a 10 November:
2084 Transit of Earth as seen from Mars.
2008 Caterina Giraudo, 67, and Maria Teresa Oliviero, 61, religious of the Italian Contemplative Missionary Movement Father de Foucauld, are abducted in the evening at Elwak in the Mandera district of northeast Kenya, by an armed ganh og nearly 200 Somalis on a rampage that started with the plundering of the local police station. Elwak is near the Somali border and the two Sisters were ministering to Somali refugees. —(081128)
2001 On the second day of its meeting in Doha, Qatar, the World Trade Organization's Ministerial Conference approves by consensus the text of the agreement for China's entry into the WTO. China will become legally a member (the 143rd) 30 days after the WTO receives notification of the ratification of the agreement by China's Parliament.
2001 In Marrakech, the seventh session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change concludes after more than 19 hours of haggling through the night. Delegates of 165 of the 171 represented agree to the institutions and detailed procedures for implementing the 1997 Kyoto Protocoll, which requires industrial countries to scale back emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by an average of 5% from their 1990 levels by 2012. The United States, the world's biggest polluter, refuses to participate. The Kyoto Protocol will enter into force and become legally binding after it has been ratified by at least 55 Parties to the Convention, including industrialized countries representing at least 55% of the total 1990 carbon dioxide emissions from this group. So far, 40 countries have ratified, including one industrialized country (Romania). Without the US, almost all the other industrial countries would have to endorse the agreement to reach the goal.
The two-week session had been stuck on five points related to mechanisms that countries might employ to ease the task of reducing emissions. Canada, Russia, Japan and Australia rejected a paper submitted on 08 November on how countries could trade pollution "credits," holding out against nearly all the other countries. The deadlock was finally broken with a four-point compromise paper. The mechanisms are designed to help countries meet their targets by buying or selling credits on an international financial market, or by reducing their quota by expanding forests and farmland that absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
2000 The battle over Florida's disputed presidential election continues, with George W. Bush's camp pressing Al Gore to concede without pursuing multiple recounts, and Democrats pressing ahead with protests, determined to find enough votes to erase Bush's razor-thin lead in initial counting.
2000 Mystery of tickling solved?
The Daily Telegraph reports that scientists have discovered why you can't tickle yourself [or can you? if so, go and tell the scientists] [but still no answer to why tickling makes you laugh... or cry... or worse]. The secret, they say, lies in the cerebellum, a region at the back of the brain which predicts the sensory consequences of movements and sends signals to the rest of the brain instructing it to ignore the resulting sensation. Sarah-Jayne Blakemore of the University College of London examined six volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging to scan their brains as their palms were tickled by a machine. The scan was repeated while they tickled their own palms. In the first case the machine succeeded in tickling the volunteer because the cerebellum cannot warn the rest of the brain when the stimulus is external, even if the brain knows it is about to be tickled. [palms, shmalms... they've should've done it on the soles of their feet] The mechanism once protected us against predators by distinguishing between stimuli that we created ourselves and those generated externally. [What kind of predators attacked the soles of feet? ants?] But the system can be fooled. When the robot used by the volunteers to tickle themselves delayed the action by a fraction of a second, the tickling sensation was there. So it is possible to tickle yourself, but only by using robots, Blakemore said. [Did they try Rube Goldberg devices?]
| 1999 Winter no deterrent to Russia's Chechnya campaign
— Refugees suffer without supplies in frigid conditions (CNN)
1996 The Bosnian Serbs' new military commander, Maj. Gen. Pero Colic, is sworn in, a day after General Ratko Mladic, accused of war crimes, was dismissed.
1994 Washington announced it would no longer police the arms embargo on the Muslim-led government of Bosnia.
1994 the only privately owned manuscript of Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci was sold at auction at Christie's in New York for $30.8 million, the highest amount ever paid for a manuscript.
1991 Secretary of State Baker visited Japan, South Korea and China. His trip to Beijing marked the first high-level official contact between the United States and China since the Tiananmen Square massacre.
1989 Bulgaria's hard-line president Todor Zhivkov resigned as democratic reform continued to sweep the Eastern Bloc. Zhivkov was longest reigning active ruler in Eastern Europe and second longest in the world.
1989 Guerrillas battle with government forces in El Salvador
1989 Germans begin punching holes in the Berlin Wall
1989 Word Perfect 5.1 is shipped
1986 President Ronald Reagan refuses to reveal details of the Iran arms sale.
1977 It was announced that Pope Paul VI had ended the automatic excommunication imposed on divorced American Catholics who remarried. (The excommunication was first imposed by the Plenary Council of American Bishops in 1884.)
