<< Nov 07|         HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Nov 09 >>
Events, deaths, births, of NOV 08
v.8.30
While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs)
[For Nov 08 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 181700s: Nov 191800s: Nov 201900~2099: Nov 21]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” NOV 08    wikipedia
^  On a 08 November:
2006 US President “Dubya” Bush [06 Jul 1946~] in effect admits telling election campaign propaganda lies when, a few days earlier, he said that he was sure of a Republican victory in the congressional elections of 07 November 2006; and when he said that, until the end of his presidency, Donald Rumsfeld [09 Jul 1932~] Secretary of Defense 20 January 2001 (first day of the Dubya presidency), would remain in that office. Today Dubya admits that the elections were a Democratic victory and he announces that he “accepts the resignation” of Rumsfeld, something Dubya was preparing at the very time when he proclaimed that it would never happen. —(061109)
2005 Election for governor (4-year term) in New Jersey and in Virginia, won by Democrat Jon Corzine [01 Jan 1947~] in New Jersey, and in Virginia by Democrat Timothy M. Kaine [26 Feb 1958~].
2005 Presidential runoff election in Liberia, won by former Finance Minister Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf [1939~] (Unity Party), with 59% of the vote (which will make her Africa's first elected woman president), George Weah [01 Oct 1966~] (Congress for Democratic Change party), a former soccer player of AC Milan. — (051112)
2003 Lunar eclipse visible in the Americas with umbra from moonrise (in El Paso TX) at 17:07 to 20:04 MST (09 Nov 00:07 to 03:04 UT) and totality from 18:06 to to 18:30 MST (01:06 to 01:30 UT).
2002 At its meeting 4644, the UN Security Council adopts, 15-0, Resolution 1441, which gives Iraq “a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations”, or else!
2002 At 09:00 in Peking's Great Hall of the People the 2114 delegates begin the 16th quinquennal Communist Party Congress. Jiang Zemin, 76 (who would resign in favor of Hu Jintao, 59, before the end of the Congress 5 days later, as Secretary General of the Party, and, on 15 March 2003, as President of China), gives a 90-minute speech outlining plans for more capitalism (but not democracy).
"White" elephant2001 The European Central Bank cuts its main interest rate, the refinancing rate, from 3.75% to 3.25%. This follows the US Federal Reserve's rate reduction of 06 November 2001.
2001 The Journal Nature publishes a study according to which sheep recognize faces (up to at least 50) and remember them for at least 2 years. Also: sheep reared by goats (and vice-versa) act according to their foster species.
2001 Myanmar's ruling military announces that it has captured a “white” 1.8-meter-high, 8-year-old bull elephant [photo >] at Ahtetnanya, Rathedaung Township, Rakhine State, in the western part of Myanmar during the third week of October 2001.Its skin is white only in the sense that some people's skin is said to be white. It is whitish-pink in color in the rain and it changes to moderate russet in cold sunny weather. A white elephant brings peace, stability and prosperity to the nation, prevents all hazards and dangers, and ensures that the country enjoys bumper food harvests. The elephant is being brought to the capital Yangon (formerly Rangoon). The military has ruled Myanmar (formerly Burma) since taking power in 1962. The country has been isolated by most Western nations due to widespread human rights abuses and the suppression of the pro-democracy opposition. Myanmar's devastated economy is starved of foreign capital. — MORE.
Aibo-2202001 Sony presents its latest Aibo, the 220, now less dog-like and more robot-like [< image]. It will sell for $1500. In addition Sony wants to sell software, such as the $150 Navigator~2, which connects the robot by wireless local area network to a personal computer allowing the owner to control its movements and see on a monitor visual images shot through the digital camera on the robot's nose. But Sony heavy-handedly forced the shut-down of the AiboHack [= AiboPet] site which provided free Aibo software.
2000 In the US, TV and radio broadcasters go into "time-filling mode" in reporting the previous day's election, because they cannot announce whether Bush or Gore has won the presidency (it depends on the Florida results, which are subject to a recount that will take days and involve the Supreme Court of the state and of the US), or even whether the Senate will be split 50-50 or have a Republican majority of 1 or 2 (it depends on recounts in Oregon and Michigan). — Early in the day, Vice President Al Gore telephones Texas Governor George W. Bush to concede, but calls back about an hour later to retract his concession.
2000 In China, Deputy Mayor Lan Fu of Xiamen in Fujian province; Xiamen Customs chief, Yang Qianxian, and Zhuang Rushun, deputy head of Public Security for Fujian, are among 11 persons condemned to death for their participation in a smuggling ring (made profitable by China's high import duties). Another 3 get suspended death sentences, 12 life imprisonment, and 58 prison for various times.
2000 Special counsel John C. Danforth releases his final report on the Waco wackos absolving the government of wrongdoing in the 1993 siege at the Branch Davidian compound.
1999 Russian troops forge ahead in Chechnya (CNN)
1998 El ex teniente coronel Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, que en 1992 encabezó un golpe de Estado, se proclama vencedor de las elecciones legislativas y regionales celebradas en Venezuela.
1997 Se inicia en China la construcción de la presa de las Tres Gargantas, el mayor proyecto hidroeléctrico del mundo.
1997 Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de Latinoamérica, España y Portugal se reúnen en la VII Cumbre Iberoamericana celebrada en Isla Margarita (Venezuela), en la que rechazaron la Ley Helms-Burton y apoyaron la creación de la Unión Centroamericana.
1996 Newspapers report that the assets of the CEO of Systems of Excellence, Inc. have been seized after the Securities and Exchange Commission accused him of trying to manipulate the company's stock price over the Internet. The SEC alleged that the executive issued false press releases and bribed an electronic newsletter to praise Systems of Excellence stock on the Internet.
1995 Retired US army general Colin Powell declares that he will not seek the presidency.
1995 El Congreso español aprueba, con la abstención del Partido Popular, el nuevo Código Penal, que prevé un sistema de penas orientado a la reinserción social del recluso.
^ 1994 The Republican Revolution
      For the first time in forty years, the Republican Party wins control of both the US House of Representatives and the Senate in midterm congressional elections. Led by Representative Newt Gingrich of Georgia, who replaces Democrat Tom Foley of Washington as Speaker of the House in 1995, the empowered GOP unites under the "Contract With America," a ten-point legislative plan to reduce federal taxes, balance the budget, and dismantle social welfare programs established during six decades of mostly Democratic rule in Congress. Gingrich's House of Representatives, home to the majority of the Republican freshmen, leads the "Republican Revolution" by passing every bill incorporated into the Contract With America — with the exception of a term limits constitutional amendment — within the first one hundred days of the 104th Congress.
1993 Parliamentary elections in Jordan. — Centristas y tradicionalistas ganan las primeras elecciones legislativas multipartidistas en Jordania desde 1956.
^ 1993 Prodigy $4 million advertising campaign is launched during Monday Night Football. The campaign advertised Prodigy's revamped services, which included the addition of photo images and audio. The following day, the company announced it was seeking opportunities to offer email, stock trading, and online games via cable television. After nine years and an estimated $1 billion investment from IBM and Sears, Roebuck & Co., the online service had failed to turn a profit. AOL also announced new services and features, including broader Internet access and online versions of several magazines.
1991 The European Community imposes an economic embargo on Yugoslavia in an effort to halt its civil war. Los ministros de Asuntos Exteriores de la Comunidad Económica Europea imponen sanciones económicas contra Yugoslavia.
