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^  On a 05 November:
Sharon 5 Nov 02
2006 José Daniel Ortega Saavedra [11 Nov 1945~] of the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN) wins 40% of the vote in the Nicaraguan presidential election, which is just enough to win the election, according to the Constitution. He finishes ahead of José Rizo Castellón (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista PLC, 19%), Eduardo Montealegre Rivas (Alianza Liberal Nicaragüense ALN, 33%), Edmundo Jarquín Calderón (Movimiento Renovador Sandinista MRS, 7%), and Edén Atanacio Pastora Gómez (Alternativa por El Cambio AC, 0.3%). The same five parties are also the main ones contending in the election to the 90 seats of the Asamblea Nacional, held this same day. Ortega became the Marxist ruler of Nicaragua after the 17 July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle [05 Dec 1925 – 17 Sep 1980], and President from 10 January 1985 until 25 April 1990 (after he accepted defeat in an election). In Ortega's 2006 campaign, he claimed to have become a moderate and to seek national reconciliation. —(061106)
2002 Israeli Prime Minister, criminal Ariel Sharon [27 Feb 1928 – 2007] [photo >] announces early general elections. They will be held on 28 January 2003.
2002 Non-presidential elections in the US. Contrary to the usual losses, in such elections, by the party of the President, the Republicans eke slight gains in general. These are most significant in the US Senate, which, when the new Congress convenes on 03 January 2003, will have 52 Republicans, 45 Democrats, and 1 Independent (previously 49 R, 50 D, 1 I). The slim Republican majority in the US House of Representatives will become slightly less slim: 230 R, 204 D, 1 I (from 223 R, 210 D, 2 I). Only in the number of state Governors do the Democrats improve their numbers: 26 R, 24 D (from 27 R, 21 D, 2 I).
2002 Voters in Oregon vote to remove from their state constitution (adopted in 1857) passages such as: “No free negro, or mulatto, not residing in this state at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall come, reside, or be within this State, or hold any real estate.” This provision has not been enforced recently, but only some 56'000 Blacks live in Oregon, less than 2% of the population.
2002 MISSOURI WANTS TO SEE TALENT IN THE US SENATE. A majority of Missouri voters choose Jim Talent (Republican), over Jean Carnahan (Democrat) for US Senator. Talent was a US Representative from 1992 to 1998 and an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 2000. Carnahan's husband, Governor Mel Carnahan, died in a plane crash on 16 October 2000, three weeks before Election Day (07 November 2000). He still was elected to the Senate, unseating current Attorney General John Ashcroft (a vicious violator of human and civil rights), and Mrs. Carnahan was appointed to the seat for the first 2 years of the 6-year term. The remaining 4 years will be served by Talent.
2002 Under relentless pressure, Harvey Pitt resigns as chairman of the US Securities and Exchange Commission.
^ 2000 Japanese archeologist apologizes for faking sensational find.
     Early in the morning of 27 October 2000, prominent Japanese archeologist Shinichi Fujimura secretly planted eight stoneware pieces at an excavation site, where it is believed humans lived 600'000 years ago. Later in the day he simulated discovering Japan's oldest stoneware and announced it, to the admiration of his colleagues. However a newspaper discovered the fraud and, on 05 November 2000, on TV, Fujimura admits that he has fabricated the findings at the Kamitakamori ruins in Miyagi Prefecture and the Soshin-Fudozaka site in Hokkaido. Fujimura says that he has collected some of the stone tools purported to have been found in Kamitakamori at a nearby site and collected others in Mount Yakurai in northern Miyagi for the Hokkaido ruin. Fujimura admits to staging the discovery of 61 of the 65 tool fragments at Kamitakamori and 29 in Hokkaido in an excavation conducted in September and October 2000. In a brief press interview on 18 December 20001 Fukimora would deny rumors that more dig finds he was involved in were also fakes.
2000 At Kfar Shouba, Lebanon, at the border with Israel, four children catch an Israeli cow which wandered over the border. They say that would only hand it back in exchange for goats of theirs which have drifted over to Israel.
1999 Chechens flee despite Russian assurances of safety (CNN)
1999 Andy Hiller, the political correspondent for WHDH-TV in Boston, asks presidential candidate George W. Bush if he could name the president of Chechnya (Aslan Maskhadov), the general who recently took power in Pakistan (General Pervez Musharraf in a 12 October coup), the new prime minister of India (Atal Behari Vajpayee since 19 March 1998), the president of Taiwan (Lee Teng-hui since 13 Jan 1988, who would be followed by Chen Shui-bian on 20 May 2000). Bush can answer only that this last one is "Lee."
1999 Un juez de Estados Unidos declara que Microsoft mantiene una situación de monopolio en el mercado de los sistemas operativos para ordenadores personales.
1999 Concluye en Bonn la V Conferencia Internacional del Clima, con más de 4000 participantes reunidos con el objetivo de establecer las normas que permitan reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero a la atmósfera.
^ 1998 Microsoft acquires LinkExchange
      Microsoft announces that it has purchased LinkExchange, an Internet advertising firm selling banner space. Industry experts valued the deal at about $250,000. LinkExchange was known for selling banners on some 400,000 Web sites, reaching an estimated twenty-two million unique Web viewers. The move boosted Microsoft's presence in online media. The company had started abandoning its earlier attempts at creating online entertainment content in favor of practical Web tools like Expedia, a travel service.
1997 Dow Jones announces that its Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition had attracted more than 150'000 paid subscribers since it started charging for access about a year earlier.
1996 US President Bill Clinton is re-elected, defeating Republican challenger Bob Dole, but Congress remains in Republican control.
1996 Russian President Boris Yeltsin underwent successful heart bypass surgery.
1994 Former US President Reagan disclosed he had Alzheimer's disease.
1994 El ciclista suizo Tony Rominger bate el récord de la hora, con 55,291 km.
1992 El Parlamento de Georgia nombra a Eduard Amvroseyevich Shevardnadze jefe del Estado y le otorga poderes especiales.
1992 La poetisa cubana Dulce María Loynaz es galardonada con el Premio Miguel de Cervantes de Literatura.
1992 Former US world chess champion Bobby Fischer triumphed in his $5 million rematch against Russian arch-rival Boris Spassky. The match in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, was staged in defiance of UN sanctions against the Yugoslav federation.
1991 Kiichi Miyazawa is appointed premier of Japan, succeeding Toshiki Kaifu. — Kiichi Miyazawa, jefe de los liberales demócratas de Japón, asume el cargo de presidente del Gobierno como sucesor de Toshiki Kaifu.
1991 Roban casi 3000 millones de dólares en la Caja Agraria de Santafé de Bogotá (Colombia), en una acción calificada como el "asalto del siglo".
1991 The US Senate confirmed Robert M. Gates as CIA director
1990 The US Supreme Court let stand an order requiring the US Army to permit homosexuals to re-enlist.
1989 La derecha griega de Konstantinos Mitsotakis se queda a tres escaños de la mayoría absoluta en las elecciones presidenciales.
1988 Cornell confirms grad student source of worst computer sabotage
1987 Se firma en el Congreso de los Diputados de Madrid el Pacto Antiterrorista por todos los partidos políticos con representación parlamentaria, a excepción de Eusko Alkartasuna (EA) y Herri Batasuna (HB).
