a s'entredechirer dans une guerre civile qui s'achevera douze ans plus tard, apres la bataille d'Actium, par la mort d'Antoine et la victoire definitive d'Octave. Le petit-neveu de Jules Cesar, bientot denomme Auguste, va instaurer un empire de fait. La paix romaine ("pax romana") regnera pour plus de deux siecles autour de la Mediterranee.
    TO THE TOP
    < 10 Nov 12 Nov >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on an 11 November:

    Hammond2004 William Hammond, 80 [< photo], accidentally run over by a van backing up over him as he was lining up veterans for the Veterans Day parade in Whitman, Massachusetts. The van was driven by a friend and owned by the local Veterans of Foreign Wars. Hammond, a contractor in Abington, Massachusetts, was a decorated World War II veteran who fought in the Battle of the Bulge (16 Dec 1944 - 16 Jan 1945). He was captain of the color guard for the parade.

    2004 Seventeen persons, late in the morning, by car bomb near a police patrol in a street just off Nasr Square, Baghdad, Iraq. At least 20 persons are wounded.

    2004 Homeless boy, falling from a jetliner's landing gear compartment soon after it takes off from Kunming, China, as reported by his fellow stowaway, 14, when he arrives in Chongqing one hour later at the end of the 700 km flight at a cruising altitude of 7000 m.
    click for different photo^ 2004 Rahman 'Abd Arra'uf al-Qudwah “Yasir 'Arafat, chairman of the PLO, head
    of the Palestinian Authority. 'Arafat was born on 24 August 1929, according to a birth certificate registered in Cairo, Egypt. Some sources, however, have supported 'Arafat's claim to have been born in Jerusalem on 04 August 1929, and still others have given Gaza, Palestine, as his birthplace. 
        “Yasir 'Arafat” is the byname of Muhammad 'Abd ar-Ra'uf al-Qudwah al-Husayni, president (from 1996) of the Palestinian Authority, chairman (from 1969) of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and leader of Fatah, the largest of the constituent PLO groups. In 1993 he led the PLO to a peace agreement with the Israeli government. 'Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin [01 Mar 1922 – 04 Nov 1995] and Shimon Peres [16 Aug 1923~] of Israel were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1994.
         'Arafat may have assumed that name [my guess] from Jabal (“Mount”) 'Arafat, near Mecca, where pilgrims hear a sermon and spend an afternoon during the hajj. (According to the Palestinian authority, he was born on 04 August 1929).
         His mother was related to the anti-Zionist grand mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni [1897 – 04 Jul 1974]. Arafat graduated from the University of Cairo as a civil engineer. In Egypt he had joined the Muslim Brotherhood and the Union of Palestinian Students, of which he was president during 1952-1956.
         After participating in the 1956 war with Israel as an Egyptian officer, Arafat worked as an engineer in Kuwait, where he co-founded Al-Fatah, which would become the military wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Arafat became chairman of the PLO in 1968, commander in chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces in 1971, head of the PLO's political department in 1973.
         At the end of August 1982, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon forced Arafat to move his headquarters from Beirut to Tunisia, he moved them to Baghdad in 1987. On 15 November 1982 the State of Palestine was proclaimed (in exile) and on 02 April 1989, Arafat became its president.
         On 13 December 1993, in Washington, Arafat signed a peace accord with Israel's prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, establishing the Palestinian National Authority with limited authority on the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip. Arafat became its president, confirmed by a general election on 30 March 1989. Arafat, Rabin, and Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres received the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize “for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”.
          'Arafat was one of seven children of a well-to-do merchant whose wife was related to the anti-Zionist grand mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni. The date and place of 'Arafat's birth are disputed. A birth certificate registered in Cairo, Egypt, gives 24 August 1929. Some sources, however, have supported 'Arafat's claim to have been born in Jerusalem on 04 August 1929, and still others have given Gaza, Palestine, as his birthplace. 'Arafat attended the University of Cairo, graduating as a civil engineer. He joined the Muslim Brotherhood and the Union of Palestinian Students, of which he became president (1952–1956), and was commissioned into the Egyptian army. In 1956 he served in the Suez campaign.
          After Suez, 'Arafat went to Kuwait, where he worked as an engineer and set up his own contracting firm. In Kuwait he helped found Fatah, which was to become the leading military component of the PLO. After being named chairman of the PLO in 1969, he became commander in chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces in 1971 and, two years later, head of the PLO's political department. Subsequently, he directed his efforts increasingly toward political persuasion rather than confrontation and terrorism against Israel. In November 1974 'Arafat became the first representative of a nongovernmental organization, the PLO, to address a plenary session of the UN General Assembly.
          In 1982 'Arafat became the target of criticism from Syria and from various Syrian-supported factions within the PLO. The criticisms escalated after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon forced 'Arafat to abandon his Beirut headquarters at the end of August 1982 and set up a new base in Tunisia; he shifted to Baghdad, Iraq, in 1987. 'Arafat was subsequently able to reaffirm his leadership as the split in the PLO's ranks healed.