1975 PLO leader Yasser Arafat addresses UN in NYC
1975 UN General Assembly approves resolution equating Zionism with racism (which would be repealed in December 1991).
| 1971 Two women are tarred and feathered in Belfast for
dating British soldiers, while in Londonderry, Northern Ireland a Catholic
girl is also tarred and feathered for her intention of marrying a British
1960 Senate passes landmark Civil Rights Bill
1952 US Supreme Court upholds the decision barring segregation on interstate railways.
1951 Direct-dial transcontinental telephone service starts in the US as the mayor of Englewood, New Jersey, talks to the mayor of Alameda, California, for eighteen seconds. Previously, coast-to-coast calls were placed by long-distance operators.
1950 Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán elected President of Guatemala
1945 General Enver Hoxha becomes leader of Albania
1942 Admiral Jean-François Darlan orders French forces in North Africa to cease resistance to the Anglo-American forces. Darlan would be assassinated in Algiers later that year.
1938 Fascist Italy enacts anti-Semitic legislation.
1918 Independence of Poland proclaimed by Jozef Pilsudski
1917, 41 women from 15 states were arrested outside the White House for suffragette demonstrations. US women won the right to vote three years later.
1911 The Imperial government of China retakes Nanking.
| 1871 Following seven months of searching, foreign
correspondent to the New York Herald Henry M. Stanley succeeded
at last in locating Scottish missionary David Livingstone in Ujiji near
Unyanyembe, Central Africa. Stanley says: Dr. Livingstone, I presume.
1866 Ante la idea de Maximiliano de marcharse de México, el ministro inglés Scarlett y el padre Fisher trataron días antes de convencerlo de que se mantuviera en el trono. Esta petición es reforzada el día de hoy por los generales Leonardo Márquez y Miguel Miramón, quienes ponen sus espadas a los pies del emperador. Esto inclina la balanza y Maximiliano decide quedarse.
1864 Austrian Archduke Maximilian becomes emperor of Mexico
1860 Both South Carolina Senators resign their seats in the US Senate
1836 Louis Napoleon banished to America
1810 Después de ser derrotados por Calleja los insurgentes en Aculco, (Estado de México), ya organizados un poco, toman camino unos hacia Valladolid, al mando de Hidalgo y otros, hacia Guanajuato al mando de Allende.
1808 Osage Treaty signed
1782 In the last battle of the American Revolution, George Rodgers Clark attacks Indians and Loyalists at Chillicothe, in Ohio Territory.
1770 French philosopher François Voltaire, 75, uttered his famous remark: 'If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.'
1755 Toma posesión como el 42º virrey de la Nueva España, don Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón, marqués de las Amarillas. Ha de prolongar su mandato hasta el 05 Feb 1760. Morirá en la ciudad de México.
1674 Dutch formally cede New Netherlands (NY) to English, in compliance with the treaty of Westminster (signed in February 1674).
2006 (Friday) boy Umar Maqbool Ganie,13; girl Mohammed Maqbool Salima Akhter, 13; girl Bisma Jan Bashir, 10; boy Nissar Ahmad Ganie, 18; and girl Sheeraza Akhter, 18; who are among a group of youths arriving at the Jamia Masjid Tahab mosque in villlage Tahab, Pulwama district, Indian-occupied Kashmir, at 13:20 (07:50 UT) when a hand grenade is thrown (by Riyaz, of the Hizbul Mujahideen, according to the Indian police; by an Indian agent, according to the Hizbul Mujahideen), which also injures 26, including the mosque's cleric, Moulvi Abdul Rashid Dawoodi.. —(061111)
2006 Arumugam Vignarajah, 50, President of the Koddady Fisheries Society, is bicycling to his home in Vadamarachchy, Sri Lanka, when he is is shot dead at 10:00 (04:30 UT) by soldiers. He had organized protest marches against the Sri Lankan Army, which at worst may have caused some property damage. —(061110)
2006 His bodyguard and Nadarajah Raviraj [25 Jun 1962–], lawyer and parlamentarian belonging to the Tamil National Alliance, is murdered in Colombo, Sri Lanka, at 08:30 (03:00 UT) as he leaves home to go to court. —(061110)
2005 Sheldon Flowers, 30, dies a few hours after tryin', not to get rich but to win an argument with three other persons, with one of whom, at 23:06 on 09 November (04:06 UT on 10 Nov), he exchanged gunshots, three of which hit him, in the lobby of the Loews Cineplex at West Homestead, near Pittsburgh PA. In one of its 22 theaters Flowers had just seen Get Rich or Die Tryin', a movie starring ex-convict and drug dealer rap star Curtis Jackson “50 Cent” [06 Jul 1975~] as Marcus, a drug dealer aspiring to be a rapper. The movie has been attacked as promoting violence, most visibly by billboards showing from the back the shirtless star holding out a microphone in one hand and a gun in the other. —(051112)
2005 Izzat Ibrahim Al-Douri, Iraqi responsible for war crimes and genocide, born on 01 July 1942, dies of leukemia while in hiding in Iraq. He was a military commander, vice-president, and deputy chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council until the fall of the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937~] on 09 April 2003, following the 20 March 2003 US invasion of Iraq. —(051112)
2004 At least 10 civilians, and suicide car bomber, at 20:00 (17:00 UT) on Al-Rubaei Street in the eastern Zaytouna neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, 20 yards from a police checkpoint, but none of the policemen are hurt. Some 15 other persons are injured.
