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^  On a 07 November:
2006 Elections in the US result in the Democratic Party gaining the majority in the US House of Representatives and barely (by 1 vote) in the US Senate.
     The elections are for all members of the US House of Representatives, for 33 US Senators, one in each of these states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming; and for various local and state offices, including 36 state governors: the 4-year-term governors of Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas; and the 2-year term governors of New Hampshire and of Vermont; and for a variety of other local and state offices. In some states there are also votes on legislation initiatives. —(061109)
2005 Alberto Fujimori [28 Jul 1938~], the nisei disgraced former president of Peru who had fled to Japan on 17 November 2000, is arrested in Chile, where he had arrived the previous afternoon, apparently to prepare a political comeback in Peru. —(051109)
2001 Sixty-two names are added to the list of persons and entities individually designated in the annex to USurper President “Dubya” Bush's 23 September 2001 Executive Order 13224 — blocking property and prohibiting transactions with persons who (according to his regime) commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism.
2001 In Boston, a scientific team from Ohio State University presents to the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Boston its finding of a remarkably well preserved fossil of an Arthropleura Pustulatus, a 9-cm-long cockroach that lived 300 million years ago, long before the dinosaurs. [So the dinosaurs were infested with cockroaches. Does that explain the extinction of the dinosaurs?]
2001 The first regular flight of the Concorde after the only Concorde crash (25 July 2000) is an Air France flight with 92 passengers which leaves Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport at 10:30 and arrives in New York at John F. Kennedy International Airport 3h55m later at 08:25. The flight is scheduled every day of the week except Tuesdays and Saturdays. On departure from New York to Paris, the Air France Concorde will take off at 08:00, arriving at Paris-CDG at 17:45. The round-trip ticket costs $7300. The Concorde flies at 18'000 meters altitude. The 12 Concordes have been fitted with fuel-tank liners of bulletproof Kevlar, a reinforced undercarriage and stronger tires. British Airways owns half of them and will resume its regular flights on 09 November 2001.
2001 Some 710'000 students in South Korea take the College Scholastic Ability Test required for entrance to college in 2002. The test is attacked as too difficult (no student gets a perfect score) while the previous year's test had been attacked as too easy (66 students got a perfect score).
^ 2001 Earth to be hit by asteroid? A long shot.
      A team of astronomers at Princeton University reports that we are much less likely to get wiped out by a big asteroid than previously thought. The odds are only about 1 in 5000 that an asteroid big enough to wipe out civilization will hit the Earth in the next 100 years — far lower than previous estimates of 1 in 1500. Research on asteroids that have hit the Earth shows that a collision with a large asteroid 1 km in diameter could kill a quarter of the world's population, and that such asteroids strike the planet every 100 million years or so.
      Several teams of astronomers are taking part in the Sloan survey, which is mapping one-quarter of the sky using the telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico. Its main purpose is to look at objects outside Earth's galaxy, but it is also cataloging smaller and closer objects such as asteroids. Ivezic writes in the November 2001 issue of The Astronomical Journal, that they were able to assess more accurately the size of known asteroids.
      Asteroids with a surface of carbon are dark, while rocky asteroids are much brighter and thus seem larger. You don't know precisely the size of an object you are looking at unless you know of what type it is. The Sloan survey looks at the color of objects, so astronomers can distinguish between carbon and rock. They looked at 10'000 asteroids. The Princeton team extrapolated, estimating that the asteroid belt contains about 700'000 asteroids bigger than 1 kilometer in diameter — about one-third the number in earlier estimates. That in turn suggested that there was a 1-in-1500 chance one would hit Earth in the next 100 years..
^ 2000 Presidential and other elections in the US.
     The presidential election that would result in indecision for George W. Bush and Al Gore, with Florida's disputed electoral votes emerging as critical. Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first first lady to win public office, defeating Republican Rick Lazio for a US Senate seat from New York.
Most presidential candidates were ignored by the news media.
      Of over 100 presidential candidates, voters have heard mostly from Al Gore (Democrat) and George W. Bush (Republican), and just a little about Ralph Nader (Green) and Buchanan (Reform), and perhaps something about the Libertarian candidate, but nothing at all about all the others.
      On the Texas ballot, the following candidates are listed for President and Vice-President::
George W. Bush — Dick Cheney (Republican) (#1)
Al Gore — Joe Lieberman (Democrat) (#2)
Harry Browne — Art Olivier (listed as Independent, but Libertarian) (#5)
Ralph Nader — Winona La Duke (Green) (#3)
Pat Buchanan — Ezola Foster (listed as Independent, but Reform) (#4)
     The following three pairs of candidates (for President — Vice-President) are posted in Texas voting sites as "Official State Write-In Candidates" (no indication of party):
David McReynolds — Mary Cal Hollis (#8)
Howard Phillips — J. Curtis Frazier (#7)
James "Jim" Wright (#82) — Leonard L. Foster
      There are seven other pairs on the ballot in some other states, though not in Texas, the state which requires the greatest number of signatures on a petition to put a presidential candidate on the ballot. Few of the other hundred or more candidates for president have a valid political contribution to make. There are mostly motivated by mental illness, the seeking of publicity for profit (seems futile), or are humorists.
     Here is a probably incomplete list from http://www.politics1.com/p2000.htm [much of it is also the even more (MUCH more: it list also candidates in primary elections) comprehensive http://www.vote-smart.org/index.phtml
Party Presidential candidate Vice-Presidential candidate
REPUBLICAN 1. George W. Bush Dick Cheney
DEMOCRATIC 2. Al Gore Jr Joe Lieberman
GREEN + AMERICAN REFORM 3. Ralph Nader Winona LaDuke
REFORM + RIGHT TO LIFE 4. Pat Buchanan Ezola Foster
LIBERTARIAN 5. Harry Browne Art Olivier
NATURAL LAW 6. John Hagelin Nat Goldhaber
CONSTITUTION + INDEPENDENT AMERICAN 7. Howard Phillips Curt Frazier
SOCIALIST USA 8. David McReynolds Mary Cal Hollis
SOCIALIST WORKERS 9. James Harris Maggie Trowe
WORKERS WORLD 10. Monica Moorehead Gloria LaRiva
GRASSROOTS 11. Denny Lane Dale Wilkinson
PROHIBITION 12. Earl Dodge Dean Watkins

INDEPENDENT CANDIDATES WITH BALLOT STATUS in one state:
http://www.vote-smart.org/index.phtml?dtype=B&state=TX&electionid=223&style=
13. Cathy Gordon Brown + is Sabrina R. Allen (in TN)
14. Randall Venson + Gene Kelly (in TN)
15. Louie Youngkeit + Robert L. Beck (in UT)
WRITE-IN CANDIDATES:
"PARTY" CANDIDATES:
16. Thomas A. Bentley (Progressive / Bull Moose) – 17. Don Rogers (American) – 18. A.J. Albritton (American Republican) – 19. Clifford R. Catton ("Church of God": flake) – 20. Fred Cook (Christian Alliance? — misspeller teacher) + Emmit Ezell – 21. Jack Grimes ("United Fascist Union" - flake) – 22. Michael D. Jenkins ("Priorities") – 23. Bruce S. Nelson (Optimization) – 24. Temperance Alesha Lance-Council (Anti-Hypocrisy) – 25. Isabelle Masters ("Looking Back") – 26. Jeffrey B. Peters (We The People) – 27. Raymond K. Petry (interParty) – 28. R.U. Sirius (The Revolution) – 29. Mike Strauss (Mike's) – 30. Jeff Sturk (Buffalo) – 31. Da Vid (Light) – 32. Jim Watkins (Tupperware) – 33. William L. Wallace (The Church) – 34. Tom Wells (Family Values) – 35. Ernest L. Easton ("Veterans Industrial") – 36. Alan Caruba (Boring: humorous-commercial) – 37. Mike B. Martisko ("National Sovereignty") – 38. Bradford J. Lyttle (US Pacifist)
INDEPENDENT CANDIDATES:
39. Paris Alvarez – 40. Dave Barry (humorist) – 41. Guy Benintendi – 42. Paula Bennett – 43. John T. Brantley – 44. Stephen Brown – 45. Jerry Leon Carroll – 46. Ronald R. Carlsen – 47. Ronald Carter – 48. Richard G. Casebolt – 49. Quentin Colgan – 50. Charles Doty (ridiculous) – 51. Max Englerius – 52. John Galt Jr.+ Kay Lee – 53. George J. Gehring – 54. Robert W. Gottier (flake) – 55. Richard Alan Hale – 56. Russell Hirschon (humorous) – 57. Kurt Kemp – 58. Matthew J. Klemmensen – 59. Rick R. Lovelien – 60. Leslie A. Lummis (also) – 61. Barry W. McClain – 62. Aristedes Mendes – 63. Neil R. Miller – 64. Richard R. Monts – 65. Bruce Muckian – 66. Joe Newman – 67. Andisheh "Andy" Nouraee – 68. Randy Owens – 69. Jim Oyster – 70. Bernie Palicki – 71. Scott Palmer – 72. Charles A. Phillips – 73. Burton Ridgeway – 74. Robin Lee Salyers – 75. Donald Sauter – 76. Joe C. "Average Joe" Schriner – 77. Lacey Mark Sivak – 78. Scott Taylor – 79. Charles Gordon Vick – 80. Rick Williams – 81. Jeffrey G. Winter – 82. James W. Wright – 83. David Wyatt – 84. Abraham Zizkis
2000 En España una operación policial consigue desarticular un comando de ETA que, según el Ministerio del Interior, preparaba acciones terroristas inminentes en la capital de España.