1987 Iceberg twice the size of Rhode Island sighted in Antarctic
^ 1987 African National Congress leader is released
      In South Africa, Govan Mbeki [09 Jul 1910 – 30 Aug 2001], an early leader of the African National Congress, is released from Robben Island prison after serving twenty-four years. As chairman of the anti-apartheid African National Congress, Mbeki stood alongside Nelson Mandela [18 Jul 1918~] at the Rivonia Trial in 1964, and was sentenced to life in prison for treason against the White minority government of South Africa. Mbeki was an influential political theorist and writer, and his seminal work on the Mpondo Rebellion, The Peasants' Revolt, was banned in South Africa until 1990. After Nelson Mandela was released (11 Feb 1990) and the African National Congress legalized, Govan Mbeki's son Thabo played a major role in the negotiations for a new political system in South Africa. Thabo Mbeki [18 Jun 1942~], who lived in exile during his father's imprisonment, was elected on 02 June 1999, to succeed Nelson Mandela as South African president.
1987 Supreme Court nominee Douglas H. Ginsburg admits having used marijuana
1986 Es descubierto un arsenal de ETA con numerosos documentos en la empresa Sokoa de Hendaya.
1985 Concluye en Palermo el sumario más completo de la historia contra la Mafia. Tras 10 años de trabajo, el juez Falcone acusa a 709 mafiosos, en las 8000 páginas que componen el sumario. [menos mal que era un sumario]
1978 Iranian PM Jaafar Sharif-Emami resigns to Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
1976 The United Auto Workers union and officials for the Chrysler Corporation reach a tentative labor agreementl, which still needed approval from local union chiefs. It includes a wage increase and an improved benefits package. The UAW, after a four-week strike, had gotten the Ford Motor Company to sign a similar contract earlier that fall.
1975 En Argentina prácticamente todos los sectores políticos del país piden a la presidenta María Estela Martínez de Perón que abandone su cargo.
1974 Ella T. Grasso was elected governor of Connecticut, the first woman to win a gubernatorial office in the US without succeeding her husband.
1971 En Bolivia se restablece parcialmente la pena de muerte para poner fin a los numerosos secuestros políticos de los últimos meses.
1971 En España comandos de "lucha antimarxista" destruyen veinticuatro grabados de Pablo Picasso en Madrid.
1970 Vietnam: US combat deaths down
      US Military Assistance Command Vietnam reports the lowest weekly death toll in five years. Twenty-four US soldiers died in combat during the last week of October, the fifth consecutive week that the US death toll was under 50. Although the numbers of American dead were down, 431 were wounded during the reported period, mostly from mines, booby traps, and mortar and sniper fire. The reduced number of US casualties reflected the gradual transfer of the responsibility for the war to the South Vietnamese under President Nixon's Vietnamization program. While US troops were still conducting combat operations, more and more of them were being withdrawn from Vietnam and the nature of their operations became more defensive.
^ 1969 Black Panther founder sentenced in Chicago Eight trial
     In Chicago, Illinois, Bobby Seale [22 Oct 1936~], the founder of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, is sentenced to four years in prison on sixteen counts of contempt of court. Seale was being tried as a member of the Chicago Eight, political radicals accused of conspiring to incite the riots that occurred during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. In August of 1968, Seale's co-defendants organized demonstrations at the Democratic National Convention to protest the Vietnam War and its support by the top Democratic presidential candidate, Vice President Hubert Humphrey [27 May 1911 – 13 Jan 1978].
      During the convention, which was the most violent in US history, police and national guardsmen clashed with antiwar protesters, as hundreds of people, including innocent bystanders and members of the press, were beaten by the Chicago police often in full view of television cameras. In the aftermath, a federal commission investigating the convention described the most brutal confrontation as a "police riot" and blamed Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley [15 May 1902 – 20 Dec 1976] for inciting his police to violence (it is Daley who said at the time of the police riots: "The policeman is not there to create disorder. The policeman is there to preserve disorder."}.
      Nevertheless eight political radicals were arrested on charges of conspiring to incite riots, and on 24 September 1969, their trial began in Chicago. Unlike his seven co-defendants, Seale had played no part in organizing the convention demonstrations, but his Black Panther Party, which advocated armed resistance as a means of achieving Black liberation, was found guilty by association. Given his unique situation, Seale vocally conducted his own defense to the chagrin of Judge Julius Hoffman, who ordered him bound and gagged for three days beginning on 29 October. The judge subsequently declared Seale's case a mistrial, and on 05 November 1969 sentences him to four years in prison for contempt of court.
      The Chicago Eight subsequently became the Chicago Seven. One month after Seale became a prisoner, Fred Hampton [1948 – 04 Dec 1969], the Illinois chairman of the Black Panther Party, was shot and killed by the Chicago police during an early morning police raid. The police maintained that a gunfight occurred during the raid, but out of seventy bullet holes in the headquarters, only one round came from the Panthers.
^ 1968 Electors are elected for Richard Nixon as president of the US
     Eight years after being defeated by John F. Kennedy [29 May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963], Republican challenger Richard Milhaus Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] defeats Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey [27 May 1911 – 13 Jan 1978], in one of the closest presidential elections in US history. Because of the strong showing (13.5% of the votes) of third-party candidate George C. Wallace [25 Aug 1919 – 13 Sep 1998], neither Nixon nor Humphrey received more than 50% of the popular vote; Nixon (43.4%) beat Humphrey (42.7%) by less than 500'000 votes. But Nixon gets 301 electors, Humphrey 191 and Wallace 46.
      Nixon campaigned on a platform designed to reach the "silent majority" of middle class and working class people. He promised to "bring us together again," and many US citizens, weary after years of antiwar and civil rights protests, were happy to hear of peace returning to their streets. Foreign policy was also a major factor in the election. Humphrey was saddled with a Democratic foreign policy that led to what appeared to be absolute futility and agony in Vietnam. Nixon promised to find a way to "peace with honor" in Vietnam, though he was never entirely clear about how this was to be accomplished. The US people, desperate to find a way out of the Vietnam quagmire, were apparently ready to give the Republican an opportunity to make good on his claim. During his presidency, Nixon oversaw some dramatic changes in US Cold War foreign policy, most notably his policy of detente with the Soviet Union and his 1972 visit to communist China. His promise to bring peace with honor in Vietnam, however, was more difficult to accomplish. US troops were not withdrawn until 1973, and South Vietnam fell to Communist forces in 1975.
      In 1962 Nixon ran for governor of California and lost in a bitter campaign against Edmund G. ("Pat") Brown. Most political observers believed that they wouldn't have Nixon to kick around any more, but by February 1968, he had sufficiently recovered his political standing in the Republican Party to announce his candidacy for president. Taking a stance between the more conservative elements of his party led by Ronald Reagan and the liberal Northeastern wing led by Governor Nelson Rockefeller, Nixon won the nomination at the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach.
