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• Bonus March... • Jews branded with yellow star... • Chesterton is born... • Patrick Henry is born... • Reagan in Moscow for summit... • Joint US~USSR Vietnam communiqué... • Fremont's 2nd expedition... • Jobs bill vetoed... • Newton palmtop computer... • Yanks reach Totopotomoy Creek... • Rhode Island becomes a state... • Wisconsin becomes a state... • Mort Homme fort falls... • Empress of Ireland sinks... • Offshore Pirate is published... • CompuServe porno... • Digital TV... • Everest conquered...
ALTH price chart^  On a 29 May:

2005 In a referendum, 55% of French voters reject the proposed European Union constitution, whose draft was signed on 29 October 2004 by the EU heads of state or government, or foreign ministers..

2005 Parliamentary elections in part of Lebanon (Beirut area). Voter participation is low because of expectation (which is correct) that all 19 seats (of the 128-member National Assembly) will be won by the candidates headed by Saad al-Hariri [Apr 1970~], son of Rafik Bahaa Edine al-Hariri [01 Nov 1944 – 14 Feb 2005], murdered, it is believed, by agents of the Syrian occupation forces (withdrawn since). In other sections of Lebanon the elections will take place on 05 June (South), 12 June (Mount Lebanon and Bekaa), and 19 June (North).

2003 Allos Therapeutics (ALTH) announces that it will submit a New Drug Application to the US Food and Drug Administration to market RSR13 (efaproxiral) as a treatment for brain metastases from breast cancer. On the NASDAQ, 6.7 million of the 26 million ALTH shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $2.31 to an intraday high of $4.15 and closing at $3.73. They had traded as low as $1.66 as recently as 25 April 2003 and as high as $9.89 on 21 October 2002 and $14.63 on 17 July 2000, after starting trading at $13.00 on 27 March 2000. [3~year price chart >]

OPWV price chart


2003 Openwave Systems (OPWV) was not helped by the acquisition of SignalSoft, which it announced on 29 May 2002. On the NASDAQ, the drop in the price of the shares of OPWV from it 06 March 2000 high of $200.75 to its $6.06 close of 30 May 2002, was further aggravated down to a low of $0.45 on 10 October 2002, from which it has not, to this date, recovered beyond $3.19 (on 02 December 2002). On 29 May 2003, OPWV shares close at $2.51 . They had started trading on 07 June 1999, at $20.06 . [4~year price chart >]



SGSF price chart


2002 On the NASDQ the shares of location-based wireless service provider SignalSoft Corporation rise from their previous close of $1.06 (not much above its all-time low of $1.03 in the previous session, 24 May 2002) to close at $2.22. Its all-time high was $49.56 on 28 Aug 2000, after it had gone public at $20 on 31 July 2000. [<  price chart] The reason? The announcement that Openwave Systems (OPWV) will buy out SignalSoft.




2001
The US Supreme Court rules that the PGA Tour must allow Casey Martin [photo >] to ride a cart in tournaments, rejecting the PGA's argument that it would give him an unfair advantage. No one seems to have considered the possibility of removing the alleged advantage by allowing all the golfers to ride a cart. Martin, 28, suffers from Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome, a rare circulatory disorder that has left him with a withered right leg. He may eventually face amputation.
Casey Martin
2001
The US Supreme Court refuses to hear the case of Elkhart v. Books (00-1407) thus letting stand the 7th US Circuit Court of Appeals' ruling that the display of the Ten Commandments on an Elkhart, Indiana, city monument is in violation of the 1st Amendment to the US Constitution providing for the separation of chuch and state. In 1996 the Supreme Court had let stand a ruling by the 10th US Circuit Court of Appeals approving a similar monument in a park near the Colorado state Capitol.
2000 Indonesia's state prosecutors place former President-dictator Suharto under house arrest. He is suspected of embezzling millions of dollars. However his trial on corruption charges would be abandoned because of his ill health.
^ 1998 CompuServe executive convicted on German pornography charges
      A German court found the former head of CompuServe Germany guilty of complicity in spreading pornography on the Internet. Felix Somm was held responsible for the users who distributed objectionable material and was sentenced to two years probation and fined more than $56,000. The case began in December 1995 when prosecutors searched CompuServe offices as part of an investigation into online pornography. The company later blocked access to two hundred bulletin boards, sparking an international debate on Internet censorship.
1996: Israelis go to the polls for an election that results in a narrow victory for opposition leader Benjamin Netanyahu over Prime Minister Shimon Peres.
^ 1992 First long-distance test of digital television.
      Newspapers reported that Zenith Electronics and ATandT sent a digital television signal seventy-five miles, from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Glenview, Illinois. Several companies were vying to set the standard for digital television transmission in the early and mid-1990s. The first group to send a digital high-definition signal was the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, working with General Instrument Corporation, but the signal was sent only over a short distance. Broadcasters and the Federal Communications Commission touted the benefits of digital TV, which provided much higher bandwidth permitting the broadcast of sharper pictures and better sound, the distribution of several television programs at one time, or the ability to provide additional data like Web pages or software. However, the transition to digital TV got off to a slow start. In 1997, the FCC agreed on a plan to speed the adoption of digital television. The phase-in began in the fall of 1998, when NBC, CBS, ABC, Fox, and PBS began digital broadcasting in the country's largest media markets. The changeover to digital TV was expected to take at least nine years [more likely double that].
1992 Suiza ingresa en el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI).
1992 Francisco Nieva, primer dramaturgo galardonado con el Premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras.
^ 1992 Concept model of Newton demonstrated
      On this day in 1992, Apple unveiled a concept model of the ill-fated Newton handheld computer. The demonstration, at the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, featured a computer the size of a videocassette that could read handwriting, dial telephones, and swap data with other machines. However, Apple's Newton proved to be an extravagant flop, selling only 200'000 Newtons in five years, compared with the popular PalmPilot, which sold one million units in its first two years on the market. The Newton was discontinued in 1998 after the company had spent an estimated $500 million developing the product over ten years.
1991 Mueren nueve personas y otras 19 resultan heridas por la explosión de un coche-bomba lanzado por terroristas de ETA (Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna) contra la casa-cuartel de la Guardia Civil en Vic (Barcelona), que quedó completamente destruída.
1991 El escritor Miguel Delibes obtiene el Premio Nacional español de las Letras, dotado con cinco millones de pesetas.
1990 Dow Jones avg hits a record 2870.49
^ 1988 Reagan arrives in Moscow for summit talks
      President Ronald Reagan travels to Moscow to begin the fourth summit meeting held in the past three years with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Though the summit produced no major announcements or breakthroughs, it served to illuminate both the successes and the failures achieved by the two men in terms of US-Soviet relations. In May 1988, President Reagan made his first trip to Moscow to meet with Gorbachev and begin their fourth summit meeting. Just six months earlier, during a summit in Washington, D.C., in December 1987, the two men had signed the historic Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons from Europe. In many ways, Reagan's trip to Moscow in May was a journey of celebration. Demonstrating the famous Reagan charm, the president and his wife waded into crowds of Russian well wishers and curiosity-seekers to shake hands and exchange pleasantries. Very quickly, however, the talks between Reagan and Gorbachev revealed that serious differences still existed between the Soviet Union and the United States. From the beginning, Reagan — who had in the past referred to the Soviet Union as the "evil empire" — pressed Gorbachev on the issue of human rights. He urged Gorbachev to ease Soviet restrictions on freedom of religion and also asked that the Soviet Union relax the laws that kept many Russian Jews from emigrating. The Soviets were obviously displeased at Reagan's insistence on lecturing them about what they considered purely internal matters. A spokesman from the Soviet Foreign Ministry showed his irritation when he declared to a group of reporters, "We don't like it when someone from outside is teaching us how to live, and this is only natural." Despite the tension introduced by the human rights issue, the summit was largely an opportunity for Reagan and Gorbachev to trade compliments and congratulations about their accomplishments, most notably the INF Treaty. As Reagan stated after their first day of meetings, "I think the message is clear — despite clear and fundamental differences, and despite the inevitable frustrations that we have encountered, our work has begun to produce results."
1988 El Papa nombra 25 nuevos cardenales, entre ellos los españoles Eduardo Martínez Somalo y Antonio María Javierre.
1978 US first class postage now 15 cents (13 cents for 3 years)
^ 1975 US President Ford vetoes jobs bill.
      The United States limped through the mid-1970s, suffering through the political and moral implications of the Watergate scandal. On top of these woes, America's economy was in terrible shape. The prices of oil, wood, and grain all skyrocketed, unleashing a heady wave of inflation. The nation's fragile finances also resulted in rampant unemployment and, by the end of May 1975, the jobless rate had climbed to a whopping 9.2 percent. Looking to stop the bleeding, Congress green-lighted a $5.3 billion jobs-creation bill in the spring of 1975. Though the legislation promised to create 1 million badly needed jobs, Nixon's successor, President Gerald Ford was wary of the program's hefty price tag and,on this day in 1975, vetoed the job creation bill. In place of the jobs program, Ford moved to pass a bill that extended the ceiling on unemployment benefits to sixty-five weeks.
^ 1972 Joint US-USSR communiqué on Vietnam.
     In a joint communique issued by the United States and the Soviet Union following the conclusion of summit talks with General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev during President Richard Nixon's visit to Moscow (the first visit ever by an US president), both countries set forth their standard positions on Vietnam. The United States insisted that the future of South Vietnam should be left to the South Vietnamese without interference. The Soviet Union insisted on a withdrawal of US and Allied forces from South Vietnam and an end to the bombing of North Vietnam. Despite this disagreement over the situation in Southeast Asia, Brezhnev and Nixon had reached a détente and Brezhnev did not want the Vietnam War to threaten the thawing of relations with the United States.
      Nixon, who had also visited China in February 1972, had hoped that the rapprochement with the Chinese and Soviets would scare North Vietnam into making concessions at the Paris peace talks. He was wrong, however, and the North Vietnamese continued to pursue the massive invasion of South Vietnam that they had launched on March 30 and proved intractable in the ongoing negotiations. The Soviet Union had supported North Vietnam because it served Soviet interests well by keeping the United States fully occupied in an area not of crucial importance to the USSR. After the 1968 Tet Offensive, the Soviets believed for the first time that a total victory was possible, but as the fighting continued, the Soviet leaders became increasingly weary of the war. They came to believe that little more was to be gained from a war that was proving very expensive for the Soviet Union. The Soviets had supplied weapons and equipment that were used in the 1972 spring offensive, but when the Paris peace talks became deadlocked later that year, the Soviets pressured Hanoi to accept a compromise settlement with South Vietnam and the United States that was finally reached in January 1973.
1968 Finalizan 28 días de revuelta estudiantil, conocida como "Mayo francés".
^ 1953 Hillary and Norgay on top of Everest.
     As early as the 1920s, attempts were made to scale Mount Everest, the world's tallest mountain. However, none succeeded this day, when British explorer Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and his Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay of Nepal plant four flags at its peak, more than 10'000 meters above sea level. The two made their final assault on the summit after their party of twelve climbers and twenty-seven Sherpas had failed two previous attempts. Hillary was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for the achievement.
^ 1942 Jews in Paris are forced to sew a yellow star on their coats.
      On the advice of Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler orders all Jews in occupied Paris to wear an identifying yellow star on the left side of their coats. Joseph Goebbels had made the persecution, and ultimately the extermination, of Jews a personal priority from the earliest days of the war, often recording in his diary such statements as: "They are no longer people but beasts," and "The Jews … are now being evacuated eastward. The procedure is pretty barbaric and is not to be described here more definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews." But Goebbels was not the first to suggest this particular form of isolation. "The yellow star may make some Catholics shudder," wrote a French newspaper at the time. "It renews the most strictly Catholic tradition." Intermittently, throughout the history of the papal states, that territory in central Italy controlled by the pope, Jews were often confined to ghettoes and forced to wear either yellow hats or yellow stars.
1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée la veille, continue; el sera terminée le 03 Jun.
1940 II Guerra Mundial. Paracaidistas alemanes ocupan la isla de Creta.
1937 Guerra Civil española: Se establece la censura de prensa en la España "nacional".
1932 Bonus Marchers arrive in Washington.       ^top^
     World War I veterans began arriving in Washington to demand cash bonuses they weren't scheduled to receive for another 13 years.
      In the depths of the Great Depression, the so-called "Bonus Expeditionary Force," a group of some 1000 World War I veterans seeking cash payments for their veterans’ bonus certificates, arrived in Washington, D.C. In June, other veteran groups spontaneously made their way to the nation’s capital, swelling the Bonus Marchers to nearly 20'000 strong, most of them unemployed veterans in desperate financial straits. Camping in vacant government buildings and in open fields made available by District of Columbia police chief Pelham D. Glassford, they demanded passage of a veterans’ payment bill introduced by Representative Wright Patman. The veterans conducted themselves in an orderly and peaceful way, and on June 15, the Patman bill passed in the House of Representatives.
      However, two days later, its defeat in the Senate infuriated the marchers, who refused to return home. In an increasingly tense situation, the US government provided money for the protestors’ trip home, but 2000 refused the offer and continued their protest. On July 28, President Herbert Hoover ordered the army, under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, to evict them forcibly. MacArthur’s men set their camps on fire, and the veterans were driven from the city. Hoover, increasingly regarded as insensitive to the needs of the nation’s many poor, was much criticized by the public and press for the severity of his response.
1919 Einstein's light-bending prediction confirmed by Arthur Eddington
1916 US forces invade Dominican Republic, stay until 1924
1900 Trademark "Escalator" registered by Otis Elevator Co
1879 El Congreso Internacional de Geografía, reunido en París, adopta el proyecto de Ferdinand de Lesseps para la apertura del Canal de Suez.  
1865 President Andrew Johnson proclaims amnesty for most ex-Confederates
1864 Guerilla raids at Winchester, Tennessee
1864 Confederates capture wagon train at Salem, Arkansas
1864 Mexican Emperor Maximilian arrives at Vera Cruz
1864 Union troops reach Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia       ^top^
      Union troops lose another foot race with the Confederates in a minor stop on the long and terrible campaign between Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. During the entire month of May 1864, Grant and Lee had pounded each other along an arc swinging from the Wilderness forest south to the James River. After fighting in the Wilderness, Grant moved south to Spotsylvania Court House to place his army between Lee and Richmond. Predicting his move, Lee marched James Longstreet's corps through the night and beat the Federals to the strategic crossroads. For 12 days the two armies fought in some of the bloodiest combat of the war. Finally, Grant pulled out and again moved south, this time to the North Anna River, where he probed the Rebel lines on the high banks of the river, but found no weakness. He moved south again, this time to Totopotomoy Creek. Once again, Lee and his men beat him there and stood ready to defend Richmond from the Union army. Grant was getting frustrated. After the Totopotomoy, Grant slid south to Cold Harbor, just 10 miles from Richmond. His impatience may have gotten the best of him. At Cold Harbor, Grant would commit the foolish mistake of hurling his troops at well-fortified Confederates, creating a slaughter nearly unmatched during the war. 1865 President Andrew Johnson issues general amnesty for all Confederates
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1851, the Ohio Woman's Rights Convention's second and last day in Akron.
^ 1848 Wisconsin becomes the 30th US state
      Following approval of statehood by the territory’s citizens, Wisconsin enters the Union as the thirtieth state.
      In 1634, French explorer Jean Nicolet landed at Green Bay, becoming the first European to visit the lake-strewn northern region that would later become Wisconsin. In 1763, at the conclusion of the French and Indian Wars, Wisconsin, a major center of the American fur trade, passed into British control. Two decades later, at the end of the American Revolution, the region came under US rule, and was governed as part of the Northwest Territory. However, British fur traders continued to dominate Wisconsin from across the Canadian border, and it was not until the end of the War of 1812 that the region fell firmly under American control.
      In the first decades of the nineteenth century, settlers began arriving via the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes to exploit Wisconsin's agricultural potential, and in 1832, the Black Hawk War ended Native-American resistance to white settlement.
      In 1836, after several decades of governance as part of other territories, Wisconsin was made a separate entity, with Madison, located midway between Milwaukee and the western centers of population, to be established as the territorial capital. By 1840, population in Wisconsin had risen above 130'000, but the people voted against statehood four times, fearing the higher taxes that would come with a stronger central government. Finally, in 1848, Wisconsin citizens, envious of the prosperity that federal programs brought to neighboring Midwestern states, voted to approve statehood. On 29 May 1848, Wisconsin entered the Union as the thirtieth state.
^ 1843 Fremont begins his second Western expedition
      John C. Fremont again departs from St. Louis to explore the West, having only recently returned from his first western expedition. The son of a French father and American mother, Fremont had an unstable and nomadic childhood, and money troubles often plagued his family. As a young man, he showed an aptitude for mathematics and surveying, and in 1838, he won a commission as a second lieutenant in the US Corps of Topographical Engineers. In 1842, he received an assignment to make a survey of the Platte River, and set out with 24 companions, including the famous guide Kit Carson. During five months of travel, Fremont crossed the South Pass in central Wyoming and explored the Wind River Mountains. Scarcely before he had time to recover from his first expedition, Fremont was preparing to depart on his second. On this day in 1843, Fremont left St. Louis on a much more ambitious journey to explore the Oregon country. In Colorado the party met up with Carson, who had again agreed to serve as a guide. On September 6, the Fremont caught site of the Great Salt Lake in Utah, "stretching in still and solitary grandeur far beyond the limits of our vision." By early November, they arrived at Fort Vancouver, across the Columbia River from the present-day site of Portland. Having surveyed the Oregon country, Fremont's orders were to return east via the Oregon Trail. Fremont, however, apparently decided this would be an inadequately grand approach, and decided instead to head south and cross the Sierra Nevada in the middle of the winter. The journey was awful and nearly disastrous. Fremont and his men struggled with the deep snow and bitter cold; they often got lost and ate their horses to survive. Thanks to the skill of Carson and amazing good luck with the weather, the expedition eventually emerged from the mountains and limped into Sutter's Fort on March 6, 1844. After resting for three weeks, they returned east by a route that took them through the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains of Utah. With the help of his wife, Jessie, Fremont wrote a detailed account of his western adventures. The report made some notable errors. Fremont foolishly identified the country around the Great Salt Lake as fertile-a mistake that contributed to the Mormons decision to migrate to the area. However, Fremont's account did provide the first comprehensive scientific survey of vast areas of the West. Fremont went on to lead two other successful expeditions to the West. His reports of these and his earlier journeys made him a national hero and he later went into politics. He lived into his early 70s, but the four western journeys he made before he was 40 remained his greatest achievements.
1808 El pueblo de Cádiz se levanta en masa pidiendo armas para atacar a la escuadra francesa fondeada en la bahía.
1795 (10 prairial an III) MANIFROY Louis, natif de Boutigny (Seine et Oise), maçon, est condamné à la déportation, par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos tendants à avilir la Convention nationale, et à faire assassiner, par ces faits d'avoir participé à la conspiration qui a éclaté les 2 et 4 prairial an 3.
1791 Revolución francesa: se habla por primera vez de la divisa "Libertad, Igualdad, Fraternidad", en la Sociedad de Amigos de los Derechos Humanos.
^ 1790 Rhode Island becomes the 13th US state
      Under threat of severed commercial relations with the United States, Rhode Island narrowly votes to ratify the US Constitution, making it the thirteenth US state.
      In 1786, when defects in the Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce, a call was issued to all of the states to send representatives to Philadelphia to draft a new constitution. Rhode Island, which under the Articles of Confederation had refused to provide the central US government with financial support, declined to attend the Constitutional Convention.
      On 17 September 1787, after three months of debate moderated by convention president George Washington, the new US constitution, which created a strong federal government with an intricate system of checks and balances, was signed by thirty-eight of the forty-one delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine out of the thirteen states.
      Beginning on December 7, five states — Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut — ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Rhode Island and Massachusetts, opposed the document as it failed to reserve powers not delegated by the Constitution for the states, unless specifically prohibited, and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press, and the right to bear arms.
      In February 1788, a compromise was reached under which states would ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789.
      On September 25, 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted twelve amendments to the US Constitution — the Bill of Rights — and sent them to the states for ratification. This action led to the ratification of the Constitution by North Carolina, leaving only Rhode Island independent of the United States. In 1790, the federal government responded to the Rhode Island’s resistance by threatening to sever commercial relations with the independence-minded state. Only then did the Rhode Island legislature vote to ratify the Constitution, but only by two votes.
1787 "Virginia Plan" proposed
1765 On his twenty-ninth birthday, nine days a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, Patrick Henry presents a series of resolutions opposing the British Stamp Act. He concluded his introduction of the Virginia Resolutions with the fiery words “Caesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third — ” when, it is reported, voices cried out, "Treason! treason!" He continued, " — and George the Third may profit by their example! If this be treason make the most of it."
1736 Llega a Quito la Misión Geodésica francesa para medir el grado del arco del meridiano de la línea ecuatorial.
1522 Carlos I de España conquista Génova en su lucha por Italia contra Francisco I de Francia.
1453 Constantinople, the capital of Eastern Christianity from A.D. 324, falls to Muhammad II (Turks); ends Byzantine Empire. The city afterward became the capital of the Ottoman Empire and was renamed Istanbul. Its conquest marked the end of the Middle Ages.
0757 Saint Paul I is consecrated bishop of Rome. He is elected Pope to succeed his brother Stephen III (or II) at the latter's death 07570426.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 29 May:

2006 A US army captain; an Iraqi interpreter; and Paul Douglas, 48, and James Brolan, 42; by a parked car bomb at 11:55 (07:55 UT) in Baghdad, Iraq. Cameraman Douglas and soundman Brolan, both British, imbedded with a US army unit, were outside a Humvee, filming for CBS-News. CBS correspondent Kimberly Dozier (US-UK), 39, is seriously injured. — (060530)
2005 Outside Bellefontaine, Ohio, on W. State Route 47 at #2337, Sharyl Shafer, 66, and her husband, Gary Shafer, 67; and some 300 meters away at #2647, Sheri Shafer, 37; Paige Harshbarger, 14; Megan Karus, 19; Scott Moody, 18, (grandson of Sharyl and Gary; son of divorced Sheri, friend of Megan and his girlfriend Paige, who had stayed overnight after celebrating the high school graduation of Scott and Megan, to take place today; Scott had refused to attend the celebration) who, in the early morning, walks to his grandparents' home, shoots them as they are preparing breakfast, then walks home and shoots the others who are still sleeping, and then shoots himself. His sister, Stacy Moody, 15, barely survives with two gunshot wounds to the neck and phones for help at about 10:00 (14:00 UT).
^ 2004 Samuel Dash, who had been chief counsel of the Senate Select Committee on Watergate.
      Samuel Dash was born on 27 February 1925, the second of six children in Camden, N.J., the son of émigrés from the Soviet Union, Joseph and Ida Dash. His family moved to Philadelphia when Samuel was 7 years old, and he graduated from Central High School there. His undergraduate work at Temple University was interrupted by service in World War II, but he received his degree in 1947. In the war, he served with the Army Air Corps and flew missions in Italy as a bombardier navigator. Dash received his law degree cum laude in 1950 from Harvard and went on to become a trial lawyer and teacher before returning to Philadelphia and assuming various legal posts. From 1955 to 1956, he served as district attorney to fill a vacancy, and later went into private practice. In 1957, he conducted the first nationwide investigation of wiretapping and wrote a book, The Eavesdroppers, which helped change wiretapping laws.
     Dash's legal career spanned more than 50 years, but he was best known for his role as chief counsel for the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, also called the Senate Watergate committee. From 1973 into 1974, the committee investigated the 1972 break-in and bugging of the Democratic Party's national headquarters at the Watergate Hotel office complex in Washington by operatives (“plumbers”) of President Richard M. Nixon's CREEP re-election campaign. The inquiry eventually led to the White House and the president's resignation on 09 August 1974.
      Dash was a central figure at the Senate hearings, often leaning over to counsel Senator Sam J. Ervin Jr., the chairman, and other committee members. During the televised hearings, which captivated the country, Dash became known for his measured questioning of White House witnesses, slowly drawing out answers that sometimes struck like bombshells. During one public televised hearing (16 July 1973), for example, Dash repeatedly asked a former White House aide, Alexander Porter Butterfield [1926~], about a secret Oval Office audiotaping system that Butterfield had told investigators about on 13 July 1973. Dash wanted to find out who knew about it. Butterfield finally said "the president". The tapes provided crucial evidence about what Nixon knew of the burglary. Dash's work in the Senate had been critical to the House proceedings, and had made them less partisan. Even Republicans said he was fair when dealing with Nixon. Dash made sure that all committee members were supplied with questions that explored important issues without slowing the proceedings by being repetitive or going off the point.
      Dash returned to the Washington spotlight in 1994 when he agreed to serve as ethics adviser to Kenneth W. Starr [21 Jul 1946~], the independent counsel investigating the Whitewater affair and the involvement of President Bill Clinton [19 Aug 1946~] in it. The investigation grew from looking into business dealings to questioning Clinton's truthfulness about his involvement with Monica Samille Lewinsky [23 Jul 1973~]. After working with the Whitewater investigators for four years, Dash resigned in November 1998, to protest Starr's testifying before the House Judiciary Committee. Dash said that Starr appeared to be "an aggressive advocate" of impeaching Clinton and that he should have protected his independence by remaining more neutral.
      A longtime advocate of privacy rights, Dash wrote a last book, The Intruders: Unreasonable Searches and Seizures from King John to John Ashcroft (June 2004). The book examines Fourth Amendment issues from the time of the Magna Carta to so-called antiterrorism efforts begun after the 11 September 2001 attacks in the US.
click for weird picture2004 Archibald Cox Jr., born on 17 May 1912 {fuller biography}, Harvard law professor, US Solicitor General in the administration of US President Kennedy [29 May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963], named on 18 May 1973 special prosecutor of the 17 June 1972 Watergate break-in, ordered fired by US President Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] on 20 October 1973, starting the Saturday Night Massacre in which Attorney General Elliot Richardson [20 Jul 1920 – 31 Dec 1999] and his deputy, William Ruckelshaus [24 Jul 1932~], both resigned rather than fire Cox, and Solicitor General Robert Bork [01 Mar 1927~] fired Cox. This provoked procedings that resulted in the resignation of Nixon on 09 August 1974.
2004 Shulamit Weizman, 43, of Nahalat Yehuda, Israel, by a hit-and run as she was jogging in the morning along the Rishon LeZion-Beit Dagan road.
2004 Israeli Paratrooper Brigade Captain Shahar Ben-Yishai, 25, of Moshav Menachamia in the Jordan Valley, after being shot while commanding an Israeli raid started at 05:30 (02:30 UT) in the Balata refugee camp near Nablus, West Bank.
2004 At least 25 persons, including a boy, 10, in a school bus, after four al-Qaeda gunmen in military uniforms start firing and throwing hand grenades, at 07:30 in an oil industry compound in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and then engaged in a shootout with security agents, then go inside the nearby Oasis residential compound and take hostages which are freed when Saudi commandos the next day drop from helicopters into the compound, from which three of the four attackers escape, while the fourth, the leader is gravely wounded and captured. The dead boy was the son of an Egyptian employee of Arab Petroleum Investment Corp.(Apicorp), a branch of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Companies. Others killed include a US-American, a Briton, a Pakistani, an Italian, a South African, a Swede, eight Indians, two Sri Lankans, three Filipinos, and three Saudis. At least 25 persons are wounded.
2004 Massoud Emami and five others, in crash of helicopter observing damage from the previous day's earthquake in Iran. Emami was governor of Qazvin province, the other dead are his deputy, a provincial police chief, the pilot, and two crew members were also killed.
2003 Johanne Svensson of Sweden, born in Denmark on 24 January 1892.
2002 Laron A. Ball [photo >], 20, shot by a policeman in a Milwaukee courtroom, where the jury was declaring Ball guilty of the 27 December 2001 murder of Amon Rogers, 27, during a robbery. Ball lunged for the gun of a sheriff's deputy, who was wounded in the struggle. [Ball deserves a Darwin Award]. — MORE
2002 S. Sedkaoui, 35 ans, et M. Benhamouda, à bord d'une voiture prises dans une embuscade tendue par un groupe terroriste au lieudit Dar Ali, sur la route menant de Toualbia à la ville de Jijel, Algérie. Sedkaoui était , chef de la garde communale, et Benhamouda sans emploi. La 3ème personne dans la voiture, garde communal M. Bouchkara, a été blessé. Sedkaoui a pris les armes en 1993 pour combattre le terrorisme. La région a connu un acte similaire en septembre 2001 où deux gardes communaux furent tués dans un guet-apens tendu par des terroristes appartenant fort probablement au groupe de Abou Talha El Djanoubi qui écume les monts surplombant la ville de Jijel. C'est une région très boisée qui demeure aussi un lieu de prédilection d'un groupe présumé du GIA, mené par un certain Boudjaja.
2001 Sarah Blaustein, 53, shot in her car in a West Bank road. Her husband, Norman, 53, was lightly wounded, and a son, Sammy, 27, was seriously wounded with three bullets in his back. The Blausteins from Lawrence NY to the southern West Bank Jewish enclave settlement of Efrat in 2000.
2001 Gilad Zar, 41, Sarah Blaustein, 53, Esther Alon, 20, Israeli extremists murdered by Palestinians.
     Gilad Zar, security officer for northern Samaria settlements, is assassinated in the morning in his car outside Kedumim, the northern West Bank settlement. Two other settlers, Blaustein and Alon, both from Efrat, are murdered in a Palestinian ambush on the way to Zar's funeral convoy from the Prime Minister's Office to Itamar, via the Karnei Shomron road near Kedumim where Zar was killed.
     Zar is shot dead at the Jat junction east of the Kedumim as he drove by in his four-wheel drive vehicle. An ambush involving at least two gunmen shot at him from the distance, then approached the car and fired at least two full magazines of ammunition into the car and its driver. An organization calling itself The Regiment of Al-Aqsa Martyrs informed wire services in Beirut that it was responsible for the murder.
      The two women from Efrat, on their way to the Zar funeral procession, were killed not far from the Neve Daniel settlement in Gush Etzion, on the Jerusalem-Samaria road. A passing car fired at them. Blaustein and Alon were seriously wounded, with Blaustein dying where the car stopped, and Alon dying in the hospital. Three others in the car were also wounded.
      Gilad Zar, one of the founders of Itamar, was the son of Moshe Zar, convicted in the mid-1980s as a member of the Jewish Underground, a vigilante organization arrested by the Shin Bet for a series of terrorist attacks on Arabs, and convicted by the Jerusalem District Court for serving as the driver of the getaway car when members of the underground planted bombs that crippled then Nablus Mayor Bassam Shaka.
      He spent only a few months in prison, and was released for reasons of health. Moshe Zar is one of the leading Jewish land dealers in the West Bank, and is known as one of the key financiers behind Gush Emunim and the Jewish enclave in Hebron.
      Arabs who claimed Moshe Zar cheated them once attacked him with an ax, plunging it into his skull. He nonetheless managed to reach safety and hospital and later continued his work, which in one of his rare statements to the press he called "redeeming the land for Israel." Participants in the funeral were convinced that Gilad, who only two months ago was shot under similar circumstances, but like his father before him managed to reach safety and hospital, was targeted.
      The funeral procession for Zar begins with a demonstration outside the Prime Minister's Office, continues to Itamar, the settlement he founded, and then to not far from the scene of the murder, just below the three-story mansion his father built nearly 30 years ago at Karnei Shomron, and from which he runs his land dealing operation.
      At one point, near Itamar, an exchange of fire between Palestinians from a nearby village and Israeli troops in the area prevented the convoy from continuing.
      At each stop on the way, eulogists spoke of Gilad Zar's selfless work on behalf of the settlement community — and lashed out at the Israeli government.
      Three of the most hardline ministers in the government, Tzipi Livni, Avigdor Lieberman and Rehavam Ze'evi all spoke on behalf of the government. Livni was shouted down by settlers, with Gilad's sister Anat Cohen, a prominent Hebron Jewish community activist, grabbing the microphone from the minister and shouting "You have tanks and planes. Start fighting and stop talking."
      Both Ze'evi and Lieberman warned that "revenge is not a private affair," apparently conscious of the emotional turmoil in the angry crowd, which drew thousands of Gush Emunim supporters from throughout the territories. But they, too, were shouted at by the crowd.
      When Ze'evi warned that "revenge is not a private affair," calls of "traitor" and "resign" came from the crowd. National Religious Party MK Shaul Yahalom, one of Gush Emunim's first generation, explicitly called on the government "to avenge the murder, cease the cease-fire and kill the murderers."
      Rabbi Moshe Levinger, a friend of Moshe Zar's for more than three decades, and his in-law through the marriage of their children, called for the immediate establishment of 10 new settlements. Daniella Weiss, of the Yesha Council of Settlements, said "it's time to face it: We are at war and should rid the country of all of the enemy." Gilad's wife, Hagar, told television reporters that her husband "died for the nation."
      Kach activists at the funeral claimed that on their way to the three main staging points for the day-long ceremonies marking Zar's murder, they had vandalized Arab properties. Zar's murder yesterday prompted rioting in the Jewish sector in Hebron, with Jewish settlers attacking Arab pedestrians and fighting IDF troops who tried to prevent the settlers from taking the fