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Events, deaths, births, of 30 MAY
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• Mass bombing of Cologne... • Biafra... • Joan of Arc burns... • Torture~murder of teacher by former student... • Swedish police torture to death harmless man... • Rubens dies... • Mathematician Zygmund dies... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • 1er numéro de La Gazette... • Voltaire dies... • Alexander Pope dies... • Adobe president rescued from kidnappers... • Confederates evacuate Corinth... • Spacecraft leaves for Mars... • Marlowe dies... • Currency Act... • Dickinson killed in duel by Andrew Jackson... • Schroeder appears in Peanuts... • Decoration Day...
^  On a 30 May:
2002 Elections in Algeria for 389 members of the lower house of parliament. They are boycotted and disrupted by Berbers (mostly in Kabylie) and by the two main opposition parties: Front des Forces Socialistes (FFS) and the Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Democratie (RCD).
1996 The US House of Representatives calls off a contempt-of-Congress vote after President Clinton's aides turned over 1000 pages of papers and a long-sought list of documents in the travel office firings.
1992 The UN General Assembly votes to expel the "new" Yugoslavia (Serbia+Montenegro)
^ 1992 Adobe president rescued from kidnappers
      Charles Geschke, president of Adobe Systems, is rescued after kidnappers held him hostage for four days. Geschke's generous philanthropy had attracted the attention of two would-be kidnappers in Silicon Valley. The two abducted Geschke at gunpoint in broad daylight, blindfolded him with duct tape, and kept him chained and handcuffed in a rented house.
      The FBI nabbed one of the kidnappers during a ransom drop and rescued Geschke on 30 May 1992. Ironically, a neighbor of Geschke's had noticed a man, who later proved to be one of the kidnappers, rifling through Geschke's mail several days earlier. She had written down the license plate number; however, not knowing Geschke was missing, she never gave the number to the police until after Geschke had been returned.
Goddess of Democracy

1991 The US Supreme Court rules that prosecutors can be sued for the legal advice they give police and can be forced to pay damages when that advice leads to someone's rights being violated.

1990 Dow Jones Industrial average reaches a record 2878.56.

1989 Student demonstrators at Tiananmen Square in Beijing erect the Goddess of Democracy, a 10-meter-high styrofoam statue. [photo >>>] —(070529)
^ 1986 Communications satellite rocket destroyed
      The European Space Agency launches a rocket carrying the Intelsat V communications satellite. The unmanned rocket, however, experiences a malfunction during launch and has to be destroyed.
      Intelsat V was one of a series of communications satellites launched by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, established in 1964 to govern global satellite communications links. The first Intelsat satellite, also known as Early Bird, was launched in April 1965.
1984 Jordi Pujol i Soley es reelegido presidente de la Generalitat catalana.
1982 Spain becomes the 16th member of NATO.
1972 El presidente estadounidense, Richard Milhous Nixon, y las primeras autoridades rusas firman en Moscú los acuerdos SALT, sobre la limitación de armas
^ 1971 Mariner 9 departs for Mars
      The US unmanned space probe Mariner 9 is launched on a mission to gather extensive scientific information on Mars. The 506-kg spacecraft entered the planet’s orbit on 13 November 1971, and circled Mars twice each day for almost a year, photographing the surface and analyzing the atmosphere with infrared and ultraviolet instruments. It gathered data on the atmospheric composition, density, pressure, and temperature of Mars, and also information about the surface composition, temperature, and topography of the planet.
      When Mariner 9 first arrived, Mars was almost totally obscured by dust storms, which persisted for a month. However, after the dust cleared, Mariner 9 proceeded to reveal a very different planet — one that boasted enormous volcanoes and a gigantic canyon stretching 5000 km across its surface. The spacecraft’s cameras also recorded what appeared to be dried riverbeds, suggesting the ancient presence of water and perhaps life on the planet. The first human spacecraft to orbit a planet other than earth, Mariner 9 sent back more than 7000 pictures of the "Red Planet," and succeeded in photographing the entire planet. Mariner 9 also sent back the first close-up images of the Martian moon. Its transmission ended on 27 October 1972.
1969 Entra en vigor en Gibraltar la nueva Constitución, por la que el Gobierno británico concede un Gobierno autónomo al Peñón.
^ 1967 Republic of Biafra proclaimed
      After suffering through seven years of suppression under Nigeria's military government, the breakaway state of Biafra proclaims its independence from Nigeria.
      In 1966, six years after Nigeria won its independence, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria's oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Chukwuemeka Ojukwu and other Igbo and non-Igbo representatives of the area establish the Republic of Biafra, comprising the East-Central, South-Eastern, and Rivers states of Nigeria.
      After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out in July of 1967. Ojukwu's forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria's superior military gradually reduced the territory under Biafran control. The breakaway state lost its oil fields — its main source of revenue — and without the funds to import food, at least a million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. With the exception of a few African states, the international community largely ignored the plight of the Biafran people.
      On 11 January 1970, Nigerian forces captured the provincial capital of Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Biafran leader Ojukwu was forced to flee to the Ivory Coast. On 15 January Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.
1956 Bus boycott begins in Tallahassee Florida.
1954 El atleta checo Emil Zatopek establece la plusmarca mundial de 5000 metros, al recorrerlos en 13 minutos, 17 segundos y 2 décimas.
^ 1951 Schroeder's first time in Peanuts

      Schroeder, who idolizes Beethoven, brought classical music to the Peanuts strip.
      Reserved and usually unruffled, Schroeder reacts only when Woodstock tries to make his grand piano into a playground, or Lucy seeks to make it her courting grounds. The latter can lead to minor violence.
1948 Syngman Rhee es nombrado presidente de la Asamblea Nacional surcoreana.
1943 US forces conquer the Aleutian island of Attu from the Japanese during World War II.
1943 Charles de Gaulle s'installe à Alger.
^ 1942 Mass bombing of Cologne
     A thousand-plane raid on the German city of Cologne is launched by Great Britain. Almost 1500 tons of bombs rain down in 90 minutes, delivering a devastating blow to the Germans' medieval city as well as its morale.
      Air Marshal A.T. (later Sir Arthur) Harris, commander in chief of the Bomber Command, planned Operation Millennium. It was his goal to prevent significant losses of Royal Air Force bombers by concentrating air attacks in massive bomber raids, overwhelming the enemy by numbers and delivering decisive, crippling blows. Harris would need to beef up the relatively small number of 416 "first line" aircraft needed, though; to those he had to add second-line and training squadron bombers, thus creating an aircraft force of 1046. On the night of 30 May Cologne was besieged: 2.4 square kilometers of the city sustained heavy damage, 45'000 Germans were left homeless and 469 were killed. The chemical and machine tool industries, the main targets of the raid, were rendered useless.
      The cost to the British: 40 bombers, or less than 4% of the total that participated. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who approved the raid, telegraphed President Franklin Roosevelt the next day: “I hope you were pleased with our mass air attack … there is plenty more to come.”
1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée le 28 May, continue; el sera terminée le 03 Jun.
1940 El Gobierno de Bélgica suspende en sus funciones al rey Leopoldo III alegando conducta anticonstitucional.
1934 The two-day Barmen Synod ended in Germany. The resulting Barmen Declaration affirmed that the German Confessing Church recognized Jesus Christ to be the only authoritative voice of God, in clear contrast to all other (i.e., Nazi) powers representing divine revelation.
1929 Los laboristas ganan las elecciones en el Reino Unido.
1926 Triunfa el pronunciamiento de Braga, encabezado por el general Francisco da Costa Gomes, que dio paso a un régimen militar en Portugal.
Canonización de la heroína francesa Juana de Arco, que había sido quemada en la hoguera en Rouen en este día de 1431.
1918 Se extiende la guerra civil por Rusia: el Gobierno de los soviets pierde el control de la mayor parte del país.
1915 Expropiación de bienes, deportación y matanza de armenios en Turquía.
1913 first Balkan War ends, Treaty of London
1913 New country of Albania, formed
1912 US Marines sent to Nicaragua
^ 1908 Currency Act and the National Monetary Commission
     It's a banner day for financier and conservative legislator, Senator Nelson Aldrich. First, he watches as Congress passes one of his pet projects, the Aldrich-Vreeland Currency Act. One of Aldrich's typically business-friendly bills, the Currency Act was designed as a boon to struggling banks. As such, the legislation granted banks the authority to issue currency that was pegged to commercial notes and goverment bonds.
      The day holds yet another victory for Aldrich, as President Theodore Roosevelt names the Rhode Island Republican to chair the National Monetary Commision. In doing so, Roosevelt has effectively granted the arch-conservative the right to monitor and mold the nation's finances.
1908 First US federal workmen's compensation law is approved.
1906 Inauguración del túnel del Simplón en los Alpes, que facilita la comunicación entre Italia y Suiza.
1902 Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates radio broadcasting at Fairmont Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Stubblefield's voice is transmitted nearly 2 km via radio waves. However, Stubblefield was secretive about his invention and did not encourage its promotion abroad.
1898 Emilio Aguinaldo [23 Mar 1869 – 06 Feb 1964] desembarca en Cavite. Con ayuda estadounidense, levanta en armas a la isla de Luzón, principio del fin de la dominación española en Filipinas.
^ 1887 Fictional date in Looking backward from 2000 to 1887
when the narrator falls into a long sleep, only to wake up on 10 September 2000.
      This utopian novel, published in 1888, is by Edward Bellamy, who is mostly known as it's author. The novel portrays a seemingly contradictory balance between individualism and community. Bellamy argued that his vision of the future must be implemented quickly by the nationalization of railroads, telegraphs, and similar means of movement and control. Bellamy's novel is almost a fictionization of Laurence Gronlund's The Cooperative Commonwealth (1884), and also shows influences of Ismar Thiusen's The Diothas, or A Look Far Ahead (1882) and August Bebel's Woman in the Past, Present, and Future.
     Bellamy was born 26 March 1850, in Chicopee Falls, USA, and died there on 22 May, 1898. Other books of his are Six to One (1878), The Duke of Stockbridge (1879), Dr. Heidenhoff's Process (1880), Miss Ludington's Sister: a romance of immortality (1884), Equality (1897), Other Stories (1898)
— BELLAMY ONLINE: Looking Backward: 2000-1887Looking Backward: 2000-1887 Looking Backward: 2000-1887 Looking Backward: 2000-1887
1884 Se restablece el divorcio en Francia, anulado en 1816.
^ 1868 Decoration Day.
first widely observed. This precursor to Memorial Day was established to honor the nation's Civil War dead by decorating their graves. On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of former sailors and soldiers, had declared in General Order No. 11 that:
The 30th of May, 1868, is designated for the purpose of strewing with flowers, or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, and hamlet churchyard in the land. In this observance no form of ceremony is prescribed, but posts and comrades will in their own way arrange such fitting services and testimonials of respect as circumstances may permit.
During the first celebration of Decoration Day, General James Garfield made a speech at Arlington National Cemetery, after which 5000 participants helped to decorate the graves of the more than 20'000 Union and Confederate soldiers buried in the cemetery.
      This 1868 celebration was inspired by local observances of the day in several towns throughout America that had taken place in the three years since the Civil War. In fact, several Northern and Southern cities claim to be the birthplace of Memorial Day, including Columbus, Mississippi; Macon, Georgia; Richmond, Virginia; Boalsburg, Pennsylvania; and Carbondale, Illinois.
      In 1966, the federal government, under the direction of President Lyndon Johnson, declared Waterloo, New York, the official birthplace of Memorial Day. They chose Waterloo—which had first celebrated the day on 05 May 1866—because the town had made Memorial Day an annual, community-wide event during which businesses closed and residents decorated the graves of soldiers with flowers and flags.
      By the late 1800s, many communities across the country had begun to celebrate Memorial Day and, after World War I, observances also began to honor those who had died in all of America's wars. In 1971, Congress declared Memorial Day a national holiday to be celebrated the last Monday in May. (Veterans Day, a day set aside to honor all veterans, living and dead, is celebrated each year on 11 November.)
      Today, Memorial Day is celebrated at Arlington National Cemetery with a ceremony in which a small American flag is placed on each grave. Also, it is customary for the president or vice-president to give a speech honoring the contributions of the dead and lay a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. About 5000 persons attend the ceremony annually.
      Several Southern states continue to set aside a special day for honoring the Confederate dead, which is usually called Confederate Memorial Day:
  • Mississippi: Last Monday in April
  • Alabama: Fourth Monday in April
  • Georgia: 26 April
  • North Carolina: 10 May
  • South Carolina: 10 May
  • Louisiana: 03 June
  • Tennessee (Confederate Decoration Day): 03 June
  • Texas (Confederate Heroes Day): 19 January
  • Virginia: Last Monday in May
    — // History Channel
  • 1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
    1862 Confederate General Beauregard evacuates Corinth, Mississippi
    ^ 1862 Confederates evacuate Corinth, Mississippi
          The Confederates abandon the city of Corinth. After the epic struggle at Shiloh in April 1862, the Confederate army, under the command of P.T. Beauregard, concentrated at Corinth, while the Union army, under Henry Halleck, began a slow advance from the Shiloh battlefield toward the rail center at Corinth. Halleck had no intention of taking on Beauregard's army directly; he was more concerned with controlling the railroad junction. Beauregard was in a difficult position. Halleck, the commander of Union forces in the West, had at his disposal Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Tennessee, Don Carlos Buell's Army of the Ohio, and John Pope's Army of the Mississippi. With these forces, he had a more than two-to-one advantage over Beauregard.
          Nearly a week before the evacuation, Beauregard assessed his situation with his lieutenants. Although he considered the city to be vital to the Confederacy, he also worried that his entire command could be captured or cut to pieces if a retreat was delayed. So he crafted a clever withdrawal from Corinth: His troops deployed a number of logs painted black ("Quaker guns") along his front lines to fool the Yankees into thinking they were facing substantial artillery. Meanwhile, he had his troops cook extra rations and cheer the arrival of empty boxcars to lead the Union troops to believe the Confederates were preparing for battle and receiving reinforcements. On the night of 29 May Beauregard began slipping his forces out of Corinth. On 30 May the remainder of the army left the city and burned any remaining supplies. Halleck's men entered a deserted Corinth later that day. Although an important city had been forfeited to the Union army, Beauregard's army remained intact and, with it, Confederate hopes in the West. 1861 Union troops occupy Grafton, Virginia 1864 Confederates attack at Bethesda Church, Virginia
    1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed Missouri Compromise opens north slavery
    1854 The territories of Kansas and Nebraska are created by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It disregards the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and thus would lead to the Bleeding Kansas Civil War and to the US Civil War. —(070529)
    1831 Se fija Caracas como capital de Venezuela.
    1822 House slave betrays Denmark Vesey conspiracy (37 blacks hanged)
    1814 first Treaty of Paris, after Napoleon's first abdication
    1814 Fernando VII decreta la expulsión de España de los afrancesados.
    1808 Guerra de la Independencia española: La Coruña se levanta en armas contra los franceses.
    1793 LAHUPROYE Pierre, négociant, 48 ans, né et domicilié à Troyes (Aube), est condamné à la déportation, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    1793 LEMUET Nicolas Pierre (dit Mauroye), négociant, 48 ans, né et domicilié à Troyes (Aube), est condamné à la déportation, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu de s'être prêté à favoriser les manœuvres et intelligences entretenues par le nommé Lahuproye avec les émigrés.
    1791 En France, Robespierre propose à l'assemblée nationale de mettre fin à la peine de mort. Le législateur doit respecter la dignité humaine. Son discours ne sera que partiellement entendu et la loi autorise encore la peine de mort pour les chefs de partis décrétés rebelles par le corps législatif.
    1631 Traité de Munich entre la France et l'électeur de Bavière.
    1588 Sale de Lisboa la española Armada Invencible, que fue vencida por los ingleses y por "los elementos", según Felipe II.
    1539 Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto [1500 – 21 May 1542] lands in Florida.
    1516 El cardenal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros proclama en Madrid rey de España al príncipe Carlos, futuro emperador de Alemania.
    1498 Cristóbal Colón parte de San Lúcar de Barrameda para realizar su tercer viaje a América.
    1108 Las tropas cristianas de Alfonso VI de León son derrotadas en la batalla de Uclés por los almorávides de Granada, Valencia y Murcia.
    < 29 May 31 May >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 30 May:

    2006 Saliha Mohammed Hassan, 57; her cousin Nabiha Nisaif Jassim, 35; and Nabiha's third child about to be born; by shots from US troops, which also wound Nabiha's brother Khalid Nisaif Jassim who is driving them at full speed to a maternity hospital in Samarra, Iraq, past a military observation post of which he did not notice the signs ordering cars to stop. — (060602)
    2006 A teacher and 22 children from the Burn Candle High School in Handwara, Kupwara district, Indian-occupied Kashmir, when the small Indian navy boat carrying them capsizes in Wular lake near Watlab, Baramulla district, while they were on an excursion. The next day guards at the Watlab navy base fire at demonstrators protesting the occupation, kill 2 and wound 11. Wular lake is South Asia's largest fresh water lake: its area varies from 30 to 260 square km according to the season; but it is miniscule compared with the 31'494 square km of Lake Baikal. — (060531)
    2005 Natalee Holloway [21 Oct 1986–] from the Mountain Brook affluent suburb of Birmingham, Alabama, abducted in the early hours and murdered in Aruba, where she was on a visit together with 124 other members of her high school graduating class. The facts are not certain, as those who were with her lie to the police, and her body is not found: it could have been dumped at sea and eaten by sharks.
    2005:: 31 policemen and 3 suicide bombers, the first of whom explodes among a crowd of policemen in Hilla, Iraq, who were demonstrating against the provincial governor's decision to disband their units. Then, as the crowd disperses, the other two bombers run with it and explode simultaneously. 108 persons are injured.
    2004 Two Westeners as their two four-wheel-drive vehicles are fired upon and crash together on a main highway in northwest Baghdad, Iraq. Three Westeners are injured and are captured by the attackers.
    2004 Wael Nassar, 38; Mohammed Sarsour, 31; and a bystander; as the motorcycle ridden by Nassar, one of the founders of Izzedine al-Qazzam (Hamas military organization), and his assistant Sarsour, is hit by an Israeli missile, in the Zeitoun neighborhood of Gaza City, and a second missile hits the bystander. Three children, a woman, and three men are lightly wounded. One of Nassar's brothers was killed by Israel together with Hamas leader Abdel Aziz Rantisi on 17 April 2004, and seven other relatives were killed earlier by Israel.
    2004 Mufti Nizam al-Din Shamzai, after at least four men fire at the car where, with his three sons (who are wounded), a bodyguard, a driver, and one relative, he was going from his home to his Sunni seminary, “Banuri Town”, in Karachi, Pakistan, where he had taught many students who later became important members of the Taliban regime in Kabul. He had called for a "jihad" against the US after the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Supporters of Shamzai riot at the news of the killing,
    2003 Elizabeth Fowler, born on 13 March 1908. Author of Standing Room Only (1944) in which she narrates her 10 days in a crowded lifeboat in the fall of 1942, after the ship she was on was torpedoed.
    2002: 25 Berber nomads, massacred by Islamic insurgents during the night of 29 to 30 May, in their tents in the village of Sendjas, Chlef province, Algeria. A two-month-old is among the dead, 21 of which had their throat cut, two were set on fire, and two shot.
    ^ 1997 Jonathan Levin, 31, tortured and murdered by former student.
          Jonathan Levin, a popular English teacher, is stabbed and shot to death in his Upper West Side apartment in New York City. The son of Time Warner chairman Gerald Levin, Jonathan was known by many to be wealthy. When he did not show up for work, investigators searched his apartment and found his lifeless body bound to a chair with duct tape. Levin's bankcard was missing from his wallet, and $800 had been removed from his account around the time that he was killed.
          Police learned from Levin's answering machine tape that Corey Arthur, a former student in Levin's remedial English class at William H. Taft High School in the Bronx, called Levin on 30 May to arrange a meeting. Apparently, Arthur and his accomplice, Montoun Hart, tortured Levin with a kitchen knife in order to get him to tell them his debit card code. They turned on the vacuum cleaner and stereo to cover up his screams.
          Arthur, arrested a week after the murders, first claimed that he had been at Levin's apartment for a drug deal when two other men came in and killed him. However, his story lost its credibility at trial when his fingerprints were found on the duct tape. Even still, he denied being the one who pulled the trigger of the fatal shot. Arthur was found guilty of second-degree murder and received 25 years to life in prison. Hart, despite his 13-page signed confession, was acquitted after convincing jurors that the confession had been coerced out of him when he was drunk.
    ^ 1995 Osmo Vallo, 41, tortured and killed by Swedish police.
          At about 23:00 local time on 30 May 1995, police were called to investigate a disturbance. Calls for help had been heard by inhabitants of apartment blocks on Basungatan in the area of Kronoparken, in Karlstad, Sweden. According to a reconstruction of the events based on several eye- witness statements, Osmo Vallo, reportedly drunk and under the influence of drugs, was approached by two police officers. One eye-witness stated that she had heard Osmo Vallo ask the police officers, "Why are you doing this to me? Can I see your identification badge please?".
          At least two eye-witnesses say that Osmo Vallo was then kicked in the back by one of the police officers. Eye-witnesses stated that Osmo Vallo's behavior prior to being kicked had not been threatening or violent in any way. Eye-witnesses stated that, after Osmo Vallo was kicked, he started walking towards 48 Basungatan. A police dog, which up until then had been kept on a leash, was set onto Osmo Vallo by the police. The police dog bit Osmo Vallo repeatedly on his arms. Osmo Vallo managed to fend the dog off and reached the entrance of 48 Basungatan. After gaining access to the entrance hall of the apartment block, Osmo Vallo started screaming for help, knocking on doors and ringing doorbells. It would appear that the police officers, who had followed him into the entrance hall, let the dog attack Osmo Vallo again.
          Up until the time Osmo Vallo reached the entrance of 48 Basungatan, 12 persons had witnessed what was going on from their windows. Following the commotion in the entrance hall, some of them came out of their apartments and stood on the landing immediately above the entrance hall. From there, eight people saw Osmo Vallo lying on his stomach with his hands cuffed behind his back. Some of them also reported that Osmo Vallo seemed to be having difficulty in breathing. An eye-witness reported that one of the police officers kept pushing his foot into Osmo Vallo's left side and shoulder while verbally abusing him and telling him to get up. Osmo Vallo, however, remained motionless on the floor.
          According to several eye-witnesses, the same police officer then stomped his foot onto the middle of Osmo Vallo's back. As a result, at least three eye-witnesses heard a noise as if something inside Osmo Vallo's upper body had cracked. In addition, one eye-witness reported that he saw a police officer kick Osmo Vallo in the head. Several eye-witnesses have stated that they were asked by the police to keep quiet about what they had seen.
          Eye-witness accounts maintained that the two police officers dragged the seemingly unconscious Osmo Vallo — still handcuffed and face down — by lifting him by his wrists and then laid him motionless, still face down, on the grass outside the apartment block. The police officers realized that he was not breathing and called an ambulance. According to eye- witnesses, the police officers made no attempt to resuscitate him. Instead, they laid Osmo Vallo on the back seat of their car — still handcuffed and face down — and took him to hospital where, despite resuscitation attempts, he was officially pronounced dead at 00.20 on 31 May 1995.
         Five years later no one had been held accountable for Vallo's death and Amnesty International once more called attention to the apparent cover-up by Swedish authorities.
    1994 Juan Carlos Onetti, escritor uruguayo.
    1992 Karl Carstens, ex presidente de la RFA.
    Zygmund1992 Antoni Zygmund, 91, in Chicago       ^top^
         Mathematician Zygmund worked in analysis, in particular in harmonic analysis. He created one of the strongest analysis schools of the 20th Century.
         Born 19001225 in Warsaw (then in the Russian Empire), Zygmund obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Warsaw in 1923 for a dissertation written under Aleksander Rajchman's supervision. From 1922 to 1929 he taught at the Polytechnic School of Warsaw. After a year in England he took up a post at the university of Vilnius, Lithuania. He held this post until he was drafted into the Polish army at the start of the Second World War.
          In 1940 Zygmund escaped with his wife and son from German controlled Poland to the USA. After a number of posts he was appointed to the University of Chicago in 1947 and remained there until he retired in 1980. John Canu took one or more of his courses in 1948-1950.
          Zygmund was to create at Chicago a major analysis research centre. In 1986 he received the National Medal for Science for his building this research school. He supervised over 80 research students in his years at Chicago.
          Zygmund's book Trigonometric Series (1935) is a classic that, together with later editions, is still the definitive work on the subject. Other major works include Analytic functions in 1938 and Measure and integral in 1977.
          His work in harmonic analysis has application in the theory of waves and vibrations. He also did major work in Fourier analysis and its application to partial differential equations.
    1990 José Solís Ruiz, político español.
    1989 Claude Pepper, of stomach cancer. He was born on 08 September 1900. From Florida. Democrat US Senator (1936-1950), US Representative (1963-1989), advocate for the elderly. Autobiography Pepper: Eyewitness to a Century (1987)
    ^ 1981 Zia ur-Rahman, president of Bangladesh, assassinated in a failed secessionist military coup led by general Manzur.
         Zia ur-Rahman was born on 19 January 1936 at Bagbari in Bogra district in North-West Bangladesh. His father was Mansur Rahman, a chemist in public service in Kolkata. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, his father moved to Karachi.
          Rahman joined the Pakistani Army in 1953 as a cadet and was commissioned in 1955 to second lieutenant's post. Two years later, in 1957, he was transferred to East Bengal Regiment. Between 1959 and 1964, he worked with the military intelligence. In 1965, during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 he fought in the Khemkaran sector as the commander of the company that was awarded the maximum number of gallantry awards for war performance. He was then appointed as a professional instructor in the Pakistan Military Academy in 1966. Later, he was sent to the Staff College in Quetta, West Pakistan for attending a command course. In 1969, he joined the 2nd East Bengal Regiment as its second-in-command at Joydevpur, then in East Pakistan.After this, he was sent to West Germany for higher training. After returning back in 1970, Zia ur-Rahman was promoted to the rank of Major and was transferred to the 8th East Bengal Regiment at Chittagong, as the second in command.
          After the military crackdown by the Pakistani army at 25 March in East Pakistan, Major Zia ur-Rahman sided with the rebels and joined Mukti Bahini (freedom fighters). At that time, Awami League (AL) Chief, Mujibur Rahman, was politically active in this movement and was arrested by the Central Government of Pakistan for various charges of conspiracy and treason against the West.
          East Pakistan Regiment under Major Zia captured one radio broadcast centre in Kalurghat, Chittagong (Shadin Bangla Betar Kendro) and Major Zia read the independence declaration, which officially started the Liberation War. There is an on-going political dispute as to whether this was a declaration or an announcement. However, all groups agree that on 26th March 1971 Major Zia ur-Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh and declared himself as temporary Head of the Republic and made a broadcast using Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s name:
    This is Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendro. I, Major Zia ur-Rahman, at the direction of Bangobondhu Mujibur Rahman, hereby declare that the independent People's Republic of Bangladesh has been established. At his direction, I have taken command as the temporary Head of the Republic. In the name of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, I call upon all Bengalis to rise against the attack by the West Pakistani Army. We shall fight to the last to free our Motherland. By the grace of Allah, victory is ours. Joy Bangla.
          Zia ur-Rahman was offered the gallantry award of Bir Uttam for his bravery in the liberation war. After independence, he was appointed brigade commander in Comilla. In June 1972, he was made Deputy Chief of Staff of the armed forces of Bangladesh. He was later promoted to a Brigadier in 1973 and to a Major General by the end of the same year.
          On 15 August 1975, the then President of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who is also frequently called Bongobondhu (Friend of Bengal) and Jatir Jonok (Father of the Nation), was killed along with several of his family members in a military coup. Khandakar Moshtaq Ahmad replaced Mujibur Rahman and on 25 August 1975, Zia ur-Rahman was made the chief of army staff.
          When Brigadier Khaled Mosharraf and Dhaka Brigade under Colonel Shafat Jamil made a counter-coup on 3 November 1975, Zia ur-Rahman was forced to resign was put under house arrest by Khaled Mosharraf.
          Colonel Taher, a left-wing supporter, staged a third successful coup with the help of army soldiers who believed in socialism and a left-wing party, the National Socialist Party (Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal), on 7 November, and both Brigadier K. Mosharraf and Colonel Shafat Jamil were killed. Colonel Taher freed Zia ur-Rahman restored him to the post of army chief. Zia proclaimed himself Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA) on 07 November 1975. On the same day, at a meeting in army headquarters, and interim government was created with:
    Chief Martial Law Administrator - Justice Sayem
    Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrators - Major General Zia ur-Rahman, Air Vice Marshal MG Tawab and Rear Admiral MH Khan      Colonel Taher, was soon arrested, because of possible fears of revolt and was hanged later, on 21st July, 1976.
          Zia ur-Rahman made himself Chief Martial Law Administrator on 19 November 1976, when Justice Sayem relinquished his position. When President Sayem resigned on 21 April 1977, Rahman declared himself President of Bangladesh and ordered martial law in the country, which lasted until 1979.
          After assuming office as head of the state, Zia ur-Rahman began to strengthen his foreign policy with more attention towards Western countries, moving away from the Soviet bloc as well as India. The U.S. helped the country with wheat under PL 480 law and many other economic aids.
          Zia also later proposed a South Asian organization which includes seven South Asian nations. This organization was created in 1985 as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, more popularly known as SAARC.
          Zia started to make changes to the country's infrastructures with these aids. He also actively strengthened the police by taking the number of officers from from 40,000 to 70,000 and arranging for re-training. Armed forces' size was also boosted from less than 50,000 in 1974-75 to about 90,000 in 1976-77.
          Until Zia ur-Rahman's arrival, Bengali nationalism overwhelmingly dominated the political scene. Zia ur-Rahman took the step of promoting a Bangladeshi nationalism, especially in the light of the fact that all Bangladeshis were not Bengalis. Roughly 1-2% are non-Bengalis. He also stated existence of sizeable non-Muslim populations (15% Hindus) as a reason to promote the Bangladeshi nationalism.
         As Head of the State Zia ur-Rahman carried out the following edits to the Constitution:
    Insertion of Bismiliah-ir-Rahmanir Rahim (In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful) in the Preamble of the Constitution;
    Addition of 'absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah' to Articles 8(1) and 8(1A);
    Redefinition of socialism as 'economic and social justice' in Article 8(1); and
    Provision that "the state shall endeavor to consolidate, preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic solidarity" in Article 25(2).
         He also allowed Jamaat-e-Islami to start its activities for the first time in independent Bangladesh. Jamaat-e-Islami (JIB), which is frequently associated with the abetters of Pakistani occupying army in 1971 war, was banned along with several other parties soon after independence on grounds of secularism and abolition of all religious parties.
          Golam Azam, Chief of the JIB, was allowed to come back in July, 1978 with a Pakistani passport. He was not tried for either war crimes or staying in the country without a visa. 16 years later, Begum Khaleda Zia's government gave Azam his Bangladeshi citizenship in 1994. Such moves are held against Zia ur-Rahman and his party, BNP, by opponents.
          As President, Zia announced a 19-point programme of economic reform and began dismantling the MLA. In February 1978, Jatiyatabadi Ganatantric Dal (Nationalist Democratic Party) was created with Vice President Justice Abdus Sattar as its head. Zia ur-Rahman himself became the nominee of the Nationalist Front consisting of six political parties in the presidential election and won after securing 76.67% of the votes.
          On 01 September 1978, Zia ur-Rahman launched a party named the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) with himself as the head. In November 1978, remaining restrictions on political party activities were removed in time for parliamentary elections in February 1979.
          Parliamentary elections were held in February 1979 and Zia's party, the BNP, won 207 seats out of 300. The first session of the National Parliament was held on 01 April 1979. On 09 April 1979, martial law was lifted.
          After having a two-thirds majority in parliament, Zia passed a bill called Indemnity Bill, which stated that no trial will happen and no case can be made for assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Zia also gave Major Dalim, Major Rashid, and Major Faruk, alleged assassins of Sheikh Mujib, jobs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; again, these moves are held against Zia ur-Rahman's regime by his critiques.
          Many coups occurred against Zia’s rule but Zia brutally suppressed them and many military personnel were hanged under his regime. Most of them were former Mukti bahini (freedom fighters) who joined the military after the liberation war. 600 to 700 military personnel were executed under his regime in 1977 while failed coup happened by Air-Force.
          Zia was assassinated in Chittagong on 30 May 1981 by a small army group, alleged to have been ordered by Major General Monjur, head of Chittagong division army. Later, Monjur was captured in a tea garden in Chittagong hilly area and killed by army personnel.
    1961 Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, dictador dominicano.
    1960 Boris Leonidovich Pasternak, born on 10 February 1890. Russian poet and novelist, he was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize for Literature for Doctor Zhivago. In the novel, Yuri Zhivago is the son of a rich pre-Revolutionary Russian Industrialist. An excellent physician, he studies philosophy and literature, and develops ideas of his own — his main aim being to preserve his own spiritual independence. He welcomes the Russian Revolution, enjoying its dream of universal justice. But when the Communists start telling him how to live and how to think, he rebels. He leaves Moscow for a tiny village beyond the Urals, where the main romantic theme of the novel develops. His loved one is exiled to Manchuria by the Soviet Government, and he returns to Moscow, a broken man, to die in the street of a heart attack. [Pasternak obituary in the NY Times]
    1937 Ten strikers killed by police near the Republic Steel plant in South Chicago.
    1935 Some 50'000 persons by earthquake of magnitude 7.5 which almost completely destroys Quetta, in what is now Pakistan.
    Heihachiro Togo^ 1934 Koshaku Heihachiro Togo togo heihachiro, Japanese admiral born on 27 January 1848. [08 Nov 1926 Time cover photo >]
          Togo studied naval science in England from 1871 to 1878. Upon his returnto Japan he was appointed a lieutenant first class. After serving in a number of naval posts, he was appointed commander in chief of the combined fleet (December 1903) and was made an admiral in 1904. As commander in chief of the Japanese navy at the outbreak of the war, he directed the 10-month naval blockade of the great Russian military base at Port Arthur (now Lü-shun, on the Yellow Sea), helping to bring about its surrender on 02 January 1905.
          In desperation the Russians dispatched their Baltic fleet to Japan, confronting Admiral Togo's forces on 27 May in the Tsushima Strait, which connects the Sea of Japan (East Sea) with the East China Sea. Togo “crossed the enemy's T”, i.e., he turned his column across the Russian line of advance, and destroyed 33 out of the 35 Russian ships, ending the war. This spectacular maneuver was later used by the British and French navies. The victory, the first occasion in the modern era in which an Asian power defeated a European nation, forced the Western countries to begin to look upon Japan as an equal.
          Togo became chief of the Naval General Staff and war councillor to the emperor after the war. In1913 he was promoted to fleet admiral. From 1914 to 1924 he was in charge of the education of crown prince Hirohito [29 Apr 1901 – 07 Jan 1989] who became prince regent in 1921 when his father, the emperor Taisho [31 Aug 1879 – 25 Dec 1926], retired because of mental illness, and emperor when Taisho died.
    1926 Vladimir Andreevich Steklov, Russian mathematician born on 09 Jan 1864.
    1911 Arturo Faldi, Italian artist born on 27 July 1856.
    1888 Abraham Louis Buvelot, Swiss Australian painter, lithographer, and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia, born on 03 March 1814.MORE ON BUVELOT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    ^ 1886 Matiya “Mulumba” Kalemba, 50, the oldest of the martyrs of Uganda known as “Charles Lwanga and his 21 companions”.
          He was of the Soga tribe of Buganda (now in Uganda). Together with his mother, he was captured by Ganda raiders belonging to the Otter clan, who sold him as a slave to Magatto, of the Edible-Rat Clan, uncle of the chancellor Mukasa,. Kalemba grew up in this family, treated as a member of the clan and as a free man. After the death of Magatto, he remained for a time with Magatto's brother, Buzibwa. When Kalemba became an adult, he was employed by Ddumba, the chief of Ssingo County, as head of his household and supervisor of the other servants. On Ddumba's death, his brother made Kalemba's position official: as “the Mulumba”.
          Kalemba adhered first to Islam. After the arrival of Anglican missionaries, he received instruction from them. Later Catholic missionaries arrived, and Kalemba found that Protestant prejudices about them were not true. On 31 May 1880 he became a Catholic catechumen, but continued occasionally to attend Anglican Bible classes. Kalemba had owned many women slaves, but now he kept only one, Kikuvwa, whom he married. Kalemba was baptized by Father Ludovic Girault on 28 May 1882. Kalemba humbly did menial work in his garden and carrying loads; he even accepted unmerited blows from the king's soldiers. He said that he was a slave, “the slave of Jesus Christ”. He took part in the armed raids organized by his chief, but refused to take his share of the loot. He refused to take the customary bribes when administering justice on behalf of his master. At his home in Mityana, some 75 km from the capital, Kalemba worked humbly as a potter and tanner.
          During the the Catholic missionaries' 1882-1885 forced absence from Uganda, Kalemba organized a Christian community at Mityana where, together with the future martyrs Noe Mawaggali and Luke Banabakintu, he gave Christian instruction. When a persecution began in 1886 this community of Christians and catechumens numbered about two hundred. Kalemba's master, the chief of Ssingo, arrested him. During the night of 26 May he was kept, with his feet in stocks and his neck in slave yokes, at the chief's residence. On 27 May they were taken to the palace, where the chancellor sentenced him to a cruel death for being a Christian. Kalemba was made to suffer burns, strips of flesh were torn from his body, his limbs were gradually cut off. All he said was “My God ! My God !”. Finally his was tightly bound to restrict his blood circulation and left to agonize in a swamp. On 29 May, men coming to cut reeds in the swamp heard him calling: “Water! Water!” but fled horrified. He died presumably on 30 May. There were at least 120 other martyrs during the same persecution; 22 of them known by name, including Kalemba, were declared saints on 18 October 1964, as “Charles Lwanga and his 21 companions”. Their feast day is on 03 June, as 14 of them died on 03 June 1886.
    1883 12 persons trampled when a rumor that the recently opened Brooklyn Bridge is in imminent danger of collapsing causes a stampede.
    1855 Johann Baptist Pflug von Biberach, German artist born on 13 February 1785.
    1835 Adrian Meulemans, Dutch artist born on 24 August 1766.
    ^ 1806 Charles Dickinson, shot in duel by Andrew Jackson.
          In Logan County, Kentucky, future president Andrew Jackson participates in his first recorded duel, killing Charles Dickinson, a lawyer who was known as one of the best pistol shots in the area. The proud and volatile Jackson, a former senator and representative of Tennessee, called for the duel after his wife Rachel was slandered as a bigamist by Dickinson, who was referring to a legal error in the divorce from her first husband in 1791.
          Jackson met his foe at Harrison’s Mills on Red River in Logan, Kentucky on May 30, 1806. In accordance with dueling custom, the two stood twenty-four feet apart with pistols pointed downwards. After the signal, Dickinson fired first, grazing Jackson’s breastbone and breaking some of his ribs. However, Jackson, a former Tennessee militia leader, maintained his stance and fired back, fatally wounding his opponent. It was the first of several recorded duels Jackson was said to have participated in during his lifetime, the majority of which were called in defense of his wife's honor. In 1829, Rachel died, and Jackson was elected the seventh president of the United States.
    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    1795 (11 prairial an III):
    Domiciliés à Paris, par la conseil militaire séant à Paris:
    CHAUVEL Jean Louis, serrurier, convaincu d'avoir porté au bout de sa bayonnette la tête du représentant Ferraud le 3 prairial an 3.
    CHEBRIER Nicolas Etienne, membre du comité révolutionnaire de la section de l'Arsenal, comme convaincu d'avoir harangué dans la tribune de la Convention pendant la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial.
    DUVAL Pierre François, cordonnier, comme convaincu d'avoir lu une pétition liberticide dan la convention, et pris part à la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial.
    1794 (11 prairial an II):
    ANDROUET Servais, prêtre réfractaire, domicilié à la Nouée, canton de Josselin (Morbihan), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du département des Côtes du Nord..
    PALANGIÉ François, prêtre, domicilié à St Geniès (Aveyron), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    VASSEUR François Alexis, graveur, domicilié à Colmar (Haut-Rhin), par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme espion, et distributeur de faux assignats.
    DELESTRE Charles Philippe, 52 ans, né à Bucquoy, arpenteur, veuf de Couppe Marie Anne Joseph, à Arras
    DRAPIER Philippe Joseph, 51 ans, marchand de bois, né et domeurant à Havrincourt, époux de Dobigny Agnès, guillotiné à Arras
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    FERUYANT Louis Jacques, ex trésorier de France, 37 ans, né et domicilié à la Motte-Teney (Deux-Sèvres), comme convaincu d’avoir abusé de son autorité de président du comité révolutionnaire de la Mothe-sur-Seine, ayant fait faire des dénonciations vagues et calomnieuses dont il a été le rédacteur, contre un citoyen de l’avoir fait incarcérer, en l’arrachant à sa famille et à ses fonctions.
    MORET Louis Julien, ex curé, 46 ans, né à Arcy-sur-Aube, domicilié à Premier-Fait, même département, comme complice de manœuvres pratiquées dans la commune de Premier-Fait, tendantes à armer les citoyens les uns contre les autres, et à rétablir la royauté.
    PUT Jean, marchand forain, 24 ans, né et domicilié à Aurillac (Cantal), comme s’étant soustrait à l’exécution de la loi de la réquisition, ayant été trouvé muni d’une cocarde blanche, et comme espion des despotes coalisés contre la France.
          ... comme conspirateurs:
    BEGU Louis César, 44 ans, né à Tours, ci-devant huissier, chef du premier battaillon du département d'Indre et Loire, domicilié à Toursp
    COMPIN Nicolas Marie, 64 ans, cultivateur, agent national, né et domicilié à Maltate (Saône et Loire).
    GUIBORA Jean Antoine, journalier vigneron, 24 ans, soldat du 11ème régiment d'hussards, né et domicilié à St Gemme (Marne).
    JOUSSINEAU Jean, (dit Delatour-donnois), ex noble, colonel à la suite de la cavalerie, ci-devant capitaine des carabiniers, 64 ans, né à St Wist (Corrèze), domicilié à Rodde (Puy-de-Dôme).
    LACORDRE Nicolas (dit Montpausin), ex subdélégué et juge, 65 ans, né à Mont-sur-Siom, à St Pourçain (Allier).
    LACROIX Claude, cultivateur, domicilié à Chaourse (Aube).
    LEVAL Auguste François César, ex noble, capitaine en second des grenadiers des gardes françaises, 29 ans, né et domicilié à Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dôme).
    MORILLON Pierre (dit Dubellai), marchand de draps en soie, 78 ans, né et domicilié à Poitiers (Vienne).
    BOURASSEAU René, officier municipal, domicilié à Girouard, canton des Sables (Vendée), comme chef des brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
    ^ 1778 François-Marie Arouet “Voltaire”, French philosopher, historian, poet, dramatist, and novelist.
          Voltaire is one of the greatest of all French writers. Although only a few of his works are still read, he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader against tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty. His writing embodies characteristic qualities of the French mind—a critical capacity, wit, and satire. His whole work vigorously propagates an ideal of progress to which men of all nations have remained responsive. His long life spanned the last years of classicism and the eve of the revolutionary era, and during this age of transition his works and activities influencedthe direction taken by European civilization.
          Voltaire was born on 21 November 1694, in Paris, to a treasury officer and his wife. Voltaire studied law but abandoned it to become a writer. He won success with his plays — mostly classical tragedies at first. He also wrote histories and epic poetry. His writing brought him some measure of success, and his wise investments made him wealthy in his mid-30s. However, his epic poem La Henriade, a satirical attack on politics and religion, infuriated the government and landed Voltaire in the Bastille for nearly a year in 1717. Voltaire's time in prison failed to quench his satire. In 1726, he again displeased authorities and fled to England. He returned several years later and continued to write plays. In 1734, his Lettres philosophiques criticized established religions and political institutions, and he was forced to flee once more. He retreated to the region of Champagne, where he lived with his mistress and patroness, Madame du Châtelet [17 Dec 1706 – 10 Sep 1749]. In 1750, he moved to Berlin on the invitation of Frederick II of Prussia [24 Jan 1712 – 17 Aug 1786] and later settled in Switzerland, where he wrote his best-known work, Candide. He dies in Paris, having returned to supervise the production of one of his plays.

  • Candide
  • L'homme aux quarante écus
  • Lettres philosophiques
  • Micromégas
  • Le monde comme il va
  • La Pucelle d'Orléans (1762)
  • In English translations:
  • Candide
  • Candide (in English and French)
  • Letters on England
  • Philosophical Dictionary (selected entries)
  • 1770 François Boucher, French Rococo painter, engraver, and designer, born on 29 September 1703. MORE ON BOUCHER AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    ^ 1744 Alexander Pope.
         Born on 21 May 1688, he was a poet and satirist of the English Augustan period, best known for his poems An Essay on Criticism (1711), The The Rape of the Lock (1712–1714), The Dunciad (1728), and An Essay on Man (1733–1734). He is one of the most quotable of all English authors.
         Pope's father, a wholesale linen merchant, retired from business in the year of his son's birth and in 1700 went to live at Binfield in Windsor Forest. The Popes were Roman Catholics, and at Binfield they came to know several neighboring Catholic families who were to play an important part in the poet's life. Pope's religion procured him some lifelong friends, notably the wealthy squire John Caryll (who persuaded him to write The Rape of the Lock, on an incident involving Caryll's relatives) and Martha Blount, to whom Pope addressed some of the most memorable of his poems and to whom he bequeathed most of his property. But his religion also precluded him from a formal course of education, since Catholics were not admitted to the universities. He was trained at home by Catholic priests for a short time and attended Catholic schools at Twyford, near Winchester, and at Hyde Park Corner, London, but he was mainly self-educated. He was a precocious boy, eagerly reading Latin, Greek, French, and Italian, which he managed to teach himself, and an incessant scribbler, turning out verse upon verse in imitation of the poets he read. The best of these early writings are the “Ode on Solitude” and a paraphrase of St. Thomas à Kempis [1380 – 08 Aug 1471], both of which he claimed to have written at the age of 12.
         Windsor Forest was near enough to London to permit Pope's frequent visits there. He early grew acquainted with former members of the circle of John Dryden [19 Aug 1631 – 12 May 1700], notably William Wycherley, William Walsh, and Henry Cromwell. By 1705 his “Pastorals” were in draft and were circulating among the best literary judges of the day. In 1706 Jacob Tonson, the leading publisher of poetry, had solicited their publication, and they took the place of honor in his Poetical Miscellanies in 1709.
          This early emergence of a man of letters may have been assisted by Pope's poor physique. As a result of too much study, so he thought, he acquired a curvature of the spine and some tubercular infection, probably Pott's disease, that limited his growth and seriously impaired his health. His full-grown height was four feet six inches; but the grace of his profile and fullness of his eye gave him an attractive appearance. He was a lifelong sufferer from headaches, and his deformity made him abnormally sensitive to physical and mental pain. Though he was able to ride a horse and delighted in travel, he was inevitably precluded from much normal physical activity, and his energetic, fastidious mind was largely directed to reading and writing.
          When the “Pastorals” were published, Pope was already at work on a poem on the art of writing. This was An Essay on Criticism, published in 1711. Its brilliantly polished epigrams (e.g., “A little learning is a dangerous thing,” “To err is human, to forgive, divine,” and “For fools rush in where angels fear to tread”), which have become part of the proverbial heritage of the language, are readily traced to their sources in Horace, Quintilian, Boileau, and other critics, ancient and modern, in verse and prose; but the charge that the poem is derivative, so often made in the past, takes insufficient account of Pope's success in harmonizing a century of conflict in critical thinking and in showing how nature may best be mirrored in art.
          The well-deserved success of the Essay on Criticism brought Pope a wider circle of friends, notably Richard Steele [1672 – 01 Sep 1729] and Joseph Addison [01 May 1672 – 17 Jun 1719], who were then collaborating on The Spectator. To this journal Pope contributed the most original of his pastorals, “The Messiah” (1712), and perhaps other papers in prose. He was clearly influenced by The Spectator's policy of correcting public morals by witty admonishment, and in this vein he wrote the first version of his mock-epic, The Rape of the Lock (two cantos, 1712; five cantos, 1714), to reconcile two Catholic families. A young man in one family had stolen a lock of hair from a young lady in the other. Pope treated the dispute that followed as though it were comparable to the mighty quarrel between Greeks and Trojans, which had been Homer's theme. Telling the story with all the pomp and circumstance of epic made not only the participants in the quarrel but also the society in which they lived seem ridiculous. Though it was a society where Britain's statesmen oft the fall foredoom Of foreign tyrants, and of nymphs at home; as if one occupation concerned them as much as the other; and though in such a society a young lady might do equally ill to Stain her honour, or her new brocade; Forget her pray'rs, or miss a masquerade;
         Pope managed also to suggest what genuine attractions existed amid the foppery and glitter. He acknowledged how false the sense of values was that paid so much attention to external appearance, but ridicule and rebuke slide imperceptibly into admiration and tender affection as the heroine, Belinda, is conveyed along the Thames to Hampton Court, the scene of the “rape”:
    But now secure the painted vessel glides,
    The sunbeams trembling on the floating tides:
    While melting music steals upon the sky,
    And soften'd sounds along the waters die;
    Smooth flow the waves, the zephyrs gently play,
    Belinda smil'd, and all the world was gay.
         A comparable blend of seemingly incompatible responses, love and hate, bawdiness and decorum, admiration and ridicule, is to be found in all Pope's later satires.
          Pope had also been at work for several years on “Windsor-Forest.” In this poem, completed and published in 1713, he proceeded, as Virgil had done, from the pastoral vein to the georgic and celebrated the rule of Queen Anne as the Latin poet had celebrated the rule of Augustus. In another early poem, “Eloisa to Abelard,” Pope borrowed the form of Ovid's “heroic epistle” (in which an abandoned lady addresses her lover) and showed imaginative skill in conveying the struggle between sexual passion and dedication to a life of celibacy.
         These poems and other works were collected in the first volume of Pope's Works in 1717. When it was published, he was already far advanced with the greatest labor of his life, his verse translation of Homer. He had announced his intentions in October 1713 and had published the first volume, containing the Iliad, Books I–IV, in 1715. The Iliad was completed in six volumes in 1720. The work of translating The Odyssey (vol. i–iii, 1725; vol. iv and v, 1726) was shared with William Broome [03 May 1689 – 16 Nov 1745], who had contributed notes to the Iliad, and Elijah Fenton [20 May 1683 – 16 Jul 1730]. The labor had been great, but so were the rewards. By the two translations Pope cleared about £10'000 and was able to claim that, thanks to Homer, he could “ . . . live and thrive / Indebted to no Prince or Peer alive.”
          The merits of Pope's Homer lie less in the accuracy of translation and in correct representation of the spirit of the original than in the achievement of a heroic poem as his contemporaries understood it: a poem Virgilian in its dignity, moral purpose, and pictorial splendor, yet one that consistently kept Homer in view and alluded to him throughout. Pope offered his readers the Iliad and the Odyssey as he felt sure Homer would have written them had he lived in early 18th-century England.
          Political considerations had affected the success of the translation. As a Roman Catholic his affiliations were Tory rather than Whig; and though he retained the friendship of such Whigs as William Congreve [24 Jan 1670 – 19 Jan 1729], Nicholas Rowe [20 Jun 1674 – 06 Dec 1718], and the painter Charles Jervas [1675 – 02 Nov 1739], his ties with Steele and Addison grew strained as a result of the political animosity that occurred at the end of Queen Anne's reign. He found new and lasting friends in Tory circles, Jonathan Swift, John Gay, John Arbuthnot, Thomas Parnell, the Earl of Oxford, and Viscount Bolingbroke. With the first five he was associated (1713–1714) in the Scriblerus Club to write joint satires on pedantry, later to mature as Peri Bathouse, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry (1728) and the “Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus” (1741); and these were the men who encouraged his translation of Homer. The Whigs, who associated with Addison at Button's Coffee-House, put up a rival translator in Thomas Tickell, who published his version of Iliad, Book I, two days after Pope's. Addison preferred Tickell's manifestly inferior version; his praise increased the resentment Pope already felt owing to a series of slights and misunderstandings; and when Pope heard gossip of further malice on Addison's part, he sent him a satirical view of his character, published later as the character of Atticus, the insincere arbiter of literary taste in “An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot” (1735).
          Even before the Homer quarrel, Pope had found that the life of a wit was one of perpetual warfare. There were few years when either his person or his poems were not objects of attacks from the critic John Dennis, the bookseller Edmund Curll, the historian John Oldmixon, and other writers of lesser fame. The climax was reached over his edition of Shakespeare. He had emended the plays, in the spirit of a literary editor, to accord with contemporary taste (1725);but his practice was exposed by the scholar Lewis Theobald in Shakespeare Restored (1726). Though Pope had ignored some of these attacks, he had replied to others with squibs in prose and verse. But he now attempted to make an end of the opposition and to defend his standards, which he aligned with the standards of civilized society, in the mock-epic The Dunciad (1728). Theobald was represented in it as the Goddess of Dullness' favorite son, a suitable hero for those leaden times; and others who had given offense were preserved like flies in amber. Pope dispatches his victims with such sensuousness of verse and imagery that the reader is forced to admit that if there is petulance here, as has often been claimed, it is, to parody Wordsworth, petulance recollected in tranquility. Pope reissued the poem in 1729 with an elaborate mock-commentary of prefaces, notes, appendixes, indexes, and errata; this burlesque of pedantry whimsically suggested that The Dunciad had fallen a victim to the spirit of the times and been edited by a dunce.
         Pope and his parents had moved from Binfield to Chiswick in 1716. There his father died (1717), and two years later he and his mother rented a villa on the Thames at Twickenham, then a small country town where several Londoners had retired to live in rustic seclusion. This was to be Pope's home for the remainder of his life. There he entertained such friends as Swift, Bolingbroke, Oxford, and the painter Jonathan Richardson. These friends were all enthusiastic gardeners, and it was Pope's pleasure to advise and superintend their landscaping according to the best contemporary principles, formulated in his “Epistle to the Right Honourable Richard Earl of Burlington” (1731). This poem, one of the most characteristic works of his maturity, is a rambling discussion in the manner of Horace on false taste in architecture and design, with some suggestions for the worthier employment of a nobleman's wealth.
          Pope now began to contemplate a new work on the relations of man, nature, and society that would be a grand organization of human experience and intuition, but he was destined never to complete it. An Essay on Man (1733–1734) was intended as an introductory book discussing the overall design of this work. The poem has often been charged with shallowness and philosophical inconsistency, and there is indeed little that is original in its thought, almost all of which can be traced in the work of the great thinkers of Western civilization. Subordinate themes were treated in greater detail in “Of the Use of Riches, An Epistle to Bathurst” (1732), “An Epistle to Cobham, Of the knowledge and characters of men” (1733), and “Of The Characters of Women: an Epistle to a Lady” (1735).
          Pope was deflected from this “system of ethics in the Horatian way” by the renewed need for self-defense. Critical attacks drove him to consider his position as satirist. He chose to adapt for his own defense the first satire of Horace's second book, where the ethics of satire are propounded, and, after discussing the question in correspondence with Dr. John Arbuthnot [Apr 1667 – 27 Feb 1735], he addressed to him an epistle in verse (1735), one of the finest of his later poems, in which were incorporated fragments written over several years. His case in “An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot” was the satirist's traditional case: that depravity in public morals had roused him to stigmatize outstanding offenders beyond the reach of the law, concealing the names of some and representing others as types, and that he was innocent of personal rancor and habitually forbearing under attack.
          The success of his “First Satire Of the Second Book Of Horace, Imitated” (1733) led to the publication (1734–38) of 10 more of these paraphrases of Horatian themes adapted to the contemporary social and political scene. Pope's poems followed Horace's satires and epistles sufficiently closely for him to print the Latin on facing pages with the English; but whoever chose to make the comparison would notice a continuous enrichment of the original by parenthetic thrusts and compliments, as well as by the freshness of the imagery. The series was concluded with two dialogues in verse, republished as the “Epilogue to the Satires” (1738), where, as in “An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,” Pope ingeniously combined a defense of his own career and character with a restatement of the satirist's traditional apology. In these imitations and dialogues Pope directed his attack upon the materialistic standards of the commercially minded Whigs in power and upon the corrupting effect of money, while restating and illustrating the old Horatian standards of serene and temperate living. His anxiety about prevailing standards was shown once more in his last completed work, The New Dunciad (1742), reprinted as the fourth book of a revised Dunciad (1743), in which Theobald was replaced as hero by Colley Cibber, the poet laureate and actor-manager, who not only had given more recent cause of offense but seemed a more appropriate representative of the degenerate standards of the age. In Dunciad, Book IV, the Philistine culture of the city of London was seen to overtake the court and seat of government at Westminster, and the poem ends in a magnificent but baleful prophecy of anarchy. Pope had begun work on Brutus, an epic poem in blank verse, and on a revision of his poems for a new edition, but neither was complete at his death.
          Pope's favorite meter was the 10-syllable, iambic pentameter rhyming (heroic) couplet. He handled it with increasing skill and adapted it to such varied purposes as the epigrammatic summary of the Essay on Criticism, the pathos of “Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady,” the mock-heroic of The Rape of the Lock, the discursive tones of the Essay on Man, the rapid narrative of the Homer translation, and the Miltonic sublimity of the conclusion of The Dunciad. But his greatest triumphs of versification are found in the “Epilogue to the Satires,” where he moves easily from witty, spirited dialogue to noble and elevated declamation, and in “An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,” which opens with a scene of domestic irritation suitably conveyed in broken rhythm:
    Shut, shut the door, good John! fatigu'd, I said:
    Tie up the knocker, say I'm sick, I'm dead.
    The Dog-star rages! nay 'tis past a doubt,
    All Bedlam, or Parnassus, is let out:
    Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand,
    They rave, recite, and madden round the land;
    and closes with a deliberately chosen contrast of domestic calm, which the poet may be said to have deserved and won during the course of the poem:
    Me, let the tender office long engage
    To rock the cradle of reposing age,
    With lenient arts extend a mother's breath,
    Make languor smile, and smooth the bed of death,
    Explore the thought, explain the asking eye,
    And keep a while one parent from the sky!
         Pope's command of diction is no less happily adapted to his theme and to the type of poem, and the range of his imagery is remarkably wide. He has been thought defective in imaginative power, but this opinion cannot be sustained in view of the invention and organizing ability shown notably in The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad. He was the first English poet to enjoy contemporary fame in France and Italy and throughout the European continent and to see translations of his poems into modern as well as ancient languages.

    POPE ONLINE: An Essay on CriticismAn Essay on CriticismAn Essay on ManAn Essay on Man, Moral Essays and SatiresThe Rape of the LockThe Rape of the LockWindsor-Forest
    The Universal Prayer
            FATHER of all! in every age, 
            In every clime adored,
            By saint, by savage, and by sage, 
            Jehovah, Jove, or Lord!
    Thou great First Cause, least understood, Who all my sense confined To know but this, that thou art good, And that myself am blind; Yet gave me, in this dark estate, To see the good from ill; And, binding nature fast in fate, Left free the human will: What conscience dictates to be done, Or warns me not to do, This, teach me more than hell to shun, That, more than heaven pursue. What blessings thy free bounty gives Let me not cast away; For God is paid when man receives, To enjoy is to obey.
            Yet not to earth's contracted span 
            Thy goodness let me bound,
            Or think thee Lord alone of man,
            When thousand worlds are round:
    Let not this weak, unknowing hand Presume thy bolts to throw, And deal damnation round the land On each I judge thy foe. If I am right, thy grace impart Still in the right to stay; If I am wrong, 0, teach my heart To find that hetter way! Save me alike from foolish pride And impious discontent At aught thy wisdom has denied, Or aught thy goodness lent
             Teach me to feel another's woe, 
            To hide the fault I see;
            That mercy I to others show, 
            That mercy show to me.
    Mean though I am, not wholly so, Since quickened by thy breath; 0, lead me wheresoe'er I go, Through this day's life or death! This day he bread and peace my lot: All else heneath the sun, Thou know'st if best bestowed or not, And let thy will be done. To thee, whose temple is all space, Whose altar, earth, sea, skies, One chorus let all Being raise, All Nature's incense rise!
    click for self-portrait1700 Antoine Masson, French engraver, draftsman, and pastellist, born in 1636. — more with link to an image.

    1640 Pieter Pauwel Rubens, great Flemish Baroque era painter born on 28 June 1577.
    [click for 1639 self-portrait >]
    MORE ON RUBENS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    ^ 1593 Christopher Marlowe, 29, dramatist, stabbed.
         Poet and playwright Christopher Marlowe, born on 06 February 1564 (two months before Shakespeare), was baptized in Canterbury on 26 February. Marlowe, the son of a Canterbury shoemaker, was a bright student. He won scholarships to prestigious schools and earned his B.A. from Cambridge in 1584. Historians believe Marlowe served as a spy for Queen Elizabeth while at Cambridge. He was nearly denied his master's degree in 1587, until the queen's advisers intervened, recommending he receive the degree and referring obliquely to his services for the state.
          While still in school, Marlowe wrote his play Tamburlaine the Great, about a 14th century shepherd who became an emperor. The blank verse drama caught on with the public, and Marlowe wrote five more plays before his death in 1593, including The Jew of Malta and Doctor Faustus. He also published a translation of Ovid's Elegies.
          On 15 May 1593, Marlowe's former roommate, playwright Thomas Kyd, was arrested and tortured on suspicion of treason. Told that heretical documents had been found in his room, Kyd wrote a letter saying the documents belonged to Christopher Marlowe. An arrest warrant was issued on 18 May, and Marlowe was arrested on 20 May. He bailed out but became involved in a fight over a tavern bill and is stabbed to death on 30 May 1593.
         Kyd was baptized on 06 November 1568. He was educated at the Merchant Taylor's School in London and raised to be a scrivener, a professional trained to draw up contracts and other business documents. Of his early work, The Spanish Tragedie (1562, it is sometimes called Hieronimo, after its protagonist)) brought him the most recognition. Some scholars believe it served as a model for Shakespeare's Hamlet. Kyd died penniless in December 1594.
  • Complete Works
  • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  • Tamburlaine the Great—part I  —  part II
  • Tamburlaine the Great—part 1part 2
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Jew of Malta
  • The Massacre at Paris
  • The Massacre at Paris
  • Dido, Queen of Carthage
  • Edward II
  • Hero and Leander
  • Doctor Faustus
    translator of:
  • Ovid's Elegies
  • 1548 Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin [12 Jul 1474–], an early Nahuatl convert to Catholicism, who saw Our Lady of Guadalupe on 09 December and 12 December 1531, and thereafter lived as a hermit near the place of the apparitions. He was canonized on 31 July 2002..—(081212)
    click to enlarge^ 1431 Joan of Arc, burned at the stake.      
          At Rouen in English-controlled Normandy, Joan of Arc, 19,
    peasant girl, Catholic mystic, and French liberation heroine, is burned at the stake following her convictions for witchcraft and heresy.
          On 24 May 1430, while leading a military expedition against the foreign occupiers of France, Joan had been captured by the Burgundians at Compiègne and later sold to the English.
          Early in life, Joan had begun to hear "voices" of Catholic saints. Shortly after she turned sixteen, these voices told her to aid Charles in regaining the French throne and expelling the English from France. A captain in the French army arranged a meeting with Charles, and the dauphin, convinced of the validity of Joan's divine mission, furnished her with a small force of troops.
          Wearing white armor, Joan led her troops to Orleans, and on 29 April 1429, as a French sortie distracted the English troops on the west side of the city, Joan entered unopposed by its eastern gate. Bringing needed supplies and troops into the besieged city, she also inspired the French to a passionate resistance, and during the next week, she led the charge during a number of skirmishes and battles. On 07 May, she was even hit by an arrow, but after dressing her wounds, she returned to the battle. On 08 May, the siege of Orleans was broken after six months and the English retreated.
          Over the next five weeks, Joan led French forces into a number of stunning victories over the English, and, in July, Reims, the traditional city of coronation, was captured. On 16 July 1429, with Joan of Arc kneeling beside him, Charles VII was crowned king of France.
          In 1920, Joan of Arc, already one of the great heroes of French history, was recognized as a Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
          . Joan was born in 1412, the daughter of a tenant farmer at Domrémy, on the borders of the duchies of Bar and Lorraine. In 1415, the Hundred Years War between England and France entered a crucial phase when the young King Henry V of England invaded France and won a series of decisive victories against the forces of King Charles VI. By the time of Henry's death in August 1422, the English and their French-Burgundian allies controlled Aquitaine and most of northern France, including Paris. Charles VI, long incapacitated, died one month later, and his son, Charles, regent from 1418, prepared to take the throne. However, Reims, the traditional city of French coronation, was held by the Anglo-Burgundians, and the Dauphin (heir apparent to the French throne) remained uncrowned. Meanwhile, King Henry VI of England, the infant son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, the daughter of Charles VI, was proclaimed king of France by the English. Joan's village of Domrémy lay on the frontier between the France of the Dauphin and that of the Anglo-Burgundians. In the midst of this unstable environment, Joan began hearing "voices" of three Christian saints — St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret. When she was about 16, these voices exhorted her to aid the Dauphin in capturing Reims and therefore the French throne.
          In May 1428, she traveled to Vaucouleurs, a stronghold of the Dauphin, and told the captain of the garrison of her visions. Disbelieving the young peasant girl, he sent her home. In January 1429, she returned, and the captain, impressed by her piety and determination, agreed to allow her passage to the Dauphin at Chinon. Dressed in men's clothes and accompanied by six soldiers, she reached the Dauphin's castle at Chinon in February 1429 and was granted an audience. Charles hid himself among his courtiers, but Joan immediately picked him out and informed him of her divine mission. For several weeks, Charles had Joan questioned by theologians at Poitiers, who concluded that, given his desperate straits, the Dauphin would be well-advised to make use of this strange and charismatic girl. Charles furnished her with a small army, and on 27 April 1429, she set out for Orléans, besieged by the English since October 1428.
          On 29 April 1429, as a French sortie distracted the English troops on the west side of Orléans, Joan entered unopposed by its eastern gate. She brought greatly needed supplies and reinforcements and inspired the French to a passionate resistance. She personally led the charge in several battles and on 07 May was struck by an arrow. After quickly dressing her wound, she returned to the fight, and the French won the day. On 08 May the English retreated from Orléans. During the next five weeks, Joan and the French commanders led the French into a string of stunning victories over the English. On 16 July, the royal army reached Reims, which opened its gates to Joan and the Dauphin. The next day, Charles VII was crowned king of France, with Joan standing nearby holding up her standard: an image of Christ in judgment. After the ceremony, she knelt before Charles, joyously calling him king for the first time. On 08 September, the king and Joan attacked Paris. During the battle, Joan carried her standard up to the earthworks and called on the Parisians to surrender the city to the king of France. She was wounded but continued to rally the king's troops until Charles ordered an end to the unsuccessful siege. That year, she led several more small campaigns, capturing the town of Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier. In December, Charles ennobled Joan, her parents, and her brothers.
          In May 1430, the Burgundians laid siege to Compiègne, and Joan stole into the town under the cover of darkness to aid in its defense. On 23 May, while leading a sortie against the Burgundians, she was captured. The Burgundians sold her to the English, and in March 1431 she went on trial before ecclesiastical authorities in Rouen on charges of heresy. Her most serious crime, according to the tribunal, was her rejection of church authority in favor of direct inspiration from God. After refusing to submit to the church, her sentence was read on 24 May: She was to be turned over to secular authorities and executed. Reacting with horror to the pronouncement, Joan agreed to recant and was condemned instead to perpetual imprisonment. Ordered to put on women's clothes, she obeyed, but a few days later the judges went to her cell and found her dressed again in male attire. Questioned, she told them that St. Catherine and St. Margaret had reproached her for giving in to the church against their will. She was found to be a relapsed heretic and on 29 May ordered handed over to secular officials. On 30 May, Joan, 19 years old, was burned at the stake at the Place du Vieux-Marché in Rouen. Before the pyre was lit, she instructed a priest to hold high a crucifix for her to see and to shout out prayers loud enough to be heard above the roar of the flames. As a source of military inspiration, Joan of Arc helped turn the Hundred Years War firmly in France's favor. By 1453, Charles VII had reconquered all of France except for Calais, which the English relinquished in 1558. On 16 May 1920, Joan of Arc, one of the great heroes of French history, was recognized as a Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church. Her feast day is 30 May.

          Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc by the Sieur Louis de Conté (her page and secretary), freely translated out of the ancient French into modern English by Mark Twain. ( Chapter 3-24: Joan the Martyr)
    PAINTINGS: Jeanne d'Arc Écoute Ses VoixJeanne d'Arc au Sacre de Charles VII dans la Cathédrale de ReimsJeanne d'Arc Brandit Son Épée vers la droite Jeanne d'Arc Brandit Son Épée vers la gauche Maud Adams as Joan of ArcJoan of Arc InspiredJeanne d'Arc en Prison
    1416 Jerome of Prague burned as a heretic by the Church
    0339 Eusebius, 74, Father of early church history. He attended the Council of Nicea in A.D. 325, and his "Historia Ecclesiastica" contains an abundance of detail on the first three centuries of the Early Church found nowhere else in ancient literature.
    < 29 May 31 May >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 30 May

    1968 Zacarias Moussaoui, born in France to Moroccan immigrants. He would become infamous during a four-year trial in the US, made grotesque by his grandstanding and by the prosecution's efforts to obtain the death penalty for his alleged participation in the the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (when he was in jail) to which he confessed, but denied after his 04 May 2006 conviction to life in prison. —(060516)
    1949 Fernando Armindo Lugo Méndez, who, on 15 August 1977 would be ordained a Catholic priest of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD), and on 17 April 1994 be ordained bishop to head the diocese of San Pedro, Paraguay, from which he would resign on 11 January 2005, engaging in politics in defiance of Church law and of the Pope. He would become a candidate for the April 2008 presidential election, getting around the constitutional barring of priests by saying that he had resigned his priesthood; which is impossible, though the Vatican, in February 2007, suspended him from exercising it, because of his politicking. —(071118)
    1943 Narcís Serra i Serra, político socialista español.
    1937 Armando Valladares, escritor estadounidense de origen cubano.
    1930 Robert Ryman, US painter and printmaker, who adds almost no value to a blank canvas or paper. — more with link to images.
    1930 Juan Genovés, Spanish painter. MORE ON GENOVÉS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1920 Antoni Maria Badía i Margarit, filólogo, profesor y académico español.
    1919 René Barrientos Ortuño, político y militar boliviano.
    1916 Dr. Joseph W Kennedy scientist (1 of 4 discoverers of plutonium)
    1912 Julius Axelrod, neuroquímico e investigador estadounidense, P. Nobel de Medicina en 1970. He died on 29 December 2004.
    1904 Ernesto de la Guardia Jr President of Panama  (1956-1960)
    1901 Cornelia Otis Skinner writer (When Our Hearts Were Young and Gay)
    1889 The brassiere is invented
    1888 James A Farley postmaster general (1932-1938).
    1887 Alexander Archipenko, Ukrainian Cubist sculptor and painter who originated a new style in which the representation of the human figure was subordinated to the formal composition of voids and solids. He died on 25 February 1964. — more with link to images.
    1879 Vanessa Bell, English painter who died on 07 April 1961. MORE ON BELL AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1848 Rudolf Ribalz, Austrian artist who died on 12 November 1904.
    1848 The Johnson Patent-Ice cream freezer, is patented by William Young, who bought for $200 the rights of Nancy Johnson who invented it in 1846 and patented it in 1847. This William Young is not to be confused with mathematician William Henry Young [20 Oct 1863 – 07 Jul 1942].
    9-point circle1847 Alice Sophia Stopford Green Ireland, proponent of Irish independence
    1846 Peter Carl Fabergé‚ Russia, goldsmith/jeweler/egg maker
    1845 Amadeo de Saboya, Rey de España durante tres años.
    1835 Alfred Austin, Leeds England, poet laureate (not very good) of England. He died on 02 June 1913. Author of: Alfred the Great (1901) — At the Gate of the Convent (1885) — The Conversion of Winckelmann (1897) — The Door of Humility (1906) — The Golden Age (1871) — In Veronica's Garden (1895) — Interludes (1872) — Lamia's Winter-Quarters (1898) — Leszko the Bastard (1877) — Love's widowhood (1889) — Lyrical Poems (1891) — Narrative Poems (1891) — Prince Lucifer (1887) — Sacred and profane love (1908) — Savonarola (1881) — The Season (1869) — Soliloquies in Song (1882) — Songs of England (1900) — A Tale of True Love (1902) — The Tower of Babel (1874) — Victoria (1897) — The human tragedy (1891) —(Brief samples: 6 sonnetsLove's Trinity)
    1814 Eugène Charles Catalan, Belgian mathematician who died on 14 February 1894. He defined the numbers called after him, while considering the solution of the problem of dissecting a polygon into triangles by means of non-intersecting diagonals, which had already been solved by Segner [09 Oct 1704 – 05 Oct 1777] but not as elegantly as by Catalan.
    1800 Karl Feuerbach, geometer who died on 12 March 1834. In 1822 he discovered the nine point circle of a triangle, unaware that it had been discovered long before and it had been proved by Brianchon [19 Dec 1683 – 29 Apr 1864] and Poncelet [01 Jul 1788 – 22 Dec 1867] in Recherches sur la détermination d'une hyperbole équilatère, au moyen de quatres conditions donnée (1820). The 9-point circle is sometimes incorrectly called Euler circle. The 9 points are the midpoints of the sides of the triangle, and, on the perpendiculars from the vertices of the triangle to the opposite sides, their feet and the midpoints between their common intersection (the orthocenter) and the vertices. 4 additional points are those where the 9-point circle is tangent to the circles tangent to the three sides of the triangle. The 9-point circle has additional, more arcane, properties.
    1786 John Lewis Krimmel, US painter born in Württemberg, who died drowned on 15 July 1821. MORE ON KRIMMEL AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1757 Henry Addington Viscount Sidmouth (C), British PM (1801-04)
    1672 Peter I (the Great) tsar of Russia (1682-1725)
    ^ 1631 La Gazette, hebdomadaire, premier numéro.
          Sous le règne de Louis XIII, sort le premier numéro de La Gazette. Cette feuille hebdomadaire paraissant le samedi tire son nom d'une monnaie (gazetta) qui équivalait à Venise au prix d'un journal. Un autre journal, joliment intitulé Nouvelles ordinaires de divers endroits, circule depuis quelques mois déjà à Paris, à l'imitation des périodiques qui fleurissent dans les pays germaniques. Les Nouvelles sont l'oeuvre de deux libraires parisiens, Jean Martin et Louis Vendosme.
          A la différence de ces pionniers, le fondateur de La Gazette, Théophraste Renaudot (45 ans), bénéficie du soutien de Richelieu. Le cardinal, qui dirige le Conseil du roi, a permis à ce médecin de Loudun d'ouvrir à Paris un bureau d'assistance aux pauvres avant de l'aider à fonder son journal. La Gazette reçoit un privilège d'exploitation qui lui permet d'absorber son concurrent. Son succès va grandissant avec un tirage qui atteint bientôt... 800 exemplaires. Le journal compte quatre à douze pages selon les semaines. Il s'agit de communiqués officiels et de nouvelles de l'étranger. Richelieu et le roi Louis XIII lui confient des articles où ils expliquent leur politique étrangère, notamment leur alliance avec les protestants allemands dans la Guerre de Trente Ans.
          En 1762, le journal est cédé par les descendants du fondateur au ministre Choiseul qui le rebaptise La Gazette de France et lui donne un caractère ouvertement gouvernemental. Il disparaîtra dans l'indifférence pendant la première guerre mondiale.
    1623 Wallerant Vaillant, Flemish artist who died on 02 September 1677. — MORE ON VAILLANT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1423 Georg Peurbach, Austrian astronomer and mathematician who died on 08 April 1461. Author of Tabulae Ecclipsium — Theoriae Novae Planetarum (Ptolemy's epicycle theory of the planets) — Algorismus.
    Holidays Channel Is, England, N Ireland, Wales : Spring Holiday / Guam, Puerto Rico, US, US Virgin Islands : Memorial Day / Lincoln City, Indiana : Nancy Hanks Lincoln Memorial Day / US : The REAL Memorial Day (Decoration Day) (1868)

    Religious Observances RC : St Felix I, pope [268-73], martyr / RC : St Ferdinand III, Spanish king/patron of engineers / Santos Fernando, rey de España; Anastasio y Basilio; santa Juana de Arco. / RC : St Jeanne d'Arc, Maid of Orleans, patroness of France / Saint Ferdinand: Ferdinand III monte sur le trône de Castille en 1217, pendant le grand siècle chrétien du Moyen Age. Poursuivant la «Reconquista», il chasse les musulmans de Séville et Cordoue. Il fonde l'Université de Salamanque et fait du castillan la langue officielle du royaume. Saint Ferdinand est pour les Espagnols l'équivalent de Saint Louis pour les Français. Les deux rois sont nés à quelques années d'écart.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “To save one life is better than to build a seven-story pagoda.”
    {especially when the life you save is your own}{but it is not likely to last as long}{yes, but you don't need a building permit}
    “To build a one-story pagoda is better than to save the lives of seven cockroaches.” {I thought you were going to say "seven lawyers"}
    “To tell seven stories about one pagoda is better than to tell one story about seven pagodas.” {as a substitute for sleeping pills?}
    “To save the life of one bettor is risky where betting encurs the death penalty.”
    “To save the life of a bettor about to jump from a seven story pagoda, is easier said than done.”
    “To save the life of one's better about to jump from a seven story pagoda, is more sad than dumb.”
    “Whether to save one life or to build a seven story pagoda, is not an alternative you have to face every day.”
    “It is impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do.” —
    Jerome K. Jerome, English author and humorist [02 May 1859 – 14 Jun 1927].
    updated Friday 05-Jun-2009 22:51 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.b0 Saturday 13-Dec-2008 1:38 UT
    v.7.a0 18-Nov-2007 20:51 UT
    v.7.40 Wednesday 30-May-2007 17:54 UT
    v.6.50 Friday 02-Jun-2006 15:38 UT
    v.5.70 Sunday 21-Aug-2005 15:07 UT
    Tuesday 01-Jun-2004 4:43 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site