1991 Los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de los países miembros de la OTAN acuerdan en Roma reformar sus estructuras e institucionalizar la apertura a los países del Este.
1990 100'000 additional US troops are sent to the Persian gulf
1990 Saddam fires his army chief & threatens to destroy Arabian peninsula
1988 Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush (R) is elected the 41st president of the United States, defeating Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. (D).
1985 Judge H. Lee Sarokin overturns former boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter's conviction for the 17 June 1966 murder in the Patterson NJ, Lafayette Bar & Grill, of White bartender James Oliver and one customer, while severely wounding two other patrons — Hazel Tanis (who died a month later) and William Marins. Carter would by completely cleared only on 19 February 1988 when the prosecutor files a motion to dismiss the original indictments.
1984 Aviones de reconocimiento de los Estados Unidos sobrevuelan Nicaragua.
1982 Turquía obtiene una nueva Constitución.
1980 Voyager 1 space probe discovers 15th moon of Saturn.
1975 Ante la amenaza de una intervención de Guatemala en Belice, cuyo territorio reivindica, el Reino Unido refuerza sus efectivos militares en dicha zona del Caribe.
^ 1974 National Guardsmen get away with Kent State murders
      In a federal court, charges are dropped against eight Ohio National Guardsmen for their role in the deaths of four anti-war protestors at Kent State University. On May 4, 1970, National Guard troops, called in to suppress students rioting in protest of the Vietnam War and the US invasion of Cambodia, killed four Kent State students and injured eight and permanently paralyzed another when they fired over sixty rounds into a crowd of demonstrators. Before the shooting, some of the protestors had responded to the National Guards' order to disperse and firing of tear gas by throwing rocks and verbally taunting the troops.
      Without firing a warning shot, twenty-eight Guardsmen discharged their weapons toward a group of demonstrators in a nearby parking lot. The closest casualty was twenty meters and the farthest was almost 250 meters away. After a period of disbelief, shock, and attempts at first aid, an angry group of students gathered on a nearby slope, and were again ordered to move by the Guardsmen. Faculty members were able to convince the group to disperse, and further bloodshed was prevented.
1967 Silver hits record $1.951 an ounce in London
1966 Republican Edward Brooke of Massachusetts becomes the first African American elected to the US Senate in 85 years.
1966 Movie actor Ronald Reagan is elected governor of California
1966 President Johnson signs anti-trust immunity to AFL-NFL merger
1966 El papa Pablo VI da indicaciones para la preparación de una biblia sobreconfesional, conforme al Concilio Vaticano II.
1965 British Indian Ocean Territory formed
1964 Habib Ben Ali Burguiba es reelegido presidente de Túnez.
1963 Georgios Papandreu forma un nuevo gabinete en Grecia, tras su victoria electoral.
1962 Es detenido en Madrid el dirigente comunista Julián Grimau.
^ 1960 John F. Kennedy is narrowly elected US President
      Democrat Senator from Massachussets John F. Kennedy becomes the youngest man ever to be elected president (the 35th) of the United States, narrowly beating Republican Vice President Richard M. Nixon. This is the closest US presidential election, by popular vote, since 1880 (and until 2000). Kennedy is also the first Catholic to become US president.
      Kennedy wins 49.7% of the popular vote, surpassing by a fraction the 49.6% received by Vice President Richard M. Nixon, a Republican. Kennedy, the youngest candidate ever elected to the presidency, is also the first Catholic to be elected. The handsome and energetic Kennedy and his glamorous wife Jackie prove fitting representatives of the positive and youthful spirit of America during the early 1960s, and the Kennedy White House is idealized by admirers as a modern Camelot. On the domestic front, Kennedy introduces his "New Frontier" social legislation, calling for a vigorous federal desegregation policy and a revolutionary new civil rights bill. In foreign policy, he exhibits firmness and restraint, displaying an unyielding opposition to the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba, but also demonstrating a level-headedness during negotiations for their removal. On 22 November 1963, Kennedy is shot to death in Dallas, Texas, while riding in an open-car parade with his wife.
      The campaign was hard fought and bitter. For the first time, presidential candidates engaged in televised debates. Many observers believed that Kennedy's poised and charming performance during the four debates made the difference in the final vote. Issues, however, also played a role in the election, and the nation's foreign policy was a major bone of contention between Kennedy and Nixon. Nixon took every opportunity to characterize Kennedy as too young and inexperienced to handle the awesome responsibilities of America's Cold War diplomacy. (Nixon was, in fact, only a few years older than Kennedy.) He defended the past eight years of Republican rule, arguing that Soviet power had been contained and America's strength increased. Kennedy responded by portraying foreign policy during the Eisenhower years as stagnant and reactionary. In particular, he charged the Republicans with losing Cuba and allowing a dangerous "missile gap" to develop, in which the Soviets had overtaken the United States in the building of missiles capable of delivering nuclear warheads. Kennedy promised to reinvigorate America's foreign policy, relying on a flexible response to changing situations and exploring options ignored by the staid and conservative Eisenhower administration.
      Kennedy claimed during the campaign that he looked forward to meeting the challenges facing the strongest nation in the Free World. He did not have long to wait before those challenges were upon him. During the first few months of the Kennedy presidency, Nixon's criticisms seemed to have some validity. Kennedy appeared overwhelmed, first by the catastrophic failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, then by a blustering Nikita Khrushchev during a summit meeting in Europe, and finally by the construction of the Berlin Wall. And there was also the deteriorating situation in Southeast Asia to consider.
1956 UN demands that USSR leave Hungary
^ 1956 New Ford car to be named Edsel
      The Ford Motor Company decided on the name "Edsel" for a new model in development for the 1958 market year. The new addition to the Ford family of automobiles would be a tribute to Edsel Bryant Ford, who served as company president from 1919 until his death in 1943. Edsel Ford was also the oldest son of founder Henry Ford and father to current company president Henry Ford II. The designer of the Edsel, Roy Brown, was instructed to create an automobile that was highly recognizable, and from every angle different than anything else on the road. In the fall of 1957, with great fanfare, the 1958 Edsel was introduced to the public. With its horse collar grill in the front and its regressed side-panels in the rear, the Edsel indeed looked like nothing else on the road. However, despite its appearance, the Ford Edsel was a high-tech affair, featuring state-of-the-art innovations such as the "Tele-Touch" push-button automatic transmission. Nevertheless, buyer appeal was low, and the Ford Edsel earned just a 1.5% share of the market in 1958. After two more years, the Edsel marquee was abandoned, and its name would forever be synonymous with business failure.
1950 During the Korean conflict, the first jet-plane battle took place as US Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown shot down a North Korean MiG-15.
1945 Revenue Act cuts $6 billion in taxes (that had been needed for the war) and initiates an extensive post-war revision of the nation's entire tax system.
1944 25'000 Hungarian Jews are loaned to the Nazis for forced labor.
^ 1942 Débarquement en Afrique du Nord
      Les troupes anglaises et américaines débarquent en Afrique du nord. C'est l'opération "Torch". Les colonies françaises de cette région sont sous l'autorité du gouvernement de Vichy, lui-même aux ordres de l'occupant allemand. Au moment du débarquement anglo-américain, l'amiral Darlan, collaborateur du maréchal Pétain, se trouve par hasard à Alger. Il signe la reddition d'Alger mais il n'empêche pas les troupes françaises de résister (un peu) aux ex-alliés anglo-saxons.