^ 2000 Conjoined twins Jodie and Mary, have been separated, in a 20-hour operation ending at 05:00, it is annoounced in London. As expected Mary died upon being separated, as she lived off Jodie's blood supply. Jodie survives in critical condition.
     Jodie and Mary, conjoined twins, joined at the lower abdomen and sharing a heart and lungs, were born on 8 August at St Mary's Hospital in Manchester, England. Their parents are Catholics, from Gozo, Malta. They came to have the birth in England hoping to get suitable medical help. The doctors soon decided that the twins would die within months if they are not separated, but that separating them would result in Mary's death. The parents refused to authorize the separation, as opposed to their religious beliefs. The doctors took the matter to court and got a High Court ruling, confirmed by London's Court of Appeal on 000922, authorizing the operation.
     [I do not understand why the principle of double effect would not apply here. The intent of the operation is to save Jodie, not to kill Mary, though it is certain that Mary will die as a result. The intended effect is moral, so the operation is moral, unless it requires the direct killing of Mary, which does not seem to me to be the case. It is more like the disconnecting of a life support system.]
     British courts overuling the parents, the operation to separate the twins is performed in London over 20 hours ending at 05:00 on 7 November. As expected, Mary dies. Jodie, expected to recover, will need extensive reconstructive surgery, over a long time, in order to have a somewhat normal life.
     On 7 November, St. Mary's Hospital in Manchester said that the stronger twin, known only as Jodie, was in critical but stable conditiony. "Unfortunately despite all of the efforts of the medical team Mary sadly died. As with all major surgery, the first few days following an operation are the most critical and our thoughts remain with Jodie and her parents." The hospital provided no details of the complicated procedure, which followed months of legal dispute over whether the parents could refuse surgery and let nature take its course.
      Jodie and Mary were born at St. Mary's Hospital on Aug. 8, joined at the lower abdomen and doctors said if they were not separated, both would die within months. Doctors said surgery could allow Jodie to have a normal life, but Mary's heart and lungs were nonfunctional and she would not survive once she was separated from Jodie's aorta.
      The twins' parents — identified only as Roman Catholics from the Maltese island of Gozo in the Mediterranean — opposed the operation for religious reasons but decided not to contest a Sept. 22 decision by the Court of Appeal that the girls can be separated. The court had struggled with the issue of whether the surgery would amount to intentionally killing Mary. Two medical specialists appointed by the court endorsed surgery. "The sad fact is that Mary lives on borrowed time, all of it borrowed from her sister," Lord Justice Alan Ward said in the Court of Appeal ruling. "She is incapable of independent existence. She is designated for death." The official solicitor's office, which represents children's interests in court, had provided legal representation for both children.
      On Friday 001102, judges rejected a last-minute appeal by the Pro-Life Alliance, an anti-abortion group that wanted the case to be decided in the House of Lords. According to testimony at the Court of Appeal, surgeons expected to begin the operation by exploring the twins' anatomy. The separation process was expected to start with the pelvic bones and then go to the spines, where the twins were joined. "Finally and eventually we have a major blood vessel, which is the continuation of Jodie's aorta, which is bringing blood across to Mary, and similarly the vena cava, which is returning blood from Mary to Jodie. Those would need separating, dividing. It is at that point that we would expect that Mary would then die," the court's judgment said, quoting a surgeon who was not identified.
      Doctors say that Jodie will probably need further surgery to reconstruct some organs damaged in the surgery, including her rectum, sexual organs and lower abdomen. She is also expected to need skin grafts. Prof. Lewis Spitz, consultant pediatric surgeon at London's Great Ormond Street Hospital, who has separated conjoined twins, said the next 48 hours will be crucial for Jodie. "These babies are extremely critical after surgery and they have to be carefully monitored in intensive care," he said. "They are very unstable, requiring meticulous attention to fluid replacement and other monitoring."
1999 Elecciones generales en Guatemala en las que resulta vencedor Alfonso Portillo, el candidato del Frente Republicano Guatemalteco (FRG) del general golpista José Efraín Ríos Montt.
1997 State of Texas sues Microsoft
      The state of Texas filed a lawsuit against Microsoft, alleging that the software giant was obstructing the state's antitrust investigation. The state's attorney general accused Microsoft of requiring its customers and licensees to check in with Microsoft before providing information to investigators. In September, the US Justice Department had accused Microsoft of violating a 1995 consent decree governing its licensing practices.
1997 The US jobless rate dropped to 4.7% in October, the lowest since October 1973.
1997 At the Center for Financial Studies in Frankfurt, Germany, Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan says: "The Fed is struggling to find a firmer standard of monetary policy.". Greenspan also praises Germany and other industrialized nations' "remarkable" efforts to fight inflation
1996 The US liquor industry voted to drop its decades-old voluntary ban on broadcast advertising.
1996 Thousands of Communists marched through Moscow to mark the 79th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution.
1996 Secretary of State Warren Christopher announces his resignation, starting President Clinton's process of assembling a second-term cabinet.
1996 NASA's Mars Global Surveyor blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a mission to map the surface Mars. (It went into orbit around Mars the following year.)
1995 Three US servicemen pleaded guilty in a courtroom on the Japanese island of Okinawa to conspiring to abduct and rape a 12-year-old girl.
1995 El escritor portugués José Saramago es galardonado con el Premio Camoens, máxima distinción de la literatura lusa, por el conjunto de su obra.
1994 Gustavo Martín Garzo gana el Premio Nacional español de Narrativa por su obra El lenguaje de las fuentes.
^ 1994 Pentium bug announced
      The Electrical Engineering Times announced the "floating point" bug in the Pentium chip. The flaw, which could produce mathematical errors, created an uproar among computer users. Intel officials admitted they had known about the flaw for some time but thought it so unlikely to cause problems that they did not disclose the problem. Intel said it would replace flawed chips only if users proved that they engaged in computer work that might be affected by the error, and consumers attacked Intel for its position. Later, the company agreed to replace any chips that were returned. Ironically, six months later, only about three% of customers had requested a replacement chip.
1991 Azerbaiyán se convierte en la novena república que se declara independiente de la URSS.
1991 Pro- and anti-Communist rallies took place in Moscow on the 74th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution.
1989 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU decide crear una nueva fuerza de paz, el Grupo de Observadores de Naciones Unidas para Centroamérica (ONUCA).
1989 In Virginia, L. Douglas Wilder becomes the first elected Black governor in US history;
1989 David N. Dinkins was elected New York City's first Black mayor.
1988 Firma de un pacto nacional en Túnez, como base para una transición política a la democracia.
1987 Zine ben Ali el-Abidine, nuevo presidente de Túnez, tras la destitución de Habib ben Ali Burguiba por incapacidad física.
1987 El científico español Federico Mayor Zaragoza es elegido director general de la UNESCO.
1987 US Supreme Court nominee Judge Douglas Ginsburg withdrew his nine-day-old candidacy following criticism of his judicial ethics and his disclosure that he had used marijuana.
1986 Costa Rica anuncia el establecimiento de una zona militarizada a lo largo de su frontera con Nicaragua.
1985 Colombian troops end a 27-hour siege of Bogota's Palace of Justice by 35 M-19 guerrillas. 11 Supreme Court judges were among the 100 people killed.
1985 Queda en entredicho el espionaje norteamericano y la CIA tras el descubrimiento de que el espía soviético Yurchenko es un agente triple.
^ 1984 Wall Street fears political gridlock.