          On 02 April 1989, 'Arafat was elected by the Central Council of the Palestine National Council (the governing body of the PLO) to be the president of a hypothetical Palestinian state. In 1993 'Arafat took a further step toward peace when, as head of the PLO, he formally recognized Israel's right to exist and helped negotiate the Israel-PLO accord, which envisaged the gradual implementation of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip over a five-year period. 'Arafat began directing Palestinian self-rule in 1994, and in 1996 he was elected president of the Palestinian Authority, which governed Palestinian-controlled areas of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
          In mid-1996 Israeli-Palestinian relations became acrimonious with the election of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu [21 Oct 1949~], who favored a slower transition (if any) to self-rule. Growing distrust between 'Arafat and Netanyahu resulted in a 19-month-long deadlock, and in 1998 US President Bill Clinton [19 Aug 1946~] intervened, arranging a summit meeting with the two leaders. The resulting Wye Memorandum detailed the steps to be taken by Israel and Palestine to complete the peace process. 'Arafat pledged to continue the process with Netanyahu's successor, Ehud Barak [12 Feb 1942~]. click for big photo
    Key dates in Yasser Arafat's life:

    04 Aug or 24 Aug 1929: Born in Cairo, Jerusalem, or Gaza; fifth child of Palestinian merchant Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini.
    1933: Mother Zahwa dies. Arafat and infant brother Fathi sent to Jerusalem to live with uncle.
    1949: Moves back to Cairo; forms Palestinian Students' League.
    August 1956: Attends international student congress in Prague, Czechoslovakia, secures membership for Palestine. For first time, wears Palestinian headdress, or keffiyeh, that becomes his trademark.
    01 Jan 1965: Forms Fatah guerrilla movement; two days later attempts first attack on Israel, abortive bombing of water canal in Galilee.
    21 Mar 1968: Israeli army attack on PLO base at Karameh, Jordan, inflicts heavy losses, but seen as victory for Arafat and his group; thousands join PLO.
    04 Feb 1969: Arafat takes over PLO chairmanship, transforms it into dynamic force that makes Palestinian cause known worldwide.
    13 Nov 1974: Arafat addresses UN General Assembly.
    06 Jun 1982: Israel invades Lebanon to crush PLO, forcing Arafat and loyalists to flee Beirut.
    01 Oct 1985: Arafat narrowly escapes death in Israeli air raid on PLO headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia.
    16 Apr 1988: Khalil al-Wazir, Arafat's military commander, also known as Abu Jihad, assassinated in Tunis; Israel blamed.
    12 Dec 1988: Arafat accepts Israel's right to exist, renounces terrorism.
    02 Aug 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait; Arafat stupidly supports Saddam Hussein, resulting in PLO's isolation.
    November 1991: Arafat secretly marries secretary Suha Tawil, 28, in Tunis. Their daughter Zahwa is born on 24 July 1995, in Paris.
    07 Apr 1992: Arafat rescued after plane crash lands in Libyan desert during sandstorm, killing two pilots and engineer and leaving Arafat bruised and shaken.
    1344 Sep 1993: Israel and PLO sign accord on Palestinian autonomy in Oslo, Norway, giving Arafat control of most of Gaza Strip and 27% of West Bank. Arafat shakes hands with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin on White House lawn.
    01 Jul 1994: Returning from exile, a triumphant Arafat sets foot on Palestinian soil for the first time in 26 years.
    10 Dec 1994: Arafat receives Nobel Peace Prize, along with Rabin and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres.
    04 Nov 1995: Ultranationalist Jew assassinates Rabin at peace rally in Tel Aviv, Israel.
    09 Nov 1995: Arafat makes first visit to Israel in secret trip to offer condolences to Rabin's widow.
    20 Jan 1996: Arafat elected president of Palestinian Authority in first Palestinian elections.
    15 Jan 1997: Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu sign accord on Israeli pullout from 80% of West Bank city of Hebron.
    23 Oct 1998: Israeli and Palestinian leaders meeting at Wye River, Maryland, agree on interim land-for-peace deal on West Bank.
    11 Jul 2000: Seeking final peace deal, US President Clinton convenes "Camp David II" and sequesters Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Arafat for nine days. Afterward, White House declares summit failure.
    28 Sep 2000: Israel's then opposition leader, Ariel Sharon, provocatively visits Jerusalem shrine holy to Jews (Temple Mount) and Muslims (al-Aqsa Mosque), leading to clashes that escalate into second Palestinian intifadah.
    03 Dec 2001: After three suicide bombings, Israel destroys Arafat's three helicopters in Gaza City, grounding him and effectively confining him to West Bank town of Ramallah, while making him more popular among Palestinians.
    18 Jan 2002: Two Israeli tanks and armored personnel carrier park outside Arafat's Ramallah headquarters, confining him to office complex after Palestinian gunman bursts into banquet hall and kills six Israelis. In three ensuing military sieges, compound's walls torn down, along with most buildings, except for Arafat's three-story tan stucco office.
    27 Mar 2002: Palestinian suicide bomber kills 29 people at Passover holiday meal at Park Hotel in Netanya, prompting Israeli incursion into West Bank.
    29 March 2002: Israeli Cabinet declares Arafat an "enemy." Troops seize Ramallah, including most of Arafat's headquarters compound, further pinning in once globe-trotting leader.
    02 Apr 2002: Arafat, responding to Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's offer of permanent exile, says he would rather die than leave West Bank.
    24 Jun 2002: Siding with Sharon, USurper President Bush stupidly calls on Palestinians to replace Arafat as leader.
    29 Apr 2003: Palestinian parliament confirms Arafat's deputy, Mahmoud Abbas, as first Palestinian prime minister, appointment pushed for by United States and Israel in a counterproductive effort to sideline Arafat.
