1990 José Solís Ruiz, político español.
91, in Chicago ^top^
worked in analysis, in particular in harmonic analysis. He created
one of the strongest analysis schools of the 20th Century.
Born 19001225 in Warsaw (then in the
Russian Empire), Zygmund obtained his Ph.D. from the University of
Warsaw in 1923 for a dissertation written under Aleksander Rajchman's
supervision. From 1922 to 1929 he taught at the Polytechnic School
of Warsaw. After a year in England he took up a post at the university
of Vilnius, Lithuania. He held this post until he was drafted into
the Polish army at the start of the Second World War.
In 1940 Zygmund escaped with his wife
and son from German controlled Poland to the USA. After a number of
posts he was appointed to the University of Chicago in 1947 and remained
there until he retired in 1980. John Canu took one or more of his
courses in 1948-1950.
Zygmund was to create at Chicago a
major analysis research centre. In 1986 he received the National Medal
for Science for his building this research school. He supervised over
80 research students in his years at Chicago.
Zygmund's book Trigonometric Series
(1935) is a classic that, together with later editions, is still the
definitive work on the subject. Other major works include Analytic
functions in 1938 and Measure and integral in 1977.
His work in harmonic analysis has application
in the theory of waves and vibrations. He also did major work in Fourier
analysis and its application to partial differential equations.
Pepper, of stomach cancer. He was born on 08 September 1900.
From Florida. Democrat US Senator (1936-1950), US Representative (1963-1989),
advocate for the elderly. Autobiography Pepper: Eyewitness to a Century
1961 Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, dictador dominicano.
1981 Zia ur-Rahman,
president of Bangladesh, assassinated in a failed secessionist military
coup led by general Manzur.
ur-Rahman was born on 19 January 1936 at Bagbari in Bogra district
in North-West Bangladesh. His father was Mansur Rahman, a chemist
in public service in Kolkata. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947,
his father moved to Karachi.
joined the Pakistani Army in 1953 as a cadet and was commissioned
in 1955 to second lieutenant's post. Two years later, in 1957, he
was transferred to East Bengal Regiment. Between 1959 and 1964, he
worked with the military intelligence. In 1965, during the Indo-Pakistan
War of 1965 he fought in the Khemkaran sector as the commander of
the company that was awarded the maximum number of gallantry awards
for war performance. He was then appointed as a professional instructor
in the Pakistan Military Academy in 1966. Later, he was sent to the
Staff College in Quetta, West Pakistan for attending a command course.
In 1969, he joined the 2nd East Bengal Regiment as its second-in-command
at Joydevpur, then in East Pakistan.After this, he was sent to West
Germany for higher training. After returning back in 1970, Zia ur-Rahman
was promoted to the rank of Major and was transferred to the 8th East
Bengal Regiment at Chittagong, as the second in command.
After the military crackdown by the Pakistani army at 25 March in
East Pakistan, Major Zia ur-Rahman sided with the rebels and joined
Mukti Bahini (freedom fighters). At that time, Awami League (AL) Chief,
Mujibur Rahman, was politically active in this movement and was arrested
by the Central Government of Pakistan for various charges of conspiracy
and treason against the West.
Pakistan Regiment under Major Zia captured one radio broadcast centre
in Kalurghat, Chittagong (Shadin Bangla Betar Kendro) and Major Zia
read the independence declaration, which officially started the Liberation
War. There is an on-going political dispute as to whether this was
a declaration or an announcement. However, all groups agree that on
26th March 1971 Major Zia ur-Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh
and declared himself as temporary Head of the Republic and made a
broadcast using Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s name:
This is Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendro. I, Major Zia ur-Rahman, at the
direction of Bangobondhu Mujibur Rahman, hereby declare that the independent
People's Republic of Bangladesh has been established. At his direction,
I have taken command as the temporary Head of the Republic. In the
name of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, I call upon all Bengalis to rise against
the attack by the West Pakistani Army. We shall fight to the last
to free our Motherland. By the grace of Allah, victory is ours. Joy
Zia ur-Rahman was offered
the gallantry award of Bir Uttam for his bravery in the liberation
war. After independence, he was appointed brigade commander in Comilla.
In June 1972, he was made Deputy Chief of Staff of the armed forces
of Bangladesh. He was later promoted to a Brigadier in 1973 and to
a Major General by the end of the same year.
On 15 August 1975, the then President of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur
Rahman, who is also frequently called Bongobondhu (Friend of Bengal)
and Jatir Jonok (Father of the Nation), was killed along with several
of his family members in a military coup. Khandakar Moshtaq Ahmad
replaced Mujibur Rahman and on 25 August 1975, Zia ur-Rahman was made
the chief of army staff.
Khaled Mosharraf and Dhaka Brigade under Colonel Shafat Jamil made
a counter-coup on 3 November 1975, Zia ur-Rahman was forced to resign
was put under house arrest by Khaled Mosharraf.
Colonel Taher, a left-wing supporter, staged a third successful coup
with the help of army soldiers who believed in socialism and a left-wing
party, the National Socialist Party (Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal), on
7 November, and both Brigadier K. Mosharraf and Colonel Shafat Jamil
were killed. Colonel Taher freed Zia ur-Rahman restored him to the
post of army chief. Zia proclaimed himself Chief Martial Law Administrator
(CMLA) on 07 November 1975. On the same day, at a meeting in army
headquarters, and interim government was created with:
Chief Martial Law Administrator - Justice Sayem
Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrators - Major General Zia ur-Rahman,
Air Vice Marshal MG Tawab and Rear Admiral MH Khan Colonel
Taher, was soon arrested, because of possible fears of revolt and
was hanged later, on 21st July, 1976.
Zia ur-Rahman made himself Chief Martial Law Administrator on 19 November
1976, when Justice Sayem relinquished his position. When President
Sayem resigned on 21 April 1977, Rahman declared himself President
of Bangladesh and ordered martial law in the country, which lasted
After assuming office
as head of the state, Zia ur-Rahman began to strengthen his foreign
policy with more attention towards Western countries, moving away
from the Soviet bloc as well as India. The U.S. helped the country
with wheat under PL 480 law and many other economic aids.