      On paper, a reduction in lending rates sounds like a fail-safe way to spur the markets. Despite the decision by a number of major banks to slash their prime lending rates by a quarter of a point, Wall Street still struggled through a day of declining stock and bond prices. Why? The lending rate reduction was overshadowed by the results of the previous day's elections. While President Reagan rolled to a second-term victory, Republicans in key congressional elections failed to capitalize on his success. As a result, the Democrats maintained their grip on Congress, frustrating financial professionals who had hoped that the election would result in a "working coalition" between the president and a Republican-controlled House of Representatives. Instead, Wall Street braced itself for more of the protracted political stalemate that was likely to further swell the nation's already bloated deficit.
1983 a bomb exploded in the US Capitol, causing heavy damage just outside the Senate chamber but no injuries.
1982 Gerardo Iglesias Argüelles es elegido secretario general del PCE (Partido Comunista de España.
1978 Felipe González Marquez es nombrado vicepresidente de la Internacional Socialista.
^ 1977 Xerox World Conference convenes
      The Xerox World Conference of 1977 opened in Boca Raton, Florida, on this day in 1977. Some five hundred Xerox executives attended the four-day conference. The conference culminated with Futures Day, a highly-produced showcase introducing the advanced computer technologies developed by Xerox researchers at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). PARC computer scientists had developed a personal computer called Alto, which boasted a graphical user interface and a mouse. On Futures Day, PARC's high-tech demo included an original orchestral score, professional narration, and working demonstrations of real people using Alto, as well as a laser printer and other advanced technologies. Although PARC officials spent two months developing the presentation with help from Hollywood producers and screenwriters, it failed to win enthusiasm for the new technology from executives, and Xerox never marketed the Alto. Instead, Apple's cofounder Steve Jobs, who saw a demonstration of Alto during a visit to Xerox PARC in December 1979, adopted many of Alto's ideas into the interfaces for the Apple Lisa and the Apple Macintosh, released in 1984.
1975 El Tribunal Supremo indio declara válida la elección de Indira Gandhi Shrimati.
1973 The US Congress overrides President Nixon's veto of the War Powers Act, which limits a chief executive's power to wage war without congressional approval
^ 1972 Nixon re-elected president
      Richard Milhaus Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 April 1994] (R) defeats Senator George McGovern [19 Jul 1922~] (D-South Dakota) and is re-elected President of the United States. With only 55% of the electorate voting, the lowest turnout since 1948, Nixon carried all states but Massachusetts, taking 97% of the electoral votes. During the campaign, Nixon pledged to secure "peace with honor" in Vietnam. Aided by the potential for a peace agreement in the ongoing Paris negotiations and the upswing in the US economy, Nixon easily defeated McGovern, an outspoken peacenik whose party was divided over several issues, not the least of which was McGovern's extreme views on the war. McGovern had said during the campaign, "If I were President, it would take me twenty-four hours and the stroke of a pen to terminate all military operations in Southeast Asia." He said he would withdraw all US troops within 90 days of taking office, whether or not US prisoners of war were released. To many persons, including many Democrats, McGovern's position was tantamount to total capitulation in Southeast Asia. Given this radical alternative, Nixon seemed a better choice to most voters.
      In congressional elections, the Democrats widened their majority, picking up two Senate seats.
      Almost unnoticed during the presidential campaign was the arrest of five men connected with Nixon's CREEP (Committee to RE-Elect the President) who, on 17 June 1972, had broken into the Democratic Party's national headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington DC. The Watergate scandal ultimately proved to be Nixon's undoing, and as a result of it he resigned the presidency on 09 August 1974.
1972 Se pronuncian, en Marruecos, once condenas en el proceso por el atentado frustrado contra Hassan II (y parientes inocentes de los reos son encarcelados sin juicio).
1970 Race riots in Daytona Beach Florida
1967 US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs a bill establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
^ 1966 US Defense Secretary shouted down at Harvard
      Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara faces a storm of student protest when he visits Harvard University to address a small group of students. As he left a dormitory, about 100 demonstrators shouted at him and demanded a debate. When McNamara tried to speak, supporters of the Students for a Democratic Society shouted him down. McNamara then attempted to leave, but 25 demonstrators crowded around his automobile so that it could not move. Police intervened and escorted McNamara from the campus.
^ 1964 North Vietnamese soldiers infiltrating South Vietnam
      The latest US intelligence analysis claims that Communist forces in South Vietnam now include about 30'000 professional full-time soldiers, many of whom are North Vietnamese. Before this, it was largely reported that the war was merely an internal insurgent movement in South Vietnam opposed to the government in Saigon. This information discredited that theory and indicated that the situation involves North and South Vietnam. In Saigon, the South Vietnamese government banned the sale of the current issue of Newsweek because it carried a photograph showing a Viet Cong prisoner being tortured by South Vietnamese army personnel.
1962 Richard M. Nixon, having lost California's gubernatorial race, held what he called his "last press conference," telling reporters, "You won't have Nixon to kick around anymore."
1962 La ONU aprueba una resolución contra la política de apartheid de la república de Sudáfrica.
1961 Konrad Adenauer es reelegido canciller de Alemania por el Parlamento Federal.
1961 Golpe militar en Ecuador, que depone al presidente José María Velasco Ibarra.
1958 Es detenido Antonio Amat, dirigente del PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español).
1957 El presidente de Estados Unidos, Dwight David Eisenhower declara la centralización de las investigaciones espaciales.
^ 1957 Nuclear shelter hysteria in US caused by report leaks
      The final report from a special committee called by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to review the nation's defense readiness indicates that the United States is falling far behind the Soviets in missile capabilities, and urges a vigorous campaign to build fallout shelters to protect American citizens.
      The special committee had been called together shortly after the stunning news of the success of the Soviet Sputnik I in October 1957. Headed by Ford Foundation Chairman H. Rowan Gaither, the committee concluded that the United States was in danger of losing a war against the Soviets. Only massive increases in the military budget, particularly an accelerated program of missile construction, could hope to deter Soviet aggression. It also suggested that US citizens were completely unprotected from nuclear attack and proposed a $30 billion program to construct nationwide fallout shelters.
      Although the committee's report was supposed to be secret, many of its conclusions soon leaked out to the press, causing a minor panic among the American people. President Eisenhower was less impressed. Intelligence provided by U-2 spy plane flights over Russia indicated that the Soviets were not the mortal threat suggested by the Gaither Report. Eisenhower, a fiscal conservative, was also reluctant to commit to the tremendously increased military budget called for by the committee. He did increase funding for the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles and for civil defense programs, but ignored most of the other recommendations made in the report. Democrats instantly went on the attack, charging that Eisenhower was leaving the United States open to Soviet attack. By 1960, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy was still hammering away at the supposed "missile gap" between the United States and much stronger Soviet stockpiles.
1951 Constitution of Jordan passed
1949 El mariscal soviético Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovski, nacido en Polonia, es retirado de sus servicios en la URSS y se hace cargo del Ministerio de Defensa en Polonia.
1948 En el Consejo de la república francesa (antiguo Senado), el RPF (Rassemblement du Peuple Français) de Charles André de Gaulle se convierte en el partido con mayor representación.
1944 F.D. Roosevelt elected president for a 4th term
      Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is reelected president of the United States for a record third time, handily defeating his Republican challenger, Thomas E. Dewey, the governor of New York. Roosevelt, a fifth cousin to former president Theodore Roosevelt, first came to the White House in 1933 with a promise to lead America out of the Great Depression with his "New Deal" program. The New Deal established massive government works projects, sought greater benefits for farmers, the poor, and unemployed, but also alienated the business community. Substantial economic progress is made, but full recovery would not come until the US entrance into World War II. The American war machine under Roosevelt helped turn the tide in the war, and in 1944, with victory in sight, he was elected to an unprecedented fourth term. However, only two months into his fourth term as president, Roosevelt dies, leaving Vice President Harry S. Truman at the reigns of an emergent United States. In response to Roosevelt's career as an undefeatable presidential candidate, the Twenty-second Amendment to the US Constitution is ratified in 1951, limiting the US presidency to two terms.
1944 El gobierno francés amnistía a Maurice Thorez, jefe de los comunistas, que al inicio de la guerra había desertado a la URSS.
1943 British troops start a limited offensive along the coast of Burma
1942 En la Segunda Guerra Mundial los aliados, con más de 100'000 hombres al mando de Dwight David Eisenhower, desembarcan en el Norte de ┴frica.
1942 El ciclista italiano Fausto Coppi supera en Milán el récord de la hora con 45'848 km.
1942 First US President to broadcast in a foreign language — FDR in French
1941 Estados Unidos otorga un crédito de mil millones de dólares a la URSS para la compra de material de guerra.
1941 Las tropas finlandesas son bloqueadas en el frente ruso.
1941 Stalin anuncia la gran guerra patriótica
^ 1940 Tacoma Bridge collapses.
