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2008 Elections in the US for presidential electors; for all members of the US house of Representatives, for one US Senator in each of these states: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, Wyoming; for the 4-year-term governors of Delaware, Indiana, Missouri, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, Utah, Washington, West Virginia; and the 2-year term governors of New Hampshire and of Vermont; and for a variety of other local and state offices.
2007 Low turnout in the run-off presidential election in Guatemala (the first round was on 09 September 2007). Industrial engineer and businessman Álvaro Colom Caballeros [15 Jun 1951~] (Unidad Nacional de la Esperanza), who promised better health care and schools for the Amerindians and other poor, with 53% of the votes, wins over retired army general Otto Pérez Molina [01 Dec 1950~] (Partido Patriota), who is ahead in only in Guatemala City and another two of the 22 departamentos, who promised a military crackdown on drug gangs. —(071105).
^ 2002 Nothing justifies war crimes and crimes against humanity.
     Amnesty International issues the latest of its many reports on human rights violations in Israel and Palestine: Israeli Defence Force war crimes must be investigated [Same in PDF]. The period covered includes the Israeli Operation Defensive Shield which ravaged Jenin and Nablus, West Bank, (29 March – 17 April 2002). AI states:
     The State of Israel has not only a right but also an obligation to protect the lives of its citizens and those under its protection, but measures taken must be in accordance with international human rights and humanitarian law. Human rights abuses by armed groups can never justify violations of fundamental human rights by governments. The information in this report suggests that the IDF committed violations of international law during the course of military operations in Jenin and Nablus, including war crimes, for which they must be held accountable. ...
     In the four months between 27 February and the end of June 2002 — the period of the two major IDF offensives and the reoccupation of the West Bank — the IDF killed nearly 500 Palestinians. Although many Palestinians died during armed confrontations many of these IDF killings appeared to be unlawful and at least 16% of the victims, more than 70, were children. More than 8000 Palestinians detained in mass round-ups over the same period were routinely subjected to ill-treatment and more than 3000 Palestinian homes were demolished.
      The number of Israelis killed by Palestinian armed groups and individuals also increased: the number doubled during the month of March during the first Israeli incursions; in the four months up to the end of June 2002 more than 250 Israelis had been killed, including 164 civilians; 32 of those killed were children.
     ... As the occupying power of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, Israel has an obligation to respect and protect the human rights of all people in these areas.

      Impartially, AI had published on 11 July 2002 the report Without distinction -- attacks on civilians by Palestinian armed groups [Same in PDF] about 128 attacks in which more than 350 civilians, most of them Israeli, were killed since the beginning of the Al-Aqsa intifada on 28 September 2000. The July report states:
     Amnesty International has for many years documented and condemned violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by Israel directed against the Palestinian population ... . They include unlawful killings; torture and ill-treatment; arbitrary detention; unfair trials; collective punishments such as punitive closures of areas and destruction of homes; extensive and wanton destruction of property; deportations; and discriminatory treatment as compared to Israeli settlers. Most of these violations are grave breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention and are therefore war crimes. Many have also been committed in a widespread and systematic manner, and in pursuit of government policy; such violations meet the definition of crimes against humanity under international law.
      However, no violations by the Israeli government, no matter their scale or gravity, justify the killing of ... civilians. The obligation to protect civilians is absolute and cannot be set aside because Israel has failed to respect its obligations. The attacks against civilians by Palestinian armed groups are widespread, systematic and in pursuit of an explicit policy to attack civilians. They therefore constitute crimes against humanity under international law. They may also constitute war crimes.
^ 2001 Bolanos wins presidential election in Nicaragua.
     A 73-year-old businessman who suffered expropriation and prison under the Sandinistas wins Nicaragua's presidency over Daniel Ortega, the Sandinista leader who was trying to make a comeback 11 years after losing power. Ortega would conceed defeat the next day. It is his third consecutive election defeat, as supporters of the victorious Liberal Party candidate, Enrique Bolanos, celebrate.
     Ortega would promise to continue working for national reconciliation and for a free-market economy from within the National Assembly, for his Sandinista party, which retains a solid core of support in Nicaragua. "We are going to support the governability of the country from our strong position in opposition," Ortega would say.
      True to his attempts to win better relations with the United States, Ortega did not mention the role the US government may have played in his defeat when it warned of an Ortega victory, invited Bolanos to hand out donated US food and pressured a third candidate to leave the race.
      Bolanos wins with about 54% of the votes compared to Ortega's 45%. An enormous election day turnout overwhelms an inefficient election bureaucracy. Some voters are still waiting in line at 23:30, more than five hours after polls were scheduled to close. But the peacefulness of the election belies claims by outgoing President Arnoldo Aleman that Ortega's supporters had planned election-day violence.
      Following Aleman's victory over Ortega in 1997, pro-Sandinista students attacked police with rocks and homemade bombs and mortars. After the Sandinista National Liberation Front came to power in a 1979 revolution, it confiscated Bolanos' farm service company. As head of the country's main business chamber, he became a fierce critic of Ortega and was imprisoned. His campaign repeatedly reminded voters of the grim side of the Sandinistas' 1979-90 rule: long food lines, a muzzled press and coffins carrying the bodies of draftees in a war against US-backed Contra rebels. That apparently overcame Ortega's "path of love" campaign, which featured pink posters adorned with flowers in an attempt to reach out to non-Sandinista critics of Aleman's government.
      Bolanos, who was vice president before resigning to run for the presidency, inherits an economy that is struggling under heavy debts and with losses caused by the global economic slowdown. After taking office in January 2002, he may also clash with Aleman, who hand-picked the Liberal candidates for congress. Aleman is expected to lead the congressional delegation because of a law he oversaw that gives former presidents an automatic seat in congress - and immunity from legal action. Aleman's admitted wealth has multiplied many times over since he began public service as mayor of Managua in 1990, and critics accuse him of corruption. During his campaign, Bolanos vowed to fight corruption wherever it might be found, saying that "immunity should not be impunity." Voters had relatively little choice in the election. Under a Liberal-Sandinista deal that reformed the constitution, third parties were severely restricted and key posts divided up on a partisan basis. Several parties or candidates that appeared to meet the tough conditions for reaching the ballot were improperly disqualified by the politicized electoral board, according to the independent analyst group Ethics and Transparency. Ortega, 55, vowed that his electoral alliance with non-Sandinista parties would continue, apparently mapping out a long-term strategy to position the Sandinistas as a peaceful, democratic, left-of-center political party.