Zia also later proposed a South Asian organization which includes
seven South Asian nations. This organization was created in 1985 as
the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, more popularly
known as SAARC.
Zia started to
make changes to the country's infrastructures with these aids. He
also actively strengthened the police by taking the number of officers
from from 40,000 to 70,000 and arranging for re-training. Armed forces'
size was also boosted from less than 50,000 in 1974-75 to about 90,000
Until Zia ur-Rahman's
arrival, Bengali nationalism overwhelmingly dominated the political
scene. Zia ur-Rahman took the step of promoting a Bangladeshi nationalism,
especially in the light of the fact that all Bangladeshis were not
Bengalis. Roughly 1-2% are non-Bengalis. He also stated existence
of sizeable non-Muslim populations (15% Hindus) as a reason to promote
the Bangladeshi nationalism.
Head of the State Zia ur-Rahman carried out the following edits to
Insertion of Bismiliah-ir-Rahmanir Rahim (In the name of Allah, the
Beneficent, the Merciful) in the Preamble of the Constitution;
Addition of 'absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah' to Articles
8(1) and 8(1A);
Redefinition of socialism as 'economic and social justice' in Article
Provision that "the state shall endeavor to consolidate, preserve
and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on
Islamic solidarity" in Article 25(2).
also allowed Jamaat-e-Islami to start its activities for the first
time in independent Bangladesh. Jamaat-e-Islami (JIB), which is frequently
associated with the abetters of Pakistani occupying army in 1971 war,
was banned along with several other parties soon after independence
on grounds of secularism and abolition of all religious parties.
Golam Azam, Chief of the JIB, was allowed
to come back in July, 1978 with a Pakistani passport. He was not tried
for either war crimes or staying in the country without a visa. 16
years later, Begum Khaleda Zia's government gave Azam his Bangladeshi
citizenship in 1994. Such moves are held against Zia ur-Rahman and
his party, BNP, by opponents.
President, Zia announced a 19-point programme of economic reform and
began dismantling the MLA. In February 1978, Jatiyatabadi Ganatantric
Dal (Nationalist Democratic Party) was created with Vice President
Justice Abdus Sattar as its head. Zia ur-Rahman himself became the
nominee of the Nationalist Front consisting of six political parties
in the presidential election and won after securing 76.67% of the
On 01 September 1978, Zia
ur-Rahman launched a party named the Bangladesh Nationalist Party
(BNP) with himself as the head. In November 1978, remaining restrictions
on political party activities were removed in time for parliamentary
elections in February 1979.
elections were held in February 1979 and Zia's party, the BNP, won
207 seats out of 300. The first session of the National Parliament
was held on 01 April 1979. On 09 April 1979, martial law was lifted.
After having a two-thirds majority
in parliament, Zia passed a bill called Indemnity Bill, which stated
that no trial will happen and no case can be made for assassination
of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Zia also gave Major Dalim, Major Rashid,
and Major Faruk, alleged assassins of Sheikh Mujib, jobs in the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs; again, these moves are held against Zia ur-Rahman's
regime by his critiques.
occurred against Zia’s rule but Zia brutally suppressed them
and many military personnel were hanged under his regime. Most of
them were former Mukti bahini (freedom fighters) who joined the military
after the liberation war. 600 to 700 military personnel were executed
under his regime in 1977 while failed coup happened by Air-Force.
Zia was assassinated in Chittagong
on 30 May 1981 by a small army group, alleged to have been ordered
by Major General Monjur, head of Chittagong division army. Later,
Monjur was captured in a tea garden in Chittagong hilly area and killed
by army personnel.
Leonidovich Pasternak, born on 10 February 1890. Russian poet
and novelist, he was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize for Literature for Doctor
Zhivago. In the novel, Yuri Zhivago is the son of a rich pre-Revolutionary
Russian Industrialist. An excellent physician, he studies philosophy and
literature, and develops ideas of his own — his main aim being to
preserve his own spiritual independence. He welcomes the Russian Revolution,
enjoying its dream of universal justice. But when the Communists start telling
him how to live and how to think, he rebels. He leaves Moscow for a tiny
village beyond the Urals, where the main romantic theme of the novel develops.
His loved one is exiled to Manchuria by the Soviet Government, and he returns
to Moscow, a broken man, to die in the street of a heart attack. [Pasternak
obituary in the NY Times]
1937 Ten strikers killed by
police near the Republic Steel plant in South Chicago.
Some 50'000 persons by earthquake of magnitude 7.5 which almost
completely destroys Quetta, in what is now Pakistan.
Vladimir Andreevich Steklov, Russian mathematician born on
09 Jan 1864.
Heihachiro Togo ,
Japanese admiral born on 27 January 1848. [08 Nov 1926 Time
cover photo >]
Togo studied naval science in England from 1871 to 1878. Upon his
returnto Japan he was appointed a lieutenant first class. After serving
in a number of naval posts, he was appointed commander in chief of
the combined fleet (December 1903) and was made an admiral in 1904.
As commander in chief of the Japanese navy at the outbreak of the
war, he directed the 10-month naval blockade of the great Russian
military base at Port Arthur (now Lü-shun, on the Yellow Sea), helping
to bring about its surrender on 02 January 1905.
In desperation the Russians dispatched their Baltic fleet to Japan,
confronting Admiral Togo's forces on 27
May in the Tsushima Strait, which connects the Sea of Japan (East
Sea) with the East China Sea. Togo “crossed the enemy's T”, i.e.,
he turned his column across the Russian line of advance, and destroyed
33 out of the 35 Russian ships, ending the war. This spectacular maneuver
was later used by the British and French navies. The victory, the
first occasion in the modern era in which an Asian power defeated
a European nation, forced the Western countries to begin to look upon
Japan as an equal.
chief of the Naval General Staff and war councillor to the emperor
after the war. In1913 he was promoted to fleet admiral. From 1914
to 1924 he was in charge of the education of crown prince Hirohito
[29 Apr 1901 – 07 Jan 1989] who became prince regent in 1921
when his father, the emperor Taisho [31 Aug 1879 – 25 Dec 1926],
retired because of mental illness, and emperor when Taisho died.
