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Events, deaths, births, of 09 NOV
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^  On a 09 November:
2004 The Vatican announces that it will cooperate with Italy's Culture Ministry and universities to locate and catalog documents concerning both the Roman Inquisition and the Spanish Inquisition, in Church, state, and private archives, as well as those in universities around the world; and make them easily available to scholars.
2003 General elections in Japan, the first in which the opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) had been predicted to have a chance to come out ahead of the LDP, which has ruled over Japan by itself or through coalitions since the post-WW2 period. However in the election for the 480 seats in the key Lower House of Parliament, the LDP of Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi wins more seats than the main opposition DPJ (Minshuto), led by Naoto Kan.
2001 After one week of US bombing, and attacked by Northern Alliance forces, the Taliban troops abandon Mazar-el-Sharif in northern Afghanistan.
2001 London~New York regular Supersonic Concorde flights resume after being suspended after the only Concorde crash ever on 25 July 2000. The tires and fuel tanks have been modified to reduce the risk of a similar accident. The round-trip ticket costs some $9000. The regular Paris~New York Concorde flights have resumed two days earlier.
2001 The World Trade Organisation meets in Doha, Qatar, with representatives of 142 nations in attendance.
^ 2001 Osama bin Laden is taped gloating about the 11 September attacks on the US.
      In a conversation with two aides and a Saudi sheik, Osama bin Laden contentedly recalls the 11 September 2001 suicide attacks against the US on a videotape that would be released on 13 December 2001 by the Pentagon. Bin Laden says that the destruction exceeded his estimates and "benefited Islam greatly."
      "I was the most optimistic of them all" in calculating the possible destruction, bin Laden says. He says that he had reckoned that burning jet fuel would "melt the iron structure" of the World Trade Center twin towers, but only above the point of impact.
      The hijackings were a martyrdom operation, bin Laden says , but those who carried them out didn't know the details until just before they boarded the planes. The sheik, identified by a US official as Saudi cleric Sheik Sulayman, praises bin Laden for "a great job" and appears to suggest that additional attacks may be planned. "No doubt it is a clear victory ... and Allah will give us blessing and more victory during this holy month of Ramadan," he says. (In 2001 most US Muslims celebrate the ending of Ramadan on Sunday 16 December).
      Bin Laden, often chuckling and animated, sits with his companions on the floor near the corner of a spare room against a white wall and a light brown wall. The tape, amateurish in quality, would be released as part of a US administration effort to support claims that bin Laden was the mastermind behind the attacks that killed nearly some 3000 in New York, Washington and Pennsylvania.
      The tape would be released as US warplanes intensify bombing aimed at members of bin Laden's al-Qaida network struggling for survival in the mountainous terrain of eastern Afghanistan, Bin Laden's whereabouts then unknown, a $25 million reward having been posted for information leading to his capture.
      Weeks before the release of the tape , the US administration officials appealed to broadcasters not to air videotapes made by bin Laden, so as to silence his propaganda, and because they might contain coded messages to his followers to carry out additional attacks.
     In the tape, bin Laden discusses some of the planning that led to the attacks, and says of others listining with him to US news broadcasts on 11 September: "They were overjoyed when the first plane hit the building. So I said to them: Be patient."
     The US administration would say that the tape was found in a house in Jalalabad after anti-Taliban forces moved in. It bears a date stamp that says it was made on 09 November, the day on which the northern Afghan city of Mazar-e-Sharif fell to the rebel northern alliance.
      On the tape, shortly after bin Laden enters the room, the sheik says: "You have given us weapons, you have given us hope and we thank Allah for you. Everybody praises what you did, the great action you did, which was first and foremost by the grace of Allah. This is the guidance of Allah and the blessed fruit of Jihad."
      The sheik informed bin Laden that another cleric had delivered a sermon in Saudi Arabia on 11 September 2001. "He said that this was jihad and that those people were not innocent victims." the sheik says
     References to jihad and Allah run throughout the videotape. Bin Laden at one point expresses satisfaction that at one location in Holland, "The number of people who accepted Islam during the days that followed the operations were more than ... in the last 11 years." Moments later, he says, "This event made people think (about true Islam) which benefited Islam greatly."
      Bin Laden also goes into some detail in discussing some of the events leading up to the suicide hijackings. "We calculated in advance the number of casualties who would be killed based on the position of the tower. We calculated that the floors that would be hit would be three or four floors. I was the most optimistic of them all. ... Due to my experience in this field, I was thinking that the fire from the fuel in the plane would melt the iron structure of the building and collapse the area where the plane hit, and all the floors above it only. This is all that we had hoped for."
     Bin Laden says, "The brothers who conducted the operation, all they knew was that they have a martyrdom operation and we asked each of them to go to America, but they didn't know anything about the operation. But they were trained and we did not reveal the operation to them until they are there and just before the boarded the plane." A man identified in the transcript as Muhammad (Atta) "...was in charge of the group," the transcript quotes bin Laden as saying. In Cairo, Atta's father, Mohamed al-Amir al-Sayed Awad Atta, would angrily dispute that. He says that he had not watched the tape, but, "All this is a forgery, a fabrication!". Similarly many Islamic extremists would say that it is a Hollywood production.
2000 The world still does not know who is the winner of the US presidential election of 07 November, as it depends on a recount in Florida and possible legal challenges. Contrary to what might happen in many other countries, no one expects the military to intervene. George W. Bush's lead over Al Gore in all-or-nothing Florida slips beneath 300 votes. Democrats throw the presidential election to the courts, claiming "an injustice unparalleled in our history."
2000 Five Russian military intelligence officers are brought to trial in Moscow for the 17 October 1994 briefcase bomb murder of investigative reporter Dmitry Kholodov, 27.
2000 Siete cabecillas de la banda terrorista GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre) son detenidos en París en una operación conjunta de la policía francesa y la guardia civil española.
2000 Mujer con los brazos cruzados, un cuadro de la época azul de Pablo Picasso subastado en la sala Christie's, alcanza un precio de venta cercano a los 11'000 millones de pesetas.
2000 At an Impressionist and modern art sale at Sotheby's, the expected highlight of the Sotheby's sale, Manet's Jeune fille dans un jardin which the auction house had estimated could set a record at $20 million to $30 million, just managed its low estimate, going to an anonymous telephone bidder for $20'905'750 including commission. The painting of a young woman in a garden who is wearing a bright blue coat and matching hat, which is among the artist's better known works, was the evening's top lot. — MORE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with the picture and links to other Manet images.
1999 Russia intensifies war against Chechnya (CNN)
1998 La Unión Europea decide crear un fondo de 17'000 millones de pesetas de ayuda a las víctimas del huracán Mitch que devastó el 24 Oct Centroamérica.
1998 India's government announces it will give up its monopoly on Internet service. It issues rules governing the licensing of private Internet service providers. The demand for Internet service in India had started to outstrip the ability of the state-owned Internet access service to handle the traffic, and users had complained of high prices.
1994 La primera ministra, Chandrika Kumaratunga, gana las elecciones presidenciales en Sri Lanka.
1993 Mexican Army Brigadier General José Francisco Gallardo Rodríguez, who had denounced human rights abuses by the Mexican military, after having been subjected to unjust judicial procedures and imprisonment since 1983, is arbitrarily detained and imprisoned, upon false accusations. Amnesty International would take up his case as that of a prisoner of conscience. but in vain. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights would rule in Gallardo's favor on 15 October 1996, equally in vain.
     Pese a evidentes contradicciones de testigos de cargo y falta de pruebas inculpatorias, el 11 marzo 1997 fue injustamente sentenciado por un Consejo de Guerra a 14 años y ocho meses de prisión por los delitos de malversación en la modalidad de disposición indebida de vestuario, material y equipo, y destrucción de lo perteneciente al ejército, en la hipótesis de incineración de archivos. El 11 Apr 1998 fue sentenciado a otros 14 años, por el delito prefabricado de enriquecimiento ilícito, sumando así más de 28 años de prisión que tendrá que purgar en la cárcel. At long last, on 07 February 2002 Gallardo would be freed, Mexican President Vicente Fox having commuted his sentence to the 8 years already served, without rehabilitating him nor compensating him for the injustice done.
^ 1993 Gore, Perot debate NAFTA
      Vice President Al Gore and presidential hopeful Ross Perot, on CNN's Larry King Live, discuss NAFTA's potential impact on the US workforce. Gore supported the legislation, reasoning that it would pave the way for a global economic structure that would boost the country's economy. Perot, meanwhile, touchéd a populist chord, warning that NAFTA would only result in the farming out of factory jobs to countries with workers who earned cheaper wages and fewer benefits. The vice president and other NAFTA supporters prevailed, and the agreement soon made its way into the law books. Labor loyalists took Gore and President Clinton to task, interpreting their support for NAFTA as a sharp break from traditional Democratic pro-union policies.
1991 Police in Hong Kong forcibly repatriated 59 Vietnamese boat people, carrying them onto a transport plane.
1990 President Bush announces DOUBLING of US forces in Persian Gulf area.
1990 Mary Robinson, política y abogada irlandesa es elegida Presidenta de la República de Irlanda, la primera mujer que accede a tal puesto en la historia del país y la primera persona que promete transformar el cargo, hasta ahora honorífico y ceremonial.