     Former US President Jimmy Carter joined thousands of local and foreign monitors scattered across Nicaragua to watch as polls opened - often hours late - in a country where political passions still run high in the wake of a civil war that ended in 1990. Once a socialist revolutionary who wore olive green uniforms, Ortega, 55, campaigned in pink shirts and with the slogan "the path of love." It was meant to help overcome the bitterness many still feel toward his earlier government, which confiscated property, jailed opponents and drafted tens of thousands to fight US-backed rebels while trying to bring jobs and food for all. He faces Enrique Bolanos, 73, of the governing Constitutionalist Liberal party in the contest for a five-year term. The former vice president saw most of his property confiscated by the Sandinistas during the 1980s.
      With polls showing the race in a dead heat, the election atmosphere was tense and there were organizational glitches. Many voting places opened long after the planned 07:00 start, causing enormous lines.
      Bolanos promises to continue the free-market policies of Aleman, but with a greater emphasis on fighting corruption. Allegations of shady dealings stained the reputation of the outgoing government. Both Ortega and Bolanos also have promised to revise the constitutional amendments that put the supreme court, electoral council and other agencies in partisan political hands and that blocked most of the country's political parties from reaching the ballot.
      Ortega, too, has vowed to respect private property and free speech and said that the vice presidency, foreign ministry and attorney general's posts would go to prominent figures who were imprisoned by the Sandinistas in the 1980s. But US officials openly tilted against him, expressing concern about his party's past ties to terrorists and recalling its socialist policies of the 1980s. While the overall economy has grown over the previous three years, little of that has reached the poorest Nicaraguans. Millions live on about a dollar a day. While Aleman's government has increased foreign investment, it remains saddled with a $4 billion foreign debt and is unlikely to meet financial targets agreed upon with the International Monetary Fund as a condition for more debt relief. Top income sources - coffee, tourism, assembly plants and money sent from Nicaraguans working abroad - have all slumped recently. Foreign reserves have dropped sharply, leaving Nicaragua with less than three weeks of reserve coverage for imports.
2000 Yugoslavia's parliament approves the country's first communist-free government in more than half a century.
2000 US President Clinton vetoes a bill that would have criminalized the leaking of government secrets.
1999 Russia opens Chechen border, thousands flee fighting (CNN)
1998 A new superseding indictment is issued against Osama bin Laden, Muhammad Atef and a host of other suspects. They are charged with bombing of two US embassies and conspiring to commit other acts of terrorism against Americans abroad. Two rewards of $5 million each are offered for Atef and bin Laden. Atef is described as bin Laden's chief military commander.
1997 In the US, the Republicans sweep the off-year elections, with New Jersey Gov. Christie Whitman winning re-election, James Gilmore becoming Virginia governor, Vito Fossella taking the New York congressional seat vacated by Susan Molinari, and Rudy Giuliani being re-elected mayor of New York.
^ 1997 Internet phone scam companies punished
      The Federal Trade Commission negotiates a settlement with companies that had run a phone scam based on Internet pornography. Users who logged onto certain pornography sites were rerouted through servers in the Eastern European country of Moldova. Companies received a bounty from Moldova for referring the calls to the country's phone system. The companies running the scam agreed to refund some $2.74 million to thousands of people who ran up enormous phone bills as a result of the scam.
1996 The Odwalla juice company issued an apology for tainted apple juice
^ 1996 Spammer denied First Amendment protection
      A federal judge ruled that Cyber Promotions, a direct marketing Internet company known for spamming America Online users, did not have a First Amendment right to e-mail unsolicited messages. America Online continued to wage a war against spam, and on the same day in 1997, it received a federal injunction banning another spammer from sending unsolicited e-mail to its members.
1994 The UN Security Council voted unanimously to withdraw the remaining 17'000 UN troops from Somalia by mid-March 1995.
1993 Canadian Liberal Party leader Jean Chretien was sworn in as prime minister.
1991 Mid East peace conference ends in Madrid Spain
1991 Former First Lady Imelda Marcos returned to Philippines, ending more than five years of exile in United States
1991 First time in history that as many as 5 US Presidents are together, as Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, and current President George Bush Sr. attend the dedication of his his presidential library in Simi Valley, California., by Ronald Reagan.
1990 Iraq says it is preparing for a "dangerous war"
1986 Democrats regain control of the US Senate, 55-45.
1984 Nicaragua holds 1st free elections in 56 years; Sandinistas win 63%
1980 Ronald Reagan (R) is elected the 40th president of the United States, handily defeatting President Jimmy Carter (D), handicaped by the ongoing Iran hostage crisis, on its first anniversary.
^ 1979 Iranians seize US nationals as hostages
      500 student followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini storm the US Embassy in Teheran on November 4, 1979. The radical Islamic fundamentalists took some ninety hostages, including 63 US nationals, fifty-two of whom were held for 444 days. Enraged that the deposed Shah Mohammad Reza Pablavi had been allowed to enter the US for medical treatment, the students demand the return and threaten to murder the hostages if any rescue is attempted. Days later, the Iranian government fell, and the Ayatollah took full control of the country — and the fate of the hostages.
1978 Iranian troops fire on anti-Shah student protesters by Tehran University.
^ 1970 US hands over air base to the Vietnamese Air Force
      The United States hands over an air base in the Mekong Delta to the Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) as part of the Vietnamization program. President Richard Nixon initiated this program in 1969 to increase the fighting capability of South Vietnam so they could assume more responsibility for the war. It included the provision of new equipment and weapons and an intensified advisory effort. Secretary of the Air Force Robert Seamans and Gen. Creighton Abrams, commander of Military Assistance Command Vietnam, attended the ceremony. The air base became the home of two South Vietnamese helicopter squadrons, with the United States providing 62 aircraft, 31 of which were turned over along with the air base. By 1973, after additional equipment and aircraft transfers had been made to VNAF, the air base had a fleet of 1,700 aircraft, including more than 500 helicopters.
1956 Israel captures Straits of Tiran from Egypt. Israeli troops reach Suez Canal
^ 1956 Soviets crush Hungarian uprising, US does nothing.
      Following nearly two weeks of protest and political instability in Hungary, Soviet tanks and 200'000 soldiers viciously crush the protests. Thousands were killed and wounded, and nearly a quarter-million Hungarians fled the country. The problems in Hungary had begun in October, when thousands of protesters took to the streets demanding a more democratic political system and freedom from Soviet oppression. In response, Communist Party officials appointed Imre Nagy, (a former premier who had been dismissed from the party for his criticisms of Stalinist policies), as the new premier. Nagy tried to restore peace and asked the Soviets to withdraw their troops. The Soviets did so, but Nagy then tried to push the Hungarian revolt forward by abolishing one-party rule. He also announced that Hungary was withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact (the Soviet bloc's equivalent of NATO).