    04 Jun 2003: At first major Israeli-Palestinian summit without Arafat, Sharon and Bush launch "road map" peace plan, which allegedly aims to end fighting and create Palestinian state by 2005.
    06 Sep 2003: Abbas, weakened by power struggle with Arafat, resigns and is replaced by parliament speaker Ahmed Qureia.
    29 Oct 2004: Having been seriously ill for two weeks, and having collapsed into unconsciousness for 10 minutes two days earlier, Arafat is flown to Paris for diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic procedures give no result, but may have aggravated 'Arafat's condition. He slips into a coma and dies in the evening of 10 November 2004.
    Yasir Arafat, político palestino
         Mohammed Abed Ar╢ouf Arafat nació el 24 de agosto de 1929, en Gaza, Palestina, entonces dominio británico. Estudió en la Universidad de El Cairo (1952-1956), donde llegó a ser presidente de la Asociación General de los estudiantes palestinos. Después trabajó como ingeniero en Kuwait. Colaboró en la fundación del movimiento "Al-Fatah", en 1958, el más importante de los grupos guerrilleros reivindicadores del territorio de Palestina ocupado por Israel, del que, posteriormente, se convertiría en portavoz y líder. En 1968, después de la derrota de los árabes frente a Israel en la denominada "Guerra de los Siete Días", surge con nueva fuerza política la Organización para la Liberación de Palestina (OLP), fundada en 1964 por Ahmed es-Suqueiri, y controlada, ahora, por Al-Fatah. En 1969, es elegido presidente del comité ejecutivo de la OLP, representando al sector moderado de esta Organización. En 1982 Israel invade el Líbano, derrota a los guerrilleros palestinos instalados allí y expulsa a Arafat, que traslada su cuartel general a Túnez. Dos años más tarde, presenta su dimisión ante el Congreso Nacional Palestino, pero es rechazada, por lo que refuerza su figura dentro de la OLP. A partir de este momento, estalla en los territorios ocupados de Gaza y Cisjordania la revuelta conocida con el nombre de la "Intifada", que se va incrementando hasta 1988. A finales de este año, Arafat proclama la primera Constitución del Estado Palestino, en una ceremonia celebrada en Argel durante la reunión del Consejo Nacional.
          El 13 Dec 1988 del mismo año, Arafat interviene ante la Asamblea General de la ONU, en Ginebra, con una rama de olivo y una piedra en sus manos, como presidente del nuevo Estado de Palestina. En 1989, durante la celebración de un congreso del grupo Al-Fatah, se hace un llamamiento a la lucha armada para poner fin a la ocupación de Israel de los territorios palestinos, y se nombra por unanimidad a Yasser Arafat presidente del Comité Central de Al-Fatah.
          El apoyo prestado a Saddam Hussein en la crisis del Golfo, en 1990, le valió a Arafat la pérdida de la confianza internacional, pronto restablecida al apoyar la participación de Palestina en la Conferencia de Paz de Oriente Medio celebrada, en su primera fase, en Madrid, y la segunda, en Washington, en 1991. A pesar de ser criticado y acosado por los palestinos más exaltados por utilizar la vía negociadora para conseguir el reconocimiento del Estado de Palestina, Yasser Arafat e Itzhak Rabin, en presencia de Bill Clinton, firmaron la paz en Washington, el 13 Dec 1993, consiguiendo así el reconocimiento de la autonomía de Palestina. A pesar de ello, prosiguen las manifestaciones de los radicales integristas que mantienen la inestabilidad en un país en el que Yasser Arafat sigue siendo el líder más aclamado por el pueblo. En 1994 le fue otorgado el Premio Nobel de la Paz.
    Ushishkin2003:: 6 Iraqis including the terrorist who was placing a bomb on the side of a street in British-occupied Basra, Iraq, and which explodes apparently prematurely, destroying a minibus. Four Iraquis are injured.
    2002:: 18 of the 29 passengers and 5 crew members aboard a Laoag International Airlines Fokker 27 commuter plane which crashes into 11-meter-deep Manila Bay 5 minutes after its 06:15 takeoff.
    2002 Nafez Meshaal, 2, Palestinian boy shot in the abdomen while playing ball at 19:00, by Israeli soldiers, in the Tul Al Sultan neighborhood of Rafah, Gaza Strip. Three Palestinians are wounded.
    2002 Mohammed Najja, 8, Palestinian boy, from being shot by Israeli soldiers on 17 October 2002 in Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip.
    2001 Aharon Usishkin, 50, [photo >] shot by Palestinian gunman in revenge for Israelis killing one of his relatives. Usishkin, the security officer in the central Israel community of Kfar Hess about 10 km north of Kfar Sava and 20 km northwest of the Palestinian city of Qalqilyah in the West Bank, was called to the entrance of the community to investigate a suspicious man. As he arrived the man opened fire on him and a vehicle containing two other people, before fleeing into the surrounding fields. The gunman had left a note behind saying that the shooting was a revenge.
    Billaud2001 Johanne Sutton of Radio France Internationale, Pierre Billaud [< photo] of RTL Radio, and Volker Handloik, a freelance reporter for Stern newsmagazine. Near Taloqan, capital of Takhar in Afghanistan, in the dark after nightfall, they were in a group of foreign correspondents being taken by the Northern Alliance to see trenches falsely said to have been abandoned by the Taliban.