1990 Nueva Constitución para Nepal, que restaura la democracia.
1990 Willy Brandt, presidente de honor del SPD, regresa a la República Federal con 193 rehenes retenidos hasta ahora en Irak.
^ 1989 East Germany opens the Berlin Wall
      East German officials today opened the Berlin Wall, allowing travel from East to West Berlin. The following day, celebrating Germans began to tear the wall down. One of the ugliest and most infamous symbols of the Cold War was soon reduced to rubble that was quickly snatched up by souvenir hunters. The East German action followed a decision by Hungarian officials a few weeks earlier to open the border between Hungary and Austria. This effectively ended the purpose of the Berlin Wall, since East German citizens could now circumvent it by going through Hungary, into Austria, and thence into West Germany. The decision to open the wall was also a reflection of the immense political changes taking place in East Germany, where the old communist leadership was rapidly losing power and the populace was demanding free elections and movement toward a free market system. The action also had an impact on President George Bush and his advisors.
      After watching television coverage of the delirious German crowds demolishing the wall, many in the Bush administration became more convinced than ever that Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's statements about desiring a new relationship with the West must be taken more seriously. Unlike 1956 and 1968, when Soviet forces ruthlessly crushed protests in Hungary and Czechoslovakia, respectively, Gorbachev actually encouraged the East German action. As such, the destruction of the Berlin Wall was one of the most significant actions leading to the end of the Cold War
      Several weeks after the resignation of Erich Honecker, East Germany's Communist head of state since 1976, the East German government opens it borders to West Germany, and allows thousands of its citizens to pass freely through the Berlin Wall. The Berlin Wall was first erected in 1961 to stem the flood of East German refugees escaping to democratic West Germany via the Western occupation zone in Berlin. Berliners from both sides of the infamous Cold War division greet the opening of the Berlin Wall with jubilation, and thousands celebrate by climbing on top of the wall, painting graffiti on its face, and removing fragments as souvenirs. The next day, East German troops begin dismantling the wall, and less than a year later, East and West Germany are formally reunited.
La chute du Mur de Berlin
      Dans la nuit du 9 au 10, devant les caméras du monde entier, de jeunes Allemands de l'Est et de l'Ouest brisent le Mur de la honte qui sépare Berlin depuis le 13 Aug 1961. Ils prennent de court les dirigeants des deux bords qui ne s'attendaient pas à un enchaînement aussi rapide des évènements. Les Hongrois, touchés par la politique de glasnost (transparence) engagée depuis 1986 par le dirigeant sovietique Mikhail Gorbatchev, avaient annonce le 2 mai leur intention d'entrouvrir leur frontière avec l'Autriche. Des centaines d'Allemands de l'Est se precipitèrent alors en Hongrie dans l'espoir de bientôt passer à l'Ouest. En septembre, ils sont plusieurs milliers à s'enfuir de la sorte. En République Démocratique Allemande (RDA), à Leipzig puis dans les autres villes du pays, les opposants au communisme quittent le secret des temples luthériens et manifestent au grand jour. Le pouvoir vacille. Erich Honecker laisse la place à Egon Krenz.
      Mais rien n'arrête plus l'Histoire. Un million de manifestants à Berlin-Est entrainent la démission collective du gouvernement communiste le 7 novembre. Le soir du 09 novembre, à 22h15, des milliers de Berlinois masses près du Mur ouvrent un à un les postes frontière. En près de 30 ans, les redoutables garde-frontières est-allemands, les "vopos", ont tué 239 personnes qui tentaient de franchir le Mur. Cette fois, ils gardent l'arme au pied. Face à la politique d'ouverture engagée depuis 1986 par Mikhail Gorbatchev et à la désintegration de leur propre gouvernement, ils comprennent que leur temps est révolu. La chute du Mur (3,60 mètres de haut, 160 kilomètres de long et 300 miradors) met fin à cinquante ans de séparation et d'antagonismes entre les deux parties de l'Allemagne, la République Fédérale Allemande (RFA), sous influence occidentale, et la République Démocratique Allemande (RDA), sous domination sovietique. Les ideologies chavirent dans un enthousiasme débridé. Personne ne s'inquiète encore des lendemains difficiles de la réunification. Sans perdre de temps, le chancelier fédéral Helmut Kohl imposera une unification monétaire puis politiques des deux parties de l'Allemagne. L'unité sera officielle le 03 octobre 1990. Mais, en 1999, le vieux chancelier laissera à son successeur l'honneur d'inaugurer l'installation des pouvoirs publics à Berlin, qui fut déjà la capitale de l'Allemagne de 1871 à 1945.
Mitterrand et la réunification allemande
      Le 3 novembre, dans une conférence de presse donnée en Allemagne, le président français declare: "Je n'ai rien contre la réunification". Mais, comme tout un chacun, il songe alors à une réunification très progressive. après la chute du Mur, Francois Mitterrand cache mal son irritation et ne donne aucun signe d'encouragement à son ami Helmut Kohl. Il craint que l'avenement d'une Allemande unie et puissante au coeur de l'Europe ne marginalise la France. Debut décembre, il rencontre Mikhail Gorbatchev à Kiev. Il echoue, semble-t-il, à le convaincre de freiner les ardeurs du chancelier ouest-allemand. Le 19 decembre, comme si de rien n'était, le président français effectue aupres du gouvernement moribond de Berlin-Est un voyage officiel qui était prévu de longue date. Non content de cette maladresse, François Mitterrand exige du chancelier ouest-allemand, en préalable à la réunification, une reconnaissance formelle de la frontière germano-polonaise issue de la dernière guerre. Pour les Allemands de l'Ouest en general, et Helmut Kohl en particulier, cette attitude qui met en doute leur pacifisme est ressentie comme une provocation. Il va de soi que ces nuages sur les relations franco-allemandes ne ralentissent en rien la course à la réunification. Ils témoignent simplement du décalage entre la réalité et la diplomatie française, qu'incarnent à ce moment-là François Mitterrand et son ministre Roland Dumas.
1989
      C'est l'année clef de cette fin de siècle. La chute du Mur liquide les séquelles de la seconde guerre mondiale. Elle annonce en même temps la mort prochaine de l'URSS et du communisme. En janvier est mort l'empereur Hiro Hito, qui a règné sur le Japon depuis 1926. C'est le dernier des grands acteurs de ce siècle. Cependant que s'écroulent les régimes communistes d'Europe les uns après les autres, au Kosovo, un certain Milosevic fait un discours retentissant devant une foule de Serbes enthousiastes... De nouvelles formes de guerres se préparent cette année-là à l'insu de l'opinion mondiale.
— El canciller alemán, Helmut Kohl, llega a Varsovia con intención de permanecer seis días, pero suspende su visita al día siguiente, debido a los acontecimientos que se producen en Alemania.
1988 Bush's electoral victory gave a boost to the dollar — for about one hour. Fears about the nation's budget and trade deficits, as well as suspicions that the central banks had "propped-up" the drooping dollar during the election season, cause the dollar to drop to its lowest level in ten months, triggering declines in stock prices.
1986 Logra la alcaldía de Lima el candidato del APRA, Jorge del Castillo, apoyado por Alan García Pérez.
1985 Gary Kimovich Kasparov [13 April 1963-] of the USSR, becomes the 13th World Chess Champion, and the youngest ever, defeating his compatriot Anatoly Evgenievich Karpov, in Moscow.
1983 IBM and Hitachi settle out of court on Hitachi having stolen software stolen from IBM. IBM allegedly possessed a videotape that would have been "painfully embarrassing" to Hitachi. Hitachi reportedly agreed to pay some $300 million. Neither company would comment on the agreement.
1981 Se celebra en Argentina la primera manifestación contra el régimen desde el golpe militar de 1976.
1979 Manuel Fraga Iribarne es elegido presidente interino de Alianza Popular (AP) de España, cargo para el que fue ratificado en el III Congreso del partido celebrado en diciembre del mismo año.
1976 The UN General Assembly approved 10 resolutions condemning apartheid in South Africa, including one characterizing the white-ruled government as "illegitimate."
1976 Patrick Hillary es nombrado presidente de Irlanda.
1970 Trial of Seattle 8 anti-war protesters begins
1970 By a 6-3 vote, the US Supreme Court refuses to hear a suit by the state of Massachusetts in defense its citizens claiming protection under a state law that allowed them to refuse military service in an undeclared war (the Vietnam war in this case).
1968 Entra en vigor el acuerdo sobre libre circulación de los trabajadores entre los países miembros de la Comunidad Económica Europea.