1911 Arturo Faldi, Italian artist born
on 27 July 1856.
1888 Abraham Louis Buvelot, Swiss
Australian painter, lithographer, and photographer, active in Brazil and
Australia, born on 03 March 1814. MORE
ON BUVELOT AT ART 4 MAY
with links to images.
1883 12 persons trampled when a rumor that the recently
opened Brooklyn Bridge is in imminent danger of collapsing causes a stampede.
1886 Matiya “Mulumba” Kalemba,
50, the oldest of the martyrs of Uganda known as “Charles
Lwanga and his 21 companions”.
He was of the Soga tribe of Buganda (now in Uganda). Together with
his mother, he was captured by Ganda raiders belonging to the Otter
clan, who sold him as a slave to Magatto, of the Edible-Rat Clan,
uncle of the chancellor Mukasa,. Kalemba grew up in this family, treated
as a member of the clan and as a free man. After the death of Magatto,
he remained for a time with Magatto's brother, Buzibwa. When Kalemba
became an adult, he was employed by Ddumba, the chief of Ssingo County,
as head of his household and supervisor of the other servants. On
Ddumba's death, his brother made Kalemba's position official: as “the
Kalemba adhered first to
Islam. After the arrival of Anglican missionaries, he received instruction
from them. Later Catholic missionaries arrived, and Kalemba found
that Protestant prejudices about them were not true. On 31 May 1880
he became a Catholic catechumen, but continued occasionally to attend
Anglican Bible classes. Kalemba had owned many women slaves, but now
he kept only one, Kikuvwa, whom he married. Kalemba was baptized by
Father Ludovic Girault on 28 May 1882. Kalemba humbly did menial work
in his garden and carrying loads; he even accepted unmerited blows
from the king's soldiers. He said that he was a slave, “the
slave of Jesus Christ”. He took part in the armed raids organized
by his chief, but refused to take his share of the loot. He refused
to take the customary bribes when administering justice on behalf
of his master. At his home in Mityana, some 75 km from the capital,
Kalemba worked humbly as a potter and tanner.
During the the Catholic missionaries' 1882-1885 forced absence from
Uganda, Kalemba organized a Christian community at Mityana where,
together with the future martyrs Noe Mawaggali and Luke Banabakintu,
he gave Christian instruction. When a persecution began in 1886 this
community of Christians and catechumens numbered about two hundred.
Kalemba's master, the chief of Ssingo, arrested him. During the night
of 26 May he was kept, with his feet in stocks and his neck in slave
yokes, at the chief's residence. On 27 May they were taken to the
palace, where the chancellor sentenced him to a cruel death for being
a Christian. Kalemba was made to suffer burns, strips of flesh were
torn from his body, his limbs were gradually cut off. All he said
was “My God ! My God !”. Finally his was tightly bound
to restrict his blood circulation and left to agonize in a swamp.
On 29 May, men coming to cut reeds in the swamp heard him calling:
“Water! Water!” but fled horrified. He died presumably
on 30 May. There were at least 120 other martyrs during the same persecution;
22 of them known by name, including Kalemba, were declared saints
on 18 October 1964, as “Charles Lwanga and his 21 companions”.
Their feast day is on 03 June, as 14 of them died on 03 June 1886.
1855 Johann Baptist Pflug von Biberach, German artist born
on 13 February 1785.
1835 Adrian Meulemans, Dutch
artist born on 24 August 1766.
1806 Charles Dickinson,
shot in duel by Andrew Jackson.
In Logan County, Kentucky, future president Andrew Jackson participates
in his first recorded duel, killing Charles Dickinson, a lawyer who
was known as one of the best pistol shots in the area. The proud and
volatile Jackson, a former senator and representative of Tennessee,
called for the duel after his wife Rachel was slandered as a bigamist
by Dickinson, who was referring to a legal error in the divorce from
her first husband in 1791.
met his foe at Harrison’s Mills on Red River in Logan, Kentucky on
May 30, 1806. In accordance with dueling custom, the two stood twenty-four
feet apart with pistols pointed downwards. After the signal, Dickinson
fired first, grazing Jackson’s breastbone and breaking some of his
ribs. However, Jackson, a former Tennessee militia leader, maintained
his stance and fired back, fatally wounding his opponent. It was the
first of several recorded duels Jackson was said to have participated
in during his lifetime, the majority of which were called in defense
of his wife's honor. In 1829, Rachel died, and Jackson was elected
the seventh president of the United States.
à mort par la Révolution:
1795 (11 prairial an III):
Domiciliés à Paris, par
la conseil militaire séant à Paris:
CHAUVEL Jean Louis, serrurier, convaincu d'avoir
porté au bout de sa bayonnette la tête du représentant Ferraud le
3 prairial an 3.
CHEBRIER Nicolas Etienne, membre du comité révolutionnaire
de la section de l'Arsenal, comme convaincu d'avoir harangué dans
la tribune de la Convention pendant la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial.
DUVAL Pierre François, cordonnier, comme convaincu
d'avoir lu une pétition liberticide dan la convention, et pris part
à la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial.
1794 (11 prairial an II):
ANDROUET Servais, prêtre réfractaire, domicilié à
la Nouée, canton de Josselin (Morbihan), comme réfractaire à la loi,
par le tribunal criminel du département des Côtes du Nord..
PALANGIÉ François, prêtre, domicilié à St Geniès
(Aveyron), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel
VASSEUR François Alexis, graveur, domicilié à Colmar
(Haut-Rhin), par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme espion,
et distributeur de faux assignats.
