a 01 November:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for November 2010:
General: Drug Addicts and Victims of Every Form of Dependence — That victims of drugs or of other dependence may, thanks to the support of the Christian community, find in the power of our Saving God strength for a radical life-change.
Missionary: The Continent-wide Mission in Latin America — That the Churches of Latin America may move ahead with the continent-wide mission proposed by their bishops, making it part of the universal missionary task of the People of God. —(091216)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for November 2009:
General: That all the men and women in the world, especially those who have responsibilities in the field of politics and economics, may never fail in their commitment to safeguard creation.
Mission: That believers in the different religions, through the testimony of their lives and fraternal dialogue, may clearly demonstrate that the name of God is a bearer of peace. —(090301)
2004 Stupid Cops, Obedient Robber Dept.: Darrell Lewis, 40 [< photo], of South Pearl Street, Albany NY, is videotaped holding up the Charter One Bank on North Pearl Street at about 09:30. Later in the day he sees himself on the TV news. He goes to a police station to surrender, but is told to come back the following day to be arrested. The next morning he goes to to a different police station and is charged with robbery.
2001 In Tbilisi, Georgia, President Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze [25 January 1928–] [03 Oct 2001 photo >] dismisses his entire Cabinet, but does not resign with them, as is being demanded by demonstrators outside the parliament, in the wake of a 30 October 2001 raid in which 30 security agents tried to search the independent Rustavi 2 television station's offices, acting on a warrant that said it had evaded taxes, and were denied entry by the company director.
2000 Yugoslavia's new democratic government joined the United Nations after eight years of U.N. ostracism under former strongman Slobodan Milosevic.
1999 Russia controls flow of refugees out of Chechnya (CNN)
1998 Regular digital TV broadcasts begin
Broadcasters in the nation's ten largest markets officially begin broadcasting digital signals. A few stations had broadcast individual digital TV shows earlier in the year, but November 1 marked the date that the National Broadcasting Association and the Federal Communications Commission had chosen as the deadline for regular digital TV transmission. However, at the time, few people had purchased a high-definition television set capable of receiving the digital signal.
1997 It is discovered that 2^2'976'221 1 is a Mersenne prime (the 36th) (Mersenne prime numbers are primes of the form 2^n 1, which requires n to be prime; and it is equivalent to [2^(n1)]×(2^n 1) being equal to the sum of its factors other than itself, i.e. a perfect number). . They can all be found (with their date of discovery) at http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/math/prime/mersenne.html.
1997 James Cox, cirujano estadounidense, realiza una operación de corazón con un quíntuple bypass que supone un importante avance en cirugía.
1996 Republican presidential hopeful Bob Dole accused President Clinton of taking foreign money in his bid for re-election.
1996 Michigan euthanasia advocate Dr. Jack Kevorkian is released on bond, promising not to assist in any more suicides.
1991 the Russian Congress of People's Deputies granted Boris Yeltsin sweeping powers to launch and direct radical economic reforms in Russia.
1991 El líder del Movimiento por la Democracia y el Multipartidismo, Frederick Chiluba, se convierte en el nuevo presidente de Zambia.
1991 Clarence Thomas took his place as the newest justice on the Supreme Court.
1991 The opening session of the Middle East peace conference recessed in Madrid, Spain.
1990 Last of Margaret Thatcher's original cabinet resigns, Deputy PM Sir Geoffrey Howe
1990 Iraq announced it would permit hostages' families to visit during the Christmas season, but the offer was condemned by the West as cynical. — Rhetoric escalates as Bush likens Saddam to Hitler
1990 McDonald's, under pressure from environmental groups, said it would replace plastic food containers with paper.
1989 East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West.
1989 Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega carried out his threat to suspend a government cease-fire with the Contra rebels.
1989 Scandinavian Airlines System bans smoking on many flights
1984 La UNESCO declara "patrimonio cultural mundial" los siguientes monumentos españoles: la mezquita de Córdoba, la Alhambra y el Generalife de Granada, la catedral de Burgos, el monasterio de El Escorial y el parque Güell de Barcelona.