1965 Ferdinand Marcos Edralin es elegido presidente de Filipinas.
^ 1965 The Great Northeast Blackout
      At dusk, the biggest power failure in history occurs as all of New York State, portions of seven neighboring states, and parts of eastern Canada are plunged into darkness. The Great Northeast Blackout begins at the height of rush hour, delaying millions of commuters, and trapping thousands of people in office buildings, elevators, trains, and subways. At 17:16, a 230-kilovolt-transmission line near Ontario, Canada, trips, causing several other heavily loaded lines to also fail, precipitating a redirection in the normal flow of electric power from its usual northerly direction, toward Toronto, to a southerly direction, toward Canada's interconnections with the United States. The resulting surge of power from Canada overwhelms the transmission lines in western New York, causing a "cascading" tripping of additional lines and resulting in the eventual breakup of the entire Northeastern transmission network. Altogether, thirty million people in eight US states and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec are affected by the blackout. Within a few hours, power is restored to the majority of the blackout areas, and by morning, power has been restored throughout the Northeast. Nine months later the number of births in the region is significantly above average.
1964 Eisaku Sato es elegido primer ministro japonés, para sustituir a Hayato Ikeda, que ha presentado su dimisión por enfermedad.
^ 1960 McNamara named Ford president
      In 1946, Henry Ford II, the president of the Ford Motor Company, hired ten young former intelligence officers from the Air Force, a group that the press soon dubbed the "Whiz Kids." Part of the genius of Henry Ford II, who was second only to his grandfather in business acumen, was his ability to find the most talented people in the industry and bring them into key positions in his rapidly growing postwar corporation. Robert McNamara, one of the Air Force "Whiz Kids," was one such individual. In addition to his other talents, McNamara was a financial disciplinarian who brought quantitative analysis and the science of modern management to the Ford Motor Company. Under the guidance of Henry Ford II and employees like Robert McNamara, Ford flourished during the 1950s, yielding such success stories as the Ford Thunderbird in 1954. On this day, Robert S. McNamara was named president of Ford, as Henry Ford II stepped down from the presidency and became CEO. However, McNamara would remain at the reigns of Ford for less than two months — on 01 January 1961, McNamara resigned from Ford to become secretary of defense for the new administration of President John F. Kennedy.
1955 Israel rechaza el compromiso arabe-israelí, que tiene como base las decisiones de 1947, propuestas por el primer ministro británico Anthony Eden count of Avon
1953 Cambodia (later called Kampuchea) gains independence within French Union — Se proclama la independencia de Camboya, antes protectorado francés.
1949 Se promulga la Constitución vigente de Costa Rica.
^ 1946 ENIAC switched off for delivery
      ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was turned off temporarily on this day in 1946 for delivery to the Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory in Aberdeen, Pennsylvania. The computer, developed at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School, occupied a 140-square-meter room, contained nearly eighteen thousand vacuum tubes and six thousand manual switches. In order to remove the machine from the building where it had been developed, the Moore School had to knock down several walls. The Ballistics Research Laboratory had commissioned the computer in 1943 to speed the calculation of firing tables for World War II artillery. Unfortunately, by the time the computer was finished, the war had been over for three months.
1934 Pierre-Étienne Flandin forma nuevo Gobierno en Francia, después de la dimisión de Gaston Doumergue.
1933 La aviación cubana hace causa común con los rebeldes para restablecer a Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Borja del Castillo en el poder.
1927 Giant Panda discovered, China
1925 Se fundan las Schutz Staffeln (SS) en el seno del Partido Nacionalsocialista Alemán y se constituyen en un grupo paramilitar de elite.
1923 Beer Hall Putsch — NAZIs fail to overthrow government in Germany — Fracasa en Alemania el intento de golpe de Estado, Putsch de Múnich, organizado por Adolf Hitler y Erich Ludendorff.
1922 It is announced that the Nobel Prize in Literature 1922 will go to Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, born on 12 August 1866, "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama.” He died on 14 July 1954. — MORE
1921 En el congreso de ingenieros civiles reunido en Francia, Henri Bresier presenta un proyecto de túnel bajo el estrecho de Gibraltar.
1918 Bavaria proclaims itself a republic
1918 After German defeat in WW I Kaiser Wilhelm II announced he would abdicate. He then fled to the Netherlands. — L'empereur allemand Guillaume II abdique et le socialiste Scheidemann proclame la [[!!bad link!!>>] République. Préoccupé par la révolution qui menace d'emporter le pays, il va demander l'armistice aux Alliés deux jours plus tard. — El emperador Guillermo II abdica tras la derrota de Alemania en la guerra. El diputado socialista Philipp Scheidemann proclama la República.
1918 El rey de España Alfonso XIII encarga a Alvaro de Figueroa y Torres conde de Romanones la formación de gabinete, pero éste declina tal ofrecimiento. Posteriormente hace lo mismo con Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas.
1911 Arthur James count Balfour renuncia a la presidencia del Partido Conservador del Reino Unido. Lo reemplaza Andrew Bonar Law.
^ 1906 Teddy Roosevelt travels to Panama
      On the first foreign trip by a US president in history, President Theodore Roosevelt departs the US for Panama aboard the battleship Louisiana. The visit comes three years after Roosevelt pushed the Panamanian to revolt against Colombian rule. Panamanian independence allowed US engineers to begin work on the Panama Canal project — an effort to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans with a US-administered canal across the Isthmus of Panama. During his four days in Panama, Roosevelt visits the project site, where construction preparations are underway. After leaving Panama, Roosevelt travels to the US territory of Puerto Rico, and then returns to the United States on 26 Novembe. {A man, a plan, a canal, Panama)
1904 First airplane flight to last more than 5 minutes
1903 The Dow-Jones Industrial Average drops to 42.15. Known as the "Rich Man's Panic," the fiscal crisis would drag on for the rest of the year, taking a severe toll on banks, as well as many steel and iron producers.
^ 1875 US betrays Amerindians, agent calls them “hostile”.
      Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins submits a report to Washington DC, stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States. In so doing, Watkins set into motion a series of events that led to the Battle of the Little Big Born in Montana the following year. Seven years before the Watkins report, a portion of the Teton Sioux, who lived with Chief Red Cloud, made peace with the US in exchange for a large reservation in the Black Hills of the Dakotas. However, some Sioux refused the offer of confinement on a reservation, and instead united around Chief Sitting Bull and his leading warrior, Crazy Horse.
      The wisdom of their resistance seemed confirmed in 1874 when the discovery of gold in the Black Hills set off an invasion of Anglo miners into the Sioux reservation. When the US did nothing to stop this illegal violation of lands promised to the Sioux by treaty, more Indians left the reservation in disgust and joined Sitting Bull to hunt buffalo on the plains of Wyoming and Montana. In November 1875, Watkins reported that the free-roaming Indians were hostile.
      The government responded by ordering that the Indians "be informed that they must remove to a reservation before the 31st of January, 1876," and promised that if they refused, "they would be turned over to the War Department for punishment." However, by the time couriers carried the message to the Sioux it was already winter, and traveling 200 miles to the reservation across frozen ground with no grass for their ponies or food for themselves was an impossible request. When, as expected, the Sioux missed the deadline, the matter was turned over to the War Department. In March 1876, the former Civil War hero General Phillip Sheridan ordered a large force of soldiers to trap the Sioux and force them back to the reservations. Among the officers leading the force was George Armstrong Custer, who later that year lead his famous "last stand" against Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
1872 Fire destroys nearly 1000 buildings in Boston.
1870 L'armée de la Loire, organisée par Gambetta, reprend Orléans aux Prussiens.
^ 1867 Le Japon entre dans l'ère Meiji (Lumière)
      L'ère Meiji commence, du nom de règne de l'empereur Mutsuhito. Depuis pres de quatre siècles, l'Empire du soleil levant était gouverné par une famille, les Tokugawa. Ils exercaient la fonction de shogun (ou maire du palais) tandis que l'empereur héréditaire gardait une fonction purement symbolique. Les Tokugawa maintenaient le pays dans un isolement et lui conservaient ses structures féodales. Le 8 novembre, suite à des émeutes, le dernier shogun , Yoshinibu, remet ses pouvoirs au jeune empereur Mutsuhito. Celui-ci établit la monarchie absolue. Il prend le nom de règne de Meiji (Lumière) et déplace la capitale de Kyoto à Tokyo. En quelques années, le pays s'arrache à la féodalite et rejoint le peloton des nations les plus avancées. Le miracle trouve une explication dans le très haut degré d'éducation du peuple japonais. Au XIXe siecle, le taux d'alphabétisation, de l'ordre de 50%, était déjà comparable à celui des provinces européennes les mieux eduquées.
1865 Confederate General Lee surrenders to Union General Grant at Appomattox
1862 US Grant issues orders to bar Jews from serving under him
1861 Battle of Piketon (Ivy Mountain), KY
1854 La villa de Tulancingo (del hoy Estado de Hidalgo, México), es elevada a la categoría de ciudad.
1820 Agustín de Iturbide asume el mando militar del Ejército del Sur. Las autoridades virreinales tienen como objetivo que éste combata y derrote a Vicente Guerrero y a Pedro Ascensio Alquisiras, únicos surianos que sostienen la lucha insurgente mexicana.
1799, Napoléon rentre à Paris et prend le pouvoir par le coup d'état du 18 Brumaire. Napoléon établit un nouveau gouvernement composé de trois consuls et un Sénat. Le Premier consul, Napoléon, a tous les pouvoirs. — Napoleon becomes dictator (1st consul) of France — Golpe de Estado del 18 de Brumario en Francia. Napoléon disuelve la Asamblea, deroga la Constitución y establece el Consulado.