DELESTRE Charles Philippe, 52 ans, né à Bucquoy,
arpenteur, veuf de Couppe Marie Anne Joseph, à Arras
DRAPIER Philippe Joseph, 51 ans, marchand de bois,
né et domeurant à Havrincourt, époux de Dobigny Agnès, guillotiné
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire
FERUYANT Louis Jacques, ex trésorier de France, 37
ans, né et domicilié à la Motte-Teney (Deux-Sèvres), comme convaincu
d’avoir abusé de son autorité de président du comité révolutionnaire
de la Mothe-sur-Seine, ayant fait faire des dénonciations vagues et
calomnieuses dont il a été le rédacteur, contre un citoyen de l’avoir
fait incarcérer, en l’arrachant à sa famille et à ses fonctions.
MORET Louis Julien, ex curé, 46 ans, né à Arcy-sur-Aube,
domicilié à Premier-Fait, même département, comme complice de manœuvres
pratiquées dans la commune de Premier-Fait, tendantes à armer les
citoyens les uns contre les autres, et à rétablir la royauté.
PUT Jean, marchand forain, 24 ans, né et domicilié
à Aurillac (Cantal), comme s’étant soustrait à l’exécution de la loi
de la réquisition, ayant été trouvé muni d’une cocarde blanche, et
comme espion des despotes coalisés contre la France.
BEGU Louis César, 44 ans, né à Tours, ci-devant huissier,
chef du premier battaillon du département d'Indre et Loire, domicilié
COMPIN Nicolas Marie, 64 ans, cultivateur, agent
national, né et domicilié à Maltate (Saône et Loire).
GUIBORA Jean Antoine, journalier vigneron, 24 ans,
soldat du 11ème régiment d'hussards, né et domicilié à St Gemme (Marne).
Jean, (dit Delatour-donnois), ex noble, colonel à la
suite de la cavalerie, ci-devant capitaine des carabiniers, 64 ans,
né à St Wist (Corrèze), domicilié à Rodde (Puy-de-Dôme).
LACORDRE Nicolas (dit Montpausin), ex subdélégué
et juge, 65 ans, né à Mont-sur-Siom, à St Pourçain (Allier).
LACROIX Claude, cultivateur, domicilié à Chaourse
LEVAL Auguste François César, ex noble, capitaine
en second des grenadiers des gardes françaises, 29 ans, né et domicilié
à Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dôme).
MORILLON Pierre (dit Dubellai), marchand de draps
en soie, 78 ans, né et domicilié à Poitiers (Vienne).
BOURASSEAU René, officier municipal, domicilié à
Girouard, canton des Sables (Vendée), comme chef des brigand de la
Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1770 François Boucher, French Rococo
painter, engraver, and designer, born on 29 September 1703.
ON BOUCHER AT ART 4 MAY
with links to images.
Arouet Voltaire, French
philosopher, historian, poet, dramatist, and novelist.
Voltaire is one of the greatest of
all French writers. Although only a few of his works are still read,
he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader
against tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty. His writing embodies characteristic
qualities of the French mind—a critical capacity, wit, and satire.
His whole work vigorously propagates an ideal of progress to which
men of all nations have remained responsive. His long life spanned
the last years of classicism and the eve of the revolutionary era,
and during this age of transition his works and activities influencedthe
direction taken by European civilization.
Voltaire was born on 21 November 1694,
in Paris, to a treasury officer and his wife. Voltaire studied law
but abandoned it to become a writer. He won success with his plays
mostly classical tragedies at first. He also wrote histories
and epic poetry. His writing brought him some measure of success,
and his wise investments made him wealthy in his mid-30s. However,
his epic poem La Henriade, a satirical attack on politics
and religion, infuriated the government and landed Voltaire in the
Bastille for nearly a year in 1717. Voltaire's time in prison failed
to quench his satire. In 1726, he again displeased authorities and
fled to England. He returned several years later and continued to
write plays. In 1734, his Lettres
philosophiques criticized established religions and political
institutions, and he was forced to flee once more. He retreated to
the region of Champagne, where he lived with his mistress and patroness,
du Châtelet [17 Dec 1706 – 10 Sep 1749]. In 1750, he moved
to Berlin on the invitation of Frederick II of Prussia [24 Jan 1712
– 17 Aug 1786] and later settled in Switzerland, where he wrote
his best-known work, Candide.
He dies in Paris, having returned to supervise the production of one
of his plays.
aux quarante écus
monde comme il va
Pucelle d'Orléans (1762)
|| In English translations:
(in English and French)
Dictionary (selected entries)
Antoine Masson, French engraver, draftsman, and pastellist, born
in 1636. — more with
link to an image.
21 May 1688, he was a poet and satirist of the English Augustan period,
best known for his poems An
Essay on Criticism (1711), The The
Rape of the Lock (1712–1714), The Dunciad (1728),
Essay on Man (1733–1734). He is one of the most quotable
of all English authors.
a wholesale linen merchant, retired from business in the year of his
son's birth and in 1700 went to live at Binfield in Windsor Forest.
The Popes were Roman Catholics, and at Binfield they came to know
several neighboring Catholic families who were to play an important
part in the poet's life. Pope's religion procured him some lifelong
friends, notably the wealthy squire John Caryll (who persuaded him
to write The Rape of the Lock, on an incident involving Caryll's
relatives) and Martha Blount, to whom Pope addressed some of the most
memorable of his poems and to whom he bequeathed most of his property.
But his religion also precluded him from a formal course of education,
since Catholics were not admitted to the universities. He was trained
at home by Catholic priests for a short time and attended Catholic
schools at Twyford, near Winchester, and at Hyde Park Corner, London,
but he was mainly self-educated. He was a precocious boy, eagerly
reading Latin, Greek, French, and Italian, which he managed to teach
himself, and an incessant scribbler, turning out verse upon verse
in imitation of the poets he read. The best of these early writings
are the “Ode on Solitude” and a paraphrase of St. Thomas à Kempis
[1380 – 08 Aug 1471], both of which he claimed to have written
at the age of 12.
was near enough to London to permit Pope's frequent visits there.