1981 Antigua & Barbuda gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1981 US First Class Mail raised from 18 to 20 cents for the first ounce.
1979 US Federal government made $1.5 billion loan to Chrysler
1979 Tanker Burmah Agate off Galveston Bay, Texas, spills 10.7 m gallons of oil, in US's worst oil spill disaster
1976 Gilbert Islands (Kiribati) obtains internal self-government from Britain.
| 1973 Following the "Saturday Night Massacre," Acting
Attorney General Robert H. Bork appointed Leon Jaworski to be the new Watergate
special prosecutor, succeeding Archibald Cox. .
1966 Indian Haryana state created from Punjab; Chandigarh territory created
1966 El Vietcong bombardea Saigón (actual Ciudad Ho Chi Minh) con fuego de morteros.
1964 El muro de Berlín se abre para permitir el libre tránsito de personas mayores de 65 años.
1963 Revolt against the Diem regime in South Vietnam
1962 Greece enters the European Common Market
1962 La URSS lanza la primera nave espacial con destino a Marte.
1961 Violentos combates enfrentan al ejército regular y al Vietcong durante la Guerra de Vietnam.
1959 El líder del Movimiento Nacional Congoleño, Patrice Emery Lumumba, es detenido por fuerzas del Ejército colonial belga
1956 Delhi becomes a territory of the Indian union
1956 Indian state of Madhya Pradesh formed
1956 Indian states of Punjab, Patiala & PEPSU merge as Punjab protection
1956 On the tenth day of the Hungarian Revolution the Nagy government withdraws from Warsaw Pact.
1954 Algeria begins its rebellion against French rule.
1954 Elecciones para la presidencia en la república de Cuba; el general Batista se presenta como candidato único.
1954 El V congreso del PCE (Partido Comunista de España) se pronuncia por un frente nacional antifranquista. .
| 1953 Emil Zatopek logra una nueva plusmarca mundial
en los 10'000 metros con un crono de 29 minutos y un segundo. [¿Es
zapoteca, o lo contranio?]
1952 Egipto protesta contra el pacto de normalización suscrito por la RFA e Israel.
1952 First nuclear fusion device exploded, by the US, at Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands.— Científicos estadounidenses hacen explotar la primera bomba de hidrógeno en el atolón de Enitewok, en el Pacífico.
1951 1st atomic explosion witnessed by troops, NM.
1950 Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán gana las elecciones celebradas en Guatemala.
1947 UN trusteeship for Nauru granted to Australia, NZ & UK
1946 West German state of Niedersachsen formed
1940 En plein Périgord noir, des enfants suivent leur chien dans une faille de rocher. Ils découvrent les grottes préhistoriques du site de Lascaux.
1940 Ataque aéreo italiano sobre Salónica.
1939 1st animal conceived by artificial insemination (rabbit) displayed
1932 Wernher von Braun named head of German liquid-fuel rocket program
1928 Graf Zeppelin sets airship distance record of 6384 km
1926 Benito Mussolini sale ileso de un atentado en Roma.
1923 Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company buys the rights to manufacture Zeppelin dirigibles.
1922 The Ottoman Empire is abolished, Turkey became a republic.— Golpe de Estado en Turquía dirigido por Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, con lo que termina el Imperio otomano. El sultán Mehmed VI es condenado al exilio.
The Hapsburg monarchy's Austria-Hungary empire is dissolved. Vienna becomes
the capital of Austria and Budapest the capital of Hungary.
1917 Court martial begins for 64 members of the US 24th Infantry for the 23 August 1917 murder of 17 persons and mutiny, in Houston, Texas [photo >]
1917 El emperador Guillermo II nombra canciller del Reich y primer ministro de Prusia al conde bávaro Georg Friedrich graf von Hertling [31 Aug 1843 04 Jan 1919]. — [and, led in fact by its military, the German empire went hurtling on to its destruction...]
1914 Paul von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg es nombrado alto comandante en jefe del frente oriental.