1729 Firma del Tratado de Sevilla por el que Francia e Inglaterra garantizan a España los ducados de Toscana, Parma y Florencia.
1710 Carlos VI, Emperador de Alemania abandona Madrid y se dirige a Barcelona. Las medidas impopulares que había decretado provocaron el inicio de una contienda de guerrillas que acaba con su huida.
1526 Jews are expelled from Pressburg Hungary by Maria of Hapsburg.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 09 November:

2006 Markus Johannes "Mischa" Wolf, born on 19 January 1923, who, during most of the Cold War, has been head of the General Reconnaissance Administration, the foreign intelligence division of East Germany's Ministry for State Security (Stasi). He was the son of the Communist writer and physician Friedrich Wolf [23 Dec 1888 – 05 Oct 1953] and brother of film director Konrad Wolf [20 Oct 1925 – 07 Mar 1982]. —(061110)
2006 Kanthaiah Sivanesan, 48, murdered in his home in the Alavetty area in front of Alavetty Arunothaya College in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, while his wife and their two children were not there. —(061110)
2006 Karunamalam Prabhakaran, 32, murdered in Vavuniya, Sri Lanka. —(061111)
2005 Major-General Bashir Nafeh, head of Palestinian military intelligence in the West Bank; Colonel Abed Allun, Palestinian Preventive Security forces official; Jihad Fatouh, commercial attaché at the Palestinian Embassy in Cairo, Mosab Khorma, a Palestinian-US banker and former Paltel CEO; Husam Fathi Mahajna, Israeli Arab businessman from Umm al-Fahm; Rima Akkad, 34; 3 Iraqi suicide bombers: Ali Hussein Ali al-Shamari, 35; Rawad Jassem Mohammed Abed, 23, Safaa Mohammed Ali, 23; and 51 other persons, including 3 other Iraqis, 1 other Palestinian, 1 other Israeli Arab, 2 others from the US, 33 Jordanians, 2 Bahrainis, 3 Chinese, 1 Saudi, 1 Indonesian; by terrorist bombings at the Grand Hyatt Hotel, the Radisson Hotel (Shamari), and the Days Inn Hotel, in Amman, Jordan, between 20:50 and 22:00 (18:50 and 20:00 UT). Some 115 persons are injured, of which some die later, including, on 11 November 2005, Syrian-US Halloween film producer Moustapha Akkad [Jul 1930–], father of Rima Akkad. A 4th would-be suicide bomber, Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi, 35, wife of Shamari, had her explosive fail (at the Radisson), would later be arrested and confess. She is the sister of Samer (or Thamir) Mubarak Atrous Al Rishawi, who was killed by a US air-to-ground missile in April 2004 in Fallujah, Iraq, and who was a top aide of Jordanian-born Abu Musab al-Zarqawi [20 Oct 1966–], head of al-Qaida in Iraq. Two other of her brothers, Ammar al-Rishawi and Yassir al-Rishawi, were killed in separate attacks against US troops in Ramadi, Iraq. —(051115)
2005 A Belgian woman suicide bomber, 38, targeting a US military convoy just south of Baghdad, Iraq. She converted to Islam after marrying a Moslem. No one else is killed. — (051130)
2005 Six accomplices and Azahari Husin, Malaysian electronics engineer and terrorist born in 1957, who are shot or blow themselves up at 15:30 (08:30 UT) while fighting an attempt to arrested them in the hill resort town Batu, near Malang, East Java, Indonesia, by Detachment 88 anti-terrorism police. Husin is thought to have been involved in terrorist bombings on 12 October 2002 in Bali, on 05 August 2003 at the JW Marriott hotel in Jakarta, on 09 Sep 2004 at the Australian embassy in Jakarta, and on 01 October 2005 in Bali. —(051109)
2004 Some 50 civilians, including 20 on the medical staff of a clinic in Falluja, Iraq, which is hit by an unidentified missile during continuing attack by US troops against insurgents. On 12 November 2004, this and the following, among other atrocities, would be mentioned by Amnesty International in its Iraq: Fears of serious violations of the rules of war in Falluja.
2004 An Iraqi boy, 9, after being hit in the stomach by shrapnel in Falluja, Iraq, during continuing attack by US troops against insurgents.
2004 Staff Sgt. Todd R. Cornell, 38, from West Bend, Wisconsin, of the 1st Battalion, 339th Infantry Regiment, US Army Reserve, when the Iraqi unit he is advising comes under attack by small-arms fire in Falluja, Iraq. — (051108)
2004 Command Sgt. Maj. Steven W. Faulkenburg, 45, from Huntingburg, Indiana, of the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, by small arms fire while fighting in Falluja, Iraq. —(051108)
2004 Maj. Horst G. Moore, 38, from San Antonio, Texas, of the 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (Stryker Brigade Combat Team), by mortar rounds exploding within his unit's living area in Mosul, Iraq. —(051108)
2004 Sgt. John B. Trotter, 25, from Marble Falls, Texas, of the 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, by small-arms fire while on patrol in Ramadi, Iraq. — (051108)
2004 US Marines Cpl. William C. James, 24; Lance Cpl. Nicholas D. Larson, 19; Lance Cpl. Juan E. Segura, 26; Lance Cpl. Abraham Simpson, 19; Staff Sgt. Russell L. Slay, 28; Sgt. Lonny D. Wells, 29; Lance Cpl. Nathan R. Wood, 19; while fighting in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. —(051108)
2004 Two unarmed Palestinian men, shot by Israeli soldiers who saw them crawling toward the electronic Gaza-Israel border fence opposite Kibbutz Kfar Aza.
2003 Sgt. Nicholas A. Tomko, 24, of Pittsburgh PA.; he was the door gunner in a convoy vehicle undergoing a small arms attack in Baghdad, Irak. He was assigned to the 307th Military Police Company, U.S. Army Reserve.
2003 Muhanad al-Kaadi, head of the US-appointed municipal council in the poor, mainly Shiite, Sadr City annex to Baghdad, Iraq, shot by a US occupation soldier guarding the municipal building who stopped his car instead of letting him through. According to the US , “the driver” got out of the vehicle and attacked one of the guards, trying to grab his weapon; another soldier shot the man in the leg and he later died of his wounds. Later the US admits that the man was al-Kaadi, does not repeat the allegation that he attacked a US guard, but says that he died by his own fault for refusing “to follow instructions of the onsite security officer who was enforcing” regulations “in accordance with the rules of engagement.” Al-Kaadi, who spoke fluent English, had been trying to improve relations between the US occupiers and the 2 million residents of Sadr City.
2003: 17 Muslims, by at least two terrorist car bombs, just after midnight, in the west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, at the B2 residential compound, which is in the Nakheel neighborhood near the Muhaya shopping center. Some 120 persons are injured. 5 of the dead and 36 of the injured are children.
2002 Israeli Sergeant-Major Madin Grifat, 23, by an explosion close to the Gaza Strip enclave settlement Netzarim, caused by Islamic Jihad to avenge Sawalhe [next].
2002 Iyad Sawalhe, 28, shot by Israeli troops early in the morning in Jenin. Sawalhe was the head of Islamic Jihad's military wing in the northern West Bank and had been the main target of Israeli military incursions in Jenin over the previous two weeks. In revenge, Islamic Jihad militants would ambush and kill twelve Jewish enclave settlers in Hebron on 15 November 2002.
2002 Joshua Guimond, 20, is never seen alive again (except perhaps by secretive criminals), after shortly past midnight when he leaves a card game in an apartment at Metton Court on the north end of Saint John's University in St.Cloud, Minnesota (near I-94), where he was a junior, a political science major.
2001 Some 235 persons in flash floods in northern Algeria.
2000 Hussein Abayat, 33, and two women bystanders, by rocket fired from Israeli helicopter, in Beit Sahur, on the outskirts of Bethlehem. Several others were wounded. Abayat, who was driving a pickup truck, was targeted as a commander of the Tanzim paramilitary group active in the al-Aqsa intifada started on 28 September 2000..
2000 Isa Tsuyev, 59, Russian-imposed Chechen mayor of Alkhan-Kala, near Grozny, Chechnya, killed by independentist guerillas.
1988 John N. Mitchell, 75, former US Attorney General, Watergate convict, heart attack in Washington
1980 Marie Germinova Toyen, Czech artist born on 21 September 1902.
1970 Charles André de Gaulle, 79, general, Free French leader, then French President.
^ 1970 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle, born on 22 November 1890, French general, Free France leader, writer, statesman, and architect of France's Fifth Republic.
     De Gaulle was the second son of a Roman Catholic, patriotic and nationalist, upper-middle-class family. The family had produced historians and writers, and his father taught philosophy and literature; but as a boy de Gaulle already showed a passionate interest in military matters. He attended the Military Academy of Saint-Cyr and, in 1913, as a young second lieutenant, joined an infantry regiment commanded by Colonel Philippe Pétain [24 Apr 1856 – 23 Jul 1951].