      Hitler réagit par l'occupation de la "zone libre", en France, en violation des accords d'armistice du 22 Jun 1940 avec le maréchal Pétain. La flotte française en rade à Toulon se saborde le 27 novembre sur ordre de l'amiral Jean de Laborde, pour échapper aux nazis sans avoir à se livrer aux ennemis traditionnels de la marine française, les Anglais!
      Ces accès d'humeur n'empêchent pas les Anglo-Saxons d'occuper rapidement le Maroc et l'Algérie. Dans le même temps, dans le désert libyen, le général Montgomery repousse l'Afrika Korps de Rommel. En Afrique, les Allemands et les Italiens n'ont pas d'autre issue que de se retrancher à Bizerte, en Tunisie. C'est la première reculade des Nazis depuis le déclenchement de la seconde guerre mondiale.
—     Operation "Torch" begins as US and British forces land in French North Africa
^ 1939 Hitler evades Beer Hall assassination attempt.
      Adolf Hitler narrowly avoided an attempt on his life at a Munich beer hall. He had come to Munich to celebrate the sixteenth anniversary of his beer-hall putsch ("revolt"), when in 1923 he led his followers on a march to seize control of the Bavarian capital. On this particular anniversary, Hitler harangued against Britain for its resentment and hatred of Germany. He boasted that Germany had accomplished more in the last six years of Nazi rule than Britain had in centuries. After the speech, Hitler promptly exited the beer hall for Berlin, ahead of his scheduled departure time. He was anxious to discuss the new date for the Western offensive with his generals. Eight minutes after Hitler left the beer hall, a bomb exploded directly behind the pillar where he spoke, killing seven people and injuring another sixty. When the Führer heard about the explosion, he was already on the train to Berlin. "Now I am completely content," he said. "The fact that I left the beer hall earlier than usual is corroboration of Providence's intention to let me reach my goal." The next day, Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, the archbishop of Munich, held a mass to celebrate the miracle of Hitler's escape.
1938 El Partido Demócrata del presidente de Estados Unidos, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, pierde 72 escaños en las elecciones a la Cámara de los Representantes, pero sigue siendo el partido más fuerte, con 262 diputados frente a 170 de los republicanos.
1938 Francisco Franco Bahamonde declara que no concederá amnistías y que tiene fichados a dos millones de españoles, a los que se les impondrán grandes castigos.
1936 En la Guerra Civil española, tras la retirada del Gobierno de Madrid, el general José Miaja Minant se hace responsable militar y político de la ciudad.
1935 Alzamiento de socialistas y comunistas en Brasil, reprimidos sangrientamente por el Gobierno de Getúlio Vargas.
1932 New York's Governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt (D), defeating President Herbert Hoover is elected US President (the 32nd). — Elección del demócrata Franklin Delano Roosevelt como presidente de Estados Unidos.
1931 El canal de Panamá debe cerrarse al tráfico como consecuencia de desprendimientos de tierra.
1931 Intervención masiva de la gendarmería francesa en Córcega para combatir el bandidaje en la isla.
1928 El Etna entra en actividad y obliga al éxodo a 20'000 personas.
^ 1923 Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch has short-lived success.
      The Beer Hall Putsch begins in the evening as Nazi leader Adolf Hitler takes control of a beer hall where Bavarian government leaders were meeting. Threatened at gunpoint by Hitler, the Bavarian leaders reluctantly agree to support Hitler and his far-right Nazi Party as the new rulers of the German state of Bavaria. Hitler proclaims himself chancellor and Ludendorff dictator. He hoped that his "National Revolution" would spread to the dissatisfied German army, who in turn would bring down the government in Berlin.
      However, in the early morning of November 9, the Bavarian leaders recount their coerced support of Hitler, and order a rapid suppression of the Nazis. At dawn, government troops surround the main Nazi force occupying the War Ministry building. A desperate Hitler responds by leading a march toward the center of Munich, in a last-ditch effort to rally support. Near the War Ministry building, three thousand Nazi marchers come face to face with a hundred armed policemen. Shots are exchanged, and after a minute, sixteen Nazis and three policemen are dead. Nazi Hermann Goering is shot in the groin and Hitler suffers a dislocated elbow, but manages to escape.
      Three days later, Hitler is arrested and subsequently sent to Landsberg jail, where he spends his nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party is reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gains a majority in the Reichstag by legal means in 1932, and by 1934 Hitler is the sole master of a Germany intent on war and genocide.
           Adolf Hitler, president of the far-right Nazi Party, launches the Beer Hall Putsch, his first attempt at seizing control of the German government by force. In 1921, Britain and France, as part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, demanded thirty-three billion US dollars in war reparations from Germany. Germany's democratic government complied, but at the cost of severe inflation in Germany. The German mark, which at the beginning of 1921 was valued at five marks per dollar, had fallen to a disastrous four billion marks per dollar by November of 1923. The ranks of the nationalist Nazi Party swelled with resentful Germans, who sympathized with the party's bitter hatred of the democratic government, leftist politics, and German Jews.
      In early November, the government resumed war reparation payments, and the Nazis decided to strike. Hitler planned a coup against the Bavarian government that he hoped would spread to the dissatisfied German army, who in turn would bring down the democratic government in Berlin. On the evening of 08 November, Nazi forces under Hermann Goring surround the Munich beer hall where Bavarian government officials are meeting with local business leaders. A moment later, Hitler bursts in with a group of Nazi storm troopers, discharges his pistol into the air, and declares that "the National Revolution has begun." Threatened at gunpoint by Hitler, the Bavarian leaders reluctantly agree to support Hitler's new regime. However, early the next morning, Hitler's triumph rapidly dissipates when the Bavarian government recounts its support and the Nazis find the German army and Munich police standing in opposition to their coup.
1923 El general Erich Ludendorff implanta una dictadura militar en Baviera
1918 Tras el estallido revolucionario del día anterior, se establece en Baviera (Alemania) el primer Gobierno republicano.
1918 Rumanía declara la guerra a Alemania.
Révolution d'"octobre"^ 1917 (26 octobre julien) Révolution d'octobre.
     En pleine Guerre mondiale, le monde se réveilla ce 08 novembre 1917 avec une incroyable nouvelle : la Russie avait changé de maîtres et venait de passer aux mains des Bolcheviques qu’on désignera plus tard comme communistes, conduits par Lénine.
      La révolution d’octobre, comme on l’appelera ensuite du fait du calendrier russe, venait de s’achever. Le tsar est renversé. La Russie devient le premier Etat communiste dans le monde (l’URSS) et ouvre la voie à la propagation du socialisme sur la planète et à l’édification d’une puissance économique et militaire qui va contrebalancer, jusqu’aux années 80, l’hégémonie américaine et éclipser l’Europe.
      La révolution d’octobre commença en fait le 08 mars par la révolution de février (selon le calendrier russe) lorsque des ouvriers et des femmes descendirent dans la rue aux cris de : « Nous voulons du pain ! A bas la guerre ! » Dès le lendemain, les premiers drapeaux rouges étaient hissés sur les édifices. La rue devenait l’adversaire du tsar qui était lui-même en guerre contre l’Allemagne à cette époque-là.