      It was the third-largest suspension bridge in the world, connecting Seattle and Tacoma with the Pugent Sound Navy yard. From its opening, only four months before, the bridge had a pronounced longitudinal roll. The strange undulations earned the span the name "Galloping Gertie." The cause was the topography of the Tacoma Narrows, which turned the passageway into a giant wind tunnel. Miraculously, none perished on 07 November 1940, when the bridge collapsed into the waters some 60 meters below.
      Only four months after its completion, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington State suffers a spectacular collapse. When it opened in 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge was the third-longest suspension bridge in the world. Built to replace the ferry system that took commuters from Tacoma across the Tacoma Narrows to the Gig Harbor Peninsula, the bridge spanned 850 meters and took three years to build. To save cost, the principal engineer, Leon Moisseiff, designed the bridge with an unusually slender frame that measured 12 meters and accommodated just two vehicular lanes.
      The Tacoma Narrows Bridge opened with great fanfare on 01 July 1940. Human traffic across the waters of the Tacoma Narrows increased dramatically, but many drivers were drawn to the toll bridge not by convenience but by an unusual characteristic of the structure. When moderate to high winds blew, as they invariably do in the Tacoma Narrows, the bridge roadway would sway from side to side and sometimes suffer excessive vertical undulations. Some drivers reported that vehicles ahead of them would disappear and reappear several times as they crossed the bridge. On a windy day, tourists treated the bridge toll as the fee paid to ride a roller-coaster ride, and the Tacoma Narrows Bridge earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie."
      Attempts were made to stabilize the structure, but they were in vain. On 07 November, with a steady wind blowing at 68 km/h, the roadway began to twist back and forth in an increasingly violent fashion. Before closing the span, the toll keeper on the bridge's west side let one last motorist pass, Tacoma News Tribune copy editor Leonard Coatsworth. Halfway across the bridge, Coatsworth lost control of his car. When the roadway tipped so sharply that it seemed his car would topple off, he decided to flee on foot. He tried to retrieve his daughter's black cocker spaniel from the back seat of the car, but the dog snapped at him and refused to budge. Coatsworth ran to safety and called the Tribune, who dispatched a reporter and photographer to the scene.
      Tribune photographer Howard Clifford was the last man on the bridge before the center span broke off at 11:00. and plunged 60 meters into the turbulent Tacoma Narrows. Trapped on the suddenly destabilized side spans, he narrowly avoided being thrown off and ran to safety. The sole casualty of the disaster was the cocker spaniel in Coatsworth's car, which fell into the Narrows and disappeared beneath the foam.
      At the time, the engineering community was perplexed about how a bridge designed to withstand winds of up to 200 km/h could collapse in a wind of 68 km/h. Experts still disagree on the exact cause of the bridge's destruction, but most agree the collapse was related to resonance, a phenomenon that also comes into play when a soprano shatters a glass with her voice. In the case of the Tacoma Narrows, the wind resonated with the natural frequency of the structure, causing a steady increase in amplitude until the bridge was destroyed.
      After the Tacoma Narrows disaster, bridge builders took care to incorporate aerodynamics into their designs and build structures with complex frequencies. Wind-tunnel testing of bridge designs eventually became mandatory. A new Tacoma Narrows Bridge was finally erected in 1950, complete with a wider roadway, deep stiffening trusses under the roadway, and other features designed to dampen the effect of wind. In 1992, the remains of Galloping Gertie in the Tacoma Narrows were listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
1937 Finaliza la construcción de la carretera alpina francesa que atraviesa el puerto de montaña de Iseran (2770 m), considerada la carretera de montaña más elevada de Europa y que establece el enlace entre Niza y el lago Leman.
1936 Constitución de una Junta de defensa en Madrid, en representación del Gobierno de la Segunda República española.
1925 Los liberales italianos se unen a los fascistas.
1921 Benito Mussolini declares himself to be leader of the National Fascist Party in Italy. — Se inicia en Roma la reunión constituyente del Congreso Nacional Fascista, del que Benito Mussolini sale elegido como Duce.
1920 Es nombrado gobernador civil de Barcelona el general de división Severiano Martínez Anido.
1918 El socialista Kurt Eisner proclama en Múnich la república de los Consejos de Baviera.
1918 Goddard demonstrates tube-launched solid propellant rockets
1918 On rumors that a peace agreement had been signed ending World War I, the New York Stock Exchange closes early. The rumors were false. The armistice became a reality on 11 November..
1917 British General Sir Edmond Allenby breaks the Turkish defensive line in the Third Battle of Gaza, Palestine. The Allenby bridge to Jordan is named after him. Allenby is listed as #100 in The 100 most influential military leaders of all time.
1917 (26 October Julian) Russia's October Revolution takes place as Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin overthrow the provisional government of Alexander Kerensky. — Los insurrectos asaltan el Palacio de San Petersburgo, con lo que comienza la Revolución Rusa. Lenin es nombrado presidente del primer Gobierno soviético. Los guardias rojos, dirigidos por León Trotski (en su 38º aniversario), se apoderan de Petrogrado.
1916 Jeannette Rankin (Mont-R-Rep) is elected, the first US Representative
1916 Woodrow Wilson (D) re-elected President , but by such a narrow margin that all votes must be counted before an outcome can be determined, so the results are not known until 11 November. — Thomas Woodrow Wilson es reelegido presidente de EE.UU.
^ 1916 Jeannette Rankin becomes first US congresswoman
      Montana suffraget Jeannette Rankin is elected (as a Democrat) to the US House of Representatives. She is the first woman in the history of the nation to win a seat in the federal Congress. Born and raised on a ranch near Missoula, Montana, Rankin was the daughter of progressive parents who encouraged her to think beyond the narrow sphere of opportunities generally permitted to women of the early 20th century. After graduating from the University of Montana and the New York School of Philanthropy, Rankin worked briefly as a social worker before becoming active in the national effort to win women the vote. In 1914, her efforts brought her back to Montana, where she believed pioneer conditions had created greater respect for women's work and abilities, making it somewhat easier to convince men to grant them the right to vote. Indeed, other western states like Wyoming and Colorado had already approved women's suffrage years before, and Rankin's leadership helped Montana join them in 1914.
      With the vote for women secured, Rankin put Montana's new political dynamics to the test. She ran for one of Montana's two seats in Congress as a Progressive Republican in 1916. With strong support from women and men alike, Rankin became the first woman in history elected to that body. When she traveled to Washington, D.C., the next year, the eyes of the nation watched to see if a woman could handle the responsibilities of high office. Rankin soon proved she could, but she also demonstrated that she would not betray her own strongly held convictions for political expediency. A dedicated pacifist, Rankin's first vote as a US congresswoman was against US entry into World War I. Many supported her courageous stand, though others claimed her vote showed that women were incapable of shouldering the difficult burdens of national leadership — despite the fact that 55 men had also voted against the war.
      Rankin's vote against WWI contributed to her defeat in her 1918 reelection bid. For the next 20 years, she continued to work for the cause of peace. Ironically, she again won a seat in the US House of Representatives in 1940, just as the nation was about to enter World War II. Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December of 1941, Rankin became the only person in the history of Congress to vote against US entry into both world wars. This time, though, the principled pacifist from Montana cast the sole dissenting vote.
1900 William McKinley es reelegido presidente de Estados Unidos.
1893 The state of Colorado granted its women the right to vote.
1885 Canadian Pacific Railway completed at Craigellachie
1876 President Rutherford B Hayes & Samuel J Tilden claim presidential victory, but Hayes ends up being the 19th president of the United States.
1876 Edward Bouchet, is 1st black to receive a PhD in US college (Yale)
1875 Verney Cameron is 1st European to cross equatorial Africa
1874 1st cartoon depicting elephant as Republican Party symbol, by T. Nast in Harper's Weekly.
1873 En la Guerra de los Diez Años, los patriotas cubanos, dirigidos por Máximo Gómez, baten a las tropas españolas en La Sacra.
1872 Mary Celeste sails from NY to Genoa; found abandoned 4 weeks later
1865 The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.
1863 Engagement at Rappahannock Bridge, Virginia 1863 Action at Kelly's Ford, Virginia
1861 Battle of Port Royal Sound, South Carolina
1861 Union General Ulysses S. Grant launches an unsuccessful raid on Belmont, Missouri.
1846 Zachary Taylor, one of the heroes of the Mexican War, is elected US president.
^ 1835 Declaration of the People of Texas
WHEREAS, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and other Military Chieftains have, by force of arms, overthrown the Federal Institutions of Mexico, and dissolved the Social Compact which existed between Texas and the other Members of the Mexican Confederacy — Now, the good People of Texas, availing themselves of their natural rights,
SOLEMNLY DECLARE
     1st. That they have taken up arms in defence of their Rights and Liberties, which were threatened by the encroachments of military despots, and in defence of the Republican Principles of the Federal Constitution of Mexico of eighteen hundred and twenty-four.