    The armored personnel on top of which they were sitting comes under attack by a Taliban rocket-propelled grenade, swerves to avoid it, and the three fall off, while the vehicle escapes with its other occupants unhurt. .
    2000: 155 skiers as cable car catches fire at 09:30, 650 m inside tunnel up the Kitzsteinhorm mountain, Salzburg province, Austria. 8 persons escape alive.
    2000 Nguyen Trong Thanh, 59, from choking and severe blows to the head by Vu Truong Giang, 28, a former employee of the Vietnamese Planning and Investment Ministry, Thanh is killed at his Hanoi office after refusing to give up nude photographs of Giang's girlfriend he had taken during a five-year romantic relationship with her that lasted until 1998. The girlfriend, Vu Tra My, 27, is present. She would not be charged but, on 19 September 2001, Giang would be sentenced to 12 years in prison. Thanh achieved fame as a photographer during the Vietnam War during which he spent five years working on the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
    1976 Alexander “Sandy” Calder, US kinetic artist, painter, sculptor, and printmaker, in love with the color red, born on 22 July 1898. — MORE ON CALDER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1962 Rene Coty, 80, President of France
    1954 Carslaw, mathematician.
    1951 Tsiang Beda, Jesuit bishop of Shanghai, in a communist prison. He had refused to head the Chinese "reform" church.
    1917 Lydia Paki Kamekeha Liliuokalani, born on 02 September 1838, Queen of the Hawaiian Islands from the 1891 death of her brother King Kalakaua until 1893, when she was imprisoned, forced to abdicate on 24 January (or else she and her supporters would be killed), and subjected to a mockery of a trial by treacherous US planters who sought annexation to the United States, which they obtained in 1898 after proclaiming the Republic of Hawaii in 1894. — LILIUOKALANI ONLINE: Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen (1898) [her autobiography rather than a history of Hawaii]
    1911 Felix François Georges Philibert Ziem (or Siem), French painter, specialized in Veniscapes, born on 26 (21?) February 1821. — MORE ON ZIEM AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1908:: 360 mineros por una explosión de grisú en la mina Radbod-Hamm, en Westfalia.
    1904 Valentine Cameron Prinsep, British Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 14 February 1838 (1836?). — MORE ON PRINSEP AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1887 August Spies, George Engel, Adolph Fisher, and Albert Parsons, hanged
    for "inciting" the Haymarket riot, at which they were not present. The evidence against them was their anarchist ideas and literature.
          With the noose around his neck, Fischer cried out: "Hurrah for Anarchy! This is the happiest moment of my life." Parsons said: "Will I be allowed to speak, O men of America? Let me speak, Sheriff Matson! Let the voice of the people be heard!" From inside his hood, Spies made a short statement which would be heard for decades in workingclass circles: "The time will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today."
         The executions aroused people all over the country. There was a funeral march of 25'000 in Chicago.
         Four labor activists accused of murdering eight Chicago police officers at the Haymarket Square Riot are executed by hanging in Illinois. On 04 May 1886, a labor rally was held in Chicago's Haymarket Square to protest the killing of four strikers by the Chicago police the day before. Midway into the demonstration, made up of mostly German-born workers, a squad of nearly two hundred policemen arrived to break up the rally. By this time the crowd had thinned out because of rain. As the police began to forcibly disperse the three hundred remaining protestors, a bomb was thrown into the advancing police by a person never positively identified. Policeman Mathias J. Degan died almost instantly, seven other officers died later, and over sixty others were wounded. In response to the bombing, the police fired wildly into the crowd, killing eight people and injuring dozens more, including a number of fellow officers.
          The Haymarket Square Riot set off a national wave of xenophobia, as hundreds of foreign-born radicals and labor leaders were rounded up in Chicago and elsewhere. A grand jury eventually indicted thirty-one suspected labor radicals in connection with the bombing, and eight men were convicted in a controversial and sensational trial. Judge Joseph E. Gary imposed the death sentence on seven of the men and the eighth was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. Samuel Fielden, Adolph Fischer, August Spies, and Albert Parson, executed by hanging, were the first labor activists to be executed in America. Of the three others sentenced to death, one committed suicide on 10 November and Illinois Governor Richard J. Oglesby commuted two of the men's sentences to life imprisonment due to widespread public doubt of their guilt. In 1893, Governor John P. Altgeld pardoned the three activists still living.
    1873 Henry Perle “Smuggler” Parker, British artist born in 1795.
    1856 John Middleton, English painter and etcher born on 09 Jan 1827 (or in 1828?).
    1855 Luigia “Vincenza MarМa” Poloni [26 Jan 1802–], holy Italian founder of the Institute of the Sisters of Mercy of Verona. —(080522)
    click for full painting^ 1831 Nat Turner former slave, led a revolt, hanged
         Nat Turner, the leader of a bloody slave revolt three months before, is hanged in Jerusalem, Virginia. Turner, a slave born on 02 October 1800, and educated minister, believed himself chosen by God to lead his people out of slavery. On 21 August 1831, Nat Turner initiated his slave uprising by slaughtering his owner Joseph Travis and Travis's family.
    click for full engravings     With seven followers, Turner set off across the countryside, hoping to rally hundreds of slaves to join his insurrection. Turner planned to capture the county armory at Jerusalem, Virginia, and then march 50 km to Dismal Swamp, where his rebels would be able to elude their pursuers. During the next two days and nights, Turner and 75 followers rampaged through Southampton County, killing about 60 whites. Local whites resisted the rebels, and then the state militia — consisting of some 3000 men — crushed the rebellion.