      Le Parlement russe (la Douma ) essaie d’instaurer une démocratie à la hâte afin d’éviter le pire, mais il était trop tard : le 14 mars, le tsar dissout la Douma et abdique le lendemain. Le 27 mars, Lénine arrive en fanfare à Petrograd. Le 08 novembre, les derniers dirigeants du gouvernement Kerenski, encore au pouvoir, prennent la fuite. Le premier Etat ouvrier était né et le siècle subissait, à trois années d’intervalle, le second séisme après le déclenchement de la Première Guerre mondiale. Un choc qui allait avoir des ondes puissantes durant tout le centenaire.
      La révolution d’octobre engendra l’URSS, donna lieu à un vent de liberté, à une justice dans le monde et à un soutien aux mouvements de décolonisation, mais aussi au stalinisme, à un totalitarisme qui fut sans doute exagéré mais qui n’en est pas moins vérifié. L’URSS créera le bloc des pays socialistes et se partagera le monde avec les Etats-Unis avant de s’écrouler au milieu des années 80 et laisser place à un empire qui revient progressivement... au tsarisme et aux valeurs de la Russie d’avant-Lénine.
1914 Las autoridades ciudadanas de Barcelona toman diversos acuerdos para combatir la epidemia de tifus que, desde hace dos semanas, ataca a la población de la ciudad.
1910 The Democrats prevail in US congressional elections for the first time since 1894.
1904 President Theodore Roosevelt (R) is elected president of the United States, defeating Alton B Parker (D). Vice President Roosevelt had become President upon the shooting death of President William McKinley — Theodore Roosevelt es elegido presidente de EE.UU.
1904 Emile Combes, 69, introduces a bill for the separation of Church and State in France. The Combes government would fall (because of the affaire des fiches de délation) before the Act of Separation passed in December 1905, thereby ending the Concordat of 1801, exiling almost all religious orders from France and dismantling major aspects of the church's public functions, especially in education. Combes, a failed seminarian, was the author of Une Campagne laïque (1904), Une Deuxième Campagne laïque (1905), and Mon ministère (1906).
1895 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers X-rays.
1892 Grover Cleveland (D) elected President
1889 Montana is admitted as 41st state of the US
^ 1864 Abraham Lincoln is elected to his 2nd term as US President
      Northern voters overwhelmingly endorse the leadership and policies of President Lincoln when they elect him to a second term. With his reelection, the fate of the Confederacy was sealed and any hope for a negotiated settlement vanished.
      In 1864, Lincoln faced many challenges to his presidency. The war was now in its fourth year, and many were questioning if the South could ever be fully conquered militarily. General Ulysses S. Grant mounted a massive campaign in the spring of that year to finally defeat the Confederate army of General Robert E. Lee, but after sustaining horrifying losses at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor, the Yankees bogged down around Petersburg.
      As the fall approached, Grant seemed no closer to defeating Lee than his predecessors. In the West, General William T. Sherman was planted outside of Atlanta, but he could not take that city. Some of the Radical Republicans were unhappy with Lincoln's conciliatory plan for reconstruction of the South. And many Northerners had never been happy with Lincoln's 1862 Emancipation Proclamation, which converted the war from one of reunion to a crusade to destroy slavery. Weariness with the war fueled calls for a compromise with the seceded states.
      The Democrats nominated George B. McClellan, the former commander of the Union Army of the Potomac. McClellan was widely regarded as brilliant in organizing and training the army, but he had failed to defeat Confederate General Robert E. Lee in Virginia. He and Lincoln quarreled constantly during his tenure as general in chief of the army, and Lincoln replaced him when McClellan failed to pursue Lee into Virginia after the Battle of Antietam in September 1861.
       In the months leading up to the election, the military situation changed dramatically. While Grant remained stalled at Petersburg, Mobile Bay fell to the Federal navy in August, Sherman captured Atlanta in September, and General Philip Sheridan secured Virginia's Shenandoah Valley in October. On election day, Lincoln carried all but three states (Kentucky, New Jersey, and Deleware), and won 55% of the vote. He won 212 electoral votes to McCellan's 21. Most significantly, 78% of the Union troops voted for their commander in chief, including 71% of McClellan's old command, the Army of the Potomac.
       Perhaps most important was the fact that the election was held at all. Before World War II, no country had ever held elections during military emergencies. Lincoln himself said, "We can not have free government without elections; and if the rebellion could force us to forego, or postpone a national election, it might fairly claim to have already conquered and ruined us." Five months after Lincoln's reelection, the collapse of the Confederacy was complete.
^ 1861 US seizes Confederate diplomats on British ship: the Trent Affair begins in Old Bahama Channel (off Cuba)
     Acting on his own initiative, US Navy Captain Charles Wilkes commands the crew of the USS. San Jacinto to stop the British steamer Trent and arrest Confederate diplomats James M. Mason and John Slidell. En route to Europe to rally support for the Confederate cause, the men were brought ashore and imprisoned at Fort Warren in Boston Harbor.
      The seizure of Mason and Slidell sparked an international controversy that brought the United States to the brink of war with Great Britain, where the news reached Prime Minister Lord Henry Palmerston on 27 November. Claiming violation of international law, Great Britain demanded release of the diplomats in a letter which reached te US on 18 December. On 30 November the British Atlantic fleet had been put on alert, and plans were made to send 8000 soldiers to Canada. To avoid a war that would have made victory over the Confederacy impossible, Secretary of State William H. Seward apologized for the incident. The diplomats were “cheerfully liberated” in early January 1862, bringing the "Trent Affair" to a peaceful close.
1845 English archaeologist Austen Henry Layard begins digging at Tigris where he will find the palace of Assurnsirpal II. He would later excavate Nineveh shedding light on disputed Biblical accounts.
1843 Las Cortes de España adelantan en un año la mayoría de edad de Isabel II, que sólo tiene 13, para que pueda reinar.
1838 El músico Frédéric Chopin y la escritora Amandine-Lucie-Aurore Dupin “George Sand” llegan a Palma de Mallorca, donde viven un romance.
^ 1805 Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific
     The "Corps of Discovery," led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, reaches the Pacific Ocean. Lewis and Clark, who set out from St. Louis over a year earlier, are the first European explorers ever to accomplish the feat. On May 14, 1804, one year after the United States doubled its territory with the Louisiana Purchase, the expedition left St. Louis on a mission to explore the Northwest from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Even before the US government concluded purchase negotiations with France, US President Thomas Jefferson commissioned Lewis, his private secretary, and Clark, an Army captain, to lead the expedition. The Corps of Discovery featured twenty-eight men and one woman, a Native American named Sacajawea. The expedition traveled up the Missouri River in six canoes and two longboats, and wintered in Dakota before crossing into Montana where they first saw the Rocky Mountains.
      On the other side of the Continental Divide, they were met by Sacajawea's tribe, the Shoshone Indians, who sold them horses for their journey down through the Bitterroot Mountains. After passing through the dangerous rapids of the Clearwater and Snake rivers in canoes, the explorers reached the calm of the Columbia River, which led them to the sea. On November 8, 1805, the explorers reached the Pacific Ocean. After pausing there for winter, the explorers began their long journey back to St. Louis. On September 23, 1806, after two-and-a-half years, the expedition returned to the city, bringing back a wealth of information about the largely unexplored region, as well as valuable US claims to Oregon Territory. Future president Theodore Roosevelt later wrote that the Lewis and Clark Expedition "opened the door into the heart of the Far West."
1793 En la Guerra del Rosellón se produce la victoria de las tropas españolas del general Antonio Ricardos y Carillo en Peyrestortes sobre las tropas francesas
1685 Fredrick William of Brandenburg issues the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
^ 1620 La Bohême meurt à la Montagne Blanche — The King of Bohemia is defeated at the Battle of Prague.