     2d. That Texas is no longer, morally or civilly, bound by the compact of Union; yet, stimulated by the generosity and sympathy common to a free people they offer their support and assistance to such of the Mexicans of the Mexican Confederacy as will take up arms against their military despotism.
      3d. That they do not acknowledge, that the present authorities of the nominal Mexican Republic have the right to govern within the limits of Texas.
      4th. That they will not cease to carry on war against the said authorities, whilst their troops are within the limits of Texas.
      5th. That they hold it to be their right, during the disorganization of the Federal System and the reign of despotism, to withdraw from the Union, to establish an independent Government, or to adopt such measures as they may deem best calculated to protect their rights and liberties; but that they will continue faithful to the Mexican Government so long as that nation is governed by the Constitution and Laws that were formed for the government of the Political Association.
      6th. That Texas is responsible for the expenses of their Armies now in the field.
      7th. That the public faith of Texas is pledged for the payment of any debts contracted by her Agents.
      8th. That she will reward by donations in Land, all who volunteer their services in her present struggle, and receive them as Citizens.
These DECLARATIONS we solemnly avow to the world, and call GOD to witness their truth and sincerity; and invoke defeat and disgrace upon our heads should we prove guilty of duplicity.
P. B. Dexter, Secretary. — B. T. Archer, President.
1831 Es abolida la trata de negros en Brasil.
1814 Andrew Jackson attacks and captures Pensacola, Florida, defeating the Spanish and driving out a British force.
1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, gave Harrison a presidential slogan. Rebellious Indians in a conspiracy organized in defiance of the United States government by Tecumseh, Shawnee chief, are defeated during his absence in the Battle of the Wabash (or Tippecanoe) by William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory.
1805 Meriwether Lewis and George Rogers Clark reach the Pacific coast.
1793 During the French Revolution, "Christianity" was abolished on this date. Reason was deified, and as many as 2000 churches were afterward destroyed throughout France.
1776 El rey Carlos III, nombra primer ministro a Francisco Antonio Moñino conde de Floridablanca.
1775 Lord Dunmore, promises freedom to male slaves who join British army
1733 Se firma el primer Pacto de Familia en El Escorial.
1705 El archiduque Carlos de Austria es proclamado rey de España en Barcelona.
Tractat dels Pirineus. Per aquest malaurat afer hist˛ric, Catalunya va perdre el Rosselló, el Conflent, el Capcir, el Vallespir i mitja Cerdanya en favor de la corona francesa.
^ 1659 La paix des Pyrénées

      Un traité inespéré met fin à l'interminable guerre qui oppose depuis le siècle précédent la dynastie française des Bourbons et la dynastie espagnole des Habsbourg.
      Le traité des Pyrénées est l'oeuvre de Mazarin, Premier Ministre du jeune roi Louis XIV, soucieux de réconcilier les deux principales puissances d'Europe. L'habile Mazarin fait croire à son intention de marier Louis XIV à sa cousine Marguerite de Savoie. Il se rend même à Lyon pour la présentation de la fiancée. Dans le même temps, il négocie en secret le mariage du roi de France avec l'infante Marie-Thérèse, fille du roi d'Espagne Philippe IV. A Lyon, un messager lui apporte enfin l'accord du roi d'Espagne. Le ministre annule sans attendre le mariage savoyard.
      Le traité avec l'Espagne est signé sur l'île des Faisans, au milieu de la rivière Bidassoa qui sépare les deux pays. "Il n'y a plus de Pyrénées", aurait alors dit un plénipotentiaire. Les futurs époux, tous les deux âgés de 21 ans, se rencontrent à Saint-Jean-de-Luz. Le mariage royal sera célébré l'année suivante à Saint-Jean-de-Luz dans une atmosphère de liesse. Il se soldera par six naissances... et d'innombrables infidélités du Roi-Soleil.
      Selon les termes du traité, L'Espagne livre à la France le Roussillon, la Cerdagne, l'Artois et plusieurs places fortes: Gravelines, Thionville, Montmédy et Philippeville. Marie-Thérèse renonce pour elle et ses descendants à ses droits sur la couronne d'Espagne. Elle apporte sus une dot confortable de 500.000 écus. L'habile Mazarin sait que l'Espagne, épuisée et en déclin, n'aura jamais les moyens de payer cette dot.
     Quelques années plus tard, Louis XIV prendra prétexte de cet impayé pour revendiquer ses droits sur la succession espagnole. Ce sera la guerre de Dévolution.
      L'Espagne, épuisée, elle entame un irrésistible déclin, victime de l'absolutisme royal, de l'Inquisition et de la richesse trop facile que lui ont amené les galions d'Amérique, une richesse qui l'a dissuadée de mettre en valeur son territoire.
Peace of the Pyrenees, also called treaty of the Pyrenees.
      Peace treaty between Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain that ended the Franco-Spanish War of 1648-59. It is often taken to mark the beginning of French hegemony in Europe.
      During the years from the end of the Thirty Years' War until 1659 Spain and France engaged in almost continuous warfare. During the struggle Spain found itself also involved in hostilities with England, and the real decay of the Spanish monarchy became rapidly apparent. Any assistance that might have been hoped for from the Holy Roman emperor was prevented by the formation of leagues of German princes — lay and ecclesiastical — in 1657 and 1658, which had the full support of France. The effect of the formation of the second league (the Rheinbund) was at once apparent: all hope of assistance to Spain from the emperor was seen to have disappeared; and, after Spain's defeat at the Battle of the Dunes (14 June 1658), progress toward the conclusion of a pacific settlement between France and Spain was accelerated.
      According to the treaty, Roussillon and Artois, with a line of strongholds constituting a formidable northern frontier, were ceded to France; and the French acquisition of Alsace and Lorraine under certain conditions was ratified. All French conquests in Catalonia were restored to Spain, and the Great Condé, who had been siding with the Spanish, was pardoned and taken into favour. Finally, the treaty involved a great marriage compact between Louis XIV and the Spanish infanta Maria Teresa de Austria. The actual marriage, which took place the next year, was garnished with a dowry (never paid) and with a renunciation by the infanta of all her rights to the Spanish crown or Spanish possessions. This latter proviso was ignored in 1667, when Louis XIV desired to get hold of the Spanish Netherlands, and 40 years later, when he sought the crown of Spain for his young grandson Philip. The Peace of the Pyrenees and this Spanish marriage firmly established Louis XIV on his throne as the most powerful of European monarchs.
— Se firma el Tratado de los Pirineos entre Jules Mazarin, en representación francesa, y don Luis Méndez de Haro y Guzmán, en representación española.
33 poblesEL TRACTAT DELS PIRINEUS
      Els continuats atacs dels francesos i la inestabilitat produïda pel bandolerisme, molt pronunciat en els dos primers segles va determinar una fesonomia defensiva, hereva, en part, de la de l'edat mitjana, que fou molt probablement la que va predominar al llarg dels segles XVI, XVII i XVIII. Molt sovint es tractava de bandidatge o de bregues de desgast, les quals passaven pel segrest de béns, fruits, animals i fins i tot de persones, les quals eren bescanviades per diners o espècies. Hi ha moltes entrades de francesos documentades, entre les quals poden destacar-se les de 1511, 1522, 1542, 1544, 1577, 1583, 1588, 1598, 1639, 1653, 1678, 1707 ó 1793.