      For his running mate, he chose governor of Maryland Spiro T. Agnew [09 Nov 1918 – 17 Sep 1996]. His Democratic opponent, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, was weakened by internal divisions within his own party, stemming in part from the growing dissatisfaction with the Johnson administration's handling of the Vietnam War. Alabama governor George C. Wallace — running on a third party ticket — further complicates the election (he receives about 13% of the vote nationwide and wins five Southern states).. Although Nixon and Humphrey each gained about 43% of the popular vote, the distribution of Nixon's nearly 32 million votes gave him a clear majority in the electoral college.
1967 Un golpe de Estado militar en Yemen derroca al mariscal 'Abd Allah as-Sallal.
1964 Charles Townes of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Russian scientists Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov win the Nobel Prize “for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.”. Townes, who had worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories and later taught at the University of California at Berkeley, developed the maser and the laser. — MORE
1964 Nuevo Gobierno de coalición en Venezuela.
1957 Con la elección del radical socialista Félix Gaillard [05 Nov 1919 – 10 Jul 1970] como Président du Conseil, finaliza en Francia una crisis de Gobierno que duró 35 días, since the 30 September 1957 fall of the government of Maurice Bourgues-Maunoury [1914-1993].
1956 Attaque franco-britannique contre l'Egypte.
      Suite à la nationalisation du canal par le raïs Nasser le 26 Jul 1956, les Français et les Britanniques ont convenu avec les Israéliens d'attaquer conjointement l'Egypte. Les Israéliens se lancent dans le Sinai le 29 octobre et les parachutistes franco-britanniques sautent sur Port-Saïd sous le prétexte de protéger le canal. Ils devront finalement se retirer sous la pression des diplomates américains et soviétiques, ces derniers menaçant de faire usage de leurs missiles. Le tintamarre provoqué par cette expédition de caractère colonial aura permis à l'URSS de réprimer tranquillement une révolte populaire en Hongrie.
1953 Dimite en Israel el primer ministro, David Ben Gurión.
1946 John F Kennedy (D-MA) elected to the US House of Representatives while Republican capture control of both the Senate and the House in midterm elections.
1942 En el transcurso de la Segunda Guerra Mundial el Gobierno de Vichy y el de Inglaterra firman un armisticio por el que Madagascar pasa a manos de los aliados.
1940 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) is elected to an unprecedented 3rd term beating Wendell L. Willkie (R)
^ 1937 Hitler's secret war plans
      Adolf Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945] holds a secret conference in the Reich Chancellery and revealed his plans for acquiring Lebensraum—living space—for the German people. Present at the meeting were War Minister Werner von Blomberg [02 Sep 1878 – 22 Mar 1946], Army Commander-in-Chief Werner von Fritsch [04 Aug 1880 – 22 Sep 1939], Navy Commander-in-Chief Erich Raeder [24 Apr 1876 – 06 Nov 1960], Luftwaffe Commander-in-Chief Hermann Göring [12 Jan 1893 – 15 Oct 1946], and Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath [02 Feb 1873 – 14 Aug 1956]. Colonel Friedrich Hossbach took the minutes; thus this historic meeting has become known as the Hossbach Memorandum. Hitler began by swearing all present to secrecy. Then he made the grandiose declaration that in the event of his death, the following exposition should be regarded as his last will and testament. Hitler explained that Germany had a "tightly packed racial core" and was entitled to greater living space. He then compared the Third Reich to the Roman and British empires, which had both taken heavy military risks to expand their territories. Hitler slowly unfolded his war intentions. He said that military action was to be taken by 1943, 1945 at the latest. They would begin by seizing Czechoslovakia and Austria to protect Germany's eastern and southern flanks. Then Hitler outlined three different military strategies for conquering the "two hate-inspired antagonists," Britain and France. Hitler's nonchalance about the enormous risks of starting a European war shocked his colleagues. Blomberg and Fritsch repeatedly noted that "Britain and France must not appear in the roles of our enemies." Within three months, both men were removed from office, and Hitler himself assumed supreme command of the German Military. Foreign Minister von Neurath was so overwhelmed by the Hossbach Conference that he began suffering heart attacks. He was also removed from office in February 1938 and replaced by Joachim von Ribbentrop [30 Apr 1893 – 16 Oct 1946]. After the war, the Hossbach Memorandum was used in the Nuremberg war crimes trials as evidence of conspiracy to wage war. — (051104)
1935 Maryland Court of Appeals orders U of M to admit (black) Donald Murray
1934 En España se impone de nuevo la censura previa en la prensa.
1933 Hermann Wilhelm Goering comparece como testigo en el proceso por el incendio del Reichstag.
1933 Se celebra el plebiscito para el estatuto vasco.
1932 En Manchuria 30'000 soldados se rebelan contra sus oficiales japoneses.
1930 Sinclair Lewis is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humor, new types of characters." Lewis, born in Sauk Center, Minnesota, is the first American to win the distinguished award. Lewis established his literary reputation in the 1920s with a series of satirical novels about small-town life in the US, including Main Street (1920), Babbitt (1922), Arrowsmith (1925), and Elmer Gantry (1927). In these novels, his central characters strive to escape their emotionally and intellectually repressive environments, with varying degrees of success. In 1926, he turned down the Pulitzer Prize awarded him for Arrowsmith, but in 1930 decided to accept the prestigious Nobel Prize, determined by the Swedish Academy.
. — MORE
LEWIS ONLINE: Babbitt, Babbitt, Babbitt, Main Street, Main Street, Our Mr. Wrenn, Our Mr. Wrenn
1929 El asistente médico de 25 años Werner Forssmann publica en Klinische Wochenschrift un artículo sobre el sondado de la parte derecha del corazón.
1929 El volcán guatemalteco Santa María entra en erupción.
1928 El republicano Herbert Clark Hoover, elegido presidente de los Estados Unidos.
^ 1922 Découverte du tombeau de Toutânkhamon
      Howard Carter [09 May 1873 – 02 Mar 1939] découvre le tombeau du pharaon Toutânkhamon dans la Vallée des Rois. "De l'or, une montagne d'or!" s'écrie-t-il sous le coup de l'émotion. Après cinq campagnes de fouilles infructueuses, l'archéologue britannique et son mécène, lord Carnavon, ont le bonheur de promener leur regard sur la seule sépulture pharaonique qui n'ait pas déjà été pillée. Les deux hommes méritent de figurer aux côtés de Champollion le Jeune parmi les grands inventeurs de l'égyptologie moderne. La tombe se situe dans la vallée des Rois, en face de Louxor, dans une région désertique de Moyenne Egypte où les pharaons du Nouvel Empire avaient pris l'habitude de faire aménager leur dernière demeure. Pour éviter le sort réservé aux pyramides de leurs lointains ancêtres de l'Ancien Empire, ils avaient choisi de creuser leur tombe dans le roc et d'en dissimuler l'accès aux regards.Il n'empêche que les pillards eurent tôt fait de les découvrir. Howard Carter avait néanmoins acquis la conviction qu'il subsistait une tombe inconnue, parmi toutes celles des pharaons recensés dans les chroniques. C'est ainsi qu'il découvrit la tombe de Toutânkhamon. Mort à 18 ans, vers 1360 avant JC, le jeune roi et un règne falot et dt attendre 3300 ans pour connaître la gloire! Sa momie nous est arrivée intacte ainsi que tous ses fabuleux trésors. Au total plus de 2000 objets en or, en albâtre et en pierres précieuses, dont le célèbre masque mortuaire du jeune pharaon. L'ensemble est aujourd'hui visible au musée du Caire. Des expositions itinérantes ont développé dans le monde la passion du public pour l'Egypte ancienne.