      Une armée de mercenaires met en déroute les protestants de Bohême. Ces derniers s'étaient révoltés contre l'empereur d'Allemagne, qui voulait attenter à leur liberté de conscience. Le chef des Impériaux, le comte wallon Jean de Tilly, liquide l'affaire en deux heures sur une hauteur des environs de Prague appelée Montagne Blanche (Hila Bora en tchèque).
      Suite à la bataille, l'empereur Ferdinand II de Habsbourg exerce une féroce répression contre ses sujets protestants de Bohême. Le 21 Jun 1621, plusieurs dizaines d'insurgés sont décapités à Prague. La noblesse tchèque est chassée et remplacée par de petits nobles catholiques de souche allemande. L'Université est livrée aux Jésuites et aux germanophones.
      Une nouvelle Constitution rattache la Bohême aux Etats héréditaires de la famille des Habsbourg. C'en est fini de l'autonomie de ce royaume à population majoritairement slave enclavé au coeur de l'Empire germanique, où il a souvent joué un rôle culturel et politique de premier plan.
      Mais c'est seulement le début d'une guerre entre protestants et catholiques qui gagnera l'Allemagne du nord et durera au total Trente Ans. Elle se soldera par une diminution de moitié de la population allemande et ruinera pour deux siècles la puissance politique de l'Allemagne.
Origines de la Bohême
      Au VIe siècle, les Tchèques, un peuple de langue slave, s'installent dans le quadrilatère de Bohême, qu'avaient délaissé ses habitants précédents, des Marcomans de langue germanique. Les nouveaux occupants donnent à leur établissement un nom inspiré de celui de très anciens habitants, les Celtes Boïens.
      La Bohême fusionne d'abord avec le royaume voisin de Grande Moravie, également peuplée de Tchèques avant de devenir un duché autonome et prospère sous la dynastie des Prémyslides, à l'intérieur du Saint Empire. En 1198, Ottokar 1er prend le titre de roi. Le royaume étend ses frontières mais s'ouvre aussi à de nombreux immigrants de langue allemande qui vont faire de Prague un haut lieu de la culture germanique.
      Après l'extinction de la dynastie nationale des Prémyslides, en 1306, le trône revient par le hasard des alliances matrimoniales à la maison de Luxembourg. Le roi Jean de Luxembourg, élevé en Lorraine et de culture française, marie sa fille, Bonne, au roi de France Jean II le Bon. Bien qu'aveugle, il meurt à 50 ans à Crécy, en bataillant les armes à la main contre les Anglais, en 1346. En son souvenir, le drapeau tchèque flotte toujours sur le site de la bataille, près de Boulogne-sur-Mer.
      Son fils, Charles IV, élu empereur d'Allemagne, porte Prague à son apogée. Il laisse son nom au magnifique pont Charles qui relie le château à la ville par-dessus la Moldau. De nouvelles alliances matrimoniales entraînent la Bohême dans l'orbite des Habsbourg d'Autriche.
1519 Entrada de Hernán Cortés y sus hombres en la capital azteca, donde son recibidos espléndidamente por el emperador Moctezuma II.
1435 Alfonso V el Magnánimo firma en Aragón una alianza con el duque de Milán, después que este lo liberara de ser prisionero de los Anjou.
^ 0432 Saint Patrick returns to Ireland (according to tradition) to begin his ministry.
      Patrick is said to have been born in the Christian town of Bonavern, near present day Glasglow. Although his mother taught him the Christian faith, he preferred to pursue pleasure. One day while playing by the sea, Irish pirates captured Patrick and sold him into slavery on a farm in Ireland. Alone in the fields, caring for sheep, Patrick began to remember the Word of God his mother had taught him. Regretting his past life of selfish pleasure-seeking, he turned to Christ as his Savior. He later wrote that as a new convert, he sometimes prayed to God as much as l00 times a day. Rescued and returned to his family in Britain, his heart increasingly longed to return to his Irish captors and share the gospel of Jesus Christ with them.
      Returning to Ireland in 432 A.D., Patrick preached the gospel of Christ to the pagan tribes in the Irish language he had learned as a slave. Many accepted Jesus as Redeemer, and soon heathen songs were replaced with hymns praising Jesus Christ as Lord. Patrick once wrote that God's grace had so blessed his efforts that thousands were "born again to God" through his ministry. Killen, a Presbyterian historian of Ireland wrote: "there can be no reasonable doubt that Patrick preached the gospel . . ., that he was a most zealous and efficient evangelist, and that he is. . .entitled to [be called] "the Apostle of Ireland." Patrick ministered to the Irish more than 50 years until he died in 493 A.D. It is claimed that he reached and baptized in excess of a hundred thousand people. Here are Patrick's words giving account of his own conversion.
From Patrick's Confession:
      I was sixteen years old and knew not the true God and was carried away captive; but in that strange land (Ireland) the Lord opened my unbelieving eyes, and although late I called my sins to mind, and was converted with my whole heart to the Lord my God, who regarded my low estate, had pity on my youth and ignorance, and consoled me as a father consoles his children. . .Well, every day I used to look after sheep and I used to pray often during the day, the love of God and fear of him increased more and more in me and my faith began to grow and my spirit stirred up, so that in one day I would pray as many as a hundred times and nearly as many at night. Even when I was staying out in the woods or on the mountain, I used to rise before dawn for prayer, in snow and frost and rain, and I felt no ill effect and there was no slackness in me. As I now realize, it was because the Spirit was glowing in me.
0392 L'empereur Théodose interdit toute forme de culte païen, autre que chrétien. Pour l'empereur, peu importe la religion pourvu qu'elle cimente l'unité de l'Empire. L'intolérance change de camp. — Roman emperer Theodosius of Rome decrees the prohibition of all pagan worship in the empire.
TO THE TOP
< 07 Nov 09 Nov >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 08 November:

2005 Adel Muhammad al-Zubaidi, 60, shot in the Adel suburb of Baghdad, Iraq, in the car in which he was with Thamir Mahmoud al-Khuzaie, 42, who is wounded. The two were lawyers defending codefendants in the trial of Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937~], Taha Yassin Ramadan, vice president under Hussein, and Barzan al-Tikriti, Hussein's half-brother and head of his secret police. — (051109)
2004 Israeli Staff Sgt. Nir Leibovich, 19, of Nahariya, when the Merkava tank which he commanded strikes a boulder at 02:30 (00:30 UT) on its way back from a routine patrol on Mount Hermon to its base near the Lebanese border. In an attempt to drive over the boulder, the driver accelerated and lost control of the tank, which veered, fell several meters down a slope and rolled over completely, landing back on its treads. Leibovich, who was standing with his upper body out of the tank, as regulations require of the tank's commander, was thrown from the vehicle, and died almost instantly. The tank was practically undamaged. The driver should have avoided the boulder rather than drive over it. In 2002, the maternal grandparents of Leibovich were killed in a car accident. The other three soldiers in the tank are injured.
2003 Staff Sgt. Mark D. Vasquez, 35, of Port Huron MI; and Staff Sgt. Gary L. Collins, 32, of Hardin TX; in a Bradley Fighting Vehicle which hits an improvised explosive device, in Fallujah, Iraq. They were serving in the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, of the US Army occupation forces.
2003 Pvt. Kurt R. Frosheiser, 22, of Des Moines, IO, as he was driving a vehicle on patrol which strikes an improvised explosive device. He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, 1st Armored Division.