      De fet, la Cerdanya patí al llarg del temps l'interès francès per controlar la zona catalana, després espanyola, del vessant nord del Pirineu, sobretot per estar estretament vinculat al Rosselló. Si bé aquest important muntanyam senyalava de forma clara els vessants nord i sud, i Cerdanya dins d'aquesta segon, per als francesos no en deixava de ser atractiu el control, ja que els seus tradicionals passos (Perxa i Pimorent) permetien gaudir d'un important eix de comunicació vers l'interior d'Espanya a través de Toses i l'Urgellet, amb la qual cosa es garantia qualsevol atac per sorpresa, així com la seguretat del recentment conquerit Rosselló. A més, la contrada era apta com a graner de cereals i, fins i tot, per fer-hi hivernar forces militars. Finalment, per˛, entre el 1659 i el 1660 i en el marc del Tractat dels Pirineus, aquells, els francesos, començaren a aconseguir el desitjat, com era tot el Rosselló, el Vallespir, el Conflent, el Capcir i part de la Cerdanya. Per a aquesta comarca, la discussió fou llarga, ja que tots hi tenien presents els avantatges a què ja ens hem referit. Hi hagué força discusions entre els comissionats espanyols i francesos. Els darrers arribaren a acceptar de deixar Bellver a Espanya i fins i tot Puigcerdà, mentre es garantiren l'annexió de 33 pobles cerdans, dels quals se salvà Llívia, de formar-ne part, en al.legar Miquel de Salvà, comissionat espanyol, que el tractat parlava de villages o "pobles" i que Llívia no era altra cosa que una "vila" i, per tant, no podia formar part de la zona segregada. Els francesos, per˛, pogueren marcar un nou "gol" en introduir-hi una darrera clàusula: mai més no podria fortificar-se aquesta població, cosa que fou mig autojustificada pel Consell d'Aragó en argumentar que els francesos no retindran Llívia i, per tant, la condició de no fortificar Llívia no era important; en qualsevol cas, no calia."Nosaltres estem fortificant Puigcerdà, i el punt més important és que (Puigcerdà) no romangui francesa, perquè és molt important fortificar aquesta plaça per tal de tenir un peu a la plana de la Cerdanya." [mapa: els 33 pobles annexionats per França al 1660]
      Ben aviat, i en el marc del pla de defensa francès propugnat per Vauban, els francesos construïren Montlluís, punt fortificat i estratègic, tot i que, al cap de poc temps, el propi Vauban aconsellava abandonar "aquests 43 (sic) pobles fastigosos" i fins i tot arrasar Montlluís", en veure que la fortificació no podia controlar tant com havia pensat, valorant més les defenses de Vilafranca i de Perpinyà. Acabada tota aquesta situació, hom hagués pogut creure que arribaven temps de pau a la Cerdanya. Per˛ la hist˛ria demostraria que seria ben al contrari, de manera que la comarca, en especial Puigcerdà, per ser cap i la plaça forta més resistent, continuaria sent un camp de batalla, motiu pel qual la frontera no deixava de ser efímera, tal com indica Peter Salhins, fins al punt que hi sorgiren no pocs conflictes fiscals, jurisdiccionals i religiosos. Pel que fa a aquestes darrers, cal fer esment que els pobles annexionats a França encara restarien sota la jurisdicció del bisbe d'Urgell, no sense greus conflictes amb les autoritats franceses, almenys fins que el prelat acceptà (1739) que els capellans fossin nomenats per ells. Amb tot, el pas a la dependència absoluta al bisbat de Perpinyà seria el 1801. A més, encara predominava en molta gent de la part francesa un sentiment antifrancès, com bé es vingué a demostrar -segons Salhins- amb l'allistament de molts joves de Cerdanya francesa en els miquelets catalans. A excepció d'Ix i Nahuja, tots els altres pobles hi estaven representats
^ 1637 Heretic banished from Massachusetts
      Anne Hutchinson, 46, the first female religious leader in the American colonies, is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy. Hutchinson, born in England, first arrived in Massachusetts with her family in 1634. She settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and soon began organizing meetings of women in her home, leading them in discussions of religious and secular issues. She preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation, and therefore that individuals had no need for the church or church law. By 1637, her influence had become so great that she is brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan orthodoxy. Banished from Massachusetts, she leads a group of seventy followers to Roger Williams's settlement, a colony based on religious freedom and located in present-day Rhode Island.
1631 Pierre Gassendi observes transit of Mercury predicted by Kepler
1519 Primer manifiesto de los jefes comuneros de Toledo a los castellanos contra la política de Carlos I y V.
0680 3rd Council of Constantinople (6th ecumenical council) opens
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 07 November:

2006 Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber ”JJSS”, French journalist and politician. born on 13 February 1924, son of journalist Émile Servan-Schreiber [20 Dec 1888 – 29 Dec 1967]. —(061107)
2005 (guessed date) Maria Esther Valerio, 33, murdered in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where she was a worker at the Lear maquiladora. Her severely bruised corpse is discovered in a vacant lot on 08 November 2005. — (051109)
2005 Arturo Gonzalez Jr., 51, riding a bicycle, hit at 15:17 (22:17 UT) by school bus No.15 of the Ysleta Independent School District in El Paso, Texas, which is on its way to Ysleta High School to pick up students. The bus turned right from Old Pueblo street at a green light, onto Alameda street, where Gonzalez is going east in a westbound lane. No charges are made against the bus driver Pablo Hernandez, 73, who was alone onboard with assistant Rosa Elva Lopez, 42. — (051108)
2005 Jean-Jacques Le Chenadec, 61, a former worker at Renault, who was in a coma since 04 November 2005 when he was hit in the face by a rioter, as he was outside his 5-story HLM apartment building in the Paris suburb Stains, talking about protecting their cars with a neighbor, Jean-Pierre Moreau, 58, who was injured. One hour earlier rioters had thrown stones at them as the two tried to extinguish fires the rioters had started in trash cans. The riots, mostly by Muslim youths of immigrant families, have been spreading in France since the 27 October 2005 electrocution deaths of Zyed Benna, 17, and Bouna Traoré, 15, who were hiding from police in a transformer in the Paris suburb Clichy-sous-Bois. — (051108)
2005 Anthony Sawoniuk, 84, in a prison in England where he was serving a life sentence, imposed on 01 April 1999, for the murder of two Jewish women in September 1942 in Belarus, where he was a policeman, collaborator with the Nazi occupiers. He led search-and-kill police squads to hunt down Jews trying to escape after nearly 3000 were massacred in the village Domachevo. He murdered many more Jews. Sawoniuk had immigrated to the UK in 1946, become a UK citizen, and worked for British Rail. — (051107)
2005 Pfc. Mario A. Reyes, 19, of Las Cruces NM, and three other US soldiers of the 3rd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, killed while on patrol in Baghdad, Iraq. — (051109)
2004 Christopher Yates, at 04:50 UT on the University of East London campus in Barking, England, thrown to the ground by a gang of some 12 Asians, and kicked in the face by Sajid Zulfiqar, 25, Zarhid Bashir, 23, and Imran Maqsood, 21, who would be sentenced on 24 November 2005. — (051122)
2003 James Zbinden, 59, in Jefferson City MO, bleeds to death after being intentionally shot once near the armpit by a bullet from a .22-caliber rifle by his 6-year-old grandson, who had been released on 03 November 2003 from a central Missouri mental-health facility where he was admitted after attacking another family member with a knife, the last of several similar attacks he had made on his younger siblings and his parents.
2003 Capt. Benedict J. Smith, 29, of Monroe City MO; Chief Warrant Officer (CW3) Kyran E. Kennedy, 43, of Boston MA; Staff Sgt. Paul M. Neff II, 30, of Fort Mill SC; Sgt. Scott C. Rose, 30, of Fayetteville NC; Chief Warrant Officer (CW5) Sharon T. Swartworth, 43; and Command Sgt. Major Cornell W. Gilmore I, 45, of Baltimore, Md.; who were all six US soldiers aboard an Army Blackhawk helicopter which is hit by a rocket-propelled grenade and crashes into a riverbank near Tikrit, Iraq. Smith, Kennedy, Neff and Rose were assigned to 5th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). Swartworth was the regimental warrant officer for the Judge Advocate General Office. Gilmore was assigned to the Army Judge Advocate General Office at the Pentagon.
2003 Staff Sgt. Morgan D. Kennon, 23, of Memphis TN, while guarding a bank in downtown Mosul, which was attacked with rocket-propelled grenades He was serving in the 3rd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault).
2003 Mahmoud Kayed, 10, Palestinian who was trapping birds with a net and string near Kibbutz Nahal Oz east of Gaza City close to the border fence with Israel, hit by two machine-gun bullets fired from an Israeli tank, which also fired its cannon “at suspicious figures handling an electric cable that could be used to detonate explosives”. A 12-year-old, one of the two kids with Mahmoud, is wounded in the leg.
2001 Archie Waters, 83, El Paso, Texas. He had been hospitalized for over a month after suffering an accident at home. Black. Born in Brooklyn, he worked as a reporter for the Long Island Daily Press and as a civic-affairs columnist for the New York Daily News. He moved to El Paso, Texas, in 1980 and retired in 1988. He wrote occasional colums for the El Paso Times. Chess player. Democrat. Married to a White woman.