      De Gaulle was an intelligent, hardworking, and zealous young soldier and, in his military career, a man of original mind, great self-assurance, and outstanding courage. In World War I he fought at Verdun, was three times wounded and three times mentioned in dispatches, and spent two years and eight months as a prisoner of war (during which time he made five unsuccessful attempts to escape). After a brief visit to Poland as a member of a military mission, a year's teaching at Saint-Cyr, and a two-year course of special training in strategy and tactics at the École Supérieure de Guerre, he was promoted by Marshal Pétain in 1925 to the Staff of the Conseil Supérieur de la Guerre. From 1927 to 1929 he served as a major in the army occupying the Rhineland and could see for himself both the potential danger of German aggression and the inadequacy of the French defense. He also spent two years in the Middle East and then, having been promoted to lieutenant colonel, spent four years as a member of the secretariat of the Conseil Supérieur de la Défense Nationale.
      De Gaulle's writing career began with a study of the relation between the civil and military powers in Germany, La Discorde chez l'ennemi (1924), followed by lectures on his conception of leadership, Le Fil de l'épée (1932). A study on military theory, Vers l'armée de métier (1934), defended the idea of a small professional army, highly mechanized and mobile, in preference to the static theories exemplified by the Maginot Line, which was intended to protect France against German attack. He also wrote a memorandum in which he tried, even as late as January 1940, to convert politicians to his way of thinking. His views made him unpopular with his military superiors, and the question of his right to publish under his name a historical study, La France et son armée (1938), led to a dispute with Marshal Pétain.
Appel du 18 juin      At the outbreak of World War II, de Gaulle commanded a tank brigade attached to the French 5th Army. In May 1940, after assuming command as temporary brigadier general in the 4th Armored Division, the rank that he retained for the rest of his life, he twice had the opportunity to apply his theories on tank warfare. He was mentioned as “an admirable, energetic, and courageous leader.” On 06 June 1940 he entered the government of Paul Reynaud [15 Oct 1878 – 21 Sep 1966] as undersecretary of state for defense and war, and he undertook several missions to England to explore the possibilities of continuing the war. When the Reynaud government was replaced 10 days later by that of Marshal Pétain, who intended to seek an armistice with the Germans, de Gaulle left for England. On 18 June 1940 he broadcast from London his first appeal to his compatriots to continue the war under his leadership. On 02 August 1940, a French military court tried and sentenced him in absentia to death, deprivation of military rank, and confiscation of property.
      De Gaulle entered on his wartime career as a political leader with tremendous liabilities. He had only a handful of haphazardly recruited political supporters and volunteers for what were to become the Free French Forces. He had no political status and was virtually unknown in both Britain and France. But he had an absolute belief in his mission and a conviction that he possessed the qualities of leadership. He was totally devoted to France and had the strength of character (or obstinacy, as it often appeared to the British) to fight for French interests as he saw them with all the resources at his disposal.
      In his country, to the politicians on the political left, a career officer who was a practicing Catholic was not an immediately acceptable political leader; while to those on the right he was a rebel against Pétain, a national hero and France's only field marshal. Broadcasts from London, the action of the Free French Forces, and the contacts of resistance groups in France either with his own organization or with those of the British secret services brought national recognition of his leadership; but full recognition by his allies came only after the liberation of Paris in August 1944.
      In London de Gaulle's relations with the British government were never easy, and de Gaulle often added to the strain, at times through his own misjudgment or touchiness. In 1943 he moved his headquarters to Algiers, where he became president of the French Committee of National Liberation, at first jointly with General Henri Giraud [18 Jan 1879 – 11 Mar 1949]. De Gaulle's successful campaign to edge out Giraud gave the world proof of his skill in political maneuvering.
     On 09 September 1944, de Gaulle and his shadow government returned from Algiers to Paris. There he headed two successive provisional governments but, on 20 January 1946, abruptly resigned, apparently owing to his irritation with the political parties forming the coalition government.
      In November 1946 the Fourth French Republic was declared, and until 1958 de Gaulle campaigned against its constitution, which, he charged, was likely to reproduce the political and governmental inadequacies of the Third Republic. In 1947 he formed the Rassemblement du Peuple Français (RPF), a mass movement that grew rapidlyin strength and that to all intents and purposes became a political party during the elections of 1951, when it won 120 seats in the National Assembly. The movement expressed de Gaulle's hostility to the constitution, to the party system, and, in particular, to the French Communists, because of their unswerving loyalty to directives from Moscow. He became dissatisfied with the RPF, however, and in 1953 severed his connection with it. In 1955 it was disbanded.
      The general made no public appearances in 1955 or 1956 and retired to his home in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, where he worked on his memoirs: L'Appel, 1940–1942 (1954), L'Unité, 1942–1944 (1956), and Le Salut, 1944–1946 (1959). The last volume was completed only after his return to power in 1958.
De Gaulle      De Gaulle's compatriots were deeply divided on the question of his return to public life. The reasons for their hesitation belong to the political history of the period. The opportunity presented itself in May 1958 when the insurrection that had broken out in Algiers threatened to bring civil war to France. De Gaulle must have seen his return to politics as the most carefully balanced calculation in a life that had had its share of political gambles. He was cautious, for it was by no means certain that the French parliament would accept his return on conditions that he could accept. He affirmed his determination not to come to power by other than legal means, and there was never any evidence of his association with insurgent plans tobring him back; however, his carefully worded statements (on 15, 19, and 27 May 1958) certainly helped the insurgents. On 01 June 1958, three days after President René Coty threatened to resign unless de Gaulle's return to power was accepted, de Gaulle presented himself before the National Assembly as a prime minister designate. On the following day he attended the parliamentary session (after he was duly “invested” as Président du Conseil des Ministres) that authorized him to reform the constitution and accorded him the special powers that he demanded.
[< official portrait, 1958]
      On 21 December 1958, de Gaulle was elected president of the republic. The powers given to the president in the new constitution, which had been approved by 83% of the voters in a referendum on 28 September 1958, and especially the provisions for the use of the referendum and for presidential rule during a state of emergency, reflected his firm conviction that a strong state required a leader with power to make decisions. De Gaulle realized that his fellow citizens would accept him only in a crisis and that he must, therefore, take steps to retain the support of the general public and to disarm the power of “the system of parties” in parliament, always potentially hostile to him. His tactics were first to obtain consent for the personal control of government policy by the president and then to ensure its renewal through elections or referendums. He therefore undertook throughout his presidency what was virtually a continuous election campaign, in the form of provincial tours, in which he visited every département and during which he met ordinary citizens as well as local notables. He appeared on television several times a year. He relied as far as possible on ministers who were compagnons, those whose loyalties went back to the wartime days, and counted on their use of the constitutional provisions to curb the powers of the deputies to obstruct parliamentary business or harass governments.
      De Gaulle retained the essential function of parliaments in a democracy, namely, the right to criticize governments and to withdraw confidence in them. There were frequent complaints of progovernmental bias on the radio, but these also had been common under pre-Gaullist regimes. Under a law of 1881 insults to the president of the republic constitute an offense, and, while there was certainly more recourse to this law during de Gaulle's presidency than under previous regimes, it presented no obstacle to political criticisms of Gaullist policies and Gaullist ministers in the press and by political parties. Indeed, those criticisms were continual and widespread.
      De Gaulle's greatest challenge in his early years as president was to find a way to resolve the bloody and extraordinarily divisive Algerian War. France's influential left-wing intellectuals supported Algerian independence and wanted de Gaulle to find a face-saving way to end the war quickly. The European residents of Algeria and their many supporters on the mainland, most of them politically conservative, wanted France to retain Algeria at all costs. The leaders of the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN), meanwhile, were willing to discuss nothing short of full independence. De Gaulle realized that he had no choice but to end the war, and when he began peace negotiations with the FLN, French military leaders in Algiers turned against him, forming a rebel faction known as the Secret Army Organization (OAS).
      In April 1961 the OAS seized control of Algiers and threatened to take Paris as well. De Gaulle responded vigorously, using the emergency powers permitted by the constitution of the Fifth Republic. Most French citizens rallied to de Gaulle, and after a tense standoff, the OAS action fell apart. The bulk of the military refused to side with the rebellious generals, and de Gaulle's peace initiative was allowed to proceed. The bloodletting, however, was not over.The OAS, now a full-fledged terrorist organization, undertook a wave of bombings and assassinations (including attempts on de Gaulle) that left some 12'000 victims. But the overwhelming majority of the population supported de Gaulle, allowing him to negotiate Algerian independence (1962) and defeat the OAS.
      Preoccupied during his first three years with Algeria, de Gaulle was finally in a position to turn to other pressing matters. Beginning in 1962, he moved to strengthen the country's economy, planned the reorganization of the army, developed an independent nuclear deterrent, and prevented fresh “Algerias” in the future by providing for the constitutional transformation of the African overseas territories into 12 politically independent states. From mid-1962 onward, however, with the recognition of an independent Algerian state, he had to consolidate his own position by obtaining a fresh vote of confidence from the electorate, for he was no longer politically indispensable.