1914 La escuadra alemana de Maximilian graf von Spee hunde dos cruceros británicos frente a las costas chilenas.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas enters its fifth day, as Bulgarians try to overcome stiff Turkish resistance, subjecting the Turkish infantry to murderous artillery barrages. In two more days the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1912 Grecia ocupa Samotracia, incorporándola a su territorio.
1911 Italian planes perform the first aerial bombing on Tanguira oasis in Libya.
1911 La Duma rusa acuerda, con sólo dos votos en contra, ilegalizar la censura de prensa.
1906 The Nobel Medicine Prize is announced for Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal in recognition of their work on the anatomy of the nervous system.” They are the first to share a Nobel Prize. — El médico español Santiago Ramón y Cajal obtiene el premio Nobel de Medicina, compartido con Camillo Golgi. — MORE
1900 El papa León XIII publica la encíclica De Redemptore.
1894 Vaccine for diphtheria announced by Dr. Roux of Paris
1893 Supporters of the gold standard (rather than silver) win a key victory: Congress voted to repeal the three year-old Sherman Silver Purchase Act. During its brief time in the law books, the Sherman Act helped to generate $155.9 million in Treasury notes.
1871 The NYSE seeks to seal stop information leaks by forbidding members from "dealing with" non-members in the "rooms of the Exchange." The punishment for this infraction was a suspension lasting anywhere from sixty days to one year.
1870 US Weather Bureau begins operations (24 locations)
1869 Louis Riel seizes Fort Garry, Winnipeg, during the Red River Rebellion.
1827 El Gobierno mexicano, ante la negativa de Fernando VII a reconocer su independencia, decreta la expulsión de los españoles por temor al colaboracionismo.
1814 Le Congrès de Vienne est ouvert officiellement, mais les rapports secrets et les intrigues n'en cessent pas pour autant. Depuis plusieurs semaines les diplomates ont entamé leurs conversations. Talleyrand a réussi a imposer sa présence pour représenter la France; Metternich est là pour l'Autriche, Nesselrode pour la Russie, Castlereagh pour l'Angleterre, pour la Prusse enfin Humboldt et Hardenberg. Ceux qui furent des alliés s'entre-déchirent. Parmi les problèmes, le sort de la Pologne, celui de la Saxe, celui des Etats italiens...
1808 El barón Clemens August von Hulshoff Droste funda la primera cooperativa alemana para el cuidado de los enfermos.
1806 Napoléon decreta el bloqueo continental contra Inglaterra.
1784 Maryland grants citizenship to Lafayette & his descendants
1776 Mission San Juan Capistrano founded in California
1604 William Shakespeare's tragedy "Othello" 1st presented
1414 Date for which claimed-pope John XXIII [–22 Nov 1419] had convoked a Council to meet at Constance to resolve the great schism of Occident, there being two others besides him who claimed to be the legitimate pope: Gregory XII [1325 – 18 Oct 1417] and Benedict XIII [1328-1423]. In fact the solemn opening of the Council of Constance would take place on 05 November 1414, and its first public session held on 16 November 1414. It concluded on 22 April 1418. By then John XXIII (on 29 Mar 1415) and Benedict XIII (on 26 Jul 1417) had been deposed. Gregory XII abdicated after the Council recognizing him as the legitimate pope, and then conveniently died. On 11 November 1417, a commission designated by the council elected pope Martin V [1368 – 20 Feb 1431], thus healing the schism.
1210 King John of England begins imprisoning Jews
0451 The Council of Chalcedon (located in modern Turkey) is adjourned. It began on 08 October. Its 17 sessions were attended by over 500 bishops — more than participated in any other ancient Church council. — It was the fourth and largest of the early general councils and repudiated the notion that Christ has one nature, not two.