1921 Mongolia Exterior concluye un tratado de amistad con Rusia.
1920 Hallado en el Hospital Real de Santiago de Compostela un retrato de Carlos IV pintado por Francisco de Goya y Lucientes.
1917 General Pershing and US troops see action on Western Front for 1st time
1917 In Moscow, following abdication of Russian Czar Nicholas II, the historic Orthodox Church Council of 1917_1918 restored the office of patriarch, suppressed by Peter the Great in 1700.
1917 Supreme Court decision (Buchanan v Warley) strikes down Lousiville KY ordinance requiring blacks & whites to live in separate areas
1916 El emperador alemán Guillermo II y el emperador austriaco Francisco José I proclaman el reino independiente de Polonia.
1914 Gran Bretaña, Francia y Rusia declaran la guerra al Imperio Otomano, en el contexto de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Gran Bretaña ocupa Chipre. — Britain annexes Cyprus
1913 Ludwig III crowned king of Bavaria
^ 1912 Wilson is elected US president in landslide
      Democrat Thomas Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924] is elected the twenty-eighth president of the United States, with Thomas R. Marshall [14 Mar 1854 – 01 Jun 1925] as vice president. In a landslide Democratic victory, Wilson wins 435 electoral votes against the eight won by Republican incumbent William Howard Taft [15 Sep 1857 – 08 Mar 1930], and the eighty-eight won by Progressive Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt [27 Oct 1858 – 06 Jan 1919]. The presidential election is the only one in American history in which two former presidents are defeated by another candidate in the same election. Highlights of Wilson's two terms as president include his leadership during World War I, his fourteen-point proposal to end the conflict, and his championship of the League of Nations — an international organization formed to prevent future armed conflict.
1912 Las tropas búlgaras toman por asalto las fortificaciones de Constantinopla y cortan los suministros de agua a la ciudad.
1911 First bombing from airplanes
      It took several years for military minds to think of the airplane as more than a sporting device. However, on 05 November 1911, Italians proved that planes could be used for less sporting activities when they dropped bombs on an oasis in Libya. During World War I, aerial bombing evolved as a deadly form of warfare. Munitions plants were the early targets, but cities and towns later suffered devastation from the skies.
1911 Italy attacks Turkey, takes Tripoli and Cyrenaica
1911 Calbraith Rodgers arrives in Pasadena completing the first transcontinental airplane flight (49 days) (left Sheepshead Bay, NY, 17 September 1911)
1910 Nueva reunión entre Guillermo II emperador de Alemania y Nicolás II zar de Rusia en Orianenburgo. Ambos soberanos preparan una convención que debería garantizar la paz.
1910 España adopta el acuerdo de introducir el ancho de vía normal europeo para sus ferrocarriles.
1900 La Guardia Civil captura en Valencia al bandido José Martorell, alías "Pinet".
^ 1895 Selden receives first automobile patent
      Inventor George B. Selden [14 Sep 1846 – 17 Jan 1922] receives a patent for his gasoline-powered automobile, first conceived of when he was an infantryman in the US Civil War. After sixteen years of delay, United States Patent No. 549'160 was finally issued to Selden for a machine he originally termed a "road-locomotive" and later would call a "road engine." His design resembled a horse-drawn carriage, with high wheels and a buckboard, and was described by Selden as "light in weight, easy to control and possessed of sufficient power to overcome any ordinary incline."
      With the granting of the patent, Selden, whose unpractical automotive designs were generally far behind other innovators in the field, nevertheless won a monopoly on the concept of combining an internal combustion engine with a carriage. Although Selden never became an auto manufacturer himself, every other automaker would have to pay Selden and his licensing company a significant pertentage of their profits for the right to construct a motor car, even though their automobiles rarely resembled Selden's designs in anything but abstract concept. In 1903, the newly created Ford Motor Company, which refused to pay royalties to Selden's licensing company, was sued for infringement on the patent. Thus began one of the most celebrated litigation cases in the history of the automotive industry, ending in 1909 when a New York court upheld the validity of Selden's patent. Henry Ford and his increasingly powerful company appealed the decision, and in 1911 the New York Court of Appeals again ruled in favor of Selden's patent, but with a twist: the patent was held to be restricted to the particular outdated construction it described. In 1911, every important automaker used a motor significantly different from that described in Selden's patent, and major manufacturers like the Ford Motor Company never paid Selden another dime.
^ 1893 Willa Cather starts writing for the Nebraska State Journal
      Columns by Willa Cather [07 Dec 1873 – 24 Apr 1947] begin appearing in the Nebraska State Journal. Cather was the first of seven children born to an old Virginia family dating back to colonial times. Her maternal grandfather served several terms in the Virginia House of Delegates. Her grandmother was a strong, courageous woman who had a powerful influence on Cather and served as the model for several of her characters. Cather's family moved to Red Cloud, Nebraska, when she was a child and for the rest of her life wrote about the deep conflict she felt between East and West. While books like O Pioneers! (1913) and My Antonia (1918) celebrated the spirit of the frontier, in other works, like The Song of the Lark (1915), she explored the stifling effects of small-town life on creative young minds.
      After graduating from the University of Nebraska in Lincoln in 1895, Cather moved to Pittsburgh to be an editor for a family magazine. She later became an editor for the daily paper in Pittsburgh. In 1901, she became a teacher and stuck with it for several years while she published her first book of verse, April Twilights (1903), and her first collection of stories, The Troll Garden and Selected Stories (1905). She moved to New York to take a job as managing editor of McClure's, a monthly magazine; she also began writing novels. Her first, Alexander's Bridge, appeared in 1912, but she didn't find her true voice until O Pioneers!. Cather won a Pulitzer in 1922 for One of Ours. Her 1927 novel, Death Comes for the Archbishop, the story of two French-Canadian priests who build a cathedral in the wilds of New Mexico, was also well received. Cather lived most of her adult life in New York, writing novels until she died.
CATHER ONLINE:
  • One of Ours
  • One of Ours
  • The Song of the Lark
  • The Song of the Lark
  • Alexander's Bridge
  • My Antonia
  • O Pioneers!
  • The Professor's House
  • The Troll Garden and Selected Stories
  • Youth and the Bright Medusa
  • 1872 Susan B. Anthony fined $100 for trying to vote (for Ulysses S Grant).
    ^ 1862 Lincoln fires McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
          A tortured relationship ends when US President Lincoln removes General George B. McClellan [03 Dec 1826 – 29 Oct 1885] from command of the Army of the Potomac. McClellan ably built the army in the early stages of the war but was a sluggish and paranoid field commander who seemed unable to muster the courage to aggressively engage the Army of Northern Virginia commanded by General Robert E. Lee [19 Jan 1807 – 12 Oct 1870].