2004 Erna Rosenstein, Jewish Polish Surrealist painter and poet, born on 17 May 1913. — more with links to images.
|2003 Rev. Canaan Sodindo Banana, born
on 05 March 1936, a Methodist minister who gave new meaning to the expression
“Banana Republic” as the largely ceremonial President of Zimbabwe
from its 18 April 1980 independence to 31 December 1987 when the prime minister
since independence, Robert Gabriel Mugabe [21 Feb 1924~] took over the presidency
too and became a dictator. In May 2000, the Zimbabwe Supreme Court upheld
Banana's conviction for sodomy and jailed him for a year. — Banana
earned a diploma in theology at a college in Epworth and was ordained in
1962. He became involved in politics and rose to be vice-president of the
African National Council. When many Council members were arrested in the
late 1960s, Banana and his family fled to the United States and did not
return until 1975. Banana was arrested upon his return and remained in prison
until 1979, after the Lancaster House agreement. Banana played a big role
in bringing the two major groups of freedom fighters ZANU and ZAPU together
to form Zanu(PF). This was essential in order for the agreement to be signed.
Under the new constitution Banana became the first president, a largely
ceremonial role. In 1987 his post was taken over by Mugabe, who made himself
executive president. Banana became a diplomat for the Organisation of African
Unity and head of the religious department at the University of Zimbabwe.
In 1996 he was arrested in Zimbabwe on charges of sodomy, following accusations
made during the murder trial of his former bodyguard, Jefta Dube. Banana
was found guilty of eleven charges of sodomy, attempted sodomy and indecent
assault in 1998. He fled to South Africa while on bail before he could be
imprisoned, apparently believing Mugabe was planning his death. He returned
to Zimbabwe in December 1998, after a meeting with Nelson Mandela. Banana
was sentenced on 18 January 1999 to ten years in jail, nine years suspended
and he was also defrocked. He served two years in prison before being released
in January 2001. He died of cancer.
2003 A US military policeman, in a patrol attacked with a rocket-propelled grenade in Iskandariyah, 60 km south of Baghdad, Iraq.
2002 Tirza Damari, 42, Dori Yitzhak, 44, Revital Ohayoun, 34, and her sons Noam, 4, and Matan, 5, [photo: Noam, left, and Matan, right >] shot in the evening by Palestinian intruder Sirhan Sirhan, a Fatah activist (distant cousin of Robert Kennedy's murderer), in Kibbutz Metzer, Israel, close to the West Bank border. Damari, a visitor from Elichin, was walking near the dining hall when the intruder shot her. Yitzhak, the kibbutz secretary was on guard duty, and he was shot when he rushed to the scene. The gunman then entered the Ohayouns' home, where Revital was on the phone with her ex-husband Avi Ohayoun, and shot them, the children in their beds, then escaped. The kibbutz, founded by the leftist Hashomer Hatzair movement, was known for its advocacy of reconciliation with the Palestinians and support a peace including an Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank.