2006 William Clark Styron Jr., US novelist born on 11 June 1925. He is best known for two controversial novels: the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967), about slave revolt leader Nat Turner [02 Oct 1800 – 11 Nov 1831] and Sophie's Choice (1979), about the Holocaust. He also wrote Lie Down in Darkness (1951), The Long March (1956), Set This House on Fire (1960), This Quiet Dust, and Other Writings (1982), Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness (1990), A Tidewater Morning: Three Tales from Youth (1993). —(061102)
2006 Jean-Baptiste Jérôme “Jean-Jé” Colonna [24 Jun 1939–], when the borrowed car he is driving, alone, swerves, rolls over, falls into a ravine, and catches fire, at Serra di Ferro, in the Valenco region of Corsica. In a 2002 interview he said that he spent 1960-1970 hunting down and killing the murderers of his father Jacques Colonna [1905 – 18 Jul 1955], killed for no other reason than that he was the brother of Jean Colonna [12 Feb 1913 – 27 Nov 1985] who had survived severely wounded an attempted murder in February 1955. On 31 January 1975 Jean-Jé was arrested by police dismantling a drug ring of the “French Connection”, with which he denied having any connection other than the lying denonciation by an enemy, Michel Nicoli. Jean-Jé soon escaped from prison and he went into hiding in the Brazilian Amazonia (from July 1975 until after the statute of limitations expired on 03 August 1985 for his conviction for the escape); however he returned clandestinely to France every year to spend the summer vacations with his three children. But he was never prosecuted for murder or drug offenses and rejected the 1998 parliamentary report which called him “the Corsican Godfather”. —(061101)
2004 Hatem Khamel Abdul Fatah al-Bayati, deputy governor of Baghdad, shot going to work as he leaves his home in the Dora neighborhood of Baghdad. Four of Karim's bodyguards are wounded.
2004 Shmuel Levy, 65, of Jaffa; Tatiana Ackerman, 32, of Tel Aviv; Leah Levine, 67, of Givatayim; and suicide bomber Amar al-Far, 16, from Askar refugee camp in Nablus, West Bank, (who was recruited by the Mustafa Ali Brigades of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), at 11:15 (09:45 UT) in central Tel Aviv, Israel, in the Carmel Market, near a dairy shop close to the intersection of Rambam and Hacarmel streets. Some 40 persons are wounded.
2003 Isaac Madrid, 24, not wearing a seat belt while driving his pickup truck past a red light and crashing into a passenger car which hits a rock wall and flips over without injury to its two occupants, at 23:45 (Nov 02 06:45 UT) at the intersection of Escondido and Resler in El Paso, Texas.
2003 Two US soldiers driving separate civilian cars in Mosul, Iraq, by one roadside bomb. The US soldier passenger in each car is badly injured.
2003:: 24 persons as luxury bus falls off a moutain road curve 60 meters into a gorge near Pasarni Ghat, three km from Wai, in the Satara district of Maharashtra state, India, at 23:50. This is near the hill resort Mahabaleshwar, 150 km southeast of Mumbai. 30 persons are injured. Most of the passengers were tourists from Gujarat state, headed for the pilgrim town of Alandi near Pune.
2002 At least 49 prisoners of the more than 1300 in the Sidi Moussa jail (built in 1994 for 1000), in El Jadida, Morocco, in fire which starts at 01:30. Some 90 prisoners and two guards are injured.
2002 Christopher Jenkins, 21, is never seen alive again (except possibly by secretive criminals) after shortly after midnight when, drunk, dressed as an Amerindian, he leaves alone, not being allowed to stay at a Halloween party at the Lone Tree Grill at 6th & Hennepin in downtown Minneapolis (near I-94). He was a senior and co-captain and goalie of the lacrosse team at the University of Minnesota.
2001 Hyunjung Cindy Song, 21, is never seen alive again (except possibly by secretive criminals) after a friend drops her off shortly at 03:45 at her apartment at 349 W. Clinton Avenue, Ferguson Township, Pennsylvania, after a Halloween party at Players Nite Club where she was dressed as a rabbit. She was a South Korean, a computer graphics student at the University of Pennsylvania.