1992 Seven persons, including a Paso Robles, California, man, angry about being evicted from his home, who kills the other six in a shooting spree, then shoots himself.
1990 Lawrence George Durrell, escritor británico.
1986 Viacheslav Mijailovich Scriabin “Molotov”, político soviético.
1982: 28 persons in a smoky fire set by a prisoner in a Biloxi, Mississippi, jail.
1953 Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin, in Paris, Russian exile, born on 22 October 1870 (10 October Julian) in Voronezh, who, in 1933, was the first Russian to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. He got it "for the strict artistry with which he had carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing" — Iván Bunin, autor ruso. Premio Nobel 1933. — MORE
1952 Fano, mathematician
1940 Alfonso Hernández Catá, poeta y escritor cubano.
^ 1939 Seven Germans, by bomb intended for Hitler
      Adolf Hitler narrowly avoids an attempt on his life at the Bürgerbraü Keller beer hall in a Munich, where he had come to Munich to celebrate the sixteenth anniversary of his beer-hall putsch ("revolt"), when in 1923 he led his followers on a march to seize control of the Bavarian capital. On this particular anniversary, Hitler harangued against Britain for its resentment and hatred of Germany. He boasted that Germany had accomplished more in the last six years of Nazi rule than Britain had in centuries. After the speech, Hitler promptly exited the beer hall for Berlin, ahead of his scheduled departure time. He was anxious to discuss the new date for the Western offensive with his generals. Eight minutes after Hitler left the beer hall, a bomb exploded directly behind the pillar where he spoke, killing seven people and injuring another sixty. When the FÚhrer heard about the explosion, he was already on the train to Berlin. "Now I am completely content," he said. "The fact that I left the beer hall earlier than usual is corroboration of Providence's intention to let me reach my goal." The next day, Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, the archbishop of Munich, held a mass to celebrate the miracle of Hitler's escape.
1937 James Ramsay MacDonald, político inglés.
1933 King Nadir Shah of Afghanistan, assassinated by Abdul Khallig — El rey de Afganistán es asesinado en el palacio de Kabul. Le sucede su hijo Mohammad Zahir Shah.
1926 Joseph Noël Sylvestre, French artist born on 24 June 1847.
1920 Abraham Kuyper, influential Dutch theologian who not only wrote orthodox Calvinist theology emphasizing grace, but was elected to his nation's Parliament and even served as its prime minister.
1908 Victorien Sardou, dramaturgo francés.
1905 William Trost Richards, US painter born on 14 November 1833. — MORE ON RICHARDS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1887 John Henry “Doc” Holliday, 36, from tuberculosis, gunslinger, gambler, and occasional dentist.
1880 Bartholomeus-Johannes van Hove, Dutch artist born on 28 October 1790. — more
1873 Manuel Bretón de los Herreros, dramaturgo español.
1858 Peacock, mathematician.
1865 Moritz Karl Friedrich Müller (or Feuermüller), German artist born on 06 May 1807.
1830 Sil'vestr Feodosievich Shchedrin, Russian Romantic Italianate landscape painter born on 13 February 1791. — MORE ON SHCHEDRIN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1817 Andrea Appiani, Italian painter born in 1754. — MORE ON APPIANI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1789 Bourbon Whiskey, 1st distilled from corn (by Elijah Craig, Bourbon KY)
1719 Rolle, mathematician
1675 (burial) Allart (or Allaert) van Everdingen, Dutch landscape and marine painter born on 18 June 1621. — MORE ON VAN EVERDINGEN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
^ 1674 John Milton, born on 09 December 1608, one of the greatest poets of the English language. He also was a noted historian, scholar, pamphleteer, and civil servant for the Parliamentarians and the Puritan Commonwealth. Milton ranks second only to Shakespeare among English poets; his writings and his influence are an important part of the history of English literature, culture, and libertarian thought. He is best known for Paradise Lost, which is generally regarded as the greatest epic poem in the English language. Milton's prose works, however, are also important as a valuable interpretation of the Puritan revolution, and they have their place in modern histories of political and religious thought.
     The indulged son of a prosperous London businessman, Milton excelled at languages in grammar school and at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he took a bachelor's degree and then a master's. He decided to continue his education on his own, spending six years reading every major work of literature in several languages. He published Comus in 1637, several years after its first performance. The same year, he published an elegy for a college classmate, Lycidas. In 1638, he went abroad to continue his studies.
      In 1642, Milton married 17-year-old Mary Powell, but she left him a few weeks later. Milton wrote a series of pamphlets arguing for the legalization of divorce based on incompatibility. The idea, however mild it seems today, was scandalous at the time, and Milton experienced a vehement backlash. Milton's wife returned to him in 1645, and the pair had three daughters. However, he continued to spout controversial views. He supported the execution of Charles I [19 Nov 1600 – 30 Jan 1649], he railed against the control of the church by bishops, and he upheld the institution of the Commonwealth of Cromwell [25 Apr 1599 – 03 Sep 1658], of which he became secretary of foreign languages.
      In 1651, Milton lost his sight but fulfilled his government duties with the help of assistants, including poet Andrew Marvell [31 Mar 1621 – 18 Aug 1678]. His wife died the following year. He remarried in 1656, but his second wife died in childbirth. Four years later, the Commonwealth was overthrown, and Milton went to jail. The blind man lost his position and property, but was saved from a lifetime in prison by the intervention of loyal friends. Milton remarried in 1663. Blind, impoverished, and jobless, he began to dictate his poem Paradise Lost to his family. When the poem was ready for publication, he sold it for 10 pounds. Once printed, the poem was immediately hailed as a masterpiece of the English language. In 1671, he wrote Paradise Regained, followed by Samson Agonistes.
MILTON ONLINE:
  • Milton Reading Room
  • Areopagitica
  • Areopagitica
  • Areopagitica
  • Colasterion
  • Colasterion
  • Comus, A Mask
  • The History of Britain
  • Il Penseroso
  • L'Allegro
  • The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce
  • The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce
  • Lycidas
  • Of Education
  • Of Education
  • Paradise Lost (multiple editions)
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost (1667)
  • Paradise Lost: A Poem in Twelve Books (1674)
  • Paradise Regained
  • Paradise Regained
  • Paradise Regained
  • Poems of Mr. John Milton, Both English and Latin, Compos'd at Several Times (1645)
  • The Poetical Works of John Milton
  • Samson Agonistes
  • Samson Agonistes
  • Tetrachordon
  • contributor to John Milton: Poet, Priest and Prophet
  • translator of The Judgment of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce
  • 1621 Gerolamo de Ponte Bassano, Italian artist born on 08 June 1566.— Relative? of Francesco Bassano [1549-1592], Jacopo Bassano [1510-1592], Leandro Bassano [1557-1622]?
    1517 Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, eclesiástico y político español.
    on a 08 Nov before 1510 Giorgione (Giorgio Zorzo da Castelfranco), Italian painter born in 1477 or 1478. — LINKS
    1308 John Duns Scotus (who coined the word "dunce"), Scottish-born philosopher, born in 1266, who tangled with the great thinkers of his day and advocated the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary. His philosophy is so difficult to understand that he is called the subtle doctor.