      On 04 November 1956, Soviet tanks rolled into Budapest to stop Hungary's movement away from the communist bloc. Vicious street fighting broke out, but the Soviets' greater power insured the doom of the rebels. After the deaths and injuries of thousands of Hungarians, the protests were finally put down. Nagy was captured shortly thereafter and was executed two years later. The Soviet action stunned many people in the West. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had pledged a retreat from the Stalinist policies and repression of the past, but the violent actions in Budapest suggested otherwise. Inaction on the part of the United States angered and frustrated many Hungarians. Voice of America radio broadcasts and speeches by President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had recently suggested that the United States supported the "liberation" of "captive peoples" in communist nations. Yet, as Soviet tanks bore down on the protesters, the United States did nothing beyond issuing public statements of sympathy for their plight.
1952 General Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) is elected 34th president of the United States, beating Adlai Stevenson (D) and ending 20 years of Democratic administrations — Élection à la tête des États Unis d'Amérique de Dwight D. E Isenhower Il fut le général commandant suprême des forces alliées en Europe en 1944-1945. Ce chef militaire habile, possèdant le génie de l'organisation, s'est montré un Président Républicain prudent et avisé, qui fut réélu en 1956. Il est mort au début de 1969, à l'âge de 79 ans.
^ 1952 UNIVAC predicts Eisenhower landslide
      On Election Day, 1952, UNIVAC, the world's first commercially-available electronic computer, predicted a landslide for Eisenhower in his presidential race against Adlai Stevenson. In a test televised by CBS, the computer used early returns from key states to predict the election, based on voting patterns from 1944 and 1948. However, the computer's predictions were radically different from polls taken by Gallup and Roper, which predicted a close race, and the computer's programmers made adjustments so that the computer's first broadcast prediction corresponded more closely to the polls. Ironically, the computer's original prediction of 438 electoral votes for Eisenhower and 93 for Stevenson was only off by four votes.
1950 Signature of the Human Rights and Fundamental Rights Conventions in Rome, Italy.
1948 T.S. Eliot wins Nobel Prize in literature, for his profound effect on the direction of modern poetry. — MORE
1945 The first post-war parliamentary elections in Hungary are held, under Soviet military occupation. Yet these are free, democratic, multi-party elections, whose results are recognized by the Western powers. The winner is the Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKgP), which received an absolute majority of the votes cast (57.03%). The Social Democratic Party (SZDP) comes second with 17.41%, the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP) third with 16.95% and the National Peasant Party (NPP) fourth with 6.87%. Under a prior agreement, these four parties form a coalition government, in which the Communists took several key portfolios, including the Ministry of the Interior.
^ 1942 Rommel begins retreat in North Africa
      After losing the final and most famous battle at El Alamein, Egypt, General Field Marshall Erwin Rommel disobeys Hitler's orders and begins his five-month retreat. The grueling twelve-day battle had been a tragicomedy of errors for the Axis powers. In fact, when the battle began, Rommel was at a mountain resort in Austria, recovering from liver and blood-pressure problems. He arrived two days late, only to find his panzer army out-manned almost two-to-one by British General Bernard L. Montgomery's crew of 195,000 soldiers. Rommel also realized that food was running short and only seven issues of gasoline remained to supply his hundreds of vehicles. Weakened by constant British air attacks and a dearth of supplies, Rommel radioed Hitler of his intention to retreat on November 3. Hitler denied him with this rather unrealistic response: "It would not be the first time in history that the stronger will has triumphed over the enemy's strong battalions. You can show your troops no other road than to victory or death." Rommel was stunned. While the British army continued pummeling his troops, he fumed. He finally ordered a retreat in mid-afternoon of the next day, without Hitler's approval. But the damage of delaying retreat had been costly. Rommel later admitted that his obedience to Hitler's "victory or death" order was his one mistake of the battle.
^ 1939 The first air-conditioned car
      The 40th National Automobile Show opened in Chicago, Illinois, with a cutting-edge development in automotive comfort on display: air-conditioning. A Packard prototype featured the expensive device, allowing the vehicle's occupants to travel in the comfort of a controlled environment even on the most hot and humid summer day. After the driver chose a desired temperature, the Packard air-conditioning system would cool or heat the air in the car to the designated level, and then dehumidify, filter, and circulate the cooled air to create a comfortable environment. The main air-conditioning unit was located behind the rear seat of the Packard, where a special air duct accommodated two compartments, one for the refrigerating coils and one for the heating coils. The capacity of the air conditioning unit was equivalent to 1.5 tons of ice in twenty-four hours when the car was driven at highway driving speeds. The innovation received widespread acclaim at the auto show, but the expensive accessory would not be within the reach of the average American for several decades. However, when automobile air-conditioning finally became affordable, it rapidly became a luxury that US car owners could not live without.
^ 1939 Congress revises US neutrality
      Two months after England and France declared war on Nazi Germany, Congress passes the Neutrality Act of 1939, repealing the prohibition of arms exports to belligerent powers as specified in the Neutrality Act of 1937. The 1939 act authorized the "cash and carry" sale of arms, requiring that warring nations immediately pay for arms upon purchase, and convey the purchases on their own ships. President Franklin Roosevelt gives to the US Customs Service the duty of implementing the Neutrality Act of 1939
      Despite these regulations, the isolationist America of the 1930s finds itself increasingly drawn into World War II under the guidance of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1940, the US gives fifty destroyers to England in exchange for naval and air bases, and in 1941, the Lend-Lease Bill is passed, authorizing the US to lend arms and supplies to democratic nations.
1936 Future US Senate Chaplain Rev. Peter Marshall, 34, marries Catherine Wood, 22. Following Peter's premature death at age 46, Catherine immortalized his name through her 1951 bestselling biography, A Man Called Peter.
1924 Calvin Coolidge is elected 30th president of the United States.
^ 1922 King Tutankhamen's tomb is discovered
      British archaeologist Howard Carter [09 May 1874 – 02 Mar 1939] and his workmen discover the entrance to the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen [1341 BC – 1323 BC] in the Valley of the Tombs of Kings in Egypt. When Carter first arrived in Egypt in 1891, the majority of the Ancient Egyptian tombs had been discovered, although the little-known Pharaoh Tutankhamen, who had died when he was only nineteen, was still unaccounted for. After World War I, Carter began an intensive search for "King Tut's Tomb," finally finding steps to the burial room hidden in the debris near the entrance of the nearby tomb of King Ramses VI. The four-room tomb is miraculously intact and contains an incredible collection of several thousand objects. However, the most important architectural find may be a stone sarcophagus that contains three coffins nested within each other. Inside the final coffin, made out of solid gold, is the mummy of the boy-king Tutankhamen, preserved for over three thousand years.
