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• Boer War ends... • Sacco and Vanzetti trial... • Johnstown flood... • 1st idea of an electronic computer... • Netanyahu Israel's PM... • 1ère des 3 “Tristes Journées”... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Germans conquer Crete... • Attack on sweatshops... • Battle of 7 Pines... • Eichmann hanged... • Friction drive... • Sheet asphalt... • Ford Motor in USSR... • Job loses job... • Walt Whitman is born...
^  On a 31 May:
2003 Annular eclipse of the sun of 3m37s, visible in Iceland and Greenland.
2002 Pedro Barragán González and five members of his gang are arrested outside Veracruz, Mexico, after a nine-month manhunt. They are among the most vicious of Mexico's many kidnappers for ransom (police being suspected of complicity), often mutilating their victims.
2001 Microsoft holds over 100 lavish parties throughout the US to launch the XP version of its “Office” software suite.
^ 1996 Netanyahu is elected prime minister of Israel
      Likud party leader Benjamin Netanyahu claims victory in Israel's election for prime minister, defeating incumbent Shimon Peres by 0.9%. This is regarded as a setback for the Middle East peace process. Peres, leader of the Labor party, had become prime minister in 1995 after Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a right-wing Jewish extremist.
      Netanyahu, who promised to be tough on terrorism and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, was at forty-seven the youngest prime minister elected in the country’s fifty-year history. Born in Tel Aviv in 1949, he served in the Israel Defense Forces and during the 1980s was the Israel’s ambassador to the United Nations. In 1988, he was elected to the Israeli parliament and served as deputy minister of foreign affairs from 1988 to 1991. In 1993, he became the Likud leader, and in 1996, Israel’s prime minister.
      On 18 May 1999, after serving three years as prime minister, a stalled peace process and epidemic political in-fighting within his cabinet led to his electoral defeat by Labor challenger Ehud Barak. During his concession speech that evening, Netanyahu also resigned as Likud party leader.
^ 1996 Attack on garment industry sweatshops
      Daytime television queen Kathie Lee Gifford leads the charge against dangerous working conditions in the garment industry. Gifford teams with Labor Secretary Robert Reich at a press conference designed to shed a spotlight on the proliferation of low pay and foul conditions in numerous garment shops.
      While Gifford's sudden transformation from chatty talk show host to activist — inspired by the discovery that her line of Wal-Mart-based clothing was partially produced in "sweatshops" — may have inspired some snickering, Reich attempted to keep the focus on the facts. The Labor Secretary deemed the sweatshops a "national shame" and noted that roughly half of the garment factories in the US not only paid workers sub-minimum wage salaries, but failed to pay for overtime work.
      In the wake of the press conference, cynics wondered if either Reich's statistics of Gifford's star power would bring about change. Indeed, some labor officials noted that, despite the recent publicity, it would prove difficult for the nation’s relatively small fleet of inspectors to thoroughly monitor workplace conditions.
^ 1996 Wired Ventures files for IPO
      Wired Ventures, parent company of Wired magazine and several related Web sites, filed plans for an initial public offering; however, the company backed out of the IPO the following August. After a second failed IPO, publishing company Conde Nast bought Wired magazine from the struggling company in 1998. Despite the struggles of its parent company, Wired had done a great deal to popularize the digital revolution.
1994 The United States announced it was no longer aiming long-range nuclear missiles at targets in the former Soviet Union. — Los misiles nucleares en tierra y mar estadounidenses dejan de apuntar a sus objetivos en la ex URSS.
1993 El poeta Carlos Bousoño, Premio Nacional de las Letras Españolas.
1992 Serbian and Yugoslav parliamentary elections, boycotted by opposition parties, which helps Slobodan Milosevic's Socialist Party of Serbia win a majority in both the Serbian and the Yugoslav parliaments. — Serbia y Montenegro eligen a los 138 diputados del Parlamento Federal para legitimar así la creación de la Nueva Yugoslavia proclamada el 27 Apr.
1991 Leaders of Angola's two warring factions signed a peace treaty, ending a 16-year-old civil war. — Jonás Savimbi y Doss Santos sellan en Lisboa un acuerdo de alto el fuego y fijan  la fecha para celebrar las primeras elecciones democráticas en Angola.
1991 US Federal health officials announce a new Medicare fee schedule.
1990 El poeta José Hierro gana el Premio Nacional de las Letras Españolas.
1989 Speaker of the US House of Representatives Jim Wright, suspected of questionable ethics, announces he will resign. (Thomas Foley later succeeds him.)
^ 1988 Reagan-Gorbachev summit in Moscow ends
      President Ronald Reagan ends his first trip to Moscow, and his fourth summit meeting with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, on notes of both frustration and triumph. Although there were no breakthroughs or agreements on substantive issues, the "Great Communicator," as Reagan was known in the United States, was a hit with Soviet audiences. The May 1988 summit between Gorbachev and Reagan was billed as a celebratory follow-up to their breakthrough summit of October 1987. At that meeting in Washington, D.C., the two leaders had signed the groundbreaking Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear missiles from Europe. The May meeting, however, got off to a rocky start as Reagan lectured Gorbachev about the need to improve the Soviet Union's human rights record. From that inauspicious start, the summit went downhill and ended with no further progress on arms control. Gorbachev's frustration boiled over as he declared to Reagan, "Maybe now is again a time to bang our fists on the table" in order to hammer out an arms agreement. During his final day in Moscow, Reagan turned away from strictly political issues and spoke before a group of students and Russian intellectuals and then took a walking tour of some old churches. He praised Russian cultural achievements, particularly the nation's great literary tradition and disarmed his audiences with his usual self-effacing humor. The May 1988 summit meeting was a victory of style over substance. Both Reagan and Gorbachev kept up positive fronts in their public statements, but in fact, the meeting had been a great disappointment for both sides. No further progress on arms limitation was made, and Reagan's efforts to push the human rights issue met a frosty response from Gorbachev. The summit indicated that despite the progress made in improving US-Soviet relations in the past years, serious differences still existed.
^ 1985 Jobs loses job
      Despite the great fanfare surrounding the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, the computer's sales fell far below expectations in its first year. Steve Jobs, cofounder of Apple and champion of the Macintosh, had become general manager of the Macintosh group. The board of directors, led by Apple's president John Sculley, blamed Jobs for the Mac's dismal performance. A highly publicized feud broke out between the two, and on May 31, 1985, Sculley removed Jobs as head of the Macintosh unit. Although Jobs retained the title of chairman of the board, he held little real power. Several months later, Jobs resigned to start a new company, called Next. Ironically, Macintosh sales took off after Aldus introduced PageMaker in the summer of 1985, launching an entire industry of desktop publishers, all of whom relied on Macs to run their software.
1979 Zimbabwe proclaims independence
1974 Israel and Syria sign an agreement concerning Golan Heights — Siria e Israel acuerdan retirar fuerzas de los altos del Golán, bajo la mediación de Henry Kissinger.
1970 Communist soldiers escape South Vietnamese forces       ^top^
      About 75 communist soldiers who had seized key outposts in the city of Dalat, 145 miles northeast of Saigon, manage to slip past 2,500 South Vietnamese militiamen and soldiers who had surrounded their positions. In earlier fighting, 47 Communist soldiers were reported killed; South Vietnamese reported that 16 soldiers were killed and 2 were wounded.
^ 1965 Bombing of North Vietnam continues
      US planes bomb an ammunition depot at Hoi Jan, west of Hanoi, and try again to drop the Than Hoa highway bridge. These raids were part of Operation Rolling Thunder, which had begun in March 1965. President Lyndon B. Johnson had ordered the sustained bombing of North Vietnam to interdict North Vietnamese transportation routes in the southern part of North Vietnam and slow infiltration of personnel and supplies into South Vietnam. In July 1966, Rolling Thunder was expanded to include North Vietnamese ammunition dumps and oil storage facilities as targets. In the spring of 1967, it was further expanded to include power plants, factories, and airfields in the Hanoi-Haiphong area. The White House closely controlled operation Rolling Thunder and President Johnson occasionally selected the targets himself. From 1965 to 1968, about 643,000 tons of bombs were dropped on North Vietnam. A total of nearly 900 US aircraft were lost during Operation Rolling Thunder. The operation continued, with occasional suspensions, until President Johnson halted it on 31 October 1968, under increasing domestic political pressure.
1961 Union of South Africa becomes a republic, leaves the Commonwealth
1955 US Supreme Court orders school integration "with all deliberate speed"
1949 Rotas las relaciones comerciales entre la URSS y Yugoslavia.
1942 II Guerra Mundial. Bombardeo masivo de Canterbury por los alemanes, en represalia del de Colonia por los británicos.
1942 German warplanes bomb Canterbury, England, causing severe damage to the Canterbury Cathedral (seat of Anglicanism), in retaliation for Britain's air assault on Cologne, Germany.
^ 1941 Germans conquer Crete
     The last of the Allies evacuate after 11 days of battling a successful German parachute invasion of the island of Crete. Crete is now Axis-occupied territory. On the morning of May 20, some 3000 members of Germany's Division landed on Crete, which was patrolled and protected by more than 28'000 Allied troops and an almost equal number of Greek soldiers. The German invasion, although anticipated, was not taken seriously; the real fear was of an attack from the sea. Those initial 3000 parachutists were reinforced-to the tune of an additional 19'000 men, arriving by parachute drop, glider, and troop carrier. The Allies remained optimistic; many of the German soldiers who dropped from the sky died or were injured on impact. The rest were undersupplied and inexperienced.
      But by the May 26, British General Bernard Freyberg, commander of the defense of Crete, already reported that his position was hopeless. Evacuation of Allied troops began on the 28th. By the night of the 31st, the last of the Allies that would make it out had left the seaport of Sphakia; 5000 men would be left behind in the hands of the Germans. The total loss of Allied land soldiers in the Cretan engagements was 1742; a further 2265 sailors were lost at sea. Three cruisers and six destroyers had been sunk. The Germans suffered a loss of about 4000 men. Strangely, Hitler, despite the victory, considered his "losses" too great to pursue further gains in the Mediterranean and finally drive Great Britain out of the area.