2002 Vinalene Leopper, 93, her grandson Bryan Leopper, 45; Margie Williams, 73, her son Joey Michael Williams, 47; Russell Hines, 55, and his 3-month-old granddaughter Madison Goode; Connie Asbury, 36; Charles "Chick" Templeton, 81; and 28 others by tornadoes, that evening and past midnight into the next day, as 88 tornadoes cause devastation from Arkansas to Pennsylvania. The Leoppers lived in Joyner, Tennessee, where Brian's parents, Henry and Faye Leopper, are badly injured. The Williams lived in separate homes in Mossy Grove, Tennessee (60 km west of Knoxville); Mike Williams was a transportation officer at Brushy Mountain State Prison in Petros. Hines was driving his Blazer vehicle on Matt Edmond Road in Mossy Grove, to seek shelter. Asbury was from the same area. Templeton lived in Clark, Pennsylvania. — Also in Mossy Grove, Quentin Woody, 11, is taking a shower in his mobile home, in the evening. A tornado strikes, pulverizes the home, scattering as far as 1 km away its debris and contents, including Quentin, who lands 300 m away, unconscious but almost unhurt (he did need a few stitches). Other members of his family are not so lucky: his mother has a broken back, his father badly injured shoulders, his sister Sarah, 13, a broken arm. The tornado is one of 88 which, that same night, kill 36 persons from Arkansas to Pennsylvania, and inflict enormous damages
| 2001 Ashiq Ali, a Sindh High court Lawyer, shot by unidentified
gunmen near Schon Circle in Karachi as he drives to his office.
2001 Mara, 14, lioness at New Zealand's Wellington Zoo, deliberately killed by staff because of a kidney disorder irremediably aggravated by eating meat accidentally tainted.at the supplying petfood-processing company with huge amounts of a tranquilizing drug. Jambi, a rare Sumatran tiger, died at the zoo 10 days earlier — four days after eating from the same batch of contaminated meat.
2001 Brian Lykins, 23, of infection caused by contaminated cartilage transplanted into his knee in 07 November 2001 surgery. On 07 November Lykins entered a Minnesota hospital, where he underwent reconstructive surgery in which bone cartilage taken from a cadaver was implanted into his knee. After surgery, he developed an infection and went into shock. A blood culture taken postmortem showed Clostridium sordellii in Lykins bloodstream. The death prompted the Center for Disease Control to investigate, and on 14 March 2002 the agency released a report revealing 26 cases, including Lykins, in which allograft recipients developed infections following surgery. Half of those patients were infected with Clostridium, and of those cases, 11 grafts were traced backed to a single tissue bank: CryoLife Inc., a medical tech company based in Kennesaw, a suburb of Atlanta, Georgia. The CDC report found that the corpse that donated Lykins’ tissue had been left at room temperature for 19 hours after death, whereas industry standards call for refrigeration after 12 hours. CryoLife has been in the tissue business since 1984. The company was instrumental in developing pediatric heart valve replacement technology, and is considered the leader in the development and commercialization of implantable human tissue. Having provided 150,000 soft tissue implants, CryoLife is considered to be the leader in human tissue processing and preservation. On 14 August 2002 the the FDA issues an order to Cryolife to recall and to cease processing of tissues because of concerns that they may be infected by bacteria or fungus.
2000 Mark Jaimes, 22, shot in Maywood CA, then his body is placed in the trunk of a stolen car, where it is found by the Los Angeles owner when police return the car to him on 17 November.
1996 Fourteen persons by a bomb exploding in a crowd of mourners in a Moscow cemetery. Nearly fifty are wounded. Authorities later charged the head of an Afghan war veterans fund with masterminding the bombing, saying the target was a rival veterans group.
1996 Paul Mills, cancer patient, at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Science Centre in Halifax. Nurse Lynn MacInnis later testifies that she saw respirologist Dr. Nancy Morrison inject potassium chloride into Mills's intravenous line a few minutes before he died.
1970 Charles De Gaulle meurt soudainement dans sa maison de La Boisserie, à Colombey-les-deux-Eglises (Haute-Marne). L'ancien président de la République est né 80 ans plus tôt, le 22 novembre 1890, à Lille. Il s'est retiré de la vie politique le 28 Apr 1969.