He early grew acquainted with former members of the circle of John
Dryden [19 Aug 1631 – 12 May 1700],
notably William Wycherley, William Walsh, and Henry Cromwell. By 1705
his “Pastorals” were in draft and were circulating among the best
literary judges of the day. In 1706 Jacob Tonson, the leading publisher
of poetry, had solicited their publication, and they took the place
of honor in his Poetical Miscellanies in 1709.
This early emergence of a man of letters may have been assisted by
Pope's poor physique. As a result of too much study, so he thought,
he acquired a curvature of the spine and some tubercular infection,
probably Pott's disease, that limited his growth and seriously impaired
his health. His full-grown height was four feet six inches; but the
grace of his profile and fullness of his eye gave him an attractive
appearance. He was a lifelong sufferer from headaches, and his deformity
made him abnormally sensitive to physical and mental pain. Though
he was able to ride a horse and delighted in travel, he was inevitably
precluded from much normal physical activity, and his energetic, fastidious
mind was largely directed to reading and writing.
When the “Pastorals” were published, Pope was already at work on a
poem on the art of writing. This was An Essay on Criticism,
published in 1711. Its brilliantly polished epigrams (e.g., “A little
learning is a dangerous thing,” “To err is human, to forgive, divine,”
and “For fools rush in where angels fear to tread”), which have become
part of the proverbial heritage of the language, are readily traced
to their sources in Horace, Quintilian, Boileau, and other critics,
ancient and modern, in verse and prose; but the charge that the poem
is derivative, so often made in the past, takes insufficient account
of Pope's success in harmonizing a century of conflict in critical
thinking and in showing how nature may best be mirrored in art.
The well-deserved success of the Essay
on Criticism brought Pope a wider circle of friends, notably
Richard Steele [1672 – 01 Sep 1729] and Joseph Addison [01
May 1672 – 17 Jun 1719], who were then collaborating on
The Spectator. To this journal Pope contributed the most
original of his pastorals, “The Messiah” (1712), and perhaps other
papers in prose. He was clearly influenced by The Spectator's
policy of correcting public morals by witty admonishment, and in this
vein he wrote the first version of his mock-epic, The Rape of
the Lock (two cantos, 1712; five cantos, 1714), to reconcile
two Catholic families. A young man in one family had stolen a lock
of hair from a young lady in the other. Pope treated the dispute that
followed as though it were comparable to the mighty quarrel between
Greeks and Trojans, which had been Homer's theme. Telling the story
with all the pomp and circumstance of epic made not only the participants
in the quarrel but also the society in which they lived seem ridiculous.
Though it was a society where Britain's statesmen oft the fall
foredoom Of foreign tyrants, and of nymphs at home; as if one
occupation concerned them as much as the other; and though in such
a society a young lady might do equally ill to Stain her honour,
or her new brocade; Forget her pray'rs, or miss a masquerade;
Pope managed also to suggest what genuine
attractions existed amid the foppery and glitter. He acknowledged
how false the sense of values was that paid so much attention to external
appearance, but ridicule and rebuke slide imperceptibly into admiration
and tender affection as the heroine, Belinda, is conveyed along the
Thames to Hampton Court, the scene of the “rape”:
But now secure the painted vessel glides,
The sunbeams trembling on the floating tides:
While melting music steals upon the sky,
And soften'd sounds along the waters die;
Smooth flow the waves, the zephyrs gently play,
Belinda smil'd, and all the world was gay.
comparable blend of seemingly incompatible responses, love and hate,
bawdiness and decorum, admiration and ridicule, is to be found in
all Pope's later satires.
had also been at work for several years on “Windsor-Forest.” In this
poem, completed and published in 1713, he proceeded, as Virgil had
done, from the pastoral vein to the georgic and celebrated the rule
of Queen Anne as the Latin poet had celebrated the rule of Augustus.
In another early poem, “Eloisa to Abelard,” Pope borrowed the form
of Ovid's “heroic epistle” (in which an abandoned lady addresses her
lover) and showed imaginative skill in conveying the struggle between
sexual passion and dedication to a life of celibacy.
poems and other works were collected in the first volume of Pope's
Works in 1717. When it was published, he was already far
advanced with the greatest labor of his life, his verse translation
of Homer. He had announced his intentions in October 1713 and had
published the first volume, containing the Iliad, Books I–IV,
in 1715. The
Iliad was completed in six volumes in 1720. The work of translating
Odyssey (vol. i–iii, 1725; vol. iv and v, 1726) was shared
with William Broome [03 May 1689
– 16 Nov 1745], who had contributed notes to the Iliad,
and Elijah Fenton [20 May 1683 –
16 Jul 1730]. The labor had been great, but so were the rewards. By
the two translations Pope cleared about £10'000 and was able to claim
that, thanks to Homer, he could “ . . . live and thrive / Indebted
to no Prince or Peer alive.”
merits of Pope's Homer lie less in the accuracy of translation and
in correct representation of the spirit of the original than in the
achievement of a heroic poem as his contemporaries understood it:
a poem Virgilian in its dignity, moral purpose, and pictorial splendor,
yet one that consistently kept Homer in view and alluded to him throughout.
Pope offered his readers the Iliad and the Odyssey
as he felt sure Homer would have written them had he lived in early
considerations had affected the success of the translation. As a Roman
Catholic his affiliations were Tory rather than Whig; and though he
retained the friendship of such Whigs as William Congreve [24 Jan
1670 – 19 Jan 1729], Nicholas Rowe [20 Jun 1674 – 06 Dec
1718], and the painter Charles Jervas [1675 – 02 Nov 1739],
his ties with Steele and Addison grew strained as a result of the
political animosity that occurred at the end of Queen Anne's reign.
He found new and lasting friends in Tory circles, Jonathan Swift,
John Gay, John Arbuthnot, Thomas Parnell, the Earl of Oxford, and
Viscount Bolingbroke. With the first five he was associated (1713–1714)
in the Scriblerus Club to write joint satires on pedantry, later to
mature as Peri Bathouse, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry
(1728) and the “Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus” (1741); and these
were the men who encouraged his translation of Homer. The Whigs, who
associated with Addison at Button's Coffee-House, put up a rival translator
in Thomas Tickell, who published his version of Iliad, Book
I, two days after Pope's. Addison preferred Tickell's manifestly inferior
version; his praise increased the resentment Pope already felt owing
to a series of slights and misunderstandings; and when Pope heard
gossip of further malice on Addison's part, he sent him a satirical
view of his character, published later as the character of Atticus,
the insincere arbiter of literary taste in “An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot”
Even before the Homer quarrel,
Pope had found that the life of a wit was one of perpetual warfare.