    1226 Le roi Louis VIII le Lion [05 Sep 1187–] est emporté par une dysenterie aiguë, à Montpensier, en Auvergne, en revenant de sa Croisade contre les hérétiques albigeois. — Saint Louis IX [25 Apr 1214 – 25 Aug 1270] succeeds Louis VIII as king of France. His mother, Blanche de Castille [1188 – 12 Nov 1252] becomes regent (until 25 Apr 1236).
    0618 Saint Deusdedit, Pope
     
    < 07 Nov 09 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 08 November:
    2000 Diago and Diego Ataide Leite, in rural Campina Grande, Brazil, twins conjoined in the upper body and sharing a liver. Separation surgery would be performed on 19 November leading to Diego's death. The mother of the twins was just 18 years old at the time of delivery.
    1935 Alfonso López Trujillo, eclesiástico colombiano.
    1934 Huasipungo es publicado por Jorge Icaza.
    ^ 1933 US Civil Works Administration is created to fight Depression
          In 1933, the United States was struggling through the Depression. The major economic indices were sagging and the unemployment rolls kept rising beyond four million. With winter looming on the horizon, President Roosevelt and Henry Hopkins, one of the architects of the New Deal, moved to offer relief. They unveiled the Civil Works Administration (CWA), a program designed to secure temporary work for people who would otherwise have to endure a winter of unemployment. The CWA provided a mix of white and blue-collar jobs that promised to pay normal wages for a limited schedule of work. Though grounded more in compassion than careful planning, the program succeeded not only in helping workers through the winter, but also in giving the country a badly needed infusion of cash. According to the New York Times, the CWA had pumped $1 billion into the economy by May 1934. Roosevelt, however, never intended the CWA to be a permanent solution to the unemployment problem-he attempted to curtail the program in December 1933. So, by the spring of '34, the CWA was retired and the government began to look for new ways to keep the nation working.
    1929 Amphytryon 38 de Jean Hippolyte Giraudoux se estrena en París.
    1922 Dr. Christian Barnard (heart surgeon), South Africa. He would perform the first human heart transplant on 03 December 1967, in Cape Town. The patient was Louis Washkansky, the heart he received was from a road accident victim. He later died from pneumonia.
    1922 Christiaan Neethling Barnard. He would become a surgeon and perform the world's first heart transplant at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town on 03 Dec 1967. The new heart was from a road accident victim. The patient, dentist Louis Washkansky, 53, died on 21 December 1967 from double pneumonia, contracted after destruction of his body's immunity mechanism by drugs administered to suppress rejection of the new heart as a foreign protein. After crippling arthritis forced Barnard to retire from surgery in 1983, he wrote a distinguished cardiology text, several lesser nonfiction books about cardiology (50 Ways to a Healthy Heart — Heart Attack : You Don't Have to Die — Your Healthy Heart : The Family Guide to Staying Healthy & Living Longer — Your Healthy Heart : A Guide to How the Heart Works and How to Keep It Healthy) , a scandalously honest autobiography (One Life and The second life: memoirs) and four novels (The Unwanted, In the Night Season) that received a lukewarm reception, also: South Africa : Sharp DissectionArthritis Handbook : How to Live With Arthritis and Christiaan Barnard's Program for Living With Arthritis — Body Machine — The Best Medicine — The Donor — Good Life Good Death: A Doctor's Case for Euthanasia and Suicide. Barnard died on 02 September 2001.
    ^ 1916 Peter Ulrich Weiss Germany, ethnic Jew who fled the Nazis in 1934 and settled in Sweden where he died on 10 May 1982. Unorthodox Marxist. Novelist and dramatist.
         Weiss's Die Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats, dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Anleitung des Herrn de Sade (The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade, usually referred to as Marat/Sade) pits the ideals of individualism and of revolution against each other in a setting in which madness and reason seem inseparable. The play was first performed in West Berlin in 1964 and received a celebrated staging in New York City in 1965 by Peter Brook, who filmed it in 1967.
          Die Ermittlung (1965; The Investigation) is a documentary drama re-creating the Frankfurt trials of the men who carried out mass murders at Auschwitz; at the same time, it attacks later German hypocrisy over the existence of concentration camps and investigates the root causes of aggression. Weiss's other plays include documentary dramas attacking Portuguese imperialism in Angola, Gesang vom lusitanischen Popanz (1967; The Song of the Lusitanian Bogey); and American destructive policy in the Vietnam War, Viet Nam Diskurs (1968).
          Weiss wrote three semiautobiographical novels, Der Schatten des Körpers des Kutschers (1960; "The Shadow of the Body of the Coachman"), Abschied von den Eltern (1961; The Leavetaking), and Fluchtpunkt (1962; Exile).
    1914 George Dantzig, mathematician.
    1904 William Edge, mathematician.
    1900 Albert Friedrich Frey-Wyssling, Swiss botanist and molecular biology pioneer.
    ^ 1900 Margaret Mitchell, author of Gone with the Wind (1936), in Atlanta, Georgia.
          Mitchell worked as a journalist for the Atlanta Journal for six years. She quit after an ankle injury limited her mobility, and she devoted herself to her novel about the South during and after the Civil War. Her tale of Scarlett O'Hara, the shallow Southern belle transformed into ruthless survivor during the war, became the biggest American publishing sensation of its day. The book sold 1 million copies in its first six months in print, 8 million by the time Mitchell died in 1949, and at least 25 million more to date. The book was made into an Oscar-winning movie in 1939. In 1988, Warner Books purchased the rights to a Gone with the Wind sequel. The book, titled Scarlett, was written by Alexandra Ripley and published in 1991. Though not a critical success, the book became a bestseller and was made into a TV miniseries.
    1900 Sister Carrie, Theodore Dresier's first novel, is published by Doubleday, but is recalled from stores shortly due to public sentiment. DREISER ONLINE: Sister Carrie (at another site), The Financier
    1897 Dorothy Day, Catholic social activist, author. DAY ONLINE: Complete on-line works, From Union Square to Rome, House of Hospitality, On Pilgrimage
    1887 El gramófono, con el primer disco fonográfico operativo, es inventado por el profesor Emil Berliner.
    1884 Hermann Rorshach, Swiss psychiatrist, inventor of the inkblot test.
    1876 Jean Puy, French Fauvist painter who died in 1960. — more with links to three images.
    1869 Felix Hausdorff, mathematician.
    ^ 1866 Herbert Austin, who would found the Austin Motor Company, is born the son of a farmer in Little Missenden, Buckinghamshire, England. At the age of twenty-two, Austin moved to Melborne, Australia, where he served as an apprentice engineer at a foundry, before becoming the manager of the Wolseley Sheep Shearing Company. Long journeys into the wide-open spaces of Australia gave him insight into the benefits of gasoline-driven vehicles, and Austin decided to try his luck in the burgeoning automobile industry.
          In 1893, Austin returned to England with the Wolseley Company and began work on his first automobile. Like his American counterpart, Henry Ford, Austin hoped to produce an affordable motor car for the masses, and by 1895 the Wolseley Company completed its first vehicle, a three-wheeled automobile, followed by the first four-wheeled Wolseley vehicle in 1900. In 1905, Herbert Austin founded the Austin Motor Company in Birmingham, England, and by 1914 the company was producing over 1000 automobiles a year. During World War II, Austin and his factories joined in the British war effort, a service for which he was knighted in 1917.
          In 1922, with the introduction of the Austin 7 Tourer, Sir Herbert Austin finally fulfilled his ambition to produce a mass-produced automobile. The diminutive vehicle, boasting four-wheel breaks and a maximum speed of 50 mph, was an instant success in England. In 1930, the Austin 7 was introduced to America, and enjoyed five years of modest US sales before falling prey to the hard times of the Depression in 1935.