Kemal’ Atatürk [< portrait],
born in the spring of 1881 in Salonika, Ottoman-ruled
Mustafa was a soldier, statesman, and reformer who was the founder and first president (1923-38) of the Republic of Turkey. He modernized the country's legal and educational systems and encouraged the adoption of a European way of life, with Turkish written in the Latin alphabet (1928), with the law requiring European-style names, etc. He was responsible for the abolition of the Sultanate (01 November 1922), the proclamation of the Republic (29 October 1923), the abolition of the Caliphate (03 March 1924)— Cumhuriyetin nasil ilan edildigini gelin Ataturk'ten dinleyelim. Nutuk'un ilgili kisimlarini asagida bulacaksiniz. Ataturk'u anlamanin O'nun ilkelerini, devrimlerini bilmekle mumkun olacagi gerceginden yola cikarak sizler icin Ataturk Ilkelerini ve Turk Devrimini anlatan sayfalar hazirladik. Zevkli okumalar dileriz.
When Mustafa was 12 years old, he went to military schools in Salonika and Monastir, centers of anti-Ottoman Greek and Slavic nationalism (where he added the name Kemal). In 1899 he attended the military academy in Istanbul, graduating as staff captain on 11 January 1905.
Because of his activities in the secret Young Turk movement against the autocratic government of the Ottoman Empire, which was centered in what is now Turkey, Mustafa Kemal was posted to Syria, then also a part of the empire, in virtual exile . There he founded the secret Fatherland and Freedom Society (October 1906). Transferred to Salonika in September 1907, he joined the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) that carried out the Young Turk Revolution in July 1908. He was not, however, in the inner circle of the CUP and therefore played no role in the actual revolution.
Mustafa Kemal fought in Libya against Italy in 1911 and 1912 and was promoted to major in November 1911. He organized the defense of the Dardanelles during the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and was appointed military attaché in Bulgaria on 27 October 1913. During World War I, in which the Ottoman Empire sided with Germany, Atatürk made his military reputation in the Gallipoli campaign in 1915, where he played a crucial role in repelling the Allied invasion. He then served in the Caucasus and Syria, where he was given command of a special army group just before the armistice was signed in October 1918. Returning to Istanbul, he watched anxiously as the victorious Allied powers prepared to partition Anatolia.
A Greek army occupied Izmir on the Anatolian coast on 15 May 1919. Mutafa Kemal, who had been appointed inspector of the Third Army in Anatolia, reached Samsun on 19 May 1919, date considered the start of War of Independence of Turkey. He immediately set about uniting the Turkish national movement and creating an army for defense. First, however, the nationalists had to wage a struggle against the Ottoman sultan's regime in Istanbul, which seemed willing to allow the dismemberment of the national territory. By 1920 the Istanbul government had been discredited for acquiescing to the Allied occupation of the capital and signing the Treaty of Sèvres, which recognized Greek control over parts of Anatolia. Atatürk, meanwhile, had set up a provisional government in Ankara on 23 April 1920. After initial setbacks, he won decisive battles against Greek forces at Sakarya (23 August 1921 13 September 1921; photos) and Dumlupinar (30 August 1922), reoccupying Izmir in September.
Having dealt with the external threat, Atatürk turned to the internal one posed by the conservative forces around the sultan. The sultanate was abolished on 01 November 1922. The Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly saved the country from being partitioned and occupied with the National War of Independence. A few months following the 24 July 1923 signing of the Lausanne Treaty, in which the Allied powers and the world recognized the independence and sovereignty of Turkey, the People's Party (renamed Republican People's Party in 1924) was established on 09 September 1923 and Mustafa Kemal was elected as its chairman. The administrative staff of the party was composed of the military staff who directed the national struggle and high-level bureaucrats. The party led by the leader and the hero of the Turkish War of Independence stood for modernizing and westernizing reforms in the political, judicial and educational fields. These developments, however, disturbed the conservative elements in the National Assembly. The discussions flared up on such issues as what would happen now that the sultanate was abolished and how the parliament would now act, with which authorities and on whose behalf. The institutions and the office of the Caliphate, meanwhile stood in stark contradiction to the new administration.