1941 First idea of an electronic computer       ^top^
      John Atanasoff, a University of Iowa professor who had invented one of the first automatic computers, writes a letter to his acquaintance, John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania. Atanasoff's letter mentions an idea for an electronic computer. Mauchly and his associate J. Presper Eckert later spearheaded the development of ENIAC, the first electronic computer. Later, a district judge overturned Mauchly and Eckert's patent on the electronic computer and declared that Atanasoff was the true inventor of the electronic computer. The patent dispute was one of the most controversial decisions in the history of computers.

1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée le 28 May, continue; el sera terminée le 03 Jun
1937 Guerra civil española: El barco Deutschland, atacado tres días antes en aguas de Ibiza por la aviación republicana, bombardea el puerto de Almería. Alemania e Italia se retiran del Comité de no intervención.
1933 Inglaterra logra un armisticio entre China y Japón.
1932 Hindenburg encarga a Von Papen la formación de nuevo Gobierno en Alemania.
1929 Ford Motor Company in the USSR       ^top^
      The Ford Motor Company signed a "Technical Assistance" contract to produce cars in the Soviet Union. Ford supplied many of the production parts for car manufacturers in the Soviet Union during the 1930s. Soviet factories also used Ford plants as their construction models. The agreement between Ford and the Soviet government also meant that Ford workers were sent to the Soviet Union to train the labor force in the use of its parts.
      Many laborers, including Walter Reuther, returned form the Soviet Union with a different view of the duties and privileges of the industrial laborer. Reuther, the UAW's president for many years, claimed to have been galvanized by the spirit of the Soviet workforce. It was over a decade, however, before labor unions won major victories in the US Although the labor activists were for the most part not Communist, nor even Communist sympathizers, Ford officials nevertheless used this threat to keep them at bay for years. During McCarthyism, many of the labor officials who had been in the Soviet Union were cited as perpetrators of "un-American activities."
1928 first flight across of the Pacific takes off from Oakland.
^ 1921 Sacco and Vanzetti trial begins.
     The trial resulted from two murders in South Braintree, Massachusetts, on 15 April 1920.
The crime
     At about 1500 hours that day, Frederick A. Parmenter, paymaster of a shoe factory, and Alessandro Berardelli, his guard, were fired upon and killed by two men armed with pistols. Parmenter and Berardelli were carrying two boxes containing the payroll of the shoe factory of Slater and Morrill, amounting to $15'773.59 (according to one account) from the company's office building to the factory through the main street of South Braintree. The two men normally drove the route accompanied by armed guards, but on this fateful afternoon, they walked the route unarmed and unaccompanied. As the murders were being committed, a car containing several other men drove up to the spot. The murderers threw the two boxes into the car, jumped in, and were driven away. Two days later the car was found abandoned in woods at a distance from the scene of the crime.
     Almost four months earlier, at 0730 on 24 December 1919, the paymaster for the L.Q. White Shoe Company of Bridgewater Massachusetts, a driver, and a guard had picked up the company's $30'000 payroll at the Bridgewater Trust Company. The truck was returning to the factory with the money when three men emerged from a car at an intersection and opened fire on the payroll truck. The guard returned fire while the driver swerved around a trolley car and hit a telegraph pole. There were no injuries, and the bandits escaped, but without the money.
The investigation
     In both the Bridgewater and Braintree robberies, eyewitnesses believed the criminals to be Italians. Chief Michael E. Stewart suspected a Mr. Boda, as he was an Italian car owner. On 16 April 1920, Stewart, at the instance of the Department of Justice, was engaged in rounding up Communists, and had been to the house of Mr. Coacci to see why he had failed to appear at a hearing regarding his deportation. He found Coacci packing a trunk and apparently seeming very anxious to leave. At that time, Coacci and the robberies were not connected in Chief Stewart's mind. But, when the tracks of a different car were found near the murderers' car, he surmised that this car was Boda's; and that Coacci, Boda's pal, had assisted him. In the meantime, Chief Stewart continued to work on his theory that whoever called for Boda's car at the garage where it was being repaired would be a suspect in the Braintree crime. On the night of 05 May, Boda and three other Italians did in fact come for the car.
     The Italians were Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Boda, and Orciani. The car was not available and the Italians left, but the police were notified. Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested on a street car, Boda escaped, and Orciani was arrested the next day.
      Chief Stewart sought to show that both robberies were committed by one gang. However, the theory proved to be implausible. Orciani had been at work on the days of both crimes, so he was released. Sacco, employed at a shoe factory in Stoughton, had taken a day off, 15 April. Consequently, while he could not be charged with the Bridgewater crime, he was charged with the Braintree murder. Vanzetti, as a self-employed fish peddler in Plymouth, could not give the same kind of alibi for either day and so he was held for both crimes. Stewart's theory that the crime was committed by these Italian radicals was not shared by the head of the state police, who firmly maintained that it was the work of professionals.
The trial
Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested on 05 May 1920, and indicted on 14 September 1920.
      On 31 May 1921, they are brought to trial before Judge Webster Thayer of the Massachusetts Superior Court. Part of the jury was specially selected by the sheriff's deputies. The chief counsel for the Italians, Fred H. Moore, was a radical and a professional defender of radicals, greatlly disliked by the judge. Sacco and Vanzetti spoke very broken English and their testimony shows how often they misunderstood the questions put to them. In fact, an interpreter had to be used, and his conduct raised such doubts that the defendants brought their own interpreter to check his questions and answers. The trial lasted nearly seven weeks, and on 14 July 1921, the jury found Sacco and Vanzetti guilty of murder in the first degree.
The controversy
     Socialists and radicals protested the men's innocence. Many people felt that there had been less than a fair trial and that the defendants had been convicted out of prejudice against Italian immigrants and, above all, for their radical, anarchist beliefs rather than for the crime for which they had been tried. All attempts for retrial on the ground of false identification failed. On 18 November 1925, one Celestino Madeiros, then under a sentence for murder, confessed that he had participated in the crime with the Joe Morelli gang.
     On this basis, the defense attempted to reopen the case in 1926. But the state Supreme Court refused to upset the verdict, because at that time the trial judge had the final power to reopen on the ground of additional evidence. The two men were sentenced to death on 09 April 1927.
      A storm of protest arose with mass meetings throughout the nation. Governor Alvan T. Fuller appointed an independent advisory committee consisting of President A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard University, President Samuel W. Stratton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Robert Grant, a former judge. On 03 August 1927, the governor refused to exercise his power of clemency; his advisory committee agreed with this stand. Demonstrations proceeded in many cities throughout the world, and bombs were set off in New York City and Philadelphia. Sacco and Vanzetti, still maintaining their innocence, were executed 23 August 1927. Upton Sinclair's novel Boston and Maxwell Anderson's play Winterset were written in response to the trial and execution.
      Opinion has remained divided on whether Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty as charged or whether they were innocent victims of a prejudiced legal system and a mishandled trial. Some writers have claimed that Sacco was guilty but that Vanzetti was innocent. There is widespread agreement, however, that the two men should have been granted a second trial in view of their trial's significant defects. In 1977 the governor of Massachusetts, Michael S. Dukakis, issued a proclamation stating that Sacco and Vanzetti had not been treated justly and that no stigma should be associated with their names.
1919 NC-4 aircraft commanded by AC Read completes first crossing of Atlantic
1916 During WW I British and German fleets fight Battle of Jutland
1915 An LZ-38 Zeppelin makes an air raid on London
1913 The 17th amendment to the US Constitution (direct election of senators) declared ratified
1910 The Union of South Africa is founded including the Cape of Good Hope colony.
1909 first NAACP conference (United Charities Building, NYC)
^ 1902 The Boer War ends
      In Pretoria, representatives of Great Britain and the Boers states signed the Treaty of Vereeniging, officially ending the three-year-and-a-half South African Boer War.
      The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. At the end of the Napoleonic wars, Britain took possession of the Dutch Cape colony, sparking resistance from the independence-minded Boers, who resented the Anglicization of South Africa and Britain's anti-slavery policies.
      In 1833, the Boers began an exodus into African tribal territory, where they founded the republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The two new republics lived peaceably with their British neighbors until 1867, when the discovery of diamonds and gold in the region made conflict between the Boer states and Britain inevitable.
      Following declarations of independence from the Boer states during the 1880s, minor fighting with Britain ensued before the outbreak of full-scale war in 1899. By mid-June of 1900, British forces had captured most major Boers cities and formally annexed their territories, but the Boers launched a guerrilla war that frustrated the British occupiers. Beginning in 1901, the British began a strategy of systematically searching out and destroying these guerilla units, while herding the families of the Boer soldiers into concentration camps. By 1902, the British had crushed the Boer resistance and on May 31, the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed, ending hostilities.
1902 Fin de la guerre des Boers Le 31 mai 1902, à Vereeniging, à la pointe de l'Afrique, un traité met fin à une terrible guerre de 30 mois entre les Boers et les Anglais. A la fin des guerres napoléoniennes, en 1814, l'Angleterre avait annexé la colonie hollandaise du Cap. Les colons, qui s'appelaient Boers (d'un mot hollandais qui signifie paysans et se prononce bour), voulurent préserver leurs coutumes et leur religion calviniste. Pour échapper aux Anglais, il se déplacèrent vers le nord dans de longs convois de chars à boeufs. L'essentiel de cette épopée se déroula de 1835 à 1837. Elle reste connue sous le nom de Grand Trek. En échappant aux Anglais, les Boers rencontrèrent sur leur chemin les Zoulous. Il s'ensuivit des guerres incessantes contre le chef Chaka et ses successeurs. Sur les territoires enlevés aux Zoulous, les Boers fondèrent d'abord la république du Natal mais, à leur tour, les Anglais s'empressèrent de leur enlever cette possession maritime, stratégique à leurs yeux. Les Boers fondèrent alors la République du Transvaal et l'Etat libre d'Orange, à l'intérieur du continent, et se crurent à l'abri des Britanniques. Ces micro-Etats comptaient à leur fondation respectivement 25.000 et 10.000 habitants blancs. Londres annexa malgré tout le Transvaal le 12 avril 1877, ce qui valut aux Anglais le douloureux privilège d'en découdre avec les Zoulous avant d'être expulsés de la petite république au terme d'une première guerre et d'une victoire des Boers à Majuba. La découverte de l'or en 1886 dans le Witwatersrand, en plein coeur des domaines boers, attira bientôt des immigrants de toutes origines et excita la convoitise des Anglais. La guerre et les camps A l'affût d'un prétexte pour en finir avec les Boers, Londres dénonça les traitements discriminatoires que subissaient les Anglais et les autres étrangers (uitlanders en afrikaans) installés au Transvaal. Le Premier ministre Joseph Chamberlain multiplia les menaces à l'encontre du vieux président Paul Kruger, un paysan obtus et laid mais farouchement déterminé à préserver l'indépendance du Transvaal. Il finit par lui adresser un ultimatum. Le 11 octobre 1899, c'est encore une fois la guerre. L'Etat libre d'Orange fait cause commune avec le Transvaal. Les Boers résistent avec une exceptionnelle énergie aux représentants de la principale puissance mondiale de l'époque. En janvier 1900, le général anglais Horatio Kitchener, qui s'est déjà illustré au Soudan, prend le commandement du corps expéditionnaire aux côtés du vieux général lord Roberts, qui a perdu dans la guerre son fils unique. Kitchener reprend Kimberley le 15 Feb et oblige à la reddition les 6000 partisans du général Cronje. Il impose enfin la levée du siège de Mafeking que défend le général Baden-Powell, le futur fondateur du mouvement scout. Le 5 juin, Kitchener fait une entrée triomphale à Johannesbourg. Mais les indestructibles Boers entament alors une guerre de guerilla. Kitchener pratique alors la tactique de la terre brûlée. Il fait usage d'une invention récente, le fil de fer barbelé, pour aménager les premiers camps de concentration. Les barbelés permettent d'emprisonner un grand nombre de personnes à moindres frais et avec une surveillance réduite. 200'000 Boers (hommes, femmes et enfants) sont internés dans des conditions lamentables et l'on compte à certaines périodes un décès sur dix parmi les internés. Les Boers évaluent à près de 30'000 le nombre de victimes des camps. Dénoncée par l'"humanitariste" anglaise Emily Hobhouse, vilipendée par l'opinion internationale et surtout britannique, l'armée de Sa Majesté renoncera ultérieurement à ces pratiques. Les camps de concentration prospèreront néanmoins sur les cinq continents et marqueront de leur empreinte les guerres de ce siècle. Les Anglais soumettent enfin les Boers au prix d'une victoire à la Pyrrhus. Pour la première fois, l'impérialisme britannique s'est heurté à une authentique résistance populaire. A quelques mois de sa mort, le 22 janvier 1901, la reine Victoria peut percevoir les premières fissures de l'Empire le plus vaste qui fut jamais.
1900 US troops arrive in Peking, help put down Boxer Rebellion
1891 Comienza la construcción del ferrocarril Transiberiano.
1879 first electric railway opens at Berlin Trades Exposition
1870 Congress passes first Enforcement Act (rights of blacks)
1864 Combat at Bethesda Church, Virginia
1864 Grant moves his lines towards Cold Harbor
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, continues
^ 1862 Battle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks), Virginia
      Confederate forces strike Union troops in the Pen insular campaign. During May 1862, the Army of the Potomac, under the command of George B. McClellan, slowly advanced up the James Peninsula after sailing down the Chesapeake Bay by boat. Confederate commander Joseph Johnston had been cautiously backing his troops up the peninsula in the face of the larger Union force, giving ground until he was in the Richmond perimeter. When the Rebels had backed up to the capital, Johnston sought an opportunity to attack McClellan and halt his advance. That chance came when McClellan's forces were straddling the Chickahominy River. The swampy ground around the river was difficult to maneuver, and the river was now a raging torrent from the spring rains.
      A major storm on May 31 threatened to cut the only bridge links between the two wings of the Union army. Johnston attacked one of McClellan's corps south of the river on May 31 in a promising assault. The plan called for three divisions to hammer the Federal corps from three sides, but the inexperienced Confederates were delayed and confused. By the time the attack came, McClellan had time to muster reinforcements and drive the Rebels back. A Confederate attack the next day also produced no tangible results. The Yankees lost 5000 casualties to the Rebels' 6000. But the battle had two important consequences. McClellan was horrified by the sight of his dead and wounded soldiers, and became much more cautious and timid in battle—actions that would eventually doom the campaign. And since Johnston was wounded during the battle's first day, Robert E. Lee replaced him. Lee had been serving as Confederate President Jefferson Davis' military advisor since his undistinguished service in western Virginia during the war's first year. The history of the war in the eastern theater drastically changed as Lee ascended the ranks. His leadership and exploits soon became legend.
1853 Elisha Kane's Arctic expedition leaves NY aboard the Advance
^ 1793 Les Sans-Culottes contre les Girondins.
     A l'appel de Robespierre, des sans-culottes parisiens guidés par Varlet et Roux encerclent la Convention et réclament la mise en accusation des députés de la Gironde qui gouvernent le pays. Ils leur reprochent leur incapacité à faire face à l'invasion étrangère et les soupçonnent de préparer le retour de la monarchie. Le 2 juin, après une ultime passe d'armes oratoire entre Robespierre et Vergniaud, l'un des chefs girondins, ces derniers, au nombre de 22, seront arrêtés et envoyés à la guillotine. A la faveur de ce coup d'Etat parisien, les députés de la Montagne prendront le pouvoir et installeront la Grande Terreur.
Des députés à la Convention Nationale qui, “par suite des malheureuses journées des 31 mai, 01 Jun et 02 Jun 1793”, seront condamnés à mort et, présumément, guillotinés:
DUCHEZEAU Gustave, domicilié à la Flotte (Charente Inférieure), condamné à mort comme conspirateur des brigands de la Vendée, le 28 nivôse an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, et par suite ...
VALADY IZARN Jacques Godefroi Charles Sébastien Xavier Jean Joseph, domicilié à Villefranche (Aveyron), condamné à mort le 15 frimaire an 2, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Dordogne, comme conspirateur mis hors la loi par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, et par suite ...
GRANGENEUVE Jean Antoine, ci-devant homme de loi, 43 ans, né et domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 1 nivôse an 2, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, comme étant mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationale.
GUADET Marguerite Elie, . homme de loi 35 ans, natif de St Emilion, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), mis hors la loi, par décret de la Convention nationale, exécuté, à Bordeaux, le 1 messidor an 2, comme conspirateur.
GORSAS Antoine Joseph, 40 ans, député à la convention nationale, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, auteur du journal " courrier de Paris à Versailles", mis hors la loi par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, pour s'être soustrait au décret d'arrestation., il a été arrêté et condamné à mort le 16 vendémiaire an 2, par le tribunal criminel du département de Paris, et exécuté le même jour.
     ... par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:

CARRA Jean Louis, 50 ans, homme de loi, député . du département de Saône et Loire, natif du Pont-de-Vesle, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 31 octobre 1793, comme conspirateur et complice de la faction de Brissot et autres.
DUPERRET Claude Romain LAUZE, 46 ans, député à la convention nationale, du département des Bouches du Rhône, condamné à mort le 31 octobre 1793, comme conspirateur.
NOEL Jean Baptiste, homme de loi, 65 ans et quelque mois, né et domicilié à Aimeront, département des Vosges, député par ledit département, condamné à mort, le 18 frimaire an 2,comme complice d’une conspiration contre l’unité et l’indivisibilité de la république , et de la fraction de Brissot, Vergniaud et autre, et par suite ...
MAZUYER Claude Louis, homme de loi, et député du département de la Côte-d'Or à la convention nationale, 34 ans, natif de Bellevère (Saône et Loire), domicilié à Paris, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale, condamné à mort le 29 ventôse an 2, comme conspirateur, et.par suite ...
MAINVIELLE Pierre, député du département des Bouches du Rhône, 28 ans, natif d'Avignon, domicilié à Paris,condamné à mort le [?] brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur contre l'unité et l'indivisibilité de la République, et par suite ...
*BOYER Jean Baptiste (dit Fonfréde), 27 ans, né à Bordeaux, négocient, député à la convention national du département de la Gironde, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2.
DUCHASTEL Gaspard, 27 ans, natif de Rochecon, département du Calvados, député dudit département à la convention nationale, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur et par suite ...
DUCOS Jean François, 38 ans, homme de lettres, natif de Bordeaux, député du département de la Gironde, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2 comme conspirateur et par suite...
LACAZE Jacques, député du département de la Gironde, 42 ans, né à Bordeaux, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort, le 9 brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur, et par suite ...
LASOURCE Marý David-Albin, 31 ans, natif d'Angles, département de l'Hérault, député de ce département, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2, , comme conspirateur, et par suite ...
LEHARDY Pierre, 35 ans, né à Dinan (Côtes-du-Nord), médecin, député du département du Morbihan, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 9 ou 10 brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur de la fraction de Brissot, et de la Gironde, contre l'unité et l'indivisibilité de la République, et par suite ...
LESTERFT-BEAUVAIS Benoît, 43 ans, né à Florac (Haute Vienne), député de ce département, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2,comme conspirateur contre l'unité et l'indivisibilité de la république, et par suite...
VERGNIAUD Pierre Victorin, député de la Convention nationale homme de loi, 31 ans, natif de Limoges, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2, comme convaincu d’être auteur ou complice d’une conspiration contre l’unité et l’indivisibilité de la République, la sûreté et la liberté du peuple français.
VIGEE Louis François Sébastien, député à la Convention nationale, 36 ans, né au Rosiers, grenadier du 2ème bataillon de Mayenne et Loire, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2, comme convaincu d'être auteur ou complice d'une conspiration contre l'unité et l'indivisibilité de la république, la sûreté et la liberté du peuple français, et par suite ...
FAUCHET Claude, prêtre 49 ans, né à Erné (Nièvre), ci-devant prédicateur du tyran roi, ex évêque constitutionnel du département du Calvados, député dudit département, condamné à mort le 10 brumaire an 2, par suite ..., comme conspirateur de la Fraction Brissot et de la Gironde, et pour avoir eu des liaisons avec Charlotte Corday.
GENSONNE Arnaud, 35 ans, homme de loi, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, député du département de la Gironde, condamné à mort le 10 brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur, et de la fraction de la Gironde.
*LUX Adam, député extraordinaire, né à Ebernbourg, dans l'électorat de Mayenne, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 14 brumaire an 2, comme contre-révolutionnaire, et pour avoir écrit contre la journée du 31 mai, et désigné le parti de la montagne comme des scélérats.
MANUEL Pierre Louis, 42 ans, natif de Montargis, département du Loiret, procureur de la commune de Paris, domicilié à Fontainebleau (Seine et Marne), condamné à mort le 24 brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur, et par suite des malheureuses journées des 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin 1793.
*CUSSY Gabriel, négociant, 54 ans, domicilié à Caen, député du département du Calvados, condamné à mort le 25 brumaire an 2, après avoir été mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale le 28 juillet 1793, et par suite ...
KERSAINT Armand Guy Simon, 52 ans, né à Paris, département de la Seine, ex député de l'assemblée législative, député de la convention nationale, ci-devant, gentilhomme breton, ancien officier de marine, domicilié à Ville-d'Avray, département de la Seine et Oise, condamné à mort, le 14 frimaire an 2, comme conspirateur et fédéraliste.
RABAULT-SAINT-ETIENNE Jean Paul, député du département de l’Aude à la convention nationale, cultivateur 50 ans, natif de Nismes, département du Gard, domicilié à Paris, mis hors la loi, et déclaré traître à la patrie par décret de la convention, le 28 juillet 1793 et par suite ..., il a été arrêté le 14 frimaire an 2, et condamné à mort le 15 dudit.
THOMERET Jacques, ex-curé, 39 ans, né à Champ-segré, département de l'Orne, domicilié à Noisy-le-Sec, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 22 messidor an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme ayant cherché à jeter la plus grande défaveur sur la révolution du 31 mai, en la désignant comme un attentat affreux, par lequel la représentation nationale était avilie et outragée, et la patrie perdue, en tenant à ce sujet un discours, dans lequel il fit l'éloge de Vergniaux, Guadet, Buzot et autres, et peignit Marat et Robespierre comme deux cannibales altérés de sang humain, et deux ambitieux qui vivaient au pouvoir suprême.
DUPRAT Jean, 33 ans, négociant, natif d'Avignon, député du département des Bouches du Rhône, condamné à mort le 9 brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur, et par suite ...
GARDIEN Jean François Martin, 42 ans, ci-devant, procureur syndic de Châtellerault, député du département de la Vienne, condamné à mort le 10 brumaire an 2,comme conspirateur et de la faction de la Gironde et de celle de Brissot.
D'autres (non-députés) qui seront condamnés à mort, “par suite des malheureuses journées des 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin 1793”:
BRETON Nicolas, fils aîné, 42 ans, tanneur, administrateur du canton de Bazas, né et domicilié à Langon (Gironde), condamné à mort le 11 frimaire an 2, par la commission militaire séante à Libourne, comme conspirateur pour avoir été membre de la commune populaire contre les journées des 31 mai 1 et 2 juin.
     ... par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:

HACHE Jean Jacques, 49 ans, négociant, né à Calais, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 4 frimaire an 2, comme convaincu d’avoir été chaud partisan de la force départementale, et d’avoir pris le parti de la Vauguyon, mis hors la loi, par décret du 6 août, et par suite ...
BUJAC Jacques, 44 ans, natif de Castel-Monron, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 1er nivôse an 2, pour avoir adhéré aux mesures liberticides, de la commission populaire et de la force départementale.
DUVAL Hugues Joseph, 49 ans, ex noble ex conseiller au parlement de Bordeaux, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 7 pluviôse an 2, comme ayant payé un homme pour la force départemental.
GRANGER Jean Jacques, 40 ans, capitaine de navire, né à Anacady, domicilié à Brest, département du Finistère, condamné à mort le 8 frimaire an 2, pour avoir pris sur son bord, à son départ de Brest, sept particuliers, au nombre desquels étaient le député Guadet et Winphen, tous mis hors la loi.
BERNARD Anne, âgée de 50 ans, couturière, née et domiciliée à Bordeaux, condamnée à mort le 20 germinal an 2, comme convaincue d'avoir favorisé des conspiration mis hors la loi.
CISSAC Arnaud Antoine (dit St André), perruquier, natif de Lavaur, département du Tarn, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 28 prairial an 2, comme ayant participé à la force départementale.
BOUQUEY François, (dit Robert), 49 ans, ci-devant procureur, né et domicilié à Saint-Emilion, canton de Libourne (Gironde), condamné à mort le 2 thermidor an 2, comme convaincu d'avoir recelé plusieurs conspirateur, c'est-à-dire, ceux mis hors de la loi.
DUPERAT François Xavier, négociant, 77 ans, natif de Blayais, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 2 thermidor an 2, comme receleur de conspirateurs, c'est à dire, ceux déclarés tels par suite ...
DUPEYRRAT Thérèse, épouse de François Bouquey, âgée de 32 ans, native de Bordeaux, domiciliée à St-Emilion (Gironde), condamnée à mort le 2 thermidor an 2, comme receleuse de conspirateurs, c'est à dire, ceux déclarés tels par suite ...
GUADET Jean, père, courtier de vins père du député de ce nom, 70 ans, né et, domicilié à St Emilion (Gironde), condamné à mort, le 2 thermidor an 2, comme receleur et conspirateur, c'est à dire, pour avoir recelé des députés proscrits par suite ...
GUADET Marie, âgée de 65 ans, tante du député de ce nom née et domiciliée à St Emilion (Gironde), condamnée à mort, le 2 thermidor an 2, comme receleuse de conspirateurs, c'est à dire, pour avoir reçu des députés proscrits par suite ...
GUADET Jean Baptiste, (dit Saint Brice), frère du député de ce nom, adjudant général de l'armée de la Moselle 30 ans, natif de St Emilion, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 3 thermidor an 2, comme contre-révolutionnaire pour avoir favorisé des conspirateur mis hors la loi par suite ...
FAURE Robert, ex conseiller la ci-devant cour des aides, 46 ans, né à St Amand-des-Bois, département de la Haute Charente, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 3 thermidor an 2, comme contre-révolutionnaire, et pour avoir favorisé des conspirations, mis hors la loi par suite ...
HENRY Jacques, 29 ans, commis marchand, né à Metz, département de la Moselle, domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort, le 3 thermidor an 2, comme contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir favorisé des individus, mis hors la loi par suite.
     ... par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:

DESCHAMPS Noël, 40 ans, homme de loi, né à Guillottière, faubour de Lyon, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le II ventôse an 2, comme convaincu d'avoir approuvé par ses propos, les projets hostiles dirigés contre la ville de Paris, par suite ...
LACOMBE Jean Simon (dit Puygueyrand), cultivateur, administrateur du district de Bordeaux, domicilié à Bordeaux, département de la Gironde, condamné à mort, le 12 brumaire an 2, comme fédéraliste.
LEMOINE Guillaume Antoine, cultivateur et président du district de Bordeaux, 25 ans, né et domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde), condamné à mort le 12 brumaire an 2, comme conspirateur et fédéraliste.
FRANCOIS N. (dit Samêtrier), 54 ans, né à Dommartin, département des Vosges, laboureur et procureur de la commune de Doulière, département de la Meuse, y demeurant, condamné à Mort, le 18 messidor an 2, comme convaincu d’avoir soustrait des conspirateurs au glaive de la loi.
SALLENEUVE Jean Baptiste, commis au bureau contentieux de la compagnie des Indes, 44 ans, né à Aigueperse (Puy-de-Dôme), y demeurant, condamné à mort le 27 messidor an 2, comme conspirateur, en indisposant les citoyens contre la Montagne, en traitant Marat de Gueux, annoncent que la Convention n'était pas libre aux journées des 31 mai, 1er et 2 Juin, que tous les honnêtes gens gémissaient de ces journée, qu'il ne trouvait de moyen de la délivrer de la tyrannie des Parisiens, que de fondre sur Paris.
COQUEAU C. P., architecte, 39 ans, né à Dijon (Côte-d'Or), domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 9 thermidor an 2, comme conspiration pour avoir retiré chez lui, pendant 24 heures, Petion, l'un des proscrits de la journée du 31 mai.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — —
ECHAPPENT A LA GUILLOTINE:
Des députés à la Convention Nationale qui se soustrairont au jugement de mise hors-loi “par suite des malheureuses journées des 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin 1793”, et rentreront dans le sein de la Convention après que le décret ait été rapporté:
BRESSON Jean Marie, député du département des Vosges, domicilié à Darney, même département, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention du 27 mars 1793, le décret à été rapporté le 22 germinel an 3, il est rentré dans le sein de la Convention.
DEFERMONT Jacques, domicilié à Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine), mis hors la loi par décret du 28 juillet 1793 an 2, le décret a été rentré dans le sein de la Convention.
DELAHAYE Jacques Charles, domicilié à Caudebec (Seine Inférieure), mis hors la loi par décret du 3 octobre 1793, an 2, le décret a été rapporté le 18 frimaire an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la Convention.
DEVERITE Louis Alexandre, 42 ans, imprimeur libraire, né et domicilié à Abbeville, député du département de la Somme, mis en état d'arrestation sur la motion d'André Dumont, son collègue de la même députation, pour avoir envoyé à Abbeville une brochure de Condorcet qu'on avait interceptée à la poste, laquelle contenait des observations critiques sur la constitution de 1793, mis en état d'accusation, et comme fugitif, mis hors la loi par décret du 3 octobre 1793, et sur la motion du même André Dumont il fut rappelé dans le sein de la Convention par décret du 18 frimaire an 3, ce fut lui qui fut rappelé le premier des députés mis hors la loi.
DOULCET Gustave, ex marquis de Pontécoulant, 36 ans, domicilié à Vire (Calvados), ex député à l'assemblée constituante, mis hors la loi par décret du 3 octobre 1793, et il doit la vie au courage de la veuve Lejai, libraire, il l'a épousée par reconnaissance, le décret de la mise hors la loi a été rapporté le 22 germinal an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la convention.
DUVAL Jean Pierre, domicilié à Renou (Seine Inférieure), mis hors de la loi,le décret à été rapporté, le 18 frimaire an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la convention.
GAMON, député du département de l'Ardèche, domicilié à Aubenas, mis hors la loi par décret du 28 juillet 1793, comme traître à la patrie, pour avoir protesté contre les journées des 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin, le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la convention.
HARDY Antoine François, député du département de la Seine Inférieure, domicilié à Rouen, mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793; le décret a été rapporté le 22 germinal an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la Convention.
ISNARD Maximin, député du département du Var, mis hors la loi par décret de la convention nationale le 8 juillet 1793; le décret à été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la convention nationale.
KERVELEGAN Auguste Bernard François, député du département du Finistère, domicilié à Montagne-sur-Odel même département, mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793; le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la convention.
LANJUINAIS Jean Denis, homme de loi, domicilié à Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine), mis hors la loi, par décret de la Convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3, il est rentré au sein de la Convention.
LAPLAIGNE, député du département du Gerse, mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationalet, le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3, il est rentré dans la convention.
LARIVIERE Pierre François Joachim Henri, député du département du Calvados, domicilié à Falaise, même département, mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationale, du 28 juillet 1793, le décret a été rapporté le 10 ventôse an 3, il est rentré au sein de la convention.
LESAGE Denis Toussaints, député du département d'Eure et Loire, domicilié à Chartres, même département, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3, il est rentré dans la sein de la Convention.
LOUVET Pierre Florent, né à Paris, homme de lettres, domicilié à Mont-Didier (Somme), mis hors la loi comme traître à la patrie, par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3; il est rentré dans le sein de la convention.
MEILLAN Arnaud, député du département des Basses-Pyrénées, domicilié à Bayonne même département, mis hors la loi par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3, il est rentré dans le seine de la Convention nationales.
ROUYER, député par le département de l’Hérault à la convention nationale, mis hors la loi par décret de la convention; le décret a été rapporté le 22 germinal an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la convention.
VALLEE Jacques Nicolas, député du département de l’Eure, domicilié à Evreux, même département, mis hors la loi par décret de la convention nationale, comme conspirateur, et par suite ..., le décret à été rapporté le 22 germinal an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la convention.
LIDON Bernard François, député du département de la Corrèze, domicilié à Brives, même département, mis hors la loi comme traître à la patrie par décret du 28 juillet 1793, et par suite ..., le décret a été rapporté le 18 ventôse an 3.
— — — — — —
Des députés à la Convention Nationale qui se soustrairont au jugement, mais mourront de toute façon:
BUZOT François Nicolas Léonard, député du département de l'Eure, né et domicilié à Evreux, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, par suite des malheureuse journées des 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin, il s'est soustrait au jugement, mais il a été trouvé assassiné dans un champ.
PETION Jérôme, homme de loi, 34 ans, natif de Chartres (Eure et Loire), ex député dudit département, ex maire de Paris, député de Paris, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale, le 28 juillet 1793, comme traître à la patrie, et par suite ...; il s'est soustrait au jugement; mais on assure qu'il a été trouvé assassiné avec Buzot dans un champ du département de la Gironde.
CARITAT, ci-devant marquis de Condorcet, né et domicilié à Paris, député du département de l’Aisne, mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention du 28 juillet 1793 pour s’être soustrait au décret d’accusation, et par suite ...; il s’est soustrait au jugement; mais il est mort de misère dans une prison aux environs de Paris, ayant été arrêté au bourg Egalité, comme suspect et sous un autre nom.
CHAMBON Aubin Bigort, député du département de la Corrèze,domicilié à Uzerche (Corrèze), mis hors la loi le 28 juillet 1793, par décret de la Convention, il s'est soustrait au jugement mais ayant été reconnu dans un département, il s'est défendu contre ceux qui voulaient l'arrêter; il a été tué.
DUFRICHE-VALAZÈ Charles Eléonore, 42 ans, natif de Luçon, département de la Vendée, condamné à mort le 31 octobre, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspirateur et par suite ..., il s'est poignardé après avoir entendu prononcer son jugement.
— — — — — — — -
Des députés à la Convention Nationale qui seront mis hors-la-loi “par suite des malheureuses journées des 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin 1793”, mais dont le sort n'est par précisé:
CHASSET Charles Antoine, domicilié à Villefranche (Rhône et Loire), député dudit départemente, mis hors la loi, le 3 octobre 1793, par décret de la Convention, comme conspirateur et suite ...
REBECQUI, député du département des Bouches du Rhône, à la convention nationale mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationale, comme traître à la Patrie.

1790 US copyright law enacted
1713 Tratado de Utrecht, que pone fin a la Guerra de Sucesión española y por el que Felipe V de Borbón es reconocido Rey de España y ésta pierde sus posesiones en Italia y Holanda.
1678 Tax protester Lady Godiva rides naked through Coventry
1638 Colonial clergyman Thomas Hooker, 51, first arrived at the site of New Haven, CT, having migrated there with his church members who repudiated the autocratic rule of Puritanism in Boston. Hooker (the founder of Connecticut) believed Boston had become corrupt, and that church authority should rest in the people's consent.
1578 Italian archaeologist Antonio Bosio became the first man in modern times to rediscover the Christian catacombs in Rome. Researchers (e.g., Giovanni B. de Rossi) who followed him dubbed Bosio "the Columbus of the Catacombs."
1492 Los Reyes Católicos firman el decreto de expulsión de los judíos de todos sus reinos, en el plazo de cuatro meses.
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< 30 May 01 Jun >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 31 May:

2009 George Richard Tiller “the Killer” [08 Aug 1941–], US full-time abortionist physician, shot by Scott P. Roeder [25 Feb 1958~], an anti-abortion (but obviously not pro-life) activist. Tiller was the son of part-time abortionist physician Dean Jackson "Jack" Tiller [1916 – 21 Aug 1970]. George Tiller operated his Women's Health Care Services, one of the three US clinics which performed late-term abortions. In June 1986, the clinic was fire-bombed. For many years the pro-life Operation Rescue kept a daily peaceful vigil outside Tiller's clinic. On 19 August 1993, Rachelle Ranae “Shelley” Shannon [31 Mar 1956~] unsuccesfully attempted to murder Tiller, shooting him five times. The Catholic Church teaches that human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception (CCC 2270) and that the cases in which the death penalty is justified, even when applied by the legitimate authority to the worst criminals, are nowadays “very rare, if not practically non-existent” (John Paul II, Evangelium vitae #56). — A pro~life revulsion at the murder —(100130)
2004 Two persons as there is shooting at blood donors at the Hussaini Blood Bank in Soldier Bazaar, in Karachi, who were responding to an appeal on behalf of the victims of the explosion at the Imambargah Ali Raza two hours earlier.
2004 At least 18 persons by terrorist bomb in the Imambargah (Shia mosque) Ali Raza about 100 m from Numaish intersection on MA Jinnah Road in Karachi, Pakistan, during Maghrib (sunset) prayers. More than 35 persons are injured. Soon afterwards Shia mobs riot in the streets impeding rescue and investigation.
2003 Tadanosuke Hashimoto, Japanese man born on 27 April 1891.
2002 Three Afghan soldiers, killed “by mistake” by US Special Forces troops. Two other Afghan soldiers are wounded. According to the US military, a “variety of intelligence sources” had indicated that a group of Taliban and Qaeda leaders were planning to meet in the evening at a walled compound in Khomar Kalay village, near Gardez in the mountainous region bordering on Pakistan. Before dawn today, about 20 American Special Forces soldiers, accompanied by about 80 Afghan soldiers from the Gardez area, drive up to the compound in trucks and sport utility vehicles. Their plan was to surround the compound and apprehend the suspects as they departed. But as the vehicles approached, men started running from the compound carrying weapons, including AK-47 rifles and at least one rocket-propelled grenade launcher. One group of those armed men took what the US soldiers “thought” were flanking positions behind a wall, then “appeared” to aim a grenade launcher at the US convoy. At that point, the US commander ordered his men to open fire. The shooting was over within minutes, without any of the attackers being hurt. Seventeen others inside the compound laid down their weapons. The Afghan victims were loyal to the interim government of Hamid Karzai, recognized by the US, and appeared to have come from nearby Logar Province.
2001 Ahmed Salah Abu el-Hilu, 17, Palestinian, in a clash with Israeli forces near Ramallah.
2001 Zvi Shelef, 63, of massive head wounds after being shot at on a northern West Bank road near Baka a-Sharkia, north of Tul Karm, and close to the Green Line.. He was a resident of the Jewish enclave settlement. Mevo Dotan.
1996 The four Saudi men accused of the 13 November 1995 bombing of the Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh are beheaded in Riyadh's main square. Before their execution, they are coerced by the Saudi's into a public confession. In the confession, they claim to have read bin Laden communiqués.
^ 1996 Timothy Francis Leary, with the last words: “Why not? Why not? Why not?”.
      Born on 22 October 1920, Leary was a clinical psychologist at Harvard University, a dabbler in Eastern mysticism, a fugitive and convict, a stand-up comedian and actor, a writer and a software designer and an exponent of cybernetics. Most of all, he was a publicist for psychedelic experience, repeating “turn on, tune in, drop out” to advertise the wonders of LSD. Some of his books: High Priest (1968), Politics of Ecstasy (1968), an autobiography Flashback (1983), Chaos and Cyberculture (1994).
     Leary, the son of a US Army officer, was raised in a Catholic household and attended Holy Cross College, the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and the University of Alabama (B.A., 1943). In 1950 he received a doctorate in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley, where he was an assistant professor until 1955. During the 1950s Leary developed an egalitarian model for interaction between the psychotherapist and the patient, promoted new techniques of group therapy, and published a system for classifying interpersonal behavior. He acquired a reputation as a promising young scholar and was appointed to the position of lecturer at Harvard University in 1959.
      At Harvard, Leary began experimenting with psilocybin, a synthesized form of the hallucinogenic agent found in certain mushrooms. He concluded that psychedelic drugs could be effective in transforming personality and expanding human consciousness. Along with a colleague, he formed the Harvard Psychedelic Drug Research Program and began administering psilocybin to graduate students; he also shared the drug with several prominent artists, writers, and musicians. Leary explored the cultural and philosophical implications of psychedelic drugs; in contrast to those within the psychedelic research community who argued that the drugs should be used only by a small elite, Leary came to believe that the experience should be introduced to the general public, particularly to young people.
      Leary's experiments were highly controversial, and he was dismissed from Harvard in 1963 after colleagues protested. During the mid-1960s Leary lived in a mansion in Millbrook, New York, where he formed the center of a small hedonistic community and began to intensively explore LSD, a more powerful psychedelic drug. His research, which initially had emphasized careful control over the “set and setting” of the psychedelic experience, became increasingly undisciplined and unstructured. He traveled widely and gave many public lectures, especially on college campuses, and because of his high public profile, he became a focus of the emerging public debate over LSD. His phrase “turn on, tune in, drop out” became a popular counterculture slogan. Cultural conservatives saw Leary as a corrosive influence on society, President Richard Nixon called him “the most dangerous man in America” (though Nixon was), while many researchers felt that Leary delegitimized the serious study of psychedelic drugs.
      After arrests in 1965 and 1968 for possession of marijuana and a prolonged legal battle, Leary was incarcerated in 1970. He soon escaped and became a fugitive, living outside the United States for more than two years until being recaptured in Afghanistan (a country that had enough troubles without him). He was freed in 1976 and settled in southern California. During the 1980s and '90s Leary continued to appear publicly in lectures and debates, although he never regained the stature he had enjoyed during the 1960s. He also designed computer software and was an early advocate of the potential of new technologies such as virtual reality and the Internet.
1991 Angus Wilson, escritor británico.
1982 Juan Antonio Zunzunegui, novelista español.
1976 Jacques Monod, médico, profesor y científico francés, P. Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1965.
1970 Some 66'000 after 15:23, when Yungay, Peru, is leveled by 7.9 magnitude earthquake, which provokes a tremendous rock slide and floods.
1966 Monjes budistas se queman en Saigón como protesta contra la política del Gobierno militar de Vietnam del Sur.
^ 1962 Adolf Eichmann, 56, hanged.
      At Ramie Prison near Tel Aviv, Israel, Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi S.S. colonel who organized Adolf Hitler's "final solution of the Jewish question," is executed for his crimes against humanity.
      During World War II, Eichmann, a fanatical Nazi, was appointed head of the Gestapo's Jewish section by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, and, with horrifying efficiency, carried out the Fuehrer's orders. From 1942 to 1945, Eichmann oversaw the systematic abuse of Jews in German-occupied territories, organized their subsequent mass deportation to concentration camps, and then carried out Hitler's "final solution to the Jewish question" — the genocidal murder of millions of Jews, primarily in the gas chambers of the concentration camps.
      In 1945, Eichmann was captured by US forces and imprisoned, but he managed to escape before having to face the Nuremberg international war crimes tribunal. Eichmann traveled under an assumed identity, and in 1950 arrived in Argentina, which maintained lax immigration policies and was a safe haven for many accused war criminals.
      After over a decade of pursuit, Israeli agents located Eichmann living under a false name in Argentina, and on May 23, 1960, kidnapped him near Buenos Aires. The agents circumvented extradition procedures and transported him to Israel, where he was judged by a special war crimes tribunal in two successive trials.
      Known as the "human symbol" of the genocide of the Jewish people, on 15 December 1961 Eichmann was condemned to death for the abuse and murder of millions of Jews. On 31 May 1962, he was hanged. His body was subsequently cremated and his ashes thrown into the sea.
1961 Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, 69, assassinated,. dictator from 1930 when he seized power in the military revolt against President Horacio Vásquez in 1930. From that time until his assassination, Trujillo remained in absolute control of the Dominican Republic through his command of the army, by placing family members in office, and by having many of his political opponents murdered. He served officially as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952.
1949 Fernando de los Ríos Urruti, político español.
1944 Henri Laplanche, Jean Perquis, Hippolyte Thomas, Charles Maillard, one more, Jean-Baptiste Brault, René Fayon, and Louis Hesry, leader of the French FTP (Francs Tireurs et Partisans) Résistance group to which Brault and Fayon belonged, by German firing squad, at la Maltière, Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande, for the 12 April 1944 assault on the Dinan prison (whose French guards, including accomplice policeman Maillard, did not resist) which freed the Résistance lieutenants Jean Marguerite and Jean Guérillon. Some had been tortured, starting with Maillard, who revealed the names of the others.
1944 Hubert Jean Marie Viannay [12 Jan 1921–], at the Oranienburg death camp to which the Nazis had deported him from France, where he was born at Saint-Jean-de-Bournay (Isère).
1944 Henry Weinbach [18 Dec 1876–], at the Birkenau death camp to which the Nazis had deported him from France, where he was born in Paris (16e arrondissement).
1935 Quake kills 50'000 in Quetta Pakistan — Un terremoto destruye la ciudad de Quetta (Pakistán) y mueren más de 56'000 personas.
1931 Eugène Maurice Pierre Cosserat, French astronomer and mathematician born on 04 March 1866. He studied the deformation of surfaces, which led him to a theory of elasticity.
1916 Egisto Lanceretto, Italian artist born on 21 August 1848.
1910 Elizabeth Blackwell, 89, first woman physician
1907 Francesco Siacci, Italian major general and mathematician born on 20 April 1839.
1906 Treinta personas, por una bomba arrojada en la calle Mayor de Madrid contra la comitiva de la boda del Rey Alfonso XIII con la princesa Victoria Eugenia de Battenberg. Los Reyes resultan ilesos.
^ 1889: 2209 victims of the Johnstown Flood
      In a river valley on the Appalachian Plateau, a neglected dam and a phenomenal storm led to a catastrophe in which over 2200 people died, tens of thousands were left homeless, and a prospering city, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, was nearly wiped off the face of the earth. Johnstown was located on the Conemaugh River at the mouth of Stony Creek, and was 23 km downstream from Lake Conemaugh, a recreational lake of the prestigious South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. Lake Conemaugh was held back by the South Fork Dam, which was owned and maintained by the sporting club.
      By 1889, the dam was in need of repairs, and when particularly severe torrential rains struck the area in late May, the president of the club sent telegraphs to Johnstown and other nearby towns warning that the dam might soon break. However, flooding was a familiar occurrence in the valley, and most Johnstown residents took no more precaution than casually moved their belongings to the second story of their homes.
      On 31 May, engineers at the dam realized its collapse was imminent, and they sent riders down the valley to evacuate area residents. Few heeded the warning. Just after three o’clock in the afternoon the South Fork Dam collapsed, and twenty million tons of water went roaring down the valley toward Johnstown. The flood swept through the communities of South Fork, Mineral Point, Woodvale, and East Conemaugh, accumulating debris, which included trees, houses, barns, animals, and people, both dead and alive. By the time it reached Johnstown, the flood appeared as a rolling hill of debris about thirty feet high and nearly half-a-mile wide. With one great swoop, over one thousand Johnstown buildings were demolished and sent tumbling down the roaring torrent. Over two thousand people were killed or drowned within minutes, and many bodies were washed several miles down the valley. Among the survivors of the calamity, there was a scarcely an individual who had not lost a friend or relative in the Johnstown Flood. Despite the great scope of the tragedy, reconstruction of the devastated community began almost immediately, and the American Red Cross arrived to construct shelters for homeless residents while tons of relief supplies arrived from well-wishers around the country.
      In a river valley in central Pennsylvania, heavy rain and a neglected dam lead to a catastrophe in which 2209 people die and a prosperous city, Johnstown, is nearly wiped off the face of the earth. Johnstown, located at the confluence of the Little Conemaugh River and Stony Creek, was 14 miles downstream from Lake Conemaugh, a reservoir turned recreational lake that was owned and maintained by the prestigious South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. The sporting club, which catered to a wealthy clientele from nearby Pittsburgh, included Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick on its membership rolls. Lake Conemaugh was held back by the South Fork Dam, a large earth-fill dam that was completed by the club in 1881.
      By 1889, the dam was in dire need of repairs. When several days of heavy rain struck the area in late May 1889, club officials struggled to reinforce the neglected dam, which was under tremendous pressure from the swollen waters of Lake Conemaugh. The dam began to disintegrate, and on 31 May the lake's water level passed over the top of the dam. Realizing that the dam's collapse was imminent, club officials sent riders down the valley to evacuate area residents. However, flooding was a familiar occurrence in the valley, and few Johnstown residents heeded the riders' desperate warnings. Most just took the same simple precautions they did when Little Conemaugh River flooded: They moved their belongings to the second story of their homes and settled down to wait out the storm.
      At 15:10, the South Fork Dam washed away, drowning several laborers who were struggling to maintain it. Club officials on high ground watched awe-struck as 20 million tons of water went roaring down the valley toward Johnstown. The deluge swept through the communities of South Fork, Mineral Point, Woodvale, and East Conemaugh, accumulating debris, including rocks, trees, houses, barns, railroad cars, animals, and people, both dead and alive. By the time it reached Johnstown, at 16:07, the flood appeared as a rolling hill of debris more than 10 meters high and some 700 meters wide. In a terrible swoop, the northern half of the city was swept away, sending some 1500 demolished Johnstown buildings tumbling down with the roaring torrent.
      It took 10 minutes for the waters of Lake Conemaugh to pass through Johnstown, and 2000 people were drowned or crushed in the torrent. A few survivors were washed up along with numerous corpses several miles down the valley. At the old Stone Bridge in Johnstown, debris piled 40 feet high caught fire, and some 80 huddled survivors of the flood perished in the flames.
      A total of 2209 died as a result of the disaster. Among the survivors of the calamity, there was a scarcely an individual who had not lost a friend or relative in the Johnstown Flood. Despite the great scale of the tragedy, reconstruction of the devastated community began almost immediately, and Clara Barton and the American Red Cross constructed shelters for homeless residents while well-wishers around the country sent tons of relief supplies. The South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club was widely criticized for its failure to maintain the South Fork Dam, but no successful lawsuits were ever brought against the organization.
1841 George Green, English mathematician born in July 1793.
1837 Nicolas André Monsiau, French painter and illustrator born in 1754. — MORE ON MONSIAU AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1832 Évariste Galois, from wounds suffered the previous day in a duel with Perscheux d'Herbinville. Galois was a French mathematician born on 25 October 1811. Galois produced a method of determining when a general equation could be solved by radicals, and in the process outlined the group theory now called Galois theory (but probably not all in the night before the duel).
1809 Franz Josef Haydn composer, in Wien (Vienna) Austria
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1795 (12 prairial an III):
MARCADÉ René Pierre, tisserand, et maître d'école, domicilié à St Germain-le-Fouilloux (Mayenne), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission révolutionnaire de Laval.
1794 (12 prairial an II):
PONT Joseph, 50 ans, ex curé, né et domicilié à Toutenaut (Saône et Loire), comme conspirateur, ayant refusé d'abjurer l'état ecclésiastique, en disant à un des commissaires de sa commune qui lui observa à ce sujet, que plusieurs évêques avaient abjuré, qu'il étaient des évêques postiches, que l'on ne savait pas ce qui pouvait arriver par la suite.
CHAILLOU René, laboureur, domicilié à St Julien (Loire Inférieure), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante à Laval.
LAMBERT Joseph, domicilié à Arras (Pas-de-Calais), né à Salon près de Luxembourg, par la commission militaire d'Arras, comme émigré.
MARCHAU, (dit Lamirault), domicilié à Limoges (Haute Vienne), comme émigré, par la commission militaire d'Arras.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
SIMONET Claude François Marie, ex fermier général adjoint, 42 ans, né et domicilié à Dijon (Côte-d'Or), comme complice des conspirations et complots contre le peuple français, notamment, en mêlant au tabac de l'eau et des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé des citoyens qui en faisaient usage.
BEAUFFRE J. B. Pierre, 66 ans, né à Châteauneuf, (Indre et Loire), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'être complice d'une conspiration qui à existé depuis le 10 août 1792, en tenant des propos pour dissoudre la représentation nationale et rétablir la royauté
MARGUERIT Edouard Marie, ex noble et major de la garde du tyran roi, major en second du régiment ci-devant de la reine, 58 ans, né à Bayeux (Calvados), domicilié à Agny, même département, comme complice des crimes commis par Capet, à la journée du 10 août 1792.
CARON Jean Hyacinthe, 36 ans, natif de Ruvigny ex curé domicilié à Moulin (Meuse), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
DUVIVIER Louis, employé à l'extraordinaire des guerres, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
HERY Th. Casimir, officier au 25ème régiment, domicilié à Fleury, (Loiret), comme conspirateur.
HUGAULT Sylvain, ex curé, domicilié à Issoudun (Indre), comme conspirateur.
HUGUET Philippe, faiseur de bas, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
LAMORRE Thérèse Françoise, ex noble, âgée de 62 ans, né et domicilié à Bar-sur-Ornain (Meuse), comme conspiratrice.
SAINT-SAULIEU Pierre, 44 ans, feudiste, ci-devant receveur de l’abbaye de Cormeuil, natif d’Orléans (Loiret), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu de conspiration.
1774 Claude-François Desportes, French artist born in 1695.
1740 Frederick-William I king of Prussia (1713-1740)
paralititan stromeri1594 Jacopo Robusti “Tintoretto” “il Furioso”, great Venetian Mannerist painter born in 1518. — MORE ON “TINTORETTO” AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.

— 90'000'000 BC (approximately, they didn't have calendars back then, but they had cameras >): Paralititan Stromeri, of unknown causes [it overdosed on an ancient psychodelic mushroom, according to one theory, which I have just concocted out of thin air], in a swamp that would become Egypt's Bahariya Oasis Its carcass is devoured by carnivorous dinosaurs and some of its bones remain there while the region changes to desert and on 31 May 2001 it is announced that they have been discovered in 2000 by University of Pennsylvania graduate student Joshua B. Smith, who gives the species its name meaning “paralytic titan” [just kidding...it really means “tidal giant”] and estimates that it weighed 70 tons and was nearly 30 meters long. Ernst Stromer von Reichenbach was a German geologist who, in 1935, uncovered a wealth of Late Cretinaceous ... er... make that Cretaceous fossils at the site, including four entirely new dinosaur species, but the fossils were destroyed during an Allied bombing of Munich during World War II [which suggests a new theory on the disapperance of the dinosaurs: they were bombed out of existence by cretinous creatures that eventually evolved into Osama Bin Laden].
http://www.dinosaur.org/   http://dinosauria.com/
 
< 30 May 01 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on a 31 May

1977 The trans-Alaska oil pipeline, three years in the making, is completed.
1957 Sidi Mohamed Uld Bubacar, primer ministro de Mauritania.
1940 Alfonso Guerra González, político socialista español.
1934 Pablo Castellano, abogado y político español.
1926 John G. Kemeny, Jewish-Hungarian-born US mathematician and philosopher who died on 26 December 1992. Co-inventor, with Thomas Eugene Kurtz [1928~], of the BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) computer language, whose first program was run at 02:00 on 04 May 1964 at Dartmouth College.
1923 Rainier-Louis-Henri-Maxence-Bertrand de Grimaldi, who, at the death of his grandfather Louis II [12 Jul 1870 – 09 May 1949], would become Rainier III, Prince de Monaco, Duc de Valentinois, Marquis des Baux, Comte de Carlades, Baron de Buis, Seigneur de Saint-Rémy, Sire de Matignon, Comte de Thorigny, Baron de Saint-Lô, de la Luthumière et de Hambye, Duc d'Estouteville, de Mazarin et de Mayenne, Prince de Château-Porcien, Comte de Ferrette, de Belfort, de Thann et de Rosemont, Baron d'Altkirch, Seigneur d'Isenheim, Marquis de Chilly, Comte de Longjumeau, Baron de Massy, Marquis de Guiscard; the 31st hereditary ruler of the principality of Monaco {no relation to Mount Rainier, which George Vancouver sighted on 08 May 1792 and named for fellow navigator Peter Rainier}. Rainier III was responsible for Monaco's 1962 constitution, which ended autocratic rule by creating a National Council of eighteen elected members. On 19 April 1956, Rainier III married US actress Grace Kelly [12 Nov 1929 – 14 Sep 1982]. Rainier III's successor is their son Albert-Alexandre-Louis-Pierre Grimaldi [14 Mar 1958~]. Rainier died on 11 April 2005, according to a forecast.
1912 Henry 'Scoop' Jackson (US Senator from Washington)
1911 Maurice Allais, economista e ingeniero de Minas francés, P. Nobel de Economía en 1988.
1910 Luis Rosales, poeta español.
^ 1904 Friction drive for cars.
      Byron J. Carter receives a US patent for his "friction-drive" mechanism. The friction-drive replaces the conventional transmission to provide more precise control of a car's speed. A newspaper at the time of the device's release explained that the friction-drive mechanism "used friction discs, instead of gears, so arranged as to be instantly changed to any desired speed. The discs also change to forward or backward movement, and can be used as a brake to stop the machine by reversing the lever."
      Carter's friction drive never really caught on, however. Conventional transmissions served their purpose adequately, and the friction discs proved to be susceptible to poor road conditions. Carter's ingenious design did, however, attract the attention of William Durant, General Motor's megalomaniac expansionist leader. He bought the Cartercar design thinking it might turn into something big; it never did. The technology involved in the friction-drive is, however, related to today's disc brakes.
1898 Norman Vincent Peale Ohio, (clergyman: radio ministry; author and syndicated newspaper column: The Power of Positive Thinking)
1892 Michel Kikoïne, Belarus-born French painter who died on 04 November 1968. — MORE ON KIKOÏNE AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1885 Alois “Luigi” Hudal, [–13 May 1963], Austrian who would be ordained a Catholic priest on 19 July 1908, become rector of the Collegio Teutonico Anima in Rome in 1923 and a consultant to the Holy Office in 1930, be consecrated a bishop on 18 June 1933 by the future (02 Mar 1939) Pope Pius XII [02 Mar 1876 – 09 Oct 1958], sympathize in part with the Nazis, arrange the “humanitarian” escape of Nazi war criminals, and resign a rector in June 1952. —(080630)
^ 1870 Sheet asphalt
      Professor Edward Joseph De Smedt of the American Asphalt Pavement Company, New York City, receives two patents for his invention known as "French asphalt pavement." De Smedt had invented the first practical version of sheet asphalt. On July 29 of the same year, the first road pavement of sheet asphalt was laid on William Street in Newark, New Jersey.
1860 Archibald Thorburn, British bird painter who died on 09 October 1935. — MORE ON THORBURN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1862 Mikhail Vasilyevich Nesterov, Russian painter who died on 18 October 1942. — MORE ON NESTEROV AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1860 Walter Richard Sickert, British British Post-Impressionist Camden Town Group painter, printmaker, teacher, and writer of German birth, who died on 22 January 1942. — MORE ON SICKERT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1857 Pius XI 259th pope (1922-1939)
1853 Eugène-Alexis Girardet, French artist who died on 05 May 1907. — links to images.
1845 Juana Josefa “Cándida María de Jesús” Cipitria y Barriola [–09 Aug 1912], Catholic saint canonized on 17 October. (more to come) —(100220)
1827 Nicolaas Riegen, Dutch artist who died on 27 November 1889.
1821 Henriette Ronner-Knip, Dutch artist who died on 02 March 1909.
^ 1819 Walter Whitman, US poet, journalist, and essayist, in West Hills, Long Island.
     Walt Whitman was raised in Brooklyn. Although Whitman loved music and books, he left school at the age of 14 to become a journeyman printer. Later, he worked as a teacher, journalist, editor, carpenter, and held various other jobs to support his writing.
      In 1855, he self-published a slim volume of poems called Leaves of Grass, which carried his picture but not his name. With this book, Whitman hoped to become a truly American poet, as envisioned in Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "The Poet" (1843). Whitman spent much time in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Long Island, attending cultural events, taking long walks, and sometimes riding on coaches and ferries as an excuse to talk with people.
      In 1856, the second edition of Leaves of Grass included his "Sundown Poem," later called "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry." In 1862, Whitman's brother was wounded at Fredericksburg, and Whitman went to care for him. He spent the rest of the war comforting both Union and Confederate soldiers. Some of Whitman's poems were inspired by his Civil War experience as a hospital volunteer in Washington. Although a staunch supporter of the Union cause, Whitman comforted dying soldiers of both sides, as described in one of the poet's wartime newspaper dispatches: "I stayed a long time by the bedside of a new patient.... In an adjoining ward I found his brother...It was in the same battle both were hit. One was a strong Unionist, the other Secesh; both fought for their respective sides, both badly wounded, and both brought together after a separation of four years. Each died for his cause."
     His poem "Oh Captain, My Captain," mourned Lincoln's assassination. Whitman worked for several government departments after the war until he suffered a stroke in 1873. He spent the rest of his life in Camden, New Jersey, and continued to issue revised editions of Leaves of Grass until shortly before his death on 26 March 1892 (other poetry: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd, Passage to India)
— 1887 Portrait of Whitman by Thomas Eakins.
WHITMAN ONLINE: Leaves of Grass
1809 Frederik Hansen Södring, Danish artist who died on 18 April 1862.
1760 George Garrard, British artist who died on 08 October 1826. — MORE ON GARRARD AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1733 Ludwig Tieck, escritor alemán.
1684 Georg Engelhardt Schröder, German artist who died on 17 May 1750.
1622 Jan Abrahamszoon Beerstraten, Flemish landscape painter and printmaker who died on 01 July 1666. — MORE ON BEERSTRATEN AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1535 Alessandro “Bronzino” Allori, Italian painter who died on 22 September 1607. — MORE ON ALLORI AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1469 Manuel I “o Afortunado”, king of Portugal from October 1495, who died in December 1521. His reign was characterized by religious troubles (all Moors and Jews refusing baptism were expelled), by a policy of clever neutrality in the face of quarrels between France and Spain, and by the continuation of overseas expansion, notably to India and Brazil.
 
Holidays Botswana : President's Day / Brunei : Royal Brunei Malay Regiment / Namibia, South Africa : Union Day (1910), Republic Day (1961) / Zimbabwe : Independence Day (1979)

Religious Observances Luth, Ang, RC : Visitation [Queenship] of Mary / RC : St Aurelia Petronilla, virgin / old RC : St Angela Merici, virgin / Ang : first Book of Common Prayer / Santos Cancio, Pascasio y Petronila. / C'est la fête de la Visitation de Marie: Cette fête catholique rappelle la visite de la Vierge Marie à sa cousine Elizabeth. Elisabeth, bien que très âgée, porte en son sein, depuis cinq mois déjà, un enfant qui sera plus tard connu sous le nom de Jean-Baptiste, car il baptisera les Juifs dans l'eau du Jourdain. Marie vient d'apprendre qu'elle est elle-même enceinte de Jésus et sa cousine la salue par les mots célèbres: "Tu es bénie entre toutes les femmes et le fruit de ton sein est béni,..." (Evangile selon Saint Luc, I, 42). Ces paroles entreront dans la deuxième partie de la prière "Je vous salue Marie". Marie y répond par le cantique du "Magnificat": "Mon âme exalte le Seigneur et mon esprit s'est rempli d'allégresse à cause de Dieu, mon Sauveur, parce qu'il a porté son regard sur son humble servante..." Ce dialogue plein de tendresse inspirera au cours des siècles les plus grands artistes, peintres et musiciens du monde chrétien.
click click

Thought for the day:
“Just say know.” — Timothy Leary [22 Oct 1920 – 31 May 1996]
“To criticize the incompetent is easy; it is more difficult to criticize the competent." — {So is it because I am competent that I am incompetent to criticize myself?}
"For the incompetent to criticize is easy; it is more difficult for the competent."
"To criticize incompetently is easy; it is more difficult to criticize competently."
"To criticize the incompetent is safe; it is more dangerous to criticize the competitive."
"To criticize ineffectually is easy; it is more difficult to give advice that is followed.”
“Always complete your work on time, no matter how long it takes or how late you started.”
“Alwezcmpleturwokontimnomatrhwmuchuhav2strimlinit.”
“I you cannot complete your work on time, don't start it; instead criticize the incompetents around you.”
“No matter how long you work on time, you can't reverse it.”

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updated Saturday 20-Feb-2010 21:45 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.40 Saturday 31-May-2008 1:58 UT
v.7.40 Thursday 31-May-2007 12:48 UT
Wednesday 31-May-2006 4:40 UT
v. 5.41 Monday 30-May-2005 23:38 UT
Tuesday 01-Jun-2004 4:33 UT

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