1922 The US Postmaster General orders all homes to get mailboxes or relinquish delivery of mail.
1918 Austria-Hungary signs an armistice with the Allies.
^ 1904 L'affaire des fiches
      Le général André est giflé à la Chambre par le député nationaliste Gabriel Syveton (un désaxé qui se suicidera le 08 decembre 1904; les nationalistes feront répandre le bruit d'un assassinat). Le général était ministre de la Guerre dans le gouvernement d'Émile Combes [06 Sep 1835 – 25 May 1921], dont le programme politique se résumait à la lutte contre l'Église et le clergé. Désireux de favoriser l'avancement des officiers républicains anticléricaux, le ministre avait demandé aux francs-maçons de la loge du Grand Orient de France de rédiger des fiches sur les opinions religieuses des gradés. Cette "affaire des fiches" ayant été dévoilée par la presse de droite, il s'ensuivit un scandale à la Chambre des députés.
      Suite à la gifle du député Syveton, le ministre André devra démissionner (15 Nov 1904) et, après lui, le gouvernement Combes: en janvier 1905 Paul Deschanel député républicain progressiste interpelle à nouveau le gouvernement sur l'affaire des fiches, Combes obtient la confiance par 289 voix contre 279 mais la juge trop étroite et démissionne le 19 janvier 1905. Devenu président du Conseil, Georges Clémenceau [28 Sep 1841 – 24 Nov 1929] consommera la séparation de l'Église et de l'État. Le rapporteur de la loi, Aristide Briand [28 Mar 1862 – 07 Mar 1932], jettera les bases de la laïcité à la française. Il mettra un terme aux querelles entre cléricaux et anticléricaux qui avaient monopolisé la vie publique française pendant les deux dernières décennies.
     C'est le scandale à la Chambre des députés. Un secrétaire du Grand Orient a vendu ces fiches au député de droite Guyot de Villeneuve, qui vient de révéler l'affaire à la tribune de la Chambre...Ce jour, le ministre de la Guerre, le général André, est giflé par deux fois par le député Gabriel Syveton. Sous couvert de démocratiser l'armée, le général André, qui veut favoriser l'avancement des officiers républicains, a demandé au Grand Orient de France de rédiger des fiches sur tous les officiers. Celles-ci ont été classées en deux catégories : dans le dossier Corinthe, les officiers qui ont toutes les vertus pour être promus, dans le dossier Carthage, ceux qui en revanche sont écartés mais le secrétaire déballer le pot-au-roses. Le général André est, dans les jours qui suivent, contraint à la démission. Quant au député Syveton, on le retrouve " suicidé "... bizarre, vous avec dit ?
1890 Great Britain proclaims Zanzibar a protectorate
1884 Democrat Grover Cleveland is elected to his first term as US President, defeating Republican James G. Blaine.
1870 Le siège de Belfort.commence. Les armées prussiennes prennent place autour de la ville pour plus de cent jours. Le courage du colonel Denfert-Rochereau, qui organise la résistance de la ville, permet que celle-ci résiste aux bombardements comme au froid intense qui s'abat. Denfert-Rochereau ne consentira à se rendre que sur un ordre intimé par le gouvernement. Cela vaudra au territoire de Belfort de rester français tandis que, par le traité de paix, l'Allemagne prend possession du reste de l'Alsace-Lorraine.
1866 Kingdom of Italy annexes Venetia
1864 Engagement at Johnsonville, Tennessee
1863 Skirmish near Maysville, Alabama
1863 From the main Confederate Army at Chattanooga, Tennessee, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's troops are sent northeast to besiege Knoxville.
1862 Democrats make substantial gains in Northern states' congressional elections
1854 Florence Nightingale and her nurses arrive in the Crimea.
1845 1st nationally observed uniform election day in US
1791 General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, is badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. .
1798 US Congress agrees to pay a yearly tribute to Tripoli, considering it the only way to protect US shipping.
1760 Following the Russian capture of Berlin, Frederick II of Prussia defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Torgau.
1576 Spanish defeat Walloons & take Antwerp Belgium
1677 William III and Mary of England wed on William's birthday.
1646 The Massachusetts Bay Colony passes a law making it a capital offense to deny that the Bible is the Word of God.
1493 Christopher Columbus discovers Guadeloupe during his second expedition.
^ 1380 Charles VI de Valois est sacré roi à Reims. (mais: Britannica: "Crowned on October 25, 1380, at Reims at the age of 11")
      Bien qu'il n'ait pas encore douze ans, l'ordonnance qu'a signée son père en 1374, établissant la majorité du roi à quatorze ans, ne lui est pas appliquée. Les quatre oncles du roi assurent le conseil de régence. Parce qu'ils viennent d'apprendre que la suppression des fouages, décidée par feu le roi Charles V le Sage, est maintenue, les habitants de Reims saluent le sacre par les cris de "Vive le roi de France ! Montjoie Saint Denis!" D'abord surnommé "le Bien-Aimé", le roi Charles VI sera plus tard frappé par des accès de folie et restera dans l'Histoire sous l'appellation de "Fol". Son règne s'achèvera dans le drame et la confusion.
Chronologie de sa vie:
  • Né le 03 decembre 1368, il est le fils de Charles V et de Jeanne de Bourbon.
  • Il est sacré roi à Reims en 1380, à la mort de Charles V. Son oncle Louis 1er d'Anjou devient alors régent, et son autre oncle Philippe II de Bourgogne (''le Hardi'') devient son tuteur.
  • 1382: Nouvelles rivalités franco-anglaises, suite au ralliement des flamands aux anglais.
  • 1383: Débarquement et conquête de la Flandre par les anglais. Charles VI reprend les Flandres.
  • Epouse le 17 Jul 1385, Isabeau de Bavière.
  • 1388, 2 novembre: Charles VI met fin à la régence et exerce le pouvoir lui-même.
  • 1392: Le connétable Clisson, ami du roi est blessé par Pierre de Craon, qui se réfugie en Bretagne. Charles VI monte une expédition punitive mais devient pris de fièvre et de convulsions, sa première crise de folie durant le trajet (ses 44 accès de folies ne surviendront d'ailleurs que par crises de 3 à 9 mois, entre lesquelles Charles VI conservera de nombreuses périodes de lucidité de 3 à 5 mois). Le 5 août 1392, le roi accompagné de son ost s'engouffre dans la profonde forêt du Mans; il est partit en expédition punitive contre Pierre de Craon et son protecteur le duc de Bretagne Jean IV de Monfort (ces derniers ayant attenté à la vie du connétable Olivier de Clisson). A peine rentré dans la forêt, un vagabond surgit des buissons et lui crie de s'en retourner car il a été trahi. Remis de cet événement le roi poursuit son chemin; somnolant sur son cheval. Tout d'un coup la pointe d'une lance heurte un chapel de fer provoquant par son bruit métallique le reveil inopiné du roi. Celui çi croyant être tombé dans une embuscade frappa de son épée tout ce qui se trouvait à sa portée; plusieurs hommes furent tués. Charles VI fut enfin maîtrisé, ligoté puis ramené sur un chariot au Mans.