All these developments made a radical transformation compulsory. Thus, the Republic was proclaimed on 29 October 1923. Mustafa Kemal, the leader of the national struggle for independence, was elected unanimously as the first President of the Republic of Turkey. He appointed İsmet İnönü as the first Prime Minister. Thus, the discussions and doubts about the Presidency were ended. Four months later, the Caliphate, which was incompatible with the principle of republicanism, was abolished and the members of the Ottoman Dynasty were expatriated on 03 March 1924.
| Being aware of the fact that the separation
of religious and state affairs and the provision of freedom of religion
and conscience for individuals were among the prerequisites of forming a
modern society, Mustafa Kemal initiated in the framework of the "principle
of secularity" the most important changes. After the abolition of the Caliphate,
a series of radical reforms were made in the institutions and mentality
connected to the Caliphate. The Ministry of Shariah and Foundations was
replaced by the Chairmanship of Religious Affairs and the Directorate of
Foundations, both connected to the Prime Ministry. The religious school
order was abolished on 3 March 1924 with the Unification of Education Law
and all schools and educational matters were united under the Ministry of
National Education. The Shariah Courts were replaced by secular courts with
the Judicial Organization Law. The wearing of the turban and fez that were
symbols of the former order were banned and the "hat" became the official
headgear, following the promulgation of the Hat Law on 25 November 1925.
Thus, the traditional symbols in attire, indicating differences of class,
rank and religious order were removed. The international hour and calendar
systems were adopted on 26 November 1925. The dervish lodges and tombs and
the titles of tariqahs (sects) were abolished on 25 November 1925. A Turkish
Civil Code was accepted on 17 February 1926 to replace the old civil code
and the Shariah Laws which were the foundation stones of Ottoman law. The
acceptance of the Turkish Civil Code made it necessary to secularize all
legislation and the Code of Obligations, the Criminal Code and the Commercial
Code were also rewritten according to contemporary principles.
Important steps were taken concerning women's rights. Polygamy was forbidden and marriages, to be officially recognized, had to be performed in accordance with the civil code, not according to religious ceremonies as in the past. Also, a law was promulgated which made it necessary to get a court decree to get a divorce. Women obtained the right to vote and be elected in the municipal elections in 1930, in elections held for village councils in 1933 and in 1934, they obtained the right to vote and be elected into the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
One of the most important reforms initiated by Atatürk was the preparation of a new Turkish alphabet by a board of linguists and academicians and the law which envisaged the use of Latin letters was adopted by the TGNA on 1 November 1928. The adoption of this new phonetic alphabet was an important step taken to help increase the literacy rate which had been very low.
The old units of measurement and weight were changed in 1931. Commercial and economic transactions were facilitated with the acceptance of the metric system and a standard system of measurement was established throughout Turkey.
The Surname Law was adopted on 21 June 1934. Mustafa Kemal was given the surname of "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) on 24 November 1934 by the TGNA. The efforts to create a modern country based on secular foundations was also reflected in the Constitution. An amendment made to the Constitution in 1928 removed the clause which had stated that the religion of the state is Islam. A clause was put in the Constitution in 1937 stating that Turkey is a secular state. Along with these developments, Atatürk established the Turkish Historical Society in 1925 and Turkish Linguistic Society in 1932 in order to strengthen the foundations of the new national state and contribute to the development of a national consciousness among the Turkish people.
Atatürk realized the reforms with the leadership of the Republican People's Party (CHP), which had been established as a party of all the people, and these reforms were adopted by the people. A short time after the CHP was established, the first experiment for a transition to a multiparty system was made. The opponents of the secular and modernizing policies of the government, including a group of commanders from the National War of Independence, such as Rauf Orbay, Kazim Karabekir and Ali Fuat Cebesoy, resigned from the CHP and established the Progressive Republican Party on 17 November 1924. Kazim Karabekir was elected as the chairman of this first opposition party. The Party was "conservative", not "reactionary" both regarding its program and the mentality of its founders. However, because it was the only opposition party, those whose interests were harmed by the reforms, supported this party. Meanwhile, the reactionary Sheik Said rebellion broke out in Southeastern Anatolia and the government closed the Progressive Republican Party on 03 June 1925.
The second experiment with multiparty democracy in the Atatürk period started with the establishment of the Free Republican Party on 12 August 1930. The Free Party was established with the approval of Atatürk himself. The party was established by Fethi Okyar, the former Prime Minister who was known for his opposition to İsmet İnönü. However, the new party grew at an unexpectedly rapid pace. But, due to the unfortunate events which occurred during Fethi Okyar's trip to Izmir, the party dissolved itself on 17 November 1930.
The Republic's administration at first of all adopted a model based on private enterprise for developing the backward economy it had inherited, but later it reverted statism to an increasing degree.