2001 Juan Bosch, 92, at about 03:00, from respiratory failure, in the hospital where he was since 28 September after an August 2001 lung operation. He had won the first democratic presidential election of the Dominican Republic in December 1962 after the assassination of dictator Rafael Trujillo. He was ousted in 1963 by soldiers who accused him of being a communist. In 1965, leftist soldiers led an uprising demanding Bosch be restored. US President Lyndon Johnson, fearing a Cuban-style revolution, sent in 20'000 Marines to oppose them. US troops occupied Santo Domingo for several months until a provisional government was formed. Bosch never regained power, but helped found two of the country's three main political parties. He also wrote more than 40 books.
2000: 48 personas al estallar un avión ruso de la compañía privada Ancargo en Angola, atentado atribuido al grupo guerrillero UNITA.
1993 Severo Ochoa, who received the 1959 Nobel Medicine prize, jointly with Arthur Kornberg, for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid — Severo Ochoa, bioquímico español, Premio Nobel en 1959. — MORE
1994 Carol Neulander, 52, in her suburban Philadelphia home, by her husband, rabbi Fred Neulander, 53, who, after a first trial ending in a hung jury in December 2001, would, in a second trial, be convicted on 20 November 2002 of paying $30'000 to private investigator Len Jenoff and to his roommate Paul Daniels, to commit the murder, and sentenced, not to death as he could have been by a unanimous jury, but to 30 years to life in prison, with no possibility of parole for 30 years (by which time he would be 91).
1987 René Lévesque, 65, Québec premier (1976-85)
1974 Fire kills 189 in less than 25 min (Sao Paulo Brazil)
1973 Catherine Shober Drinker Bowen, born on 01 January 1897, US historical biographer known for her partly fictionalized biographies. After attending the Peabody Institute and the Juilliard School of Music, she became interested in writing. Author of The Lion and The Throne (1957), biography of the jurist Sir Edward Coke [01 Feb 1552 – 03 Sep 1634] — Beloved Friend (1937), about the relationship of Tchaikovsky [07 May 1840 – 06 Nov 1893] and Nadezhda von Meck — Yankee from Olympus; Justice Holmes and His Family (1944) — John Adams and the American Revolution (1950) — Miracle at Philadelphia: The Story of the Constitutional Convention, May to September 1787 (1966).
1972: Ezra Weston Loomis Pound, 87, poet, he translated The Natural Philosophy of Love, by Rémy de Gourmont .— Ezra Loomis Pound, poeta y crítico estadounidense.
1971 Gertrud von le Fort, escritora alemana.
1971 Savage, mathematician.
1968 Léopold Survage, French artist born on 31 July or 12 August 1879. — more with links to two expensive worthless images.
1970:: 142 persons in fire at a discotheque in Grenoble, France, all exits padlocked.
1963 Elsa Maxwell writer (Jack Paar Show), dies at 80
1963 Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnamese PM, assassinated in a military coup — Golpe militar en Vietnam del Sur y asesinato del presidente Ngo Din-Diem.
1944 Metropolitan Andrew Sheptytsky of the Ukrainian Catholic Church dies in Lviv. He had saved hundreds of Jews during WW II.
1921 Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, Spanish Realist painter born on 24 July 1848. .— MORE ON PRADILLA AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to two images.
1918: 97 die in NYC subway's worst accident.
1912 John Emms, British artist born on 21 April 1843.
1903 Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen who received the 1902 Nobel Literature Prize as "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome — MORE
1865 Alexander Beaufort Meek, poet. MEEK ONLINE: Songs and Poems of the South
1835 Thomas J. Taylor, author. THOMAS TAYLOR ONLINE: Essay on Slavery
1670 Salomon van Ruysdael (or Ruisdael), Dutch artist born in 1600. — MORE ON RUYSDAEL AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1629 Hendrick Ter Brugghen, Dutch painter, born in 1588, one of the earliest and finest exponents of Caravaggism in northern Europe. — MORE ON TERBRUGGHEN AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1546 Giulio Pippi Romano di Pietro de Gianuzzi, Italian painter and architect in the Mannerist style. He was born Giulio Pippi in Rome in 1499 — MORE ON ROMANO AT ART 4 NOVEMBER
0079 Entire population of Pompei, and many in Herculanum, in Mount Vesuvius eruption
1948 Amani Abeid Karume; son of Zanzibar's dictatorial first president (by a Jan 1964 coup), Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume [1905 – 07 Apr 1972], he would become an accountant then a politician of the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party. In rigged elections he would be elected president in October 2000 and re-elected on 30 October 2005. — (051101)