2001 Abdullah Mubarak al-Hajiri, shot by by two US and one Qatari soldiers on whom he was firing at a guard post of the Al-Adid Air Base in Qatar, which is being used by US military aircraft. al-Hajiri, a Qatari, had been diagnosed as suffering from symptoms of disturbed personality and unbalanced character. He had been admitted to a psychological clinic in 1990.
2000 Rosie Attard, dies as expected in the 20-hour operation started the day before, which separates her from her conjoined twin Gracie, at St. Mary's Hospital in Manchester, England. The twins were born there on 8 August 2000 to Catholic Michaelangelo, 44, and Rina, 29, Attard, who had gone to England for appropriate medical attention, but opposed the operation on religious grounds. They were overruled by British courts.
1996 All 143 aboard as Flight 86, a Boeing 727-231 jetliner of Aviation Development Corporation crashes at Imota, Nigeria, on its way from Port Harcourt to Lagos, at Flight level FL240. At the same time a Triax plane, which had departed Lagos, was flying at FL160 towards Enugu. The Lagos controller had ended contact with the Triax when Flight 86 requested to descend. The permission was delayed to allow an ELF Petroleum business jet to pass beneath the 727 at FL210. When the controller finally cleared the ADC flight to descend, he thought he had cleared to aircraft to FL100 at an earlier stage, but the aircraft was still flying at FL240. When the ADC aircraft descended through FL160, the TCAS alarm sounded. To avoid a head-on collision Flight 86 immediately took evasive action, but rolled to an excessive bank angle and conrol was lost. Within 16 seconds speed had increased from 280kts to almost the speed of sound. —(061029)
1992 Alexander Dubcek, político checoslovaco.
1968 Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond, Russian mathematician born on 24 October 1906. His major contributions to the number theory of transcendental numbers are in Transtendentnye i algebraicheskie chisla (1952); and to the theory of interpolation and the approximation of functions of a complex variable are in Ischislenie konechnykh raznostey (1952).
1962 Eleanor Roosevelt, 78, widow of US president F. D. Roosevelt, in NYC
^ 1944 Richard Sorge, Soviet spy hanged by Japanese
      Sorge—a spy of German and Russian ancestry—was hanged by order of the Japanese federal government. He had been held in prison for over two years. For almost a decade, Sorge had been using the cover of German journalist in Japan while working as an agent for Soviet intelligence. He had legitimized himself by joining the Nazi party and securing a job at the Frankfurter Zeitung, Germany's most revered newspaper. He even convinced the Zeitung's editors to send him to Tokyo as the paper's correspondent. By 1936, Sorge was not only in cahoots with an adviser to the Japanese cabinet but had also secured his own office in the German embassy in Tokyo—with full access to embassy files. In fact, Sorge learned of Hitler's plans to invade the Soviet Union two months before the invasion. Stalin ignored his warning. Sorge still played a significant role in the Soviet war effort. Perhaps his most notable contribution came in late December 1942. He informed Soviet officials of Japan's plan to move south toward the Dutch East Indies and French Indochina. This information allowed the Soviets to shift their military forces in the Far East to the European front without fear that the Japanese would launch an attack to support the German invasion of Russia. Twenty years after his death, Sorge was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
1936 Kolosov, mathematician.
1924 Hans Thoma, German artist born on 02 October 1839. — MORE ON THOMA AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1904 Edwin Hayes, Irish painter born on 07 June 1819. — link to an image.
1872 Clebsch, mathematician
^ 1861: 498 Union soldiers and 966 Confederates, as Grant attacks Belmont, correctly counting on the ineptitude of the Confederate commander, Gideon Pillow. Despite a number of serious command errors, Grant managed to strike a severe blow to the Confederates and then escape from a potential deathtrap with his army intact. He had been right about Pillow, who managed to do exactly the wrong thing at each point in the battle. As Pillow's able biographers Nat Hughes and Roy Stonesifer have observed: "Grant could have wished for nothing better....The tooth fairy gave him Pillow."
      Three months later, when Pillow shamelessly concurred in the needless surrender of thousands of Confederate troops at Fort Donelson, Grant was once again the recipient of an outright gift. It made his reputation as "Unconditional Surrender" Grant, even as it destroyed whatever vestiges survived of Pillow's own military standing. True to form, Pillow sought to blame his failure there on others.
     On 06 November 1861, Brig. Gen. Ulysses.S. Grant left Cairo, Illinois, by steamers, in conjunction with two gunboats, to make a demonstration against Columbus, Kentucky. The next morning, Grant learned that Confederate troops had crossed the Mississippi River from Columbus to Belmont, Missouri, to intercept two detachments sent in pursuit of Brig. Gen. M. Jeff Thompson and, possibly, to reinforce Maj. Gen. Sterling Price’s force. He landed on the Missouri shore, out of the range of Confederate artillery at Columbus, and started marching the mile to Belmont. At 09:00 an engagement began. The Federals routed the Confederates out of their Belmont cantonment and destroyed the Rebel supplies and equipment they found because they did not have the means to carry them off. The scattered Confederate forces reorganized and received reinforcements from Columbus. Counterattacked by the Confederates, the Union force withdrew, reembarked, and returned to Cairo. Grant did not accomplish much in this operation, but, at a time when little Union action occurred anywhere, many were heartened by any activity.
^ 1837 Elijah P. Lovejoy, murdered. by a proslavery mob.
      In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy, born on 09 November 1802, is shot to death by a mob while trying to protect his printing shop. In the 1830s, Lovejoy, a Presbyterian minister born in Maine, founded the St. Louis Observer, an influential Presbyterian newspaper. Lovejoy's editorials increasingly took an abolitionist stance, and threats on his life by supporters of slavery forced him to flee across the Mississippi River to Alton, Illinois. In Illinois, Lovejoy established the Alton Observer and continued to publicly advocate the abolition of slavery. On two occasions his Alton press was destroyed, but the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society provided financial support for the repair of his press, and Lovejoy persisted in his publishing of abolitionist writings, despite threats on his life. When the mob returned a third time, Lovejoy stood in the way. Although he was killed and his printing press destroyed, his death helped to motivate the movement in the US for the abolition of slavery.
1823 El general Riego, ejecutado públicamente en Madrid por haberse sublevado el 01 Jan 1820 en Las Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla), en el denominado Pronunciamiento de Riego.
1766 Jean-Marc Nattier. — MORE ON NATTIER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1708 Ludolf Backhuysen, Dutch Baroque marine painter, active mainly in Amsterdam, born on 18 December 1631. — MORE ON BACKHUYSEN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1673 Jacob van der Does I “Tambour”, Dutch artist born on 04 March 1623. [I was unable to find on the Internet what Does does.][Tambour??? Drum?]
1678 Erasmus Quellin II, Flemish painter born on 19 November 1607. — MORE ON QUELLIN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER 19 with links to images.
1671 Jan de Bisschop, Dutch draftsman and etcher born in 1628. — more
1573 Solomon Luria (Maharshal) talmudic author (Yam Shel Shelomo)
1528 Andrea Bergamansis Previtali, “Cordelliagi”, Italian artist born in 1470.
 
< 06 Nov 08 Nov >
 Births which occurred on a 07 November:

^ 1957 The Trabant Sputnik, East German car.
      Before World War II, Audi-founder August Horch cranked out his innovative Audis in the Zwickau Automobile Factory in the eastern German state of Sachsen. It was here that Audi manufactured the first automobiles with four-wheel hydraulic breaks and front wheel drive, decades before these innovations became standard throughout the automobile industry. After World War II, Germany was separated into eastern and western occupation zones, and Audi, like most other significant German corporations, fled to the capitalist west.
      Among the deserted factories the Soviet occupiers faced in postwar East Germany was the former Horch-Audi works in Zwickau. Under the authority of the Soviet administrators, and later under the East German Communist government, the Zwickau factory went back into service in the late 1940s, producing simple, prewar German automobiles like the Das Klein Wonder F8, and the P70, a compact car with a Duroplast plastic body. In 1957, the East German government approved the updated P50 model to enter the market under a new company name — Trabant.
      On this day, the first Trabant, which translates to servant in English, is produced at the former Horch auto works in Zwickau. For the Trabant's first name, the designers settled on "Sputnik," to commemorate the Soviet Union's launching of the first artificial Earth satellite the month before. The Trabant Sputnik was the first in the P50 series, featuring a tiny engine for its time — a two-cylinder 500 cc engine capable of 18 horsepower. In design, the Trabant Sputnik was the archetypal eastern European car: small, boxy, and fragile in appearance. Yet, despite the lack of style or power found in the Sputnik and its descendants, these automobiles were affordable, and provided the citizens of East Germany and other Soviet bloc countries with a capable means of getting from here to there.