  • 1393: Lors d'un charivari (fête de mariage) , le roi déguisé en sauvage et couvert de poils manque de brûler vif à cause d'une torche (5 seigneurs périront). — Le bal des ardents. 28 janvier 1393: Un grand bal est donné à l'hôtel Saint-Pol, le mardi 28 janvier 1393, pour les noces d'une demoiselle d'honneur de la reine Isabeau. Vers minuit, on éteint les lumières et six hommes déguisés en bêtes poilues font irruption au millieu des danseurs. Ce sont des jeunes seigneurs accompagnés par le roi. Le duc d'Orléans arrive à la fête avec ses gens équipés de torches. Voulant voir de plus près qui se cache derrière les masques, il approche une torche près de l'un d'eux. Une étincelle saute sur un des déguisements et c'est le drame: les costumes englués de poix et d'étoupe s'embrasent un par un. Le roi sera sauvé des flammes par la duchesse de Berry et le sire de Nantouillet aura la vie sauve en se jetant dans un récipient d'eau à vaisselle, les autres périront.
  • 1404: Mort de Philippe le Hardi, son fils Jean sans Peur lui succède.
  • 1405: Jean sans Peur occupe Paris et maintient Charles VI sous son influence, mais il devra fuir en 1407, après avoir avoué l'assassinat (23 novembre 1407) de Louis d'Orléans, frère du roi.
  • 1410: 2 partis (Armagnac et Bourguignons) s'opposent et se livrent à une véritable guerre civile.
  • 1415: Débarquement anglais en Normandie, et défaite française à Azincourt.
  • 1418: le dauphin Charles (futur Charles VII) est déclaré régent.
  • 1419: Assassinat de Jean sans Peur.
  • 1420, 21 mai: Le lendemain de la conclusion du contrat de marriage entre Henry V et Catherine, la fille de Charles VI, est signé le "honteux traité de Troyes, qui donne en viager la couronne de France au roi d'Angleterre et déshérite le "soi disant dauphin" Charles VII. Henry V décédera avant Charles VII et c'est à Henry VI que reviendra le trône.
  • 1421: Charles VII est déchu de ses droits par sa mère et les anglais. Le traité de Troyes signé par le roi fou en 1420 reconnait le roi Henri V d'Angleterre comme héritier de la couronne de France. A cette époque, donc Henri V est le vrai roi légitime (la notion de patrie n'influait pas à l'époque, seule la légitimité du souverain comptait).
  • 1422, 21 octobre: On ne sait quelle affection emporte le roi. Alors qu'il a perdu la raison des années plus tôt, le roi est lucide au moment de mourir. Peu avant la fin, il dit à sa fille Marguerite : "Ma fille, je te donne... Mais j'oublie que le roi de France ne possède plus rien!... Il ne peut plus donner que sa bénédiction." A l'annonce de la mort du roi, Jean-Juvénal des Ursins rapporte que : "Les François-Anglois commencèrent à crier : vive le roi Henri de France et d'Angleterre, et criaient Noël comme si Dieu fut descendu du ciel." Mais, en dépit de leur joie, c'est Charles VII qui lui succède (tout au moins au sud de la Loire). Il sera surnommé quelques années plus tard " le Victorieux " .
  • TO THE TOP
    < 03 Nov 05 Nov >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 04 November:

    2008 Pius Jin Peixian [16 March 1924–], dies from cancer, former archbishop of Shenyang, the archdiocese coextensive with Liaoning province, China, in the Communist-government-controled “official” Chinese Catholic Church, but his 21 May 1989 episcopal ordination had been approved by the Pope. He was ordained a priest in Shanghai in 1951. He taught in a high school in Beijing and then from 1952 to 1955 worked as an accounting clerk in a factory. After that he was able to function as a priest, in the parish of Fushun. But in 1958 he was sentenced to prison for counterrevolutionary crimes. Upon his release in 1968 he was sent to be “re-educated through work” in a hard-labor farm. It is only in 1980 that he was able to return to his priestly ministry in the parish of Fushun. Jin was one of the first bishops to receive government permission to send some of his priests and religious to study outside of China.
          One of the first of them was Father Paul Pei Junmin [1969~], who had entered Shenyang Seminary in 1985 and was ordained a priest in 1992. In 1993 Father Pei went to study theology and bible exegesis at the Saint Charles Borromeo in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After returning to China in 1996, he became vice rector and dean of studies at Shenyang Seminary until, in 2006 the government appointed him coadjutor to Archbishop Jin; Pei secured approval from the Pope before he was ordained bishop on 07 May 2006. Upon Archbishop Jin's resignation, Pei succeeded as archishop on 29 June 2008.
         The Catholic Church in China is allowed by the government to function only in places registered with the Religious Affairs Office and under the control of its Patriotic Catholic Association branch. The faithful who oppose such control and any interference with the authority of the Pope constitute the non-official, or underground, Church, which the government persecutes. —(081106)

    2008 Juan Camilo Mouriño Terrazo [01 Aug 1971–], Mexican Secretario de Gobernación (i.e. Interior Minister) since 16 Jatuacy 2008, who headed up Mexico's battle against drug cartels;
    José Luis Santiago Vasconcelos [07 Jun 1957–], former assistant attorney general and current head of the federal technical secretariat for implementing the recent constitutional reforms on criminal justice and public security;
    José Miguel Monterrubio Cubas, director general of social communications with the Interior Secretariat.
    Arcadio Echeverría Lanz, coordinator of special events of the Secretaria de Gobernación;
    Norma Angélica Díaz Aguinaga, director of the communications department of the Secretaria de Gobernación;.
    Captain Julio César Ramírez Dávalos, head of Mouriño's bodyguards;
    Martín de Jesús Oliva Pérez,
    co-pilot;
    Álvaro Sánchez y Jiménez, pilot;
    Giselle Edenice Carrillo Pereyra, stewardess;
    and, on the ground,;
    Rigoberto Cesáreo González,
    54;
    Alán Christian Vázquez Vargas;

    Patricia María del Carmen Oropeza;

    plus another person;
    in the crash and explosion of Secretaría de Gobernación-owned Learjet 45 (registration XC-VMC) at the intersection of the streets Ferrocarril de Cuernavaca and Monte Pelvoux in the middle of the Lomas de Chapultepec neighborhood of Mexico City during rush hour, 18:45 (UT). .Cars and buildings (including the Finnish embassy) are damaged. At least 40 persons on the ground are injured, one of them, Pedro Sánchez Arteaga, dies the next day in the hospital 20-de-Noviembre. Among others hospitalized for grave injuries are;
    in the hospital Ángeles del Pedregal:
    the Venezuelan Pablo Jiménez, 33; with burns on 75% of his body.
    in the hospital Español:
    the Frenchman Joseph Daniel Dray, 44, with burn on 50% of his body;
    Rodrigo García Álvarez del Castillo, 28;
    Rodrigo Daniel Martínez Cruces, 37;
    the Finn Silvia Ulrika Bjorkstan, 29, with burns on 45% of her body;
    Luz Elena Gómez Carreño, 28
    in the hospital Metropolitano:
    Patricia Picón Gómez, 33 años;
    in el hospital Satélite:
    Julia Amalia González Anaya, 42; años;
    in the hospital Rubén Leñero:
    Josefina Núñez Sorcia, 44;
    Víctor Altamirano Robles, 85;
    Edmundo Abarca Balcázar, 45;
    in the hospital Lomas Verdes, of the l Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social:
    Amador Díaz Iván, 34, with burns on 12% of his body (face and hands).