          McClellan was a promising commander who served as a railroad president before the war. In the early stages of the conflict, troops under McClellan's command scored several important victories in the struggle for western Virginia. Lincoln summoned "Young Napoleon," as some called the general, to Washington to take control of the Army of the Potomac a few days after its humiliating defeat at the Battle of First Bull Run on 21 July 1861. Over the next nine months, McClellan capably built a splendid army, drilling his troops and assembling an efficient command structure. He also developed extreme contempt for the president, and he often dismissed Lincoln's suggestions out of hand.
          In 1862, McClellan led the army down Chesapeake Bay to the James Peninsula, southeast of the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. During this campaign, he exhibited the timidity and sluggishness that later doomed him. During the Seven Days' battles, McClellan was poised near Richmond but retreated when faced with a series of attacks by Lee. McClellan always believed that he was vastly outnumbered, though he actually had the numerical advantage. He spent the rest of the summer camped on the peninsula while Lincoln began moving much of his command to the Army of Virginia of General John Pope [16 Mar 1822 – 23 Sep 1892].
          After Lee defeated Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run on 29 and 30 August 1862, he invaded Maryland. With the Confederates crashing into Union territory, Lincoln had no choice but to turn to McClellan to gather the reeling Yankee forces and stop Lee. On 17 September 1862, McClellan and Lee battled to a standstill along Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg. Lee retreated back to Virginia and McClellan ignored Lincoln's constant urging to pursue him. For six weeks, Lincoln and McClellan exchanged angry messages, but McClellan stubbornly refused to march after Lee. In late October, McClellan finally began moving across the Potomac in feeble pursuit of Lee, but he took nine days to complete the crossing. Lincoln had seen enough. Convinced that McClellan could never defeat Lee, Lincoln notifies the general on 04 November of his removal. A few days later, Lincoln would name General Ambrose Burnside [23 May 1824 – 13 Sep 1881] to be the commander of the Army of the Potomac.
          After his removal, McClellan battled with Lincoln once more: for the presidency in 1864. McClellan won the Democratic nomination but was easily defeated by his old boss. — (051104)
    ^ 1862: More than 300 oppressed Santee Sioux sentenced to hang
          In Minnesota, more than 300 Santee Sioux are found guilty of raping and murdering Anglo settlers and are sentenced to hang. A month later, President Abraham Lincoln commuted all but 39 of the death sentences. One of the Indians was granted a last-minute reprieve, but the other 38 were hanged simultaneously on December 26 in a bizarre mass execution witnessed by a large crowd of approving Minnesotans.
          The Santee Sioux were found guilty of joining in the so-called "Minnesota Uprising," which was actually part of the wider Indian wars that plagued the West during the second half of the nineteenth century. For nearly half a century, Anglo settlers invaded the Santee Sioux territory in the beautiful Minnesota Valley, and government pressure gradually forced the Indians to relocate to smaller reservations along the Minnesota River. At the reservations, the Santee were badly mistreated by corrupt federal Indian agents and contractors; during July 1862, the agents pushed the Indians to the brink of starvation by refusing to distribute stores of food because they had not yet received their customary kickback payments. The contractors callously ignored the Santee's pleas for help.
          Outraged and at the limits of their endurance, the Santee finally struck back, killing Anglo settlers and taking women as hostages. The initial efforts of the US Army to stop the Santee warriors failed, and in a battle at Birch Coulee, Santee Sioux killed 13 US soldiers and wounded another 47. However, on 23 September, a force under the leadership of General Henry H. Sibley finally defeated the main body of Santee warriors at Wood Lake, recovering many of the hostages and forcing most of the Indians to surrender. The subsequent trials of the prisoners gave little attention to the injustices the Indians had suffered on the reservations and largely catered to the popular desire for revenge. However, President Lincoln's commutation of the majority of the death sentences clearly reflected his understanding that the Minnesota Uprising had been rooted in a long history of Anglo abuse of the Santee Sioux.
    1854 A decisive British-French victory over the Russians in the Crimea.
    1838 Honduras declares independence from Central American Federation — Honduras se separa de las Provincias Unidas de América Central y se proclama Estado soberano e independiente.
    1814 A future mathematician reaches the age of n days, where n is the answer to a puzzle which he would later make up: “I have a large number of stamps to the value of 5 pence and 17 pence only. What is the largest denomination which I cannot make up with a combination of these two different values?” [You can find the mathematician's name by looking up his birth notice in History 4 Today]. [If you can find a proof of the answer, sent it to the reverse of moc.enilnorbg@yad24 which is here given thus to prevent spam]
    1811 El Salvador's 1st battle against Spain for independence
    ^ 1806 Neutral Ground agreed upon between US and New Spain.
          After the Louisiana Purchase, the United States and Spain were unable to agree on the boundary between Louisiana and Texas. In order to avert an armed clash, Gen. James Wilkinson and Lt. Col. Simón de Herrera, the US and Spanish military commanders respectively, on 05 November 1806, entered into an agreement declaring the disputed territory Neutral Ground. The boundaries of the Neutral Ground were never officially described beyond a general statement that the Arroyo Hondo on the east and the Sabine River on the west were to serve as boundaries. It may be safely assumed, however, that the Gulf of Mexico constituted the Southern boundary and the thirty-second parallel of latitude formed the northern boundary. Although it had been stipulated in the agreement that no settlers would be permitted in the Neutral Ground, settlers from both Spanish and US territory moved in. The two governments were compelled to send joint military expeditions in 1810 and 1812 to expel outlaws who were making travel and trade in the neutral strip dangerous and unprofitable. Ownership of the strip went to United States by the Adams-Onís Treaty of 22 February 1819.
    1781 John Hanson elected first "President of the United States in Congress assembled"
    1741 (25 October Julian) Bering discovers Kiska Island
         "On October 25, we had very clear weather and sunshine, but even so it hailed at various times in the afternoon. We were surprised in the morning to discover a large tall island at 51 to the north of us.". Thus wrote the naturalist-physician, Georg Wilhelm Steller ( Journal of a Voyage with Bering, 1741-1742), about the discovery of Kiska Island in the Aleutian Island chain of present day Alaska. His entries provide a detailed first-hand account of the final voyage of the navigator and explorer, Captain-Commander Vitus Jonassen Bering.
    1712 Felipe V de España firma un acta de renuncia a la Corona de Francia para él y sus descendientes.
    ^ 1605 The Gunpowder Plot discovered when a guy is caught.
          In the early morning, King James I of England learns that a plot to explode the Parliament building has been uncovered, hours before he was scheduled to sit with the rest of the British government in a general parliamentary session.
          At about midnight on the night of 04 to 05 November, Sir Thomas Knyvet, a justice of the peace, found Guy Fawkes lurking in a cellar of the Parliament building, and ordered the premises searched. Nearly two tons of gunpowder were found in some 20 barrels hidden within the cellar.
          The authorities determine, in part through an extended torture of Fawkes, that the suspect was a participant in an English Catholic conspiracy, largely organized by Robert Catesby, to annihilate England's entire Protestant government. During the next few months, English authorities kill or capture all of the conspirators, and put the survivors on trial along with a number of innocent English Catholics. Guy Fawkes himself is sentenced, along with other chief conspirators, to be hanged, drawn, and quartered in London. However, moments before the start of his gruesome execution, Fawkes jumps from a ladder while climbing to the hanging platform, breaking his neck and dying instantly.