          Only a few kilometers from Jerusalem, Turner and all his followers were dispersed, captured, or killed. In the aftermath of the rebellion, over one hundred Blacks were lynched by hanging, though most of them had not participated in the revolt. Turner himself was not captured until 30 October 1831 (by Benjamin Phipps), and after confessing without regret to his role in the bloodshed, he was, on 05 November 1831, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. On 11 November 11, he is hanged in Jerusalem. Turner's rebellion was the largest slave revolt in US history and led to a new wave of oppressive legislation prohibiting the movement, assembly, and education of slaves. — MORE
    — NAT TURNER ONLINE: The Confessions of Nat TurnerThe Confessions of Nat Turner {published by Thomas Gray as The Confessions of Nat Turner, as fully and voluntarily made to Thomas R. Gray, two weeks after Turner was executed. Turner’s authorship and/or approval of the narrative is questionable for many reasons, one of which is his inability to read the work; another is the fact that he was already dead when the work was published.)
    1810 Johannes Josephus Zauffely “Zoffany”, German Neoclassical painter, active in England where he dies, also in Italy and in India, born on 13 March 1733. — MORE ON ZOFFANY AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1778: 40 persons, killed by Iroquois Indians led by William Butler, in NY, in Cherry Valley Massacre.
    1772 Jan Morits Quinckhardt, Dutch painter and dealer born on 28 January 1688.
    1761 Jan Ten Compe, Dutch painter, draftsman, and dealer, born on 14 February 1713. — more
    1681 (burial) Jacob Marell, German painter, active also in the northern Netherlands, born in 1614.
    1638 Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem, Dutch Mannerist painter and draftsman born in 1562. — MORE ON CORNELIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1563 Francesco Rossi del Salviati “il Cecchino”, Italian Mannerist painter born in 1510. — MORE ON SALVIATI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1499 Perkin Warbeck, executed, pretender to the throne. The curious career and uncertain past of Perkin Warbeck
    0537 St Silverius, Pope
    0397 Martin of Tours, founder of France's first monastery.
     
    < 10 Nov 12 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 11 November:

    2004 Yasser Omar and Arafat Omar, twin boys born in Gaza City to their mother Safa Omar, 32, who names them in honor of Yasser Arafat [24 Aug 1929 – 11 Nov 2004]. —(091222)
    1955 Jigme Singye Wangchuk king of Bhutan (24 Jul 1972 - 14 Dec 2006) — wikibio —(091222)
    1951 Kim Peek [–19 Dec 2009], US megasavant.who was fictionalized in the movie Rain Man. — wikibio —(091222)
    1945 José Daniel Ortega Saavedra, Nicaraguan who would become leader of the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN), which, on 17 July 1979, would overthrow the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle [05 Dec 1925 – 17 Sep 1980], after which Ortega would become the Marxist ruler of Nicaragua, and President from 10 January 1985 until 25 April 1990 (after accepting defeat in an election). Ortega, claiming to have become a moderate and to seek national reconciliation, would become President again after winning the 05 November 2006 election. —(061106)
    1928 Carlos Fuentes, Mexican novelist. — wikibio —(091222)
    1922 Kurt Vonnegut, American novelist (Slaughterhouse Five).
    1915 William Proxmire [–15 Dec 2005], Democrat, US senator from Wisconsin (28 Aug 1957 - 03 Jan 1989) — wikibio —(091222)
    1911 Hussein bin Talal [–07 Feb 1999], king of Jordan from 11 Aug 1952. — wikibio —(091222)
    1911 Roberto Antonio Sebastian Matta Echauren, Chilean Surrealist painter, active mostly in France, who died on 23 November 2002. — MORE ON MATTA AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1904 Alger Hiss, US State Department official, convicted of perjury after denying having been a Communist spy, as accused (first on 03 August 1948) by Whittaker Chambers [01 April 1901 – 09 July 1961]. Hiss died on 15 November 1996. Hiss wrote two books, In the Court of Public Opinion (1957) and Recollections of a Life (1988).
    1904 Henry Whitehead, mathematician.
    1888 Johannes Itten, Swiss Expressionist painter, lithographer, textile designer, teacher, writer, and theorist, who died on 25 March 1967. — more with links to two images.
    Patton stamp, issued 53-11-111885 George Smith Patton Jr., one of the great US generals of World War II.
         Patton "Old Blood & Guts" is born in San Gabriel, California. Patton came from a family with a long history of military service. After studying at West Point, he served as a tank officer in World War I, and his experience in that conflict, along with his extensive military study, led him to become an advocate of the crucial importance of the tank in future warfare. After the US entrance into World War II, Patton was placed in command of an important US tank division and played a key role in the Allied invasion of French North Africa in 1942. In 1943, Patton led the US 7th Army in its assault on Sicily and won fame for out-commanding Montgomery during the so-called Race to Messina.
          Although Patton was one of the ablest US commanders in World War II, he was also one of the most controversial. He presented himself as a modern-day cavalryman, designed his own uniform, and was known to make eccentric claims that he was a direct descent from great military leaders of the past through reincarnation. During the Sicilian campaign, Patton generated considerable controversy when he accused a hospitalized US soldier suffering from battle fatigue of cowardice and then personally struck him across the face on 03 August 1943. The famously profane general was forced to issue a public apology and was reprimanded by General Dwight Eisenhower.