      One lesson that de Gaulle had learned was that his personal position was stronger if he remained, at least in theory, above the political and party battle, as he had tried to do during the wartime and early postwar years. Before the elections of 1958, he had therefore forbidden his supporters to use his name, “even in the form of an adjective,” in the title of any group or candidate. In 1962 he offered the electors the choice between his resignation and acceptance of a constitutional amendment providing for the election of the president by universal suffrage. Under the original constitution, the president was to be chosen by an electoral college of some 80'000 members, mainly mayors and local leaders. The electors favored the amendment overwhelmingly. During the parliamentary general election in November, the Gaullist party won an additional 64 seats, thus obtaining, with the support of some 30 conservative deputies, a majority in the National Assembly. From then on, de Gaulle was in a position to carry out, with public consent, the plans that he regarded as essential to restore France to the status of a great power.
      As a statesman, de Gaulle fought his political battles like a military campaign, using all the devices that he had learned to transform France's postwar international position of weakness into one of strength and to overcome opposition to his plans at home. These devices have been often described by his fellow citizens: “egoism, pride, aloofness, guile,” according to sociologist and historian Raymond Aron; “empiricism, intuition, flexibility of mind if not of soul,” according to one of the most perceptive of his biographers, Jean Lacouture.
      From 1962 until his reelection as president in 1965, de Gaulle used the European Economic Community (EEC; now part of the European Union) to serve French interests, especially agricultural interests. France's participation in the supranational North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was progressively withdrawn, because de Gaulle's policy for France was one of “national independence” and of international cooperation based only on agreements between nation-states. This was the main theme of his presidential campaign in 1965. On 21 December 1965 he was reelected, though only on the second ballot, after facing a surprisingly strong challenge from the Socialist François Mitterrand [26 Oct 1916 – 08 Jan 1996]. On 07 March 1966, he announced France's withdrawal from the integrated military command of NATO but not from the alliance.
      During the remainder of his second term as president, de Gaulle turned his attention increasingly to wider fields. He had already begun a policy of “détente and cooperation” with countries behind the Iron Curtain by encouraging trade and cultural relations with the Soviet Union and the countries of eastern Europe and by recognizing the People's Republic of China in January 1964. As a solution for the Vietnam War, he advocated a policy of neutrality for all nations concerned based on a negotiated peace, of which a necessary preliminary was to be the withdrawal of all US troops from Vietnam. These activities, together with visits to Canada, the Far East, and all of Latin America, formed part of a policy that aimed at increasingthe influence of France, first in French-speaking countries or countries that shared some bond derived from a common attachment to Latin culture, then in Europe, which, in his view, would sooner or later extend beyond the boundaries of the EEC or the division into western and eastern blocs, and finally in the world, where he foresaw the gradual dissolution of the two great blocs.
      Circumstances worked against his success. He felt obliged to take up attitudes that were generally interpreted as anti-US. His theory of “desatellization,” the progressive loosening of the Soviet hold on the countries of eastern Europe, was brutally invalidated by the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Moreover, there was no evidence that France carried any real weight with the countries that it hoped to influence. As the political and economic crisis of May 1968 revealed, France had neither the internal cohesion nor the financial resources to play the role of leader in what de Gaulle called “Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals.”
      His strength had been in his appeal for unity against a common enemy: in 1940, Germany; in 1958, subversion and civil disorder. In the students' and workers' revolt of May 1968, the enemy was once again subversion and civil disorder, but the rapid collapse of the revolt and the divisions within the left that it revealed made de Gaulle seem less indispensable than in the past. The solution to the underlying causes of the revolt required the patient negotiation of a government rather than leadership by a man of destiny. A broadcast on 30 May 1968 brought a massive demonstration of support and a landslide Gaullist victory in the subsequent election, but the victory was for peace and normality rather than for the president and his policies.
      When in April 1969 de Gaulle called once again for a referendum, it was not clear whether he really wanted to remain in power. The referendum, calling for the acceptance of regional reorganization and a reform of the Senate, was presented to voters, as other referenda had been, as a choice between acceptance of both measures (though the second was generally unpopular) or of his own resignation. The diplomatic methods that had been welcomed during his first term as assertions of France's claim to equality with and influence among the great powers now created great unease. His advocacy of neutrality on Vietnam in 1966 was widely interpreted as an expression of personal anti-Americanism. On his visit to Canada in 1967, he seemed actively to encourage French-Canadian separatism. His declarations of neutrality in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War seemed to show a pro-Arab bias. France had not formally withdrawnfrom NATO, and the so-called independent nuclear deterrent that he sought was neither independent nor within France's means. The question “After de Gaulle, who?” was answered by the president himself when he dismissed Georges Pompidou [05 Jul 1911 – 02 Apr 1974] in 1968 after a record six years as prime minister. This left Pompidou free to present himself as a credible and acceptable successor to de Gaulle.
      On 28 April 1969, following his defeat in the referendum, de Gaulle resigned and returned to Colombey-les-Deux-Églises to retire permanently and to resume writing his memoirs. There he died of a heart attack the following year. His aims and actions as president had drawn more exegesis and speculation than those of any other French statesman.
1966 Rutherford, mathematician.
1963 Twenty miners by concussion and 438 by carbon monoxide poisoning due to coal-dust explosion in the Mikawa area of the Miike coal mine in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. 839 miners are injured by carbon monoxide. 106 of the 1403 miners in the mine at the time of the explosion (15:12) are unhurt.
1963:: 162 persons in triple collision of trains at Tsurumi Station on Yokosuka line of Japanese National Railroads. 120 persons are injured..
1953 Abdul-Aziz ibn Sa'ud , 73, founder of Saudi Arabia
1953 Dylan Thomas, 39, Scottish author-poet, in NY.
1952 Chaim Weizmann, 57, 1st President of Israel.
1947 Mariano Benlliure y Gil, escultor español.
1942 Graciano Ricalde Gamboa, en Mérida, Yucatán, profesor e ingeniero yucateco, quien a los 16 años se graduó de profesor en la Normal de su Estado. En 1910 realizó estudios sobre el cometa Haley. En 1923 hizo cálculos sobre el eclipse total de sol de ese año. Resolvió la ecuación general de 5 grado, por medio de funciones elípticas.
^ 1940 Neville Chamberlain, UK Prime Minister of appeasement.
      Just months after he was chased (literally) out of office, Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister at the outbreak of the European war, dies. He is best (or rather "worst") remembered for his rather infamous policy of appeasement toward Hitler in the pre-war years. Chamberlain met first with Hitler in private consultations at Berchtesgaden, Hitler's Bavarian mountaintop retreat. The Führer, who Chamberlain described as a "gentleman," convinced the Prime Minister to support Germany's territorial demands in Czechoslovakia. Hitler wanted the Sudetenland, an area in northern Czechoslovakia where three million ethnic Germans lived. On 29 September and 30 September 1938, Chamberlain, Hitler, Premier Daladier of France, and Il Duce, Benito Mussolini, met in Munich to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain convinced Daladier that joining England in support of Hitler's demands would avert war. The German army had already been mobilized, and Hitler had threatened to march into Czechoslovakia. The Munich Pact, signed by all four European leaders in attendance, created a new Czechoslovakia, stripped of the Sudetenland.
      Hitler was appeased for the moment, but the Pact left Czechoslovakia highly vulnerable for German attack. Returning to England from Munich, Chamberlain boasted the notoriously naïve claim, "I believe it is peace for our time." These words, as well as Chamberlain's umbrella, became widely recognized symbols of appeasement. When Germany invaded Poland on 01 September 1939, Chamberlain issued an ultimatum to Hitler to immediately withdraw from Poland. Hitler ignored the ultimatum, and on Sunday 03 September, Chamberlain declared war. By this point, Britain's faith in its Prime Minister was diminishing quickly. Chamberlain stayed afloat until Germany launched the Denmark and Norway campaign in May 1940. Soon thereafter, one of Chamberlain's supporters stood up in Parliament session and quoted Oliver Cromwell: "Depart, I say, and let us have done with you! In the name of God, go!" Chamberlain was driven from the House amid unanimous chants of "Go! Go! Go!" Two days later, on 10 May, King George VI asked Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, to succeed as Prime Minister.
^ 1938: 91 Jews in the worst pogrom in peacetime Germany, as Nazi thugs lead a "spontaneous" campaign of terror. During the night 267 synagogues are plundered, 7500 shops are wrecked, 91 Jews are killed and 20'000 others are arrested and sent to concentration camps. It would become known as "Kristallnacht" because of the thousands of windows broken.
      All over Germany, Austria, and other Nazi-controlled areas, organized bands of Nazis destroy Jewish shops, burn synagogues, and beat, kill, or arrest thousands of Jews. The attack, known as Krystallnacht, or "Crystal Night," after all the broken glass littering the streets, comes two days after Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old Jew living in France, shot and killed Ernst vom Rath, a member of the German embassy staff in Paris. Grynszpan was acting in retaliation for the poor treatment his father and family suffered at the hands of the Nazis in Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels used the Paris shooting as an opportunity to begin a long-planned attack on Jews living in Nazi-controlled areas. Nazi troops and sympathizers destroyed and looted 7500 Jewish businesses, burned 267 synagogues, killed 91 Jews, and rounded up over 25'000 Jewish men, who are later sent to concentration camps. Three days later, the Nazi authorities declare that Jews must pay for the violence that they supposedly provoked, and they are charged one billion marks in damages for the murder of vom Rath, and six million marks to cover insurance fees for the destroyed shops. The reaction outside Germany is shock and outrage, and the US permanently removes its ambassador to Germany.