         When Pope Pius V excommunicated Queen Elizabeth in l570, English Catholics did not like obeying a queen that their pope had banned from the Church. Some even plotted to assassinate her. During Elizabeth's reign, her "secret service" uncovered three Catholic plots to remove her from the throne. After her death in 1603, small groups of Catholics believed the disease of Protestantism in England called for a violent remedy. They made plans to blow up the English House of Lords on the day Parliament was to meet. Many of the country's leaders would be killed — King James I, his royal family, the House of Lords, and many from the House of Commons. With all these leaders dead, the plotters hoped to see England returned to Catholicism.
         What became known as the Gunpowder Plot was organized by Robert Catesby, an English Catholic whose father had been persecuted by Queen Elizabeth I for refusing to conform to the Church of England. Guy Fawkes had converted to Catholicism, and his religious zeal led him to fight in the Spanish army in the Netherlands. Catesby and the handful of other plotters rented a cellar that extended under Parliament, and Fawkes planted the gunpowder there, hiding the barrels under coal and wood.
          As the 05 November meeting of Parliament approached, Catesby enlisted more English Catholics into the conspiracy, and one of these, Francis Tresham, warned his Catholic brother-in-law Lord Monteagle not to attend Parliament that day. Monteagle alerted the government, and hours before the attack was to have taken place Fawkes and the explosives were found.
          Working for more than a year, the conspirators in the British plot rented a vault under the House of Lords. They filled it with 36 barrels of gunpowder which they hid under some firewood, and then waited to light the match when Parliament opened. Learning of the plot, the king's men at night on this day 05 November 1605, captured Guy Fawkes standing guard over the gunpowder. Tortured in the Tower of London, Fawkes revealed the whole plot and named his accomplices. Parliament then passed stricter laws against Catholics, and the country concluded that the discovery of Guy Fawkes and his plot was God's Providence protecting England.
         In 1606, Parliament established 05 November as a day of public thanksgiving. The British still ceremoniously search the cellars before opening each session of parliament, and on Guy Fawkes Day, the British light bonfires, set off fireworks, and hang and burn effigies of Guy Fawkes,. Thus, the English word "guy", has come to mean a stuffed dummy. In the US the word simply refers to an ordinary fellow.

    La "Conspiration des Poudres" est découverte à Londres.
          D'anciens officiers catholiques, en relation avec les gouvernants espagnols et peut-être les jésuites, envisagent de faire sauter le Parlement de Westminster le jour même de la séance inaugurale, en présence du roi et de ses ministres. L'un des conjurés, Guy Fawkes, est arrêté alors qu'il s'apprêtait à mettre le feu à 36 barils de poudre. Ces conjurés catholiques reprochent au roi anglican Jacques Ier Stuart son intolérance à leur égard comme envers les puritains. Ils sont contraints à la fuite ou exécutés sitôt découverte leur conspiration. En souvenir de celle-ci, les enfants anglais ont gardé l'habitude de faire éclater des pétards en ce 5 novembre. Un roi mal-aimé Fils de Marie Stuart, reine d'Ecosse, et héritier d'Elizabeth 1ère, Jacques 1er est devenu roi d'Angleterre et roi d'Ecosse deux ans plus tôt. Il se montre aussitôt désireux d'unir les deux couronnes. Partisan de l'absolutisme, il veut renforcer son pouvoir en prenant appui sur la religion anglicane, qui fait du roi le chef de l'Eglise nationale. Il est amené aussi à s'opposer aux revendications du Parlement ainsi qu'à persécuter les catholiques et les puritains. Ces derniers commencent à émigrer en masse vers le Nouveau Monde. Les catholiques, quant à eux, tentent mais en vain de se débarrasser du roi. Ce dernier va accroître les haines contre sa personne en accordant sa confiance à un favori méprisable, le beau George Villiers, futur duc de Buckhingham (et amant de la reine de France Anne d'Autriche, si l'on en croit l'auteur des "Quatre mousquetaires").
    ^ 1556 Mughal victory assures Akbar's ascension
          80 km north of Delhi, a Mughal army defeats the forces of Hemu, a Hindu general who was trying to usurp the Mughal throne from 14-year-old Akbar, the recently proclaimed emperor. The Mughals, whose culture blended Perso-Islamic and regional Indian elements, established an empire in the north of India in the early 16th century. Victory at Panipat assured Akbar's ascension, but the empire he inherited from his father was greatly diminished after decades of Mughal defeats against the Hindus and Afghans.
          Under a series of able regents and then under his own brilliant leadership, Akbar brought the Mughal empire to unprecedented glory, extending Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. Akbar the Great, as he is known, was as a capable an administrator as he was a general, and he twice married Hindu princesses to ensure the unity of his empire. Although he never renounced Islam, he took an active interest in other religions and his court was a center of learning and culture. Akbar died in 1605. The Mughal Empire declined in the 18th century.
    1529 Se reúne en Valladolid una junta que decide la creación de la demarcación administrativa de Nueva España.
    1492 Christopher Columbus learns of maize (corn) from the Indians of Cuba
    1414 Council of Constance (16th ecumenical council) opens.
    TO THE TOP
    < 04 Nov 06 Nov >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 05 November:

    2008 Pedro Snchez Arteaga, 42, at 11:32 (UT) in the hospital 20-de-Noviembre of Mexico City, to which he had been taken the previous day with burns on 90% of his face and body, which he suffered in the explosion following the crash of Learjet 45 (registration XC-VMC). —(081108)
    2008 Timothy Romans, 39, and Vincent Romero, 29, whose 8-year-old son shoots them both with a .22-caliber rifle, in the Romero home in St.John, Arizona, where Romans, a co-worker of Vincent Romero, rented a room. Vincent Romero, divorced, had full custody of the boy. —(081125)
    2004 Nili Natho, 23, from Kafr Kama, a basketball player on the Israeli national team; her sister, Diana Natho, 19; and their woman cousin Raja Talash, 24, from the Galilee village of Rihania, near Kafr Kama in the Lower Galilee, as their car collides with a jeep. Six persons are injured
    2003 Sgt. 1st Class José A. Rivera, 34, of Bayamón, Puerto Rico, serving in Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, US Army, in Mumuhdyah, Iraq, after the patrol, of which he was part, comes under rocket propelled grenade and small arms fire.
    2002 Raymond F. Dasmann, 83, field biologist who promoted "ecodevelopment," in which a community's growth is not dependent on exploiting its natural resources, and he insisted that indigenous people have a central role in ecological solutions. He wrote more than a dozen books, including The Destruction of California (1965) and Environmental Conservation (1959).
    2001 Willie Lawson, 39, shot in the head with a pistol by his friend Steven Brasher, 42, in an argument over a missing beer. Brasher would explain: "There was only two beers left, so I took one, and I told Willie not to take my last beer." In Bandera, Texas, on 05 December 2002, a jury would sentence Brasher to life in prison.
    ^ 2000 Deven Joncich, 3, choked on “deadly mouthful” candy, 2 days earlier in Morgan Hill, California.