          However, when it was time for the invasion of Western Europe, Eisenhower could find no general as formidable as Patton, and the general was again granted an important military post. In 1944, Patton commanded the US Third Army in the invasion of France, and in December of that year his expertise in military movement and tank warfare helped crush the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes. On 21 December 1945, he died in a hospital in Germany from injuries sustained in an automobile accident near Mannheim.
    1884 Josef Mangold, German artist who died in 1942.
    1869 Victor Emmanuel III king of Italy (1900-46) / Ethiopia
    1868 Edouard Vuillard, French Nabi and Post-Impressionist painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 21 June 1940. — MORE ON VUILLARD AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1864 Alfred Hermann Fried, Austrian journalist active in Germany, founder of Die Friedenswarte, who received the 1911 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838 - 1913). Having lost everything in the collapse of Austria-Hungary following WW I, Fried died in poverty on 05 May 1921. — MORE
    1863 Paul Signac
    , Parisian pointilliste painter, printmaker, etcher, lithographer, who died on 15 August 1935. MORE ON SIGNAC AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1845 Jules Guesde, a Paris.
          Apres la Commune, il divulgue en France la pensee de Marx et unifie les mouvements socialistes autour d'un parti revolutionnaire. A partir de 1905, au sein du mouvement socialiste, le courant marxiste orthodoxe de Jules Guesde entrera en conflit avec le courant humaniste de Jean Jaures. Apres l'assassinat du pacifiste Jaures, en 1914, Jules Guesde se ralliera a l'Union sacree contre l'Allemagne. Dans Le Cri du Peuple du 10 fevrier 1886, le socialiste revolutionnaire Jules Guesde publie un article intitule "Meurent les ouvriers francais". On peut y lire cette profession de foi: "Ils sont 800.000 ouvriers etrangers qui, travaillant a tout prix, font outrageusement baisser les salaires, quand ils ne les suppriment pas completement pour nos ouvriers expulses des usines."
    1837 Arthur Grottger, Polish draftsman and painter who died on 13 December 1867. — more
    ^ 1836 Thomas Bailey Aldrich, in Portsmouth, N.H., poet, short-story writer, and editor whose use of the surprise ending influenced the development of the short story. He drew upon his childhood experiences in New Hampshire in his popular classic The Story of a Bad Boy (1870).
          Aldrich left school at 13 to work as a merchant's clerk in New York City and soon began to contribute to various newspapers and magazines. After publication of his first book of verse, The Bells (1855), he became junior literary critic on the New York Evening Mirror and later subeditor of the Home Journal. From 1881 to 1890 he was editor of The Atlantic Monthly. His poems, which reflect the cultural atmosphere of New England and his frequent European tours, were published in such volumes as Cloth of Gold (1874), Flower and Thorn (1877), Mercedes and Later Lyrics (1884), and Wyndham Towers (1890). His best known prose is Marjorie Daw and Other People (1873), a collection of short stories. Aldrich died on 19 March 1907
    ALDRICH ONLINE:
  • Cloth of Gold and Other Poems
  • Judith and Holofernes
  • Later Lyrics: Selected from Mercedes, The Sisters' tragedy, Wyndham Towers and Unguarded Gates
  • Marjorie Daw, and The Cruise of the Dolphin Part 1, Part 2
  • Mercedes: A Drama in Two Acts
  • An Old Town By the Sea
  • The Poems of Thomas Bailey Aldrich
  • Ponkapog Papers
  • The Sisters' Tragedy, with Other Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic
  • The Sisters' Tragedy, with Other Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic
  • The Story of a Bad Boy
  • Unguarded Gates and Other Poems
  • Wyndham Towers
  • Wyndham Towers
  • XXXVI Lyrics and XII Sonnets
  • 1832 Philippe Jolyet, French artist who died in 1908.
    click for full portrait^ 1821 (30 October Julian) Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky  (Федор íÉхайловÉч äостоевскÉй)
    [click image for full portrait >]
          He would become a Russian novelist and short-story writer whose psychological penetration into the darkest recesses of the human heart, together with his unsurpassed moments of illumination, have had an immense influence on 20th-century fiction. Dostoevsky is usually regarded as one of the finest novelists who ever lived. Literary modernism, existentialism, and various schools of psychology, theology, and literary criticism have been profoundly shaped by his ideas. His works are often called prophetic because he so accurately predicted how Russia's revolutionaries would behave if they came to power. In his time he was also renowned for his activity as a journalist.
         His father was a doctor at Moscow's Hospital for the Poor, where he grew rich enough to buy land and serfs. After his father's death, Dostoevsky, who suffered from epilepsy, studied military engineering and became a civil servant while secretly writing novels. His first, âедные людÉ, and his second, äвойнÉк, were both published in 1846 — the first was a hit, the second a failure. Dostoevsky began participating in a radical intellectual discussion group called the Petrashevsky Circle. The group was suspected of subversive activites, which led to Dostoevsky's arrest in 1849, and his sentencing to death.