1955 Pido la paz y la palabra, de Blas de Otero, se publica en Madrid.
1952 Don José, Pepe y Pepito, de Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, se estrena en el teatro Lara, de Madrid.
1946 La Belle et la Bête de Jean Cocteau se estrena.
1940 Sentimento do Mundo de Carlos Drumond de Andrade se publica.
1931 Unió Democrática de Catalunya se funda.
1929 Jesús de Polanco, empresario español.
1929 Benny Andersen, Danish writer, poet and jazz musician.
1929 The Museum of Modern Art in New York City opens to the public.
1921 Manuel Fernández ┴lvarez, historiador español.
1920 Joan Perucho Gutiérrez, escritor y periodista español.
1918 Billy Graham, evangelist, TV host (Hour of Decision, The Billy Graham Crusade)
^ 1913 Albert Camus, in Algiers to a working-class family, French philosopher, novelist and dramatist (The Just-Nobel 1957; Le Mythe de Sisyphe)
     Camus was a good student and a dedicated athlete who won a scholarship to a prestigious French high school in Algiers. His sporting endeavors were ended at age 17 by an attack of tuberculosis. Instead of pursuing an athletic career, he took a degree at the University of Algiers. He intended to become a philosophy teacher, but another bout of tuberculosis prevented him from taking a position. He became involved with a theater group in Algiers, writing and producing plays, while he also worked as a journalist. At age 25, he moved to France. During World War II, he joined the French Resistance and wrote for a liberal newspaper. He continued political journalism until 1947, while also writing plays, novels, and philosophical essays.
      In 1942, his essay Le Mythe de Sisyphe set out the philosophical questions that he would also address in his novels. He analyzed nihilism and the absurdity and futility of human labor given the inevitability of death. Camus argued that man must make his own meaning by enjoying his efforts and struggles, despite their ultimate lack of significance. He continued to explore these themes in his first novel, The Stranger (1942). In his 1947 novel, La Peste, his characters maintain dignity and loyalty in the face of an epidemic in an Algerian town. In his later novels, essays, and plays, he explored the search for moral order. Camus won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1957. In 1960, after accepting a ride from strangers while hitchhiking, Camus was killed in a car wreck at age 46.
1907 El belíngrafo, aparato capaz de reproducir fotografías a distancia, es inventado por el profesor Arthur Korn.
1905 Amor y ciencia, de Benito Pérez Galdós se estrena en el Teatro de la Comedia.
1903 Konrad Lorenz zoologist/ethologist/writer (Nobel 1973)
1903 Otto de Greiff Haeusler, musicólogo, ingeniero civil y escritor colombiano.
1900 Heinrich Himmler, head of the Nazi SS and organizer of extermination camps in Eastern Europe. After being the 2nd most powerful man in Nazi Germany, he fell from Hitler's grace in the last months of the Reich, was captured by the Allies, and, on 23 May 1945, commited suicide
1898 Salem, mathematician
^ 1895 Canada's Transcontinental Railway is completed
      At a remote spot called Craigellachie in the mountains of British Columbia, the last spike is driven into Canada's first transcontinental railway. In 1880, the Canadian government contracted the Canadian Pacific Railroad to construct the first all-Canadian line to the West Coast. Over the next five years, the company laid 4600 kilometers of single track, uniting various smaller lines across Canada. Despite the logistical difficulties posed by such regions as the muskeg region of northwestern Ontario and the high rugged mountains of British Colombia, the railway was completed six years ahead of schedule. The transcontinental railway is instrumental in populating the vast new western lands, and helps unite the geographically vast nation of Canada. The railway provides supplies and commerce to new settlers, and many of western Canada's great cities and towns grew up around Canadian Pacific Railway stations.
1891 José Luis Eugenio Concha Córdoba, eclesiástico colombiano.
1888 Sir Chandrasekhara Raman, India, physicist (Nobel 1930)
^ 1879 Lev Davidovich Bronstein “Leon Trotsky”
      Communist theorist and agitator, a leader in Russia's October Revolution in 1917 and later commissar of foreign affairs and of war in the Soviet Union (1917-24). In the struggle for power following Vladimir Ilich Lenin's death, however, Joseph Stalin emerged as victor, while Trotsky was removed from all positions of power and later exiled (1929). He remained the leader of an anti-Stalinist opposition abroad until his assassination by a Stalinist agent on 20 August 1940 in Mexico City.

TROTSKY ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Lessons of October
  • My Life
  • The New Course
  • The Stalin School of Falsification
  • Their Morals and Ours
  • The Third International After Lenin
  • The Death Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International
  • The Permanent Revolution, and Results and Prospects
  • Problems of the Chinese Revolution
  • The Revolution Betrayed: What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going?
  • Trotsky's Notebooks, 1933-1935: Writings on Lenin, Dialectics, and Evolutionism
  • 1867 Madame Marie Sklodowska Curie who would discover radium (Nobel 1903, 1911) 1867 - (Madame) Marie Curie (Marja Sklodowski) (Nobel Prize-winning physicist [1903]: study of radiation; chemist: discovered radium and polonium) — Marya Slodowska est née en Pologne le 07 novembre 1867. Elle épousera à Paris le savant Pierre Curie. Avec lui, elle recevra le prix Nobel de physique en 1903. En 1911, c'est seule qu'elle recevra le prix Nobel de chimie. Immensément populaire de son vivant, elle sera la première femme à entrer au Panthéon en reconnaissance de ses mérites personnels.
    1861 Nov 7-1931 Oct 18 Lesser-Ury, German artist who died on 18 October 1931.
    1859 Henri Marius Camille Bouvet, French artist who died in 1945. [le héro de Bouvet et Pécuchard de Gustert Flaubave?]
    1833 Rafael Pombo, poeta, periodista, traductor e ingeniero colombiano.
    1828 Joseph Henry Thayer, US biblical lexicographer . A Congregationalist pastor, Thayer's main interest was New Testament language and in 1886 he published his definitive "Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament."
    1828 Paul Baudry, French painter who died on 17 January 1886. — MORE ON BAUDRY AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
    1820 Frans Lebret (or Lebrett), Dutch artist who died on 25 July 1909
    1818 Emil Heinrich du Bois-Reymond, German founder of modern electrophysiology, known for his research on electrical activity in nerve and muscle fibers. He died on 26 December 1896. Brother of mathematician Paul David Gustav du Bois-Reymond [02 Dec 1831 – 07 Apr 1889]
    1811 Jan Jakob Spohler, Dutch artist who died in 1879.
    1808 Hermann Kauffmann I, German artist who died on 24 May 1889.
    1799 Gräffe, mathematician.
    1793 Antoine Chazal, French artist who died on 12 August 1854.
    1723 Ekaterimburg, Rusia, fecha oficial de la fundación de la ciudad, día en que las primeras minas de hierro de los Urales entran en funcionamiento.
    1660 Thomas de Lagny, mathematician.
    1598 (baptism) Francisco de Zurbarán Spain, Baroque painter — MORE ON ZURBARÁN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    0994 Muhammad ibn Hazm, historian/jurist/writer of Islamic Spain.
     
    Holidays Mexico : National Railway Memorial Day (1907) /(formerly) USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Mongolia : October Revolution Day (1917)

    Religious Observances RC, Ang : St Willibrord, archbishop of Utrecht, Missionary to Frisia / Luth : John Heyer, missionary to India / Santos Aquiles, Ernesto, Florencio, Godofredo, Amaranto y Nicandro. / Sainte Carine a été martyrisée avec son mari et son fils à Ancyre, aujourd'hui Ankara, en Turquie, pendant les persécutions de l'empereur romain Julien l'Apostat, entre 361 et 363.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “Cheap things are of no value, valuable things are not cheap.”
    “A bore is a person who, when you say: ‘How are you?’, tells you.”
    “Insofar as the laws of mathematics are certain, they do not refer to reality; and insofar as they refer to reality, they are not certain. —
    Albert Einstein [14 Mar 1879 – 18 Apr 1955] {Was he certain of that?}
    “Stand like an oak and bend like a willow.” — Marietta Gayle — {especially in a gale} {Does the thought get you weeping as a willow?}
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “TODAY IN HISTORY”
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    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4nov/h4nov07.html
    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov07.html
    updated Saturday 22-Nov-2008 2:32 UT
    Principal updates:
    Tuesday 06-Nov-2007 2:13 UT
    v.6.a2
    v.5.a2 Tuesday 22-Nov-2005 18:18 UT
    Wednesday 17-Nov-2004 0:51 UT
    Tuesday 11-Nov-2003 17:20 UT

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