         On 3 November, the son of Kim and Andy Joncich (and grandson of Lorin Edlund) chokes on a “mini gel snack”. His mother does everything she can to try to get Deven to cough up the obstruction but, not succeeding, she phones 911. A policeman is the first to show up 10 minutes after the call. Brain~dead Deven is taken to the hospital in Gilroy where they do what they can and then fly him by helicopter to San Jose Medical center where they cannot not overcome the fact that his brain was without oxygen for over 10 minutes. He is declared dead on 5 November.
         Michelle Enrile, 12, of San José, California, would die from the same cause on 30 July 2001. In both cases, rescue workers said they couldn't dislodge the sticky gel from the children's throats. Despite over a dozen similar deaths, mostly in Asia, Taiwan-based Sheng Hsiang Jen Foods Co., the manufacturer of the gel candies, maintains that it is safe. The gel does not readily dissolve in the mouth and often come with a fruit chunk in the middle.
         In mid-August 2001, Safeway pulled the candy (sold as Jelly Yum) from 200 of its Northern California stores, and Albertson's (which sold it as Fruit Poppers and Gelly Drop) from 195 stores in Northern California. Neither Safeway nor Albertson's removed the candies from stores in other states.
         On 15 August 2001, the Santa Clara County Department of Public Health warned the public about the candy, recommending that it be cut in pieces before it's given to small children.
    2000 Maher Mouhmad al-Saidi, 16, shot in the head by Israelis, near the Al Bureij refugee camp in the Gaza Strip.
    1997 Isaiah Berlín, filósofo, historiador, crítico y profesor británico.
    1991 Nearly 7000 people were killed in floods in the Philippines.
    1991 Ian Robert Maxwell, 68, Billionaire publisher (NY Daily News) His body is found floating in the Atlantic Ocean off the Canary Islands.
    ^ 1990 Meir Kahane, Jewish extremist, assassinated
          Meir Kahane, an American-born rabbi and founder of the far-right Kach movement, is shot dead in New York City. Egyptian El Sayyid Nosair is later charged with the murder, but is acquitted in a state trial. However, the federal government later decides that the killing was part of an alleged terrorist conspiracy and thus claims the right to retry Nosair. In 1995, he is convicted of committing the murder as part of the conspiracy trial of alleged terrorist leader Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, and is sentenced to life imprisonment.
          Kahane, a charismatic Jewish leader who advocated expelling all Arabs from Israel, found many followers in Israel and the United States. His racist Jewish supremacy group, Kach, found support among the most extreme, heavily armed Jewish settlers in Israel's West Bank. In 1994, after a Jewish settler once affiliated with the Kach movement guns down twenty-nine Arabs worshipping in a mosque in the West Bank town of Hebron, Israel outlaws the organization. In 1995, Kahane's controversial impact on the history of Israel deepens when Yigal Amir, a Jewish law student, assassinates Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin. Amir is affiliated with Eyal, a Jewish extremist group that branched off from Kahane's Kach movement.
    1981 Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa, head of the Karma Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism, in Zion, USA. There would follow years of intrigues in the search for the 17th reincarnation, which on 29 June 1992 would be declared, both by the Chinese Communist government and by the Dalai Lama, to be Ugyen Trinley Dorje (born on 26 June 1985). This would be disputed by the partisans of one and perhaps two other claimants.
    1981 Mazur, mathematician.
    1973 Joaquín Maurin, político español.
    1963 Luis Cernuda, poeta español de la "generación del 27".
    1955 Maurice Utrillo, French artist born on 25 December 1883. — MORE ON UTRILLO AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1946 Joseph Stella, Italian US painter born on 13 June 1877. — MORE ON STELLA AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1944 Lord Moyne, British official, assassinated in Cairo, Egypt, by the Zionist Stern gang.
    1921 Keigo Kiyoura, 23rd Prime Minister of Japan (07Jan1924-11Jun1924), born on 14 February 1850 in Kumamoto Prefecture.
    1934 Walther von Dyck, mathematician.
    1906 Frits Johan Fredrik Thaulow, Norwegian artist born on 20 October 1847. — more
    1890 David Adolf Constant Artz, Dutch artist born on 18 December 1837.
    1882 Hermanus Koekkoek, Dutch artist born on 13 March 1815.
    1879 James Clerk Maxwell, mathematician and physicist, one of the three thinkers on whom Einstein built the theory of relativity.
    1872 Thomas Sully, British US artist born in 1783, specialized in portraits. — MORE ON SULLY AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1868 Franz Steinfeld, Austrian artist born on 26 May 1787.
    1807 Angelica Catharina Maria Anna Kauffman, Swiss Neoclassical painter and etcher born on 30 October 1740. — MORE ON KAUFFMAN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1800 Ramsden, mathematician.
    1741 Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Italian painter born on 29 April 1675. — MORE ON PELLEGRINI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1526 Ferro, mathematician.
    1525 Mariotto Albertinelli, Florentine painter born on 13 October 1474. — MORE ON ALBERTINELLI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1522 Andrés Amaral, caballero portugués y canciller de la orden de San Juan de Jerusalén.
     
    < 04 Nov 06 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 05 November:

    1998 La Razón, nuevo diario español fundado por Luis María Ansón Oliart, sale a la calle.
    1957 Las cartas boca abajo, de Antonio Buero Vallejo, se estrena en el teatro Reina Victoria, de Madrid.
    1952 Bob Thomason, mathematician.
    1948 Bernard-Henri Lévy, escritor francés.
    1945 Memorias de Leticia Valle de Rosa Chacel se publica.
    1944 Hijos de la ira de Dámaso Alonso se publica en Madrid
    1943 Sam Shepard US, actor/playwright (Frances, Crimes of the Heart)
    ^ 1935 Monopoly, the board game.
          Parker Brothers releases the board game Monopoly. The promise of piling up mighty sums of money and sending other players into financial ruin quickly propelled the game to best-seller status. Monopoly was actually a descendant of a board game patented in 1904 by Lizzie J. Magie, a Quaker from Virginia. Magie's invention, which she called the Landlord Game, was designed to promote her political belief in the passing of a single federal tax based on land ownership. The game spread through word of mouth and, in 1933, Charles B. Darrow mapped out his own version of the game on an oilcloth stretched across his kitchen table. Soon, he started selling homemade copies of the game to friends and relatives and demand quickly exceeded his supply. He decided to solve the problem by attempting to sell his game to an established manufacturer. Fearful that the game had too many rules and would take too long to play, Parker Brothers initially rejected Darrow's creation. Eventually, Parker Brothers came to its senses and snapped up rights to Monopoly, the best-selling game in history, for an undisclosed sum.
    1930 Frank Adams, mathematician.
    1927 Emilio Lledó, filósofo y escritor español.
    1925 Doña Inés, un nuevo libro de “Azorín” (José Martínez Ruiz) se publica.
    ^ 1919 Félix Gaillard d'Aimé, French politician who died on 10 July 1970.
          Il participe activement à la Résistance en France à partir de 1943. En 1946, il est élu député du parti Radical-Socialiste, et il participe à plusieurs gouvernements sous la Quatrième République.
          Il est appelé à la présidence du conseil des ministres le 05 novembre 1957 après la chute du gouvernement Bourgès-Maunoury. À l'époque, à 38 ans, c'est le plus jeune premier ministre jamais nommé en France. Cette précocité ne sera dépassée qu'avec Laurent Fabius (nomination à 37 ans 11 mois ) .