La Nuit de Cristal
      La nuit du 9 au 10 novembre 1938 reste l'un des plus tristes moments de l'histoire allemande. De premières lois antisémites avaient déjà mis à l'écart les Allemands catalogués comme juifs. D'autres mesures leur avaient succédé: enregistrement des entreprises juives, carte d'identité spéciale, privation de passeport. Un mois tout juste après les accords de Munich, le Führer Adolf Hitler franchit un nouveau pas dans la voie de l'antisémitisme. Le prétexte est vite trouvé: des juifs polonais ont fui leur pays, où sévit un régime autoritaire et antisémite, pour s'installer... en Allemagne. Repoussés par le régime hitlérien, beaucoup errent à la frontière germano-polonaise et y trouvent la mort.
      Un jeune juif fils de deux de ces victimes, Gryspan, se venge en assassinant à Paris le conseiller d'ambassade von Rath. Cela sert de prétexte à un pogrom de très grande ampleur, à l'image des émeutes antijuives qu'encourageait au XIXe siècle l'administration du tsar. A l'annonce de la mort de von Rath, dans la soirée du 9 novembre, le ministre de la propagande, Joseph Goebbels, jette ses militants dans les rues. Les sections d'assaut nazies (SA), les SS et les Jeunesses hitlériennes s'en prennent aux synagogues et aux locaux des organisations israélites, ainsi qu'aux magasins et aux biens des particuliers. Les agresseurs sont pour la plupart en tenue de ville pour laisser croire à un mouvement populaire spontané. Près d'une centaine de personnes sont tuées à l'occasion de ce gigantesque pogrom. Une centaine de synagogues sont brlées et 7500 magasins sont pillés.
      Avec un certain cynisme, les nazis donneront à ces premières violences antisémites planifiées en Allemagne le nom poétique de Nuit de Cristal, en référence aux vitrines et à la vaisselle brisées cette nuit-là. La communauté juive sera taxée d'une énorme amende pour cause de tapage nocturne (ça ne s'invente pas). 35'000 juifs environ seront aussi arrêtés et envoyés dans des camps. Ils seront pour la plupart libérés contre rançon. L'heure de leur extermination n'est pas encore venue. Hitler, non sans habileté, se conforme à une savante gradation ajustée à l'évolution des relations internationales. Ce n'est pas sans raison que la Nuit de Cristal survient un mois tout juste après les accords de Munich qui ont signé la défaite morale des démocraties. (voir un site d'images de l'Holocauste)
1932 Some 25'000 in hurricane storm wave sweeping over Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba
1924 Henry Cabot Lodge, co-author (with Theodore Roosevelt) of Hero Tales From American History
^ 1923 Three policemen and 16 Nazis, whose Beer Hall Putsch is crushed.
      In Munich, armed policeman and troops loyal to Germany's democratic government crush the Beer Hall Putsch, the Nazis first attempt at seizing control of the German government by force. The previous evening, the Beer Hall Putsch began as Nazi leader Adolf Hitler took control of a beer hall where Bavarian government leaders were meeting. Threatened at gunpoint by Hitler, the Bavarian leaders reluctantly agree to support Hitler and his far-right Nazi Party as the new rulers of the German state of Bavaria. Hitler hoped that his "National révolution" would spread to the dissatisfied German army, who in turn would bring down the government in Berlin. However, in the early morning of November 9, the Bavarian leaders recount their coerced support of Hitler, and order a rapid suppression of the Nazis. At dawn, government troops surround the main Nazi force occupying the War Ministry building. A desperate Hitler responds by leading a march toward the center of Munich, in a last-ditch effort to rally support. Near the War Ministry building, three thousand Nazi marchers come face to face with a hundred armed policemen. Shots are exchanged, and after a minute, sixteen Nazis and three policemen are dead. Nazi Hermann Goering is shot in the groin and Hitler suffers a dislocated elbow, but manages to escape. Three days later, Hitler is arrested and subsequently sent to Landsberg jail, where he spends his nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party is reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gains a majority in the Reichstag by legal means in 1932, and by 1934 Hitler is the sole master of a Germany intent on war and genocide.
1915: 272 persons on Italian liner Ancona sunk by German torpedoes.
1911 Howard Pyle, born on 05 March 1853, Pyle was a US illustrator, painter, and author, best known for the children's books that he wrote and illustrated. — MORE ON PYLE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to online books and images.
1898 Jerónimo Martínez Sánchez, grabador, fotógrafo, dibujante y pintor venezolano.
1890 César Auguste Franck, compositor belga.
1884 Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux, French artist born on 03 April 1815.
1865 Jacob Collamer, politician. COLLAMER ONLINE: Speech of Hon. J. Collamer, of Vermont, On Slavery in the Territories
1807 Augustin de Saint~Aubin, French artist born on 03 June 1736. — more with links to images.
1778 Giovanni-Battista Piranesi, Italian draftsman, printmaker, architect, and art theorist, born on 04 October 1720. — MORE ON PIRANESI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1677 Aart (or Aernou) van der Neer, Dutch painter specialized in landscapes, born in 1603. — MORE ON VAN DER NEER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1605 date sometimes given for the death of Flemish painter Lodewyk Toeput “Pozzoserrato”, while the preferred date is 14 August 1603. — MORE ON TOEPUT AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1601 Giovanni-Battista Ramenghi “Il Bagnacavallo”, Italian painter born in 1521. — more with links to images.
 
< 08 Nov 10 Nov >
^  Births which occurred on a 09 November:

2006 Jacob and Jordan James, twins conjoined face to face at the abdomen, born to Valerie James and Robert Lee Heck III {What? the Heck?} of Mankato, Minnesota, by caesarian section at 30 weeks gestation, at the Mayo Eugenio Litta Children's Hospital in Rochester, Minnesota. They are immediately surgically separated because of the life-threatening way they are joined.
     On 07 March 2007 Valerie James, 20, and Robert Heck, 27, were charged with the first-degree assault of Jordan, as well as aiding and abetting. According to the criminal complaint, the infant was brought to Mayo Eugenio Litta Children's Hospital in January, due to some swelling. It was discovered that he had 8 leg fractures and 16 rib fractures. Some of the injuries appeared to have begun the healing process, while others were recent. A medical test showed that the boy did not have a genetic disorder that makes bones fragile. It would take a large amount of force to inflict such injuries to an infant's extremely flexible limbs. The twins were removed from the custody of their parents' and put in supervised care. The couple had a older daughter, one year older than the twins. While Jacob remained hospitalized, Jordan had been released in January of 2007 to his parentso who were staying at the Ronald Mcdonald House in Rochester.
      A former mate of Heck's had obtained an order of protection against him in 2004. She stated that her 3-year-old claimed to have been struck by Heck, her 18-month old son was in Heck's care when he sustained a broken leg and head bruises, and her 3-month-old received burns on her fingers which doctors attributed to burns from cigarettes. —(080810)
^ 2000 The new Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable  is published.
      It defines words used in Britain such as: Blair babes, spin doctor, canteen culture, Harry Potter and Hogwarts, cash for questions, netiquette, London Eye and the Dome. It gives the origins of the word "business." In Old English, the word "bisignis" meant an anxiety. Over the years it grew to mean a task over which one was anxious, and now means an appointed task or commercial undertaking. Today you might call someone who was more at home in the drawing room or bedroom a "lounge lizard," rather than the 14th century alternative "carpet knight." Most people have heard of Moby Dick. But what was a Mocha Dick? Mocha Dick was a real man-eating whale from the 1840s.
1950 El camino, novela de Miguel Delibes se publica.
1935 The CIO. United Mine Workers chief John L. Lewis and a dozen fellow labor leaders announce the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). An affiliate of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the CIO was charged with pushing the cause for industrial unionism. Under Lewis' spirited, and sometimes confrontational, leadership, the CIO quickly scored a number of victories, carrying out successful organizing efforts in the steel, auto and other major mass production industries.
1934 Carl Sagan NYC, astronomer/author/professor (Cosmos, Broca's Brain)
1934 Ingvar Carlsson PM of Sweden (1986- )
1932 Marian Christy Ridgefield CT, author (Invasions of Privacy)
Newton MA, poet (Live or Die)
^ 1928 Anne Gray Harvey, in Newton, Massachusetts, future psychotherapy poet Anne Sexton.
      The daughter of moderately well-off parents, she attended prep school and spent a year at Garland Junior College before marrying Alfred Sexton. She worked briefly as a model and as a librarian, and had two daughters. For most of her life, Sexton struggled against depression and at age 28 tried the first of several suicide attempts. While she was hospitalized, her psychiatrist suggested she try writing poetry, which she did with phenomenal success. She quickly won admission to writers' colonies and to prestigious poetry workshops featuring teachers like Robert Lowell, whose confessional style suited her own. In poetry workshops, she met and befriended Sylvia Plath [27 Oct 1932 – 11 Feb 1963] and Maxine Kumin [06 Jun 1925~], with whom she remained very close to the end of her life.