    .—(081108)

    2005 (Eid al-Fitr) Some 80 persons from Dars and Soomro clans, after a ferry capsizes and sinks in in a coastal creek in the Thatta district at the mouth of the Indus River, in Pakistan. 5 persons survive by swimming ashore. The boat was taking people from Khalifa Goth to Ali Mohammad Dars village to attend the funeral of three persons who had died in a boat accident the previous day.
    2004 Israeli Yaniv Zikashvili, 24, delivery manager of the Coffee K kosher coffee shop on Manhattan's east side, New York City, after he is stabbed several times by Heral Jimenez, 19, who had just been fired by one of the managers.
    2004 Israeli Sgt. Maj. Avi Mimran, 27, a prison guard from Ashkelon, in the afternoon near Avdat on the road from Mitzpeh Ramon to Be'er Sheva, Israel, as the prison vehicle in which he was riding overturns, probably because of a faulty tire. Seven other prison guards are slightly injured.
    2004 Five persons by US bombardment in Fallujah, Iraq.
    2003 Sgt. Francisco Martínez, 28, of Humacao, Puerto Rico, serving in B Detachment, 82nd Soldier Support Battalion (Airborne), US Army, in Baghdad, Iraq, after a roadside bomb explodes next to the convoy in which he was.
    2003 Spc. Robert T. Benson, 20, of Spokane WA, serving in Company A, 1st Battalion, 35th Armored Regiment, 1st Armored Division Army, in Baghdad, Iraq, from “a non-hostile” gunshot wound. {how consoling!}.
    2003 Manadel Al Jamadi, under torture by the CIA at Abu Ghraib prison, in Baghdad, Iraq. At 02:00 he had been captured and then brutalized by Navy Seal Team 7, in his home. US MPs Sabrina D. Harman [05 Jan 1978~] and Charles A. Graner Jr. [1968~] are separately photographed gloating over the corpse. On 16 January 2005 Graner would be convicted on many charges related to mistreating prisoners; his sentence would be 10 years in prison. On 16 May 2005, Harman would be convicted on several charges related to mistreatment of prisoners in general; her sentence would be 6 months in prison. — (051028)
    2002 Two Israeli immigrants from Argentina: security guard Julio Pedro Magram, 51, of Kfar Sava; and Gastón Perpiñal, 15, of Ra'anana; and Palestinian suicide bomber Nabil Sawalha, 20, who detonates his 10 kg of explosives while struggling with the guard who shouted a warning and stopped him from entering Shekem electronics store at the Arim open-air shopping mall in Tel Aviv suburb Kfar Sava, in the evening. 19 persons are injured.
    Menashe Regev2002 Hamad Sadder and a companion, by remote control bomb hidden in their car, in Nablus, West Bank. Sadder was a member of the Hamas military wing targeted by Israel. His nephew, Mohammed Bustami carried out a suicide attack the previous week (27 Oct – 02 Nov) that killed three Israeli soldiers in a West Bank settlement.
    Shoshana ben-Yishai2001 Shoshana Ben-Yishai, 16 [< photo], and Menashe Regev 14 [photo >], Israelis; and the Islamic Jihad militant who shoots up a bus in the French Hill section of Jerusalem, who is in turn killed by a civilian who empties a clip of ammunition at him, and then his corpse is riddled with bullets shot by a border police officer and a soldier. [You would think that Israelis would know enough to try and capture terrorists alive so as to extract information.]
    2001 Four Indian soldiers and one attacking militant from the Pakistan-based Lashker-e-Toiba (some possibly shortly before midnight on 03 November). A group of militants, dressed in Army fatigues, opened fire and lobbed grenades on the main gate of the Indian army camp at Diyalgam, about 60 km from Srinagar, at about 21:00. Two of them managed to sneak inside the camp manned by the troops of 36th Rashtriya Rifles. In the intense gunbattle, lasting over two hours, three jawans [=young soldiers, from a Persian word meaning young man, especially an army private]; were killed and six others injured. One of the jawans later died of injuries. Immediately after the militants intruded into the camp, troops launched a search operation, which was abandoned as the ultras [= militants] were in Army uniform [!!!]. A militant hiding in a shed opened fire and lobbed grenades when the troops approached before endinc their search, and was killed in retaliatory fire. [Is that an Indian army rule: never attack anyone wearing an Indian army uniform, even if it is a disguised enemy firing at you; just run away?]
    2000 Hani Noaman al-Sabbouhi,18, in Mansoura, Egypt hospital from three bullet wounds to the head, after police fired on crowd of villagers to prevent them from voting in the legislative elections, part of the government's effort to prevent the election of candidates of the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood (running as independents).
    1996 José Botero Henao, Catholic pastor of Venecia ( Cundinamarca ), Colombia, murdered by unidentified assailants.
    ^ 1995 Yitzhak Rabin, assassinated by a Jewish extremist.
         Born on 01 March 1922, Rabin was an Israeli statesman and soldier who, as prime minister of Israel (1974-1977, 1992-1995), led his country toward peace with its Palestinian and Arab neighbors. He was chief of staff of Israel's armed forces during the Six-Day War (June 1967). Along with Shimon Peres [16 Aug 1923~], his foreign minister, and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) chairman Yasir 'Arafat [24 Aug – 04 Nov 2004, Rabin received the the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize “for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”, principally for the Israel-PLO accords of September 1993.
         Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is fatally shot minutes after attending a peace rally held in Tel Aviv's Kings Square in Israel. Rabin later dies in surgery at Ichilov Hospital in Tel Aviv. The seventy-three-year-old prime minister was walking to his car when he was shot in the arm and the back by Yigal Amir, 27, a Jewish law student who had connections to the far-right group Jewish group Eyal. Israeli police arrested Amir at the scene of the shooting, and he later confessed to the assassination, explaining at his arraignment that he killed Rabin because Rabin wanted "to give our country to the Arabs." On 27 March 1996, Yigal Amir was sentenced to life in prison.