          On 22 December 1849, Dostoevsky was led before the firing squad but received a last-minute reprieve and was sent to a Siberian labor camp, where he worked for four years. He was released in 1854 and worked as a soldier on the Mongolian frontier. He married a widow and finally returned to Russia in 1859. The following year, he founded a magazine and two years after that journeyed to Europe for the first time. In 1864 and 1865, his wife and his brother died, the magazine folded, and Dostoevsky found himself deeply in debt, which he exacerbated by gambling. In 1866, he published Crime and Punishment, one of his most popular works. In 1867, he married a stenographer, and the couple fled to Europe to escape his creditors. His novel The Possessed (1872) was successful, and the couple returned to St. Petersburg. He published The Brothers Karamazov in 1880 to immediate success, but he died a year later.
         From earliest childhood Dostoyevsky knew the gospels and learned Bible stories from the deacon at the hospital where his father was a doctor. As he looked back in later years, he rejoiced that as a child he was brought up in a home that knew Christ, and that his mother and father had given him something holy and precious to carry him through the rest of his life.
          As a young man, Dostoyevsky was an activist pushing the social ideals of his day. In 1849, at age 26, he was charged with conspiracy against tsar Nicholas' government and sentenced to death. Standing before a firing squad, he was reprieved at the very last moment, and sent to prison in Siberia for four years. On his way, a group of women gave him a New Testament which he treasured the rest of his life. His underlining of his New Testament emphasized two themes: persecution of the just and the coming Day of Judgment. He believed in salvation through suffering. He also believed in God's Providence. Once, when a friend remarked that his Siberian punishment had been unjust, Dostoyevsky disagreed, pointing out that God had sent him to Siberia to teach him important lessons. Dostoyevsky's best known novels — The Idiot, úапÉскÉ Éз подполья , ПреступленÉе É наказанÉе, and The Brothers Karamazov — explore man's sinful soul and show that suffering has a purifying effect upon an individual's life.
          Dostoyevsky died on 09 February [28 January Julian] 1881. The epitaph on his grave is from John l2:24: "Unless a grain of wheat falls to the earth and dies, it remains by itself alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit." .

    Федор íÉхайловÉч äостоевскÉй -- DOSTOEVSKY ONLINE (in Russian and in English translations):
    по-русскÉ: :: to display Russian: View / Encoding / (More) / Cyrillic (KOI8-U)
    1. âедные людÉ. Роман, редакцÉя 1865 г. (265 Кâ)
    2. äвойнÉк. Петербургская поэма, редакцÉя 1866 г. (335 Кâ)
    3. Роман в девятÉ пÉсьмах
    4. çосподÉн ПрохарчÉн. Рассказ
    5. èозяйка. Повесть
    6. Ползунков
    7. óлабое сердце. Повесть
    8. Честный вор. éз запÉсок неÉзвестного
    9. Елка É свадьба. éз запÉсок неÉзвестного
    10. Чужая жена É муж под кроватью. ПроÉсшествÉе необыкновенное
    11. âелые ночÉ. óентÉментальный роман. éз воспомÉнанÉй мечтателя
    12. îеточка îезванова (354 Кâ)
    13. íаленькÉй герой. éз неÉзвестных мемуаров
    14. äядюшкÉн сон. éз íордасовскÉх летопÉсей (280 Кâ)
    15. óело óтепанчÉково É его обÉтателÉ. éз запÉсок неÉзвестного (444 Кâ)
    16. УнÉженные É оскорбленные.Роман в четырех частях с эпÉлогом (757 Кâ)
    17. úапÉскÉ Éз мертвого дома (633 Кâ)
    18. óкверный анекдот. Рассказ
    19. úÉмнÉе заметкÉ о летнÉх впечатленÉях
    20. úапÉскÉ Éз подполья. Повесть
    21. КрокодÉл, необыкновенное событÉе ÉлÉ пассаж в Пассаже.
    22. ПреступленÉе É наказанÉе. Роман в шестÉ частях с эпÉлогом (1150 Кâ)
    23. éгрок. Роман (310 Кâ)
    24. Вечный муж. Рассказ (290 Кâ)
  • The Brothers Karamazov
  • The Brothers Karamazov
  • Crime and Punishment (22)
  • Crime and Punishment
  • Crime and Punishment
  • Crime and Punishment
  • The Crocodile: An Extraordinary Incident (21)
  • A Gentle Spirit: A Fantastic Story
  • The Insulted and Injured (16)
  • Notes from the Underground (20)
  • Notes from the Underground
  • The Double (2)
  • The Gambler (24)
  • The Idiot
  • Poor Folk (1)
  • Selected works:
  • The Brothers Karamazov,
  • Crime & Punishment,
  • Notes from Underground,
  • The Crocodile: An Extraordinary Incident,
  • The Double,
  • A Gentle Spirit: A Fantastic Story,
  • The Insulted & The Injured,
  • The Dream of a Ridiculous Man,
  • Bobok: From Someone's Diary,
  • The Peasant Marey: From Diary of a Writer,
  • The Little Orphan
  • ^ 1811 Ben McCulloch, future Confederate General.
          McCulloch is born near Rutherford City, Tennessee. Raised in Tennessee, McCulloch followed his friends Davy Crockett and Sam Houston to Texas in 1835. Measles kept him from joining Crockett at the Alamo, where its defenders, including Crockett, were massacred when the Mexican army overran the mission during the Texas War for Independence. McCulloch served with Houston at the decisive Battle of San Jacinto, in which Mexican General Santa Anna's army was defeated and Texas gained its independence. After the war, McCulloch served in the Texas legislature and the Texas Rangers, the primary law enforcement agency in the Republic of Texas. He fought under General Zachary Taylor during the Mexican War and served as a US marshal in the 1850s.