          Dans le gouvernement de Gaillard, qui conserve le portefeuille des finances, constitué le jour suivant, Jacques Chaban-Delmas est ministre de la Défense nationale. — le ministre de l'industrie et du commerce est Paul Ribeyre — le garde des sceaux, ministre de la justice, Robert Lecourt — le ministre des finances, des affaires économiques et du plan, Pierre Pflimlin.
          Le 08 Feb 1958, l'aviation française bombarde le village tunisien de Sakiet Sidi Youssef, afin de détruire un camp de repli du Front de libération nationale (FLN), causant la mort de 69 personnes, dont 21 enfants. L'émotion internationale est très vive, et le 17 Feb 1958, le gouvernement Gaillard est contraint d'accepter une médiation anglo-américaine sur la question algérienne. Il suscite de ce fait l'hostilité des militaires et des partisans de “l'Algérie française” Il est renversé à l'Assemblée nationale, le 15 Apr 1958, accusé de faiblesse face à la pression des Etats-Unis.
          Un mois durant, la France ne parvient pas à trouver un nouveau gouvernement. Le 13 May 1958 Pierre Pflimlin [05 Feb 1907 – 27 Jun 2000] est nommé pour un éphémère gouvernement de 15 jours. Charles de Gaulle [22 Nov 1890 – 09 Nov 1970] would follow on 01 Jun 1958 and bring to an end the 4th Republic by having the constitution of the 5th Republic approved by 83% of the voters in a referendum on 28 September 1958.
          De 1958 à 1961 Félix Gaillard est président du Parti Radical
          Il meurt dans un naufrage de son bateau de plaisance au large de Jersey.
    1893 Raymond Loewy, in Paris, inventor, engineer, and industrial designer. Loewy emphasized the importance of graphic design in the most mundane of industrial projects. He moved to the United States, where his design work included the Apollo and Skylab spacecrafts and Air Force One, as well as the US Post Office logo and Lucky Strike cigarette packs, not to mention and many other products such as pens, appliances, cars and trains.
    1888 Franz von Heckendorf, German artist who died in 1962.
    1887 Paul Wittgenstein Vienna Austria, left hand specialist pianist
    1885 Will Durant historian, co-author with his wife Ariel of The Story of Philosophy, and The Story of Civilization.
    1884 James Elroy Flecker English poet/dramatist (Hassan)
    1876 Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp (later Duchamp-Villon), French sculptor and draftsman who died on 07 Oct 1918. — more
    1866 Tauber, mathematician.
    1857 Ida Tarbell muckraker (Standard Oil was very unhappy)
    1857 Jean Antoine “Tony” Tollet, French artist who died in 1953.
    1855 Eugene V Debs labor organizer, Socialist presidential candidate
    1854 Paul Sabatier, químico francés, Premio Nobel en 1912.
    ^ 1935 Charles-Alexandre Dupuy, French politician who died on 23 July 1923. His governments during the period of the Dreyfus Affair failed to cope successfully with critical issues arising from the political and social tensions that emerged during the long controversy.
          A philosophy professor before his election to the Chamber of Deputies (1885) from the Haute-Loire département, Dupuy joined the moderate republicans of Jules Ferry. He served as minister of education from December 1892 to April 1893; he then formed his own government in April 1893 but resigned at the end of November 1893 and on 05 December 1893 was elected president of the Chamber. During his first week of office the anarchist Auguste Vaillant threw a bomb at him, and Dupuy's calm words, “Le débat continue, Messieurs,” won him much credit. He became premier and minister of the interior in May 1894 and was at the side of Pres. Sadi Carnot [11 Aug 1837 – 24 Jun 1894] when the latter was assassinated at Lyon.
          His Cabinet remained in office until January 1895, and it was under it that Capt. Alfred Dreyfus [19 Oct 1859 – 12 Jul 1935] was arrested and, two months later, condemned (December 1894). In November 1898, and after the Dreyfus case had at last been remitted to the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, Dupuy formed a government of republican concentration. A special law was passed that transferred the decision from the criminal section to the Court of Appeal sitting “toutes chambres réunies”. The latter decided that there must be a new court-martial, because the “bordereau”, the document that had led to Dreyfus' court-martial, was a forgery by Maj. F.W. Esterhazy [1847 – 21 May 1923]. This infuriated the anti-Dreyfusards, who staged demonstrations and insulted Pres. Émile Loubet [31 Dec 1838 – 20 Dec 1929] at Auteuil. Dupuy resigned on 12 June 1899. From June 1900 until his death he was senator for Haute-Loire.
    1849 Rui Barbosa Brazil, statesman/jurist/essayist/civil liberties
    1848 Glaisher, mathematician.
    1846 Gustavo Simoni, Italian artist who died in 1926.
    1822 Clara Adelheid (Sokl) Soterius von Sachsenheim, Austrian artist who died on 25 July 1861.
    1818 Benjamin F Butler Union general/presidential candidate (anti-monopoly)
    1791 Carl von Sales, Austrian artist who missed his 79th birthday by one day, dying on 04 November 1870.
    1751 Friedrich-Heinrich Füger, Austrian painter, a fahionable portraitist and respected master of his period. He died on 08 December 1818. — MORE ON FÜGER AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1722 Luis José Velázquez de Velasco, arqueólogo, historiador y escritor español.
    1667 Christoph-Ludwig Agricola, German artist who died in 1719. — more
    1619 Philips de Koninck — Dutch painter, who died on 04 October 1688. — MORE ON DE KONINCK AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
     
    Holidays El Salvador : 1st Cry for Independence (1811) / England : Guy Fawkes Day / Sweden : All Saints Day

    Religious Observances Christian-Sweden : All Saints Day / RC : St Bertilla, virgin / Christian : Martin de Porres & Holy Relics / Santos Zacarías e Isabel, padres del Bautista; Eusebio y Félix. / Sainte Sylvie est née dans une famille patricienne de Rome au VIe siècle, au début des temps barbares. Elle est la mère du pape Grégoire le Grand.
    click click


    Thought for the day:
    “Everyone complains of his memory, no one of his judgment." {not true: each of the two leading candidates in any US presidential election complains of everything about the other, above all his memory AND his judgment}
    “Never let your sense of morals prevent you from doing what's right.” — Isaac Asimov [02 Jan 1920 – 06 Apr 1992]
    “Never let the mortality of your senses prevent you from righting what's done.”
    “Good taste is better than bad taste, but bad taste is better than no taste at all.” —
    Arnold Bennett, English poet, author, and critic [1867-1931]. {Is that remark really in good taste?}
    “A good poet is better than a bad poet, but a bad poet is better than no poet at all.”
    “Arnold Bennett is better than no poet at all.”
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “TODAY IN HISTORY”
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    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4nov/h4nov05.html
    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov05.html
    updated Tuesday 25-Nov-2008 14:56 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.30 Wednesday 02-Apr-2008 22:58 UT
    v.6.a0 Monday 06-Nov-2006 17:53 UT
    Saturday 05-Nov-2005 17:19 UT
    v.4.90 Saturday 20-Nov-2004 20:06 UT
    Friday 07-Nov-2003 15:20 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site