    MORE
    1991 Takeo Miki, 66th Prime Minister of Japan (09Dec1974-24Dec1976), born on 17 March 1907 in Tokushima Prefecture.
    1986 Kurt Hirsch, mathematician.
    ^ 1983 Mr. Hendricks and her three children, brutally murdered.
          David Hendricks, a businessman traveling in Wisconsin, calls police in Bloomington, Illinois, to request that they check on his house and family. According to Hendricks, no one had answered the phone all weekend and he was worried. When the police and neighbors searched the home the next day, they found the mutilated bodies of Hendricks' wife and three children, all of whom had been hacked to death with an ax and butcher knife. Because there was very little sign of a struggle or forced entry, police thought the crime scene was suspicious. In addition, though the killings were brutal, the murder weapons had been cleaned and left neatly near the bodies.
          When Hendricks returned later that day, police questioned him and checked his clothes and car for bloodstains. But the search was inconclusive, and Hendricks' alibi — that he had left for Wisconsin just before midnight on 04 November 4 — appeared solid. Nevertheless, with no other leads, police began to examine Hendricks' story more closely. He claimed that he had taken his family out for a pizza at about 19:30 on 04 November. According to him, they then played in an amusement area and returned home at 21:30. Hendricks left for his business trip several hours later.
          But after studying the children's bodies, medical examiners concluded that Hendrick's story did not quite fit. Ordinarily, food leaves the stomach and moves into the small intestine within two hours. However, in all three children, vegetarian pizza toppings were still in their stomachs, which led investigators to estimate their time of death sometime around 21:30 — while Hendricks was still at home.
          Police charged Hendricks with murdering his family, but they still lacked a concrete motive. The Hendricks family was devoutly religious, belonging to a puritan-like group called the Plymouth Brethren. Hendrick's defense attorney hammered away at the only physical evidence against him, pointing out that physical activity or trauma can affect the rate of digestion. Still, the jury found Hendricks guilty of four counts of murder and he was sentenced to life imprisonment on 21 December 1988.
    ^ 1970 King Peter II of Yugoslavia dies in a hospital in Denver, Colorado, and is buried in the Liberty Easter Serbian Orthodox Monastery in Liberty, Illinois, becoming the first European king or queen to die and be buried in the United States. Peter II replaced his uncle Peter I as king of Yugoslavia in 1941, but in 1944 was forced into exile three weeks after his country was invaded by Nazi Germany. He set up a government-in-exile in London, England, but lost the throne when Yugoslavia became a Communist republic under Josip Broz Tito in 1945. In 1945, Peter II moved to the United States, living primarily in New York City and California.
    1969: Some 80 North Vietnamese and 24 South Vietnamese soldiers, in the biggest battle in four months. South Vietnamese infantry, supported by US planes and artillery, clash with North Vietnamese troops for 10 hours near Duc Lop near the Cambodian border. South Vietnamese had 38 wounded.
    1968 Michel Kikoïne, French artist born on 31 May 1892. — MORE ON KIKOÏNE AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1926 Albin Egger-Lienz, Austrian painter born on 29 January 1868.
    1921 Takashi Hara, 19th Prime Minister of Japan (29Sep1918-04Nov1921), born on 09 February 1856 in Iwate Prefecture.
    1870 Carl von Sales, Austrian artist born on 05 November 1791.
    1856 Hippolyte “Paul” Delaroche, French Academic painter born on 17 July 1797. — MORE ON DELAROCHE AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1709 Barend Graat), Amsterdam painter and draftsman born on 28 (21?) September 1628.
    1698 Bartholin, mathematician.
    1652 La Faille, mathematician.
     
    < 03 Nov 05 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 04 November:

    1946 Robert Mapplethorpe, controversial photographer — LINKS
    1946 UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization is formed
    1923 Alfred Heineken (beer mogul: Heineken Brewery)
    1916 Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. [–17 Jul 2009], US broadcast journalist, best known as anchorman for the CBS Evening News from 1962 to 1981). —(090718)
    1909 Ciro Alegría Lynch [–17 Feb 1967], Peruvian indigenista novelist. His best known novels are El mundo es ancho y ajeno (1941), La serpiente de oro (1935). Los perros hambrientos (1939). He wrote them during his 1934-1941 polical exile in Chile, which followed his being jailed and tortured for leading a failed 1931 Aprista rebellion in Cajamarca. —(090718)
    ^ 1908 Joseph Rotblat, Polish-born British physicist who died on 31 August 2005.
          He became a leading critic of nuclear weaponry. He was a founding member (1957), secretary-general (1957–1973), and president (1988–1997) of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, a London-based worldwide organization of scholars that seeks solutions to problems of national development and international security. In 1995 Rotblat and his organization were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for their longtime promotion of nuclear disarmament, most notably by sponsoring discussions between scientists from the United States and the Soviet Union.
          Rotblat was educated in Warsaw at the Free University of Poland (MA, 1932) and at the University of Warsaw (PhD, 1938). In 1939 he won a fellowship to the University of Liverpool, England, with which he was associated until 1949. In 1944 he moved to the United States to work on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, New Mexico, that developed the first atomic bombs, but he quit the project and returned to Britain that same year after learning that Nazi Germany would not build a competing atomic bomb. After the war Rotblat shifted the focus of his research to medical physics. In 1950 he became a professor of physics at St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College at the University of London.
          In 1955 Rotblat was among a handful of prominent scientists, including Albert Einstein [14 Mar 1879 – 18 Apr 1955], who signed a manifesto by Bertrand Russell [18 May 1872 – 02 Feb 1970] that criticized the proliferation of nuclear arms. The manifesto led to the founding of the Pugwash Conferences, named for the native village in Nova Scotia, Canada, of the industrialist and philanthropist Cyrus Eaton [27 Dec 1883 – 09 May 1979], where they were inaugurated in 1957. The conferences have gathered scientists from many countries and are held regularly at various sites throughout the world. Rotblat published several works on the Pugwash movement, nuclear physics, and world peace.
    (050902)
    1907 Henry Heerup, Danish sculptor, painter, designer, and printmaker, who died on 30 May 1993.
    ^ 1879 Will Rogers, in Oologah Indian Territory (Oklahoma) (entertainer: The Wall Street Girl, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court; humorist: "I never met a man I didn't like."; mayor: Beverly Hills; cowboy; subject of Broadway show: Will Rogers Follies)
          The cowboy philosopher and humorist Will Rogers, one of the most beloved entertainers of the early 20th century, is born on a ranch in Cherokee Indian territory. The son of a respected mixed-blood Cherokee couple, William Penn Adair Rogers grew up riding and roping on the plains of Oklahoma. An indifferent student, he earned only average grades in school, but he was by no means the ill-educated common man that he later liked to pretend. He was, in fact, highly literate and well read. In 1898, he left his family ranch to work as a Texas cowboy, and then traveled to Argentina where he spent a few months as a gaucho. But Rogers discovered his real talent when he joined Texas Jack's Wild West show in 1902 as a trick roper and rider under the stage name "The Cherokee Kid."