          When the Civil War broke out, McCulloch became a colonel in command of Texas troops. He rode to San Antonio and forced the surrender of a Federal arsenal there, while his brother, Henry, took control of Federal posts on the Texas frontier. In May 1861, Ben McCulloch became a brigadier general in the Confederate army and was assigned to defend Indian Territory. He formed alliances with several tribes in the area before moving his force to southwestern Missouri, where he played a key role in the Confederate victory at Wilson's Creek on 10 August 1861.
          McCulloch commanded a wing of the Army of the West as it approached a Union force led by General Samuel Curtis in northwestern Arkansas in March 1862. Curtis took up a defensive position around Elkhorn Tavern and waited for the Confederates to attack. On the night of 06 March 1862, McCulloch marched his troops around Curtis's right flank and prepared for an early morning assault on 07 March 1862. Curtis discovered the movement, and blocked McCulloch's advance. That day, at the Battle of Pea Ridge, Curtis held off a furious attack by McCulloch's force. McCulloch rode forward to monitor his men's progress when he emerged from some underbrush directly in front of a Union regiment. Identifiable by his trademark black velvet suit (he eschewed uniforms), a volley from the Yankees killed McCulloch instantly. His successor, General James McIntosh, was killed minutes later and the leaderless Confederates retreated. McCulloch's death was the turning point in the battle, and the Confederate defeat ensured Union domination of northern Arkansas for the rest of the war.
    1787 Jan Christianus Schotel, Dutch painter and draftsman who died on 21 December 1838. — more
    1748 Charles IV king of Spain (1788-1808)
    1738 Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier, French Neoclassical painter, illustrator, and writer, who died on 07 May 1826 (1828?). — MORE ON LE BARBIER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1729 Bourgainville, mathematician — L'explorateur Louis Antoine de Bougainville est ne le 11 novembre 1729.
    1579 Frans Snyders, Flemish painter who died on 19 August 1657. Antwerp-born Baroque artist who was the most noted 17th-century painter of hunting scenes and animals in combat. — MORE ON SNYDERS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1050 Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor (1036-1106)
    Holidays Angola: Independence Day (1975) / Belgium, France, French countries: Armistice Day / Bhutan: King's Birthday / Canada: Remembrance Day-Veterans Day, 11th Hr-11th Day-11th Month / Colombia: Cartagena Day (1811) / Maldives: Republic Day (1968) / Rhodesia: Independence Day (1965) / St Maarten: Concordia Day / US : Veterans Day / Washington: Admission Day (1889)

    Religious Observances Ang, RC : Martinmas, term day in Scotland (St Martin of Tours) / Luth : Soren Kierkegaard, teacher / Saint Martin Soldat romain originaire du bassin du Danube, en garnison a Amiens, Martin partage son manteau avec un pauvre [Saint Martin et le Mendiant, par El Greco]. La nuit suivante, le Christ lui apparait en songe, revetu du même manteau [Le Songe de Saint Martin, par Simone Martini]. Martin se convertit [Saint Martin renonce à l'épée, par Simone Martini] et fonde le monastère de Marmoutier (Bas-Rhin). Il devient évêque de Tours avant de s'éteindre en 397 à Candes, au bord de la Loire [Mort de Saint Martin, par Simone Martini]. Il est inhumé à Tours. Très populaire, Martin a fortement contribué à la diffusion du christianisme en Gaule. Beaucoup d'églises, de lieux et de patronymes portent son nom. Autrefois, la Saint Martin était l'occasion de faire bombance et de tuer la dinde avant le jeûne traditionnel de l'Avent, c'est-à-dire de la période précédant Noel. Ledit jeûne est tombé en désuetude et l'Eglise ne conserve que le jeШne du Carême, avant Pâques. Touchée par des vents du sud-ouest, la France bénéficie souvent d'un redoux dans les jours qui suivent la Saint Martin. On parle à cette occasion de l'été de la Saint Martin. De l'autre côté de l'Atlantique, des phénomenes météorologiques différents occasionnent aussi un bref redoux en novembre connu comme Indian summer.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Fear is the tax that conscience pays to guilt.”
    "A characteristic of great men who have remained great is loyalty to their subordinates."
    — Patton [11 Nov 1885 – 21 Dec 1945]
    "A good solution applied with vigor now is better than a perfect solution applied ten minutes later."
    — Patton.
    "You’re never beaten until you admit it."
    — Patton.
    "Compared to war, all other forms of human endeavor shrink to insignificance." —
    Patton.
    "The object of war is not to die for your country, but to make the other bastard die for his." —
    Patton.
    "Compared to humane endeavors, all wars shrink the significance of conscience."
    " There are two kinds of statistics, the kind you look up, and the kind you make up." —
    Rex Stout [01 Dec 1886 – 27 Oct 1975] — {he forgot the kind that makes you throw up}
    "A religion that is small enough for our understanding would not be large enough for our needs." — Arthur Balfour, first earl of Balfour [25 Jul 1848 – 19 Mar 1930], English statesman
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “TODAY IN HISTORY”
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    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4nov/h4nov11.html
    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov11.html
    updated Tuesday 22-Dec-2009 15:59 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.40 Thursday 22-May-2008 17:30 UT
    v. 7.a0 Monday 05-Nov-2007 17:42 UT
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