1942 Larry Flynt, smut magazine publisher (Hustler)
1939 First jet plane, Heinkel HE-178, demonstrated to German Air Ministry .
1933 Ramón Tamames, economista y político español.
1930 A.R. Gurney, US playwright (Love Letters, The Dining Room).
1913 Mostowski, mathematician.
1911 Henri Troyat, à Moscou, romancier et académicien français.
1902 Nordahl Grieg, Norwegian lyric poet, dramatist, novelist (The Defeat). When Germany occupied Norway early in WWII, Grieg escaped to the UK with the Norwegian government-in-exile. His war poems and radio talks became the leading voice of free Norway. He died on 02 December 1943 in an Allied plane shot down during a raid over Berlin.
1897 The Library of Congress building, the first one, opens its doors to the public.
1896 Edmund Blunden English poet/critic (Undertones of War)
1892 Alexander Alekhine Russia, world chess champion (1927-1946)
1889 Hannah Höch, German artist who died in 1978. — MORE ON HÖCH AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1888 (01 Nov Julian or Gregorian?) Michael Sopocko, [–15 Feb 1975], holy Polish diocesan priest. —(080522)
1887 Laurence Stephen Lowry, British artist who died in 1976. — more with links to images.
1886 Hermann Broch Austria, novelist (Sleepwalkers, Bewitchment)
1885 Anton Flettner, German inventor who died on 29 December 1961. He invented the rotor ship (propelled by revolving cylinders mounted vertically on the deck, the Baden-Baden arrived in New York on 09 May 1926), of a marine rudder, of a trim-tab control for aircraft. — Jacques Cousteau and his colleagues designed a ship propulsion system to save fuel and cut pollution, based on the rotor ship idea, which they called turbosail which they used on the Alcyone, launched in 1985.
1882 Lorenzo Viani, Italian artist who died in 1936.— Lorenzo Viani, pintor italiano. — MORE ON VIANI AT ART 4 NOVEMBER
1880 Sholem Asch, Polish-born American novelist and playwright (The Nazarene, The Mother, Three Cities)
1880 Alfred Wegener, German meteorologist and geophysicist, who died in November 1930 during his fourth expedition to Greenland (to study polar air circulation). He published the first complete continental drift hypothesis in Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane (1915).
1880 Grantland Rice, sportswriter/poet
1878 Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Argentina, jurist. He would receive the 1936 Nobel Peace Prize for his promotion of peace as Argentina's Secretary of State, President of the Society of Nations, and Mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia. — MORE
1853 José Santos Zelaya (L), ruler of Nicaragua (1893-1910)
1853 Maurice Leloir, French artist who died on 07 October 1940.
1844 Olga Wisinger-Florian, Austrian artist who died on 7 February 1926.
1827 Manuel María de los Santos Acosta Castillo, médico y político liberal colombiano.
1815 Crawford Williamson Long surgeon/pioneer (use of ether)
1798 Benjamin Lee Guinness, Irish brewer.
1782 Viscount Goderich (Tory), British PM (1827-28)
1781 Joseph Karl Stieler, German artist who died on 09 April 1858. — more
1776 San Juan Capistrano Mission, founded by Spanish Franciscan missionaries in California.
1762 Spencer Perceval (Tory), British PM (1809-12)l, the only British prime minister to be assassinated.
1738 Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier, French artist who died on 07 May 1826.