There were few years when either his person or his poems were not
objects of attacks from the critic John Dennis, the bookseller Edmund
Curll, the historian John Oldmixon, and other writers of lesser fame.
The climax was reached over his edition of Shakespeare. He had emended
the plays, in the spirit of a literary editor, to accord with contemporary
taste (1725);but his practice was exposed by the scholar Lewis Theobald
in Shakespeare Restored (1726). Though Pope had ignored some
of these attacks, he had replied to others with squibs in prose and
verse. But he now attempted to make an end of the opposition and to
defend his standards, which he aligned with the standards of civilized
society, in the mock-epic The Dunciad (1728). Theobald was
represented in it as the Goddess of Dullness' favorite son, a suitable
hero for those leaden times; and others who had given offense were
preserved like flies in amber. Pope dispatches his victims with such
sensuousness of verse and imagery that the reader is forced to admit
that if there is petulance here, as has often been claimed, it is,
to parody Wordsworth, petulance recollected in tranquility. Pope reissued
the poem in 1729 with an elaborate mock-commentary of prefaces, notes,
appendixes, indexes, and errata; this burlesque of pedantry whimsically
suggested that The Dunciad had fallen a victim to the spirit
of the times and been edited by a dunce.
and his parents had moved from Binfield to Chiswick in 1716. There
his father died (1717), and two years later he and his mother rented
a villa on the Thames at Twickenham, then a small country town where
several Londoners had retired to live in rustic seclusion. This was
to be Pope's home for the remainder of his life. There he entertained
such friends as Swift, Bolingbroke, Oxford, and the painter Jonathan
Richardson. These friends were all enthusiastic gardeners, and it
was Pope's pleasure to advise and superintend their landscaping according
to the best contemporary principles, formulated in his “Epistle to
the Right Honourable Richard Earl of Burlington” (1731). This poem,
one of the most characteristic works of his maturity, is a rambling
discussion in the manner of Horace on false taste in architecture
and design, with some suggestions for the worthier employment of a
Pope now began
to contemplate a new work on the relations of man, nature, and society
that would be a grand organization of human experience and intuition,
but he was destined never to complete it. An Essay on Man
(1733–1734) was intended as an introductory book discussing the overall
design of this work. The poem has often been charged with shallowness
and philosophical inconsistency, and there is indeed little that is
original in its thought, almost all of which can be traced in the
work of the great thinkers of Western civilization. Subordinate themes
were treated in greater detail in “Of the Use of Riches, An Epistle
to Bathurst” (1732), “An Epistle to Cobham, Of the knowledge and characters
of men” (1733), and “Of The Characters of Women: an Epistle to a Lady”
Pope was deflected from
this “system of ethics in the Horatian way” by the renewed need for
self-defense. Critical attacks drove him to consider his position
as satirist. He chose to adapt for his own defense the first satire
of Horace's second book, where the ethics of satire are propounded,
and, after discussing the question in correspondence with Dr. John
Arbuthnot [Apr 1667 – 27 Feb 1735], he addressed to him an epistle
in verse (1735), one of the finest of his later poems, in which were
incorporated fragments written over several years. His case in “An
Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot” was the satirist's traditional case: that
depravity in public morals had roused him to stigmatize outstanding
offenders beyond the reach of the law, concealing the names of some
and representing others as types, and that he was innocent of personal
rancor and habitually forbearing under attack.
The success of his “First Satire Of the Second Book Of Horace, Imitated”
(1733) led to the publication (1734–38) of 10 more of these paraphrases
of Horatian themes adapted to the contemporary social and political
scene. Pope's poems followed Horace's satires and epistles sufficiently
closely for him to print the Latin on facing pages with the English;
but whoever chose to make the comparison would notice a continuous
enrichment of the original by parenthetic thrusts and compliments,
as well as by the freshness of the imagery. The series was concluded
with two dialogues in verse, republished as the “Epilogue to the Satires”
(1738), where, as in “An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,” Pope ingeniously
combined a defense of his own career and character with a restatement
of the satirist's traditional apology. In these imitations and dialogues
Pope directed his attack upon the materialistic standards of the commercially
minded Whigs in power and upon the corrupting effect of money, while
restating and illustrating the old Horatian standards of serene and
temperate living. His anxiety about prevailing standards was shown
once more in his last completed work, The New Dunciad (1742),
reprinted as the fourth book of a revised Dunciad (1743),
in which Theobald was replaced as hero by Colley Cibber, the poet
laureate and actor-manager, who not only had given more recent cause
of offense but seemed a more appropriate representative of the degenerate
standards of the age. In Dunciad, Book IV, the Philistine
culture of the city of London was seen to overtake the court and seat
of government at Westminster, and the poem ends in a magnificent but
baleful prophecy of anarchy. Pope had begun work on Brutus,
an epic poem in blank verse, and on a revision of his poems for a
new edition, but neither was complete at his death.
Pope's favorite meter was the 10-syllable, iambic pentameter rhyming
(heroic) couplet. He handled it with increasing skill and adapted
it to such varied purposes as the epigrammatic summary of the Essay
on Criticism, the pathos of “Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate
Lady,” the mock-heroic of The Rape of the Lock, the discursive
tones of the Essay on Man, the rapid narrative of the Homer
translation, and the Miltonic sublimity of the conclusion of The
Dunciad. But his greatest triumphs of versification are found
in the “Epilogue to the Satires,” where he moves easily from witty,
spirited dialogue to noble and elevated declamation, and in “An Epistle
to Dr. Arbuthnot,” which opens with a scene of domestic irritation
suitably conveyed in broken rhythm:
Shut, shut the door, good John! fatigu'd, I said:
Tie up the knocker, say I'm sick, I'm dead.
The Dog-star rages! nay 'tis past a doubt,
All Bedlam, or Parnassus, is let out:
Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand,
They rave, recite, and madden round the land;
and closes with a deliberately chosen contrast of domestic calm, which
the poet may be said to have deserved and won during the course of
Me, let the tender office long engage
To rock the cradle of reposing age,
With lenient arts extend a mother's breath,
Make languor smile, and smooth the bed of death,
Explore the thought, explain the asking eye,
And keep a while one parent from the sky!
command of diction is no less happily adapted to his theme and to
the type of poem, and the range of his imagery is remarkably wide.
He has been thought defective in imaginative power, but this opinion
cannot be sustained in view of the invention and organizing ability
shown notably in The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad.
He was the first English poet to enjoy contemporary fame in France
and Italy and throughout the European continent and to see translations
of his poems into modern as well as ancient languages.
POPE ONLINE: An
Essay on Criticism An
Essay on Criticism An
Essay on Man An
Essay on Man, Moral Essays and Satires The
Rape of the Lock The
Rape of the Lock Windsor-Forest
FATHER of all! in every age,
In every clime adored,
By saint, by savage, and by sage,
Jehovah, Jove, or Lord!
Thou great First Cause, least understood,
Who all my sense confined
To know but this, that thou art good,
And that myself am blind;
Yet gave me, in this dark estate,
To see the good from ill;
And, binding nature fast in fate,
Left free the human will:
What conscience dictates to be done,
Or warns me not to do,
This, teach me more than hell to shun,
That, more than heaven pursue.
What blessings thy free bounty gives
Let me not cast away;
For God is paid when man receives,
To enjoy is to obey.
Yet not to earth's contracted span
Thy goodness let me bound,
Or think thee Lord alone of man,
When thousand worlds are round:
Let not this weak, unknowing hand
Presume thy bolts to throw,
And deal damnation round the land
On each I judge thy foe.
If I am right, thy grace impart
Still in the right to stay;
If I am wrong, 0, teach my heart
To find that hetter way!
Save me alike from foolish pride
And impious discontent
At aught thy wisdom has denied,
Or aught thy goodness lent
Teach me to feel another's woe,
To hide the fault I see;
That mercy I to others show,
That mercy show to me.
Mean though I am, not wholly so,
Since quickened by thy breath;
0, lead me wheresoe'er I go,
Through this day's life or death!
This day he bread and peace my lot:
All else heneath the sun,
Thou know'st if best bestowed or not,
And let thy will be done.
To thee, whose temple is all space,
Whose altar, earth, sea, skies,
One chorus let all Being raise,
All Nature's incense rise!
1640 Pieter Pauwel Rubens, great
Flemish Baroque era painter born on 28 June 1577.
for 1639 self-portrait >]
ON RUBENS AT ART 4 MAY with
links to images.
Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin [12 Jul 1474–], an early Nahuatl
convert to Catholicism, who saw Our
Lady of Guadalupe on 09
December and 12
December 1531, and thereafter lived as a hermit near the place of the
apparitions. He was canonized on 31 July 2002..—(081212)
Marlowe, 29, dramatist, stabbed.
and playwright Christopher Marlowe, born on 06 February 1564 (two
months before Shakespeare), was baptized in Canterbury on 26 February.
Marlowe, the son of a Canterbury shoemaker, was a bright student.
He won scholarships to prestigious schools and earned his B.A. from
Cambridge in 1584. Historians believe Marlowe served as a spy for
Queen Elizabeth while at Cambridge. He was nearly denied his master's
degree in 1587, until the queen's advisers intervened, recommending
he receive the degree and referring obliquely to his services for
While still in school,
Marlowe wrote his play Tamburlaine
the Great, about a 14th century shepherd who became an emperor.
The blank verse drama caught on with the public, and Marlowe wrote
five more plays before his death in 1593, including The
Jew of Malta and Doctor
Faustus. He also published a translation of Ovid's
On 15 May 1593,
Marlowe's former roommate, playwright Thomas Kyd, was arrested and
tortured on suspicion of treason. Told that heretical documents had
been found in his room, Kyd wrote a letter saying the documents belonged
to Christopher Marlowe. An arrest warrant was issued on 18 May, and
Marlowe was arrested on 20 May. He bailed out but became involved
in a fight over a tavern bill and is stabbed to death on 30 May 1593.
Kyd was baptized on 06 November 1568.
He was educated at the Merchant Taylor's School in London and raised
to be a scrivener, a professional trained to draw up contracts and
other business documents. Of his early work, The Spanish Tragedie
(1562, it is sometimes called Hieronimo, after its protagonist))
brought him the most recognition. Some scholars believe it served
as a model for Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Kyd died penniless in December 1594.
The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
the Great—part I part II
the Great—part 1 part 2
The Jew of Malta
The Jew of Malta
The Jew of Malta
The Jew of Malta
The Massacre at Paris
The Massacre at Paris
Dido, Queen of Carthage
Hero and Leander
1416 Jerome of Prague burned as a heretic by the Church
1431 Joan of Arc, burned at the
At Rouen in English-controlled Normandy,
Joan of Arc, 19, peasant
girl, Catholic mystic, and French liberation
heroine, is burned at the stake following her convictions for witchcraft
On 24 May 1430, while leading
a military expedition against the foreign occupiers of France, Joan
had been captured by the Burgundians at Compiègne and later
sold to the English.
Early in life, Joan had begun to hear
"voices" of Catholic saints. Shortly after she turned sixteen, these
voices told her to aid Charles in regaining the French throne and
expelling the English from France. A captain in the French army arranged
a meeting with Charles, and the dauphin, convinced of the validity
of Joan's divine mission, furnished her with a small force of troops.
Wearing white armor, Joan led her troops
to Orleans, and on 29 April 1429, as a French sortie distracted the
English troops on the west side of the city, Joan entered unopposed
by its eastern gate. Bringing needed supplies and troops into the
besieged city, she also inspired the French to a passionate resistance,
and during the next week, she led the charge during a number of skirmishes
and battles. On 07 May, she was even hit by an arrow, but after dressing
her wounds, she returned to the battle. On 08 May, the siege
of Orleans was broken after six months and the English retreated.
Over the next five weeks, Joan led
French forces into a number of stunning victories over the English,
and, in July, Reims, the traditional city of coronation, was captured.
On 16 July 1429, with Joan of Arc kneeling beside him, Charles
VII was crowned king of France.
In 1920, Joan of Arc, already one of
the great heroes of French history, was recognized as a
Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
. Joan was born in 1412, the daughter
of a tenant farmer at Domrémy, on the borders of the duchies of Bar
and Lorraine. In 1415, the Hundred Years War between England and France
entered a crucial phase when the young King Henry V of England invaded
France and won a series of decisive victories against the forces of
King Charles VI. By the time of Henry's death in August 1422, the
English and their French-Burgundian allies controlled Aquitaine and
most of northern France, including Paris. Charles VI, long incapacitated,
died one month later, and his son, Charles, regent from 1418, prepared
to take the throne. However, Reims, the traditional city of French
coronation, was held by the Anglo-Burgundians, and the Dauphin (heir
apparent to the French throne) remained uncrowned. Meanwhile, King
Henry VI of England, the infant son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois,
the daughter of Charles VI, was proclaimed king of France by the English.
Joan's village of Domrémy lay on the frontier between the France of
the Dauphin and that of the Anglo-Burgundians. In the midst of this
unstable environment, Joan began hearing "voices" of three Christian
saints St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret. When she
was about 16, these voices exhorted her to aid the Dauphin in capturing
Reims and therefore the French throne.
In May 1428, she traveled to Vaucouleurs,
a stronghold of the Dauphin, and told the captain of the garrison
of her visions. Disbelieving the young peasant girl, he sent her home.
In January 1429, she returned, and the captain, impressed by her piety
and determination, agreed to allow her passage to the Dauphin at Chinon.
Dressed in men's clothes and accompanied by six soldiers, she reached
the Dauphin's castle at Chinon in February 1429 and was granted an
audience. Charles hid himself among his courtiers, but Joan immediately
picked him out and informed him of her divine mission. For several
weeks, Charles had Joan questioned by theologians at Poitiers, who
concluded that, given his desperate straits, the Dauphin would be
well-advised to make use of this strange and charismatic girl. Charles
furnished her with a small army, and on 27 April 1429, she set
out for Orléans, besieged by the English since October 1428.
On 29 April 1429, as a French sortie
distracted the English troops on the west side of Orléans, Joan entered
unopposed by its eastern gate. She brought greatly needed supplies
and reinforcements and inspired the French to a passionate resistance.
She personally led the charge in several battles and on 07 May was
struck by an arrow. After quickly dressing her wound, she returned
to the fight, and the French won the day. On 08 May the English
retreated from Orléans. During the next five weeks, Joan and the French
commanders led the French into a string of stunning victories over
the English. On 16 July, the royal army reached Reims, which
opened its gates to Joan and the Dauphin. The next day, Charles VII
was crowned king of France, with Joan standing nearby holding up her
standard: an image of Christ in judgment. After the ceremony, she
knelt before Charles, joyously calling him king for the first time.
On 08 September, the king and Joan attacked Paris. During the
battle, Joan carried her standard up to the earthworks and called
on the Parisians to surrender the city to the king of France. She
was wounded but continued to rally the king's troops until Charles
ordered an end to the unsuccessful siege. That year, she led several
more small campaigns, capturing the town of Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier.
In December, Charles ennobled Joan, her parents, and her brothers.
In May 1430, the Burgundians laid siege
to Compiègne, and Joan stole into the town under the cover of darkness
to aid in its defense. On 23 May, while leading a sortie against
the Burgundians, she was captured. The Burgundians sold her to the
English, and in March 1431 she went on trial before ecclesiastical
authorities in Rouen on charges of heresy. Her most serious crime,
according to the tribunal, was her rejection of church authority in
favor of direct inspiration from God. After refusing to submit to
the church, her sentence was read on 24 May: She was to be turned
over to secular authorities and executed. Reacting with horror to
the pronouncement, Joan agreed to recant and was condemned instead
to perpetual imprisonment. Ordered to put on women's clothes, she
obeyed, but a few days later the judges went to her cell and found
her dressed again in male attire. Questioned, she told them that St.
Catherine and St. Margaret had reproached her for giving in to the
church against their will. She was found to be a relapsed heretic
and on 29 May ordered handed over to secular officials. On 30 May,
Joan, 19 years old, was burned at the stake at the Place du Vieux-Marché
in Rouen. Before the pyre was lit, she instructed a priest to hold
high a crucifix for her to see and to shout out prayers loud enough
to be heard above the roar of the flames. As a source of military
inspiration, Joan of Arc helped turn the Hundred Years War firmly
in France's favor. By 1453, Charles VII had reconquered all of France
except for Calais, which the English relinquished in 1558. On 16 May
1920, Joan of Arc, one of the great heroes of French history, was
recognized as a Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church. Her
feast day is 30 May.
Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
by the Sieur Louis de Conté (her page and secretary), freely
translated out of the ancient French into modern English by Mark Twain.
Chapter 3-24: Joan the Martyr)
JOAN OF ARC IN PAINTINGS:
Jeanne d'Arc Écoute Ses Voix
Jeanne d'Arc au Sacre de Charles VII dans
la Cathédrale de Reims Jeanne d'Arc Brandit Son Épée
vers la droite
Jeanne d'Arc Brandit Son Épée
vers la gauche
Maud Adams as Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc Inspired Jeanne d'Arc en Prison
0339 Eusebius, 74, Father of early church history. He
attended the Council of Nicea in A.D. 325, and his "Historia Ecclesiastica"
contains an abundance of detail on the first three centuries of the Early
Church found nowhere else in ancient literature.