During the Atatürk period, a foreign policy was followed based on the borders of the National Pact of 1920 and on peace. The Montreux Agreement was signed in 1936, ensuring that the Istanbul and the Dardanelles (Çanakkale) Straits were included in the national defense system. Friendship with the neighboring countries was embodied in the Balkan Pact in 1934 and the Sadabad Pact in 1937. Hatay, which had previously been given to the French, was first given independence and then it was reunited to Turkey as the result of a referendum. Meanwhile, the League of Nations, refusing the Turkish requests, decided that the Mosul and Kirkuk regions should stay under British control. Hatay was the final foreign policy problem in which Atatürk was involved. At his death, Atatürk left a Turkey with reformed and modernized institutions, closer to the Western model.
| 1931 Scott,
1922 José Villegas y Cordero, Spanish artist born on 24 August 1848.
1914 Peter Moran, US artist born on 04 March 1841.
1900 Ferdinand Mallitsch (or Malitsch), Austrian artist born on 07 March 1820.
1898 Eight Blacks in race riot in Wilmington NC.
1891 Charles Robertson, British artist born in 1844.
1843 John Trumbull, US painter specialized in historical subjects, born on 06 June 1756. — MORE ON TRUMBULL AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1730 Gregorio Lazzarini, Venetian academic painter born in 1655. — more with link to an image.
1691 (buried) Johan Werner the younger, German artist born in 1630. — more
1683 Collins, mathematician.
1556 Richard Chancellor, British seaman, drowns off Aberdeenshire on his return from a second voyage to Russia, where he had already gone in 1553-1554 and laid the foundations for English trade with Russia.
1444, Ladislas III, roi de Hongrie, dans la bataille de Varna, sur les bords de la mer Noire, où son armée de croisés hongrois est battue par les envahisseurs ottomans, qu'elle avait battu auparavant. Pour le sultan Mourad II, plus rien (sauf la mort) ne s'oppose désormais à la conquête de Constantinople.
1982 The Vietnam Veterans Memorial opens to its first visitors in Washington DC.
1954 The Iwo Jima Memorial is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia.
1940 Russell Means, Amerindian rights activist.
1919 Moise-Kapenda Tshombe, President of seceded Katanga, then premier of the Congo, who died in exile on 29 June 1969.
1919 Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov, in the village of Kurya, Altai Territory. Kalashnikov would grow up to be a Soviet army officer and inventor of weapons, notably in 1947 the AK-47 assault rifle [image >]. On 27 July 2002, Kalashnikov told the German Bild newspaper: I am proud of it. And sad, too, that the weapon is used by terrorists. and: I would have preferred to invent something which helps people and makes life easier for farmers. A lawnmower, for example. The AK-47, which can fire 400 rounds per minute and is light and easy to maintain, has become the weapon of choice for guerrillas and insurgents.
1896 Prüfer, mathematician.
1895 John Knudsen Northrop, US aircraft designer who died on 18 February 1981.
1879 Nicholas Vachel Lindsay, US poet who died on 05 December 1931. — LINDSAY ONLINE: The Chinese Nightingale and Other Poems, The Chinese Nightingale and Other Poems — The Congo and Other Poems — General William Booth Enters Into Heaven and Other Poems, General William Booth Enters Into Heaven and Other Poems — Johnny Appleseed.
1878 (14 Nov 1883?) Louis Casimir Ladislas “Marcoussis” (originally Markus), Polish French Cubist painter and printmaker who died on 22 October 1941. — more with links to images.
1859 Théophile Alexandre Steinlen, Swiss French painter specialized in cats.He died on 14 December 1923. — MORE ON STEINLEN AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1844 John Sparrow David Thompson (C), 4th PM of Canada, from 1892 to his 12 December 1894 death.
1829 Elwin Christoffel, mathematician.
1806 Franz August Schubert, German artist who died in 1893.
1785 or 1786 Karl-Gottfried-Traugott Faber, German artist who died on 25 July 1863.
1753 Jean-Antoine-Théodore Giroust, French artist who died on 19 July 1817.
1730 Oliver Goldsmith, English eccentric essayist, poet, novelist, and dramatist, who died on 04 April 1774. — GOLDSMITH ONLINE: The Deserted Village — The Rising Village, With Other Poems — She Stoops to Conquer — The Vicar of Wakefield, The Vicar of Wakefield, The Vicar of Wakefield.
1697 William Hogarth, in London, British satiric painter and etcher who died on 26 October 1764. — MORE ON HOGARTH AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1683 George II, king of Great Britain and elector of Hanover from 1727 to his 25 October 1760 death.
1668 Franois Couperin, French, composer and organist (Concerts Royaux) , who died on 12 September 1733.