      Her first collection of poetry, To Bedlam and Part Way Back (1960), analyzed her mental breakdowns. In 1962, her collection All My Pretty Ones dealt with the death of her parents, and her 1966 book, Live or Die, won a Pulitzer Prize. During those years, her poetry won her teaching positions at Harvard and Radcliffe, as well as many poetry prizes. However, she continued to battle depression and was in and out of the hospital for both this and physical ailments. On 04 October 1974, she chose to die, by her own hand.(as Sylvia Plath had).
     Some of her other books are: Love Poems (1969), Transformations (1971), The Book of Folly (1972), The Death Notebooks (1974). She also wrote some children's books with poet Maxine Kumin, including Eggs of Things (1963), Joey and the Birthday Present (1971), The Wizard's Tears (1975). The Awful Rowing Toward God (1975), 45 Mercy Street (1976), and Uncollected Poems with Three Stories (1978) were published posthumously.
—(051108)
1926 Ricardo de la Cierva y Hoces, historiador español.
1922 Lakatos, mathematician.
1922 Lauro Olmo, dramaturgo español.
1921 El partido Nacional Fascista se funda en Alemania.
1918 Spiro Theodore Agnew (R) 39th US Vice-President (1973-77), crook, forced to resign.
1915 Sargent Shriver Dem VP candidate (1972)/directed Peace Corp
1906 Lopatynsky, mathematician.
1905 James William Fulbright (Sen-D-Mo)
1905 Abraham Albert, mathematician.
1903 Gregory Pincus, inventor (birth control pill)
1901 José Rodrigues Miguéis, narrador portugués.
1888 Jean Monnet, à Cognac. Le père de l'Europe est à maints égards le Français le plus remarquable de ce siècle. Il a mené de nombreuses actions en faveur de la paix et de l'union européenne, de 1914 à sa mort, en 1979.
1885 Hermann Weyl, mathematician.
1885 Kaluza, mathematician.
1883 Charles Demuth, US Precisionist painter, who died on 25 October 1935. — MORE ON DEMUTH AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1877 Adolf Dietrich, Swiss artist who died on 04 June 1957. — more with links to images.
1870 Francisco Carbajal y Gual, en la ciudad de Campeche. Como Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores del usurpador Victoriano Huerta, se hará cargo de la Presidencia de la República Méxicana del 15 Jul 1914 al 13 Aug 1914. Ha de morir el 30 Sep 1932 en la ciudad de México.
1869 Snyder, mathematician.
1854 Hugo Muhlig, German artist who died on 16 February 1929.
1847 Castigliano, mathematician.
1841 Edward VII, king of England from the death of his mother, queen Victoria [24 May 1819 – 22 Jan 1901] until his own death on 06 May 1910. He was succeeded by his son George V [03 Jun 1865 – 20 Jan 1936].
1836 Samuel Hill,. Christian business traveler In 1899 Hill, John Nicholson and W.J. Knights co_founded the Gideons, a Christian organization that ministers through distribution of the Scriptures. To date, the Gideons have placed over 12 million Bibles and 100 million New Testaments.
1825 Ambrose Powell Hill, in Culpeper, Virginia, Confederate general during the US Civil War who was particularly active in the fighting around Washington, D.C. His force, called the "Light Division," was considered one of the best. He was killed at the battle of Petersburg on 02 April 1865.
Turgenev 1818 (28 October Julian) Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, Russian novelist, poet, and playwright, whose major works include the short-story collection A Hunter's Sketches (1852) and the novels Rudin (1856), Home of the Gentry (1859), On the Eve (1860), and Fathers and Sons (1862). These works offer realistic, affectionate portrayals of the Russian peasantry and penetrating studies of the Russian intelligentsia who were attempting to move the country into a new age. Turgenev poured into his writings not only a deep concern for the future of his native land but also an integrity of craft that has ensured his place in Russian literature. He died on 03 September (22 August Julian) 1883. [biography in Russian]

Turgenev online in Russian: Asia (1858)(polnyi tekst, 60% povesti) : Rudin (1856)(Roman)

Romany: Deopyanskoe gnezdo (1859), Nakanune (1860), Ottsy i deti (1862), Dym (1867), Nov' (1877)

TURGENEV ONLINE (in English translations):
1809 Albert Taylor Bledsoe, author. BLEDSOE ONLINE: An Essay on Liberty and Slavery, Is Davis a Traitor; or, Was Secession a Constitutional Right Previous to the War of 1861?
^ 1802 Elijah Parish Lovejoy,  newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material in the period leading up to the US Civil War (1861–1865).
      In 1827 Lovejoy moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where he established a school and entered journalism. Six years later he became editor of the St. Louis Observer, a Presbyterian weekly in which he strongly condemned slavery and supported gradual emancipation. Missouri was a slave state, and in 1835 a letter signed by a number of important men in St. Louis requested him to moderate the tone of his editorials. He replied in an editorial reiterating his views and his right to publish them. Threats of mob violence, however, forced him to move his press across the Mississippi River to Alton, in the free state of Illinois. Despite its new location, his press was destroyed by mobs several times in one year. Finally, on the night of 07 November 1837, a mob attacked the building, and Lovejoy was killed in its defense. The news of his death stirred the people of the North profoundly and led to a great strengthening of abolitionist sentiment.
^ 1801 Robert Dale Owen, son of the English reformer Robert Owen [14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858], British-born US utopian social reformer, politician, and author, who died on 24 June 1877.
      . The son of the English reformer Robert Owen, Robert Dale Owen was steeped in his father's socialist philosophy while growing up at New Lanark in Scotland, the elder Owen's model industrial community. In 1825 father and son immigrated to the United States to set up another self-sufficient socialist community at New Harmony, Indiana.
      Robert Dale Owen edited the community's newspaper, the New Harmony Gazette, until 1827, when he became associated with the controversial reformer Fanny Wright [06 Sep 1795 – 13 Dec 1862]. They traveled together to Wright's experimental community of Nashoba, Tennesse, which was dedicated to the education and gradual emancipation of slaves, and from there went on to Europe.
      Upon returning to the United States, Owen and Wright revisited the Nashoba and New Harmony communities, then in a state of decay. They settled in New York, where Owen edited The Free Enquirer. The paper opposed evangelical religion and advocated more liberal divorce laws, more equal distribution of wealth, and widespread industrial education; it was at the center of radical free thought in New York. For two years, Owen, with Wright and other radicals, sought to turn the New York Workingmen's Party away from the belief of Thomas Skidmore in an equal division of property. They successfully ousted Skidmore, but later their own program of social reform through public education was also repudiated.
      After a brief trip to England in 1832, Owen returned to New Harmony. He served three terms in the Indiana legislature (1836–1838), where he advocated the allocation of government funds for public schools, and two terms in the US House of Representatives, where he introduced the bill creating the Smithsonian Institution.
      Owen was defeated for a third term in Congress and went back to Indiana, where he advocated property rights for married women and liberalization of divorce laws. Appointed chargé d'affaires at Naples in 1853 and minister to Italy in 1855, Owen spent much of the 1850s abroad. Upon his return in 1858, he became an outspoken proponent of emancipation; at the outbreak of the US Civil War, he urged an end to slavery in a letter to President Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865], a letter that Secretary of the Treasury Salmon Chase [13 Jan 1808 – 07 May 1873] said greatly influenced the president.
      In 1863 Owen headed a committee to investigate the condition of the freedmen and wrote a book on his findings, The Wrong of Slavery (1864). In it he surprised many people by counseling a 10-year delay in granting the newly emancipated slaves the right to vote.
      Owen spent his final years writing a novel (Beyond the Breakers, 1870) and his autobiography (Threading My Way, 1874).
1731 Benjamin Banneker Ellicott MD, black mathematician / surveyor (Wash DC)
1653 Jean-Baptiste Belin (or Blin) de Fontenay, French artist who died on 12 February 1715.
 
Holidays Pakistan : Iqbal Day / Tunisia : Arbor Day/Tree Festival Day / Turks & Caicos Island : Peacemaker's Day

Religious Observances RC : Dedication of Church of Lateran (Basilica of Our Savior), Rome / Nuestra Señora de la Almudena; Santos Alejandro, Benigno y Orestes. / Saint Théodore, moine byzantin du monastère Saint-Sabas, en Palestine. Il est mort en prison en 842 pour avoir pris parti contre l'empereur de Constantinople qui voulait interdire le culte des icones.
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Thoughts for the day:
“Beauty seldom recommends one woman to another."
{except perhaps in the case of deviants}
"Superiority in ANYTHING seldom recommends one person to another." {except superiority in congeniality}
“Nothing is really work, unless you would rather be doing something else.” — Peter Pan
“Something is really work, unless you would rather be doing nothing else.”
“Work is really something else, unless you would rather be doing nothing.”
“Nothing is really something else, unless you would rather be working.”
“Nothing is real, unless you would rather be somewhere else.”
“Something is real, otherwise you would be somewhere else.”
“I think charm is the ability to be truly interested in other people."
— Richard Avedon, US fashion photographer.
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updated Sunday 10-Aug-2008 21:35 UT
Principal updates:
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