          For all his skill with ropes and horses, Rogers soon realized that audiences most enjoyed his impromptu jokes and witty remarks. Eventually, Rogers began to focus on making humorous comments on world events and created a popular vaudeville act with which he traveled the country. In 1919, Rogers' first book, The Peace Conference, was published. In the 1920s, he achieved national fame with a series of movie appearances, radio shows, lecture tours, magazine articles, and regular newspapers columns. Amazingly prolific, Rogers eventually wrote seven books, an autobiography, almost 3000 short commentaries called "daily telegrams," more than 1000 newspaper articles, and 58 magazine articles. Rogers' warm, folksy manner and penetrating wit were hugely popular during the Depression, and his concern for the welfare of average folks was genuine. He contributed frequent charitable performances in support of the victims of floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes worldwide.
          On 15 August 1935, Rogers was on a flight to Asia with the famous pilot Wiley Post [22 Nov 1899–] when the craft developed engine troubles and crashed near Point Barrow, Alaska. The crash killed both men.
    1879 The cash register, patented by James and John Ritty, to combat stealing by bartenders in their Dayton, Ohio saloon (1880?). However it was John H. Patterson [13 Dec 1844 – 07 May 1922], also of Dayton, who, from 1884, improved the cash register and made it commonplace by making and marketing it through his National Cash Register Company.
    1873 George Edward Moore, influential English Realist philosopher (Principia Ethica, 1903; Ethics, 1912). He died on 24 October 1958. MOORE ONLINE: The Nature of Moral PhilosophyThe Refutation of Idealism
    1873 The gold crown for teeth, patented by dentist John Beers of San Francisco
    1872 Ulisse Caputo, Italian artist who died on 13 October 1948.
    1862 Eden Phillpotts England, novelist/poet/playwright (Red Madymaynes)
    1862 Gatling gun is patented by Dr. Richard Jordan Gatling MD [12 Sep 1818 – 26 Feb 1903]. It is a cluster of several barrels, each of which, when rotated by a crank, is loaded and fired once during a complete rotation. The barrels were loaded by gravity from the cartridge container, located above the gun. An improved 10-barrel, .30-caliber model, which fired 400 rounds a minute, was patented on 09 May 1865, and was officially adopted by the US Army on 21 August 1866. For more than 40 years, the Gatling gun, further improved to fire 3000 rounds per minute if externally powered, was used by almost every world power, until superseded by recoil- and gas-operated guns that followed the invention of smokeless gunpowder
    1793 (03 Nov?) Thomas Ender, Austrian painter active in Brazil. The end of Ender came on 28 September 1875.
    1765 Pierre Girard, mathematician.
    1744 Johann(III) Bernoulli, mathematician.
    1590 Gerrit van Honthorst “Gherardo della Notte”, Dutch painter addicted to night scenes, who died on 27 April 1656. — MORE ON VAN HONTHORST AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1577 François-Joseph le Clerc du Tremblay “Père Joseph” “l'Éminence Grise”, French mystic and religious reformer who died on 18 December 1638, . His collaboration with Cardinal de Richelieu [09 Sep 1585 – 04 Dec 1642] (“l'Éminence Rouge”) gave him powers akin to those of a foreign minister, especially during Richelieu's ambitious campaign to finance France's participation in what became known as the Thirty Years' War. In 1599 Joseph joined the Capuchins, a strict branch of the Franciscans (with a gray habit), and devoted himself to prayer, preaching, and the conversion of heretics. While reforming part of Notre-Dame de Fontevrault abbey (near Saumur) into a new order of nuns, he met Richelieu, who in 1611 made him his secretary. Joseph's ambition to convert European Protestants to Roman Catholicism coincided with Richelieu's political plans for French domination of Europe. Thus, Joseph devoted himself to a policy that imposed on Europe the miseries and crimes of the Thirty Years' War. He died hated by his countrymen {and probably others too}."L'éminence grise" a été popularisée par Alexandre Dumas Père [24 Jul 1802 – 05 Dec 1870] dans Les Trois Mousquetaires (1844).
    1575 Guido Reni “Le Guide”, Italian painter who died on 18 August 1642. — MORE ON RENI AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
     
    Holidays Italy: Unity Day (1945) — Victory of Vittorio Veneto (1866) / Oklahoma: Will Rogers Day (1879) / Panama, Panama Canal Zone: Flag Day / Tonga: Constitution Day (1970)

    Religious Observances RC : St Charles Borromeo, archbishop of Milan, confessor — Neveu du pape Pie IV, Charles Borromée est nommé cardinal à 22 ans, en 1560. Théologien doué, il prend une part active à la conclusion du concile de Trente. Devenu archevêque de Milan, il met son zèle charitable au service de la contre-Réforme catholique. Vienne s'honore d'une magnifique église baroque à plan ovale consacrée à Saint Charles Borromée.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “You can kill a thousand; you can bring an end to life; you cannot kill an idea.” —
    Acting Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres [16 Aug 1923~] on the assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin [01 Mar 1922 – 04 Nov 1995] {However Ariel Sharon [1928~] would later make a pretty good try at both killing thousands and thereby killing the idea of peace for which Rabin died.}
    "Everything bows to success, even grammar."
    "Everything bows to success, even granma."
    "Everything bows to grammar's success."
    "Everything bows to granma's success."
    "Everything bows to granma's grammar's success."
    "Everything bows to granma's successor."
    "Everything (in Fidelista Cuba) bows to the success of the
    Granma."
    "Everything (in Fidelista Cuba) bows to the propaganda of the newspaper
    Granma."
    “I am not a vegetarian because I love animals; I am a vegetarian because I hate plants.” —
    A. Whitney Brown {also: plants are easier to catch}
    “I eat broccoli because trees are too big and too tough.”
    “I do not like broccoli. And I haven’t liked it since I was a little kid and my mother made me eat it. And I’m President of the United States and I’m not going to eat any more broccoli!” —
    George Bush Sr. [12 Jun 1924~]
    “Ye miri kaijaparo heya hata hombinguni.” — Zanzibar saying {“You marry jeopardizing yourself he who hates hamburgers.” No, not really. It actually means: “The trees never reach the sky”}.
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    updated Saturday 18-Jul-2009 16:52 UT
    Principal updates:
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