1636 Nicolas Boileau, poète et historien, auteur de L'Art poétique, aussi de Satires du sieur D***, Satires du sieur D***
1611 The Tempest, romantic comedy by Shakespeare, is first presented at Whitehall Palace in London
1609 Matthew Hale, author of A Discourse Touching Provision for the Poor, The History of the Common Law of England
1607 Georg Philipp Harsdorfer Nurenberg Germany, poet (Poetischer Trichter)
1604 Othello, tragedy by Shakespeare, is first presented at Whitehall Palace in London
1535 Giambattista della Porta, mathematician.
1920 Ambrose Rogers, mathematician.
1530 Etienne de la Boétie, à Sarlat, humaniste et ami de Montaigne ("parce que c'était lui, parce que c'était moi").
|Religious Observances Ang, RC, Luth :
All Saints' Day (741)
ALL SAINTS' DAY • Dressed as Dracula or as devils, neighborhood children were happily "trick or treating" last night. But would it surprise you to know that "Halloween" started out to be a holy Christian celebration? Hallow, in Old English, means "holy" or "sacred." Therefore, "Hallows' Eve," or "Halloween" simply means "the evening of holy persons" and refers to the evening before All Saints Day, which is this day, November 1 on both Anglican and Catholic calendars. In the early years when Rome persecuted Christians, so many martyrs died for their faith, that the Church set aside special days to honor them. For example, in 607 Emperor Phocas presented to the Pope the beautiful Roman Pantheon temple. The Pope quickly removed the statues of Jupiter and the pagan gods and consecrated the Pantheon to "all saints" who had died from Roman persecution in the first three hundred years after Christ. Their bones were brought from other graves and placed in the rededicated Pantheon church. In the next century, All Saints Day was changed by Pope Gregory III to today's date — November l. In the 10th century, Abbot Odela of the Cluny monastery added the next day — November 2nd — as "All Souls" Day" to honor not just the martyrs, but all Christians who had died. People prayed for the dead, but many unchristian superstitions also were continued. Food was often offered to the dead — as it had been in pagan times. It was also believed that on these two days, souls in purgatory would take the form of witches, toads, or demons and haunt persons who had wronged them during their lifetime. As happens so often in Church history, sacred Christian festivals can absorb so many pagan customs that they lose their significance as Christian holidays. But think of it positively. Who are your favorite heroes in Christian History? Can you think of any whose example has inspired you? Why not use this All Saint's Day to think of and give thanks for as many Christians from the past that you know about, whether they are famous or not, whose lives have contributed something to yours.
Toussaint Toussaint est un raccourci qui désigne la fête de "tous les saints". Pour qui ne le saurait pas encore malgré la promotion commerciale qui se développe autour de cet événement, les Américains d'origine irlandaise célèbrent la Veille de la Toussaint, Hallowe'en. Ces réjouissances autour de motifs macabres sont le dernier avatar d'une très ancienne fête celte dédiée au dieu des ténèbres et de l'hiver, Samain.
Today is the day of which yesterday was the eve: “Halloween” is a contraction of “All Hallows' Eve", the day before the feast of ALL SAINTS a major feast in the Catholic calendar, because it reminds us that to be a saint means to have led a successful life on earth leading to eternal happiness in Heaven.
One tactic of the Catholic Church to displace paganism was to place Christian feasts days at about the same time as pagan festivals: Christmas at the winter solstice, Easter at the time of spring festivals, and All Saints at the time of harvest festivals.
Nowadays it is clear that commercial interests have taken over from the Catholic Church (and the related Churches). There were many news items related to Halloween, including a front page story in the Wall Street Journal on candy-maker Hershey's computer problems which prevented it from making deliveries in preparation for the greatest candy day of the year. But nothing about All Saints.
Even in a country with a Catholic tradition like France, where I presume All Saints is still a national holiday, the American influence has now made Halloween an important commercialized event. Last year there was some grumbling in the French news media, but this year Halloween's victory seems to have been complete. Children in disguises (I wonder if they also get disguised for Mardi Gras, the older neo-pagan pre-Lenten tradition), Halloween decorations and items for sale in shops, pumpkin dishes in restaurants.