    1854 Rydberg, mathematician.
    1848 Gottlieb Frege, Germany, mathematician/logician (Begriffsschrift)
    1847 Bram Stoker, author. STOKER ONLINE: Dracula, Dracula, Dracula, Dracula's Guest, Dracula's Guest, The Lair of the White Worm, The Man.
    ^ 1847 Jean-Paul-Pierre Casimir-Périer, French politician and wealthy businessman who died on 11 March 1907. He served brief and undistinguished terms as a premier and as the fifth president of the Third Republic.
          The son of a former minister of the interior, he served as a captain during the Franco-German War (1870–1871). In 1876 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a Left Republican from Aube département, serving as the chamber's vice president (1890–1892) and president (1893). On 04 December 1893, he formed his own cabinet, which fell within six months because of his inability to cope with anarchist terrorism and the vexing church-state issue.
          Casimir-Périer returned to the presidency of the chamber (June 1894) and in the wake of the assassination of Sadi Carnot [11 Aug 1837 – 24 Jun 1894] was elected (27 Jun 1894) president of the Third Republic. Unable to control his président du conseil, Charles-Alexandre Dupuy [05 Nov 1851 – 23 Jul 1923], and faced with the mounting fury of the Dreyfus Affair, he quickly became a target for the political left. His most vigorous assailant, the journalist Gérault-Richard, was convicted of slander, but then the Socialist leader Jean Jaurès [03 Sep 1859 – 31 Jul 1914] picked up the cudgel. Gérault-Richard's release by the Chamber of Deputies proved so embarrassing that, after only six months in office, Casimir-Périer resigned, abandoning politics to become chairman of the vast Anzin mining enterprise, of which he was one of the largest shareholders.
    1846 Bertini, mathematician.
    1843 Pasch, mathematician.
    1793 After more than two centuries as a royal palace, the Louvre is opened as a public museum in Paris by the French revolutionary government. — ON L'OUVRE LE LOUVRE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER
    1765 Martín Fernández de Navarrete, escritor, marino y bibliotecario español.
    1725 Martin Knoller, Austrian artist who died on 24 July 1804.
    1723 John Byron, British admiral who died on 10 April 1786. His account (1768) of a shipwreck in South America was to some extent used by his grandson, the poet Lord Byron [22 Jan 1788 – 19 Apr 1824], in Don Juan (1819-1824).
    1656 Edmond Halley, mathematician and astronomer who was the first to calculate a comet's orbit (Halley's Comet)
    1643 Antonio Cristóbal Ubilla y Medina, político español.
    ^ 1622 Charles X Gustav, king of Sweden who died on 13 February 1660. He was the son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibrücken, and of Catharine, the eldest daughter of Charles IX [04 Oct 1550 – 30 Oct 1611]
          In 1642 Charles joined the Swedish armies in Germany under Lennart Torstenson [17 Aug 1603 – 07 Apr 1651] and returned to Sweden in 1645, a few years before the end of the Thirty Years' War. Although he failed in his efforts to marry his cousin Christina [08 Dec 1626 – 19 Apr 1689], queen of Sweden since the death of her father Gustav II Adolf [19 Dec 1594 – 16 Nov 1632] and crowned in 1644, she got Charles appointed commander of the Swedish forces in Germany (1648), over the opposition of the leading nobles, and the following year named him to succeed her. Not wanting to marry, and wanting to freely practice the Catholic faith (outlawed in Sweden), to which she had secretly converted, Christina abdicated on 06 June 1654, and Charles was crowned that same day.
          Charles X's first task was to restore the public finances, greatly weakened during Christina's reign. In the Riksdag (Parliament) of 1655 he imposed the Reduction, by which the nobles were obliged to return to the crown certain endowed lands and either to pay an annual fee or to surrender one-quarter of the crown lands they had acquired since 1633. These financial measures were not seriously enforced, however, as Charles turned his attention to war against Poland (1655).
          Although he was ostensibly defending himself against a Polish claim to the Swedish throne, Charles X's real motivations for war were to check a potential Russian threat in Poland and to strengthen Sweden's control of the Baltic region. His initial decisive victories in Poland (1655–1656) forced the Polish king John Casimir II Vasa [22 Mar 1609 – 16 Dec 1672] to flee, but they drew Russia and the Holy Roman Empire into the war; they were soon joined by Charles X's former ally the elector of Brandenburg, as well as by Denmark and the Netherlands. With his Polish campaign stalled, Charles boldly attacked Denmark (1657), quickly conquering the province of Jutland and threatening Sjælland. By the Treaty of Roskilde (1658), Denmark ceded all its holdings in southern Sweden and central Norway and the island of Bornholm.
          After failing to obtain English or French aid for an invasion of Brandenburg, Charles again attacked Denmark (1658), hoping to counter the growing Danish-Dutch alliance by conquering Denmark and forming a unified Scandinavian state. When the Danes resisted, repelling an attack on Copenhagen in February 1659, a Riksdag was called in Göteborg (1660) to deal with the military situation. Charles died while the Riksdag was in session.

     
    Holidays Montana: Admission Day (1889)
    Religious Observances Christian : St Claude / RC : Holy 4 Crowned Martyrs / El Patrocinio de Nuestra Señora; Santos Claro, Diosdado y Mauro. / Christian : St Godfrey, bishop of France — Saint Geoffroy, ou Godefroy, fut abbé du monastère de Nogent, en Champagne, avant de devenir évêque de Reims en 1104. En cette époque qui vit l'émergence des villes modernes, il prit le parti des nouveaux bourgeois et des humbles en lutte contre les abus des seigneurs féodaux.
    click
    click.

    Thoughts for the day:
    Behind every argument is someone's ignorance.”
    "Behind every argument is someone's ignorance of the fact that arguments seldom convince."
    "Behind most arguments is more than one person's ignorance."
    "After every argument is someone's resentment."
    "Convince a man against his will, and he remains of the same opinion still."
    "Behind someone's ignorance is the refusal to accept arguments."
    "Behind every argument is someone's ignorance of the difference between fact and his own opinion."
    "Behind many arguments is someone's ignorance of the difference between anecdotal and statistical evidence.”
    “Whenever you find that you are on the side of the majority, it is time to reform.” —
    Mark Twain.
    “If we don’t succeed we run the risk of failure." — Dan Quayle [obviously not what he meant to say, which may have been: “If we fail, we run the risk of not succeeding” or perhaps: “If we don't fail, we run the risk of success.”]
    "I get stupid in solitude." — Mary McCarthy, US author [21 Jun 1912 – 25 Oct 1989]{Did she think that while alone?}
    “If you get stupid, you run the risk of being Dan Quayle.”
    “Getting stupid in solitude? I don't get it.”
    “If you get stupid, don't worry, you have just joined the majority.”
    “Geniuses live in solitude.”
    “Behind every argument is someone's fear of solitude.”
    “The genius who argues with you, is an idiot.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4nov/h4nov08.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4nov/h4nov08.html
    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov08.html
    updated Wednesday 02-Apr-2008 23:00 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.6.a1 Thursday 09-Nov-2006 15:45 UT
    v.5.a0 Saturday 12-Nov-2005 15:41UT
    Saturday 20-Nov-2004 21:36 UT
    Monday 10-Nov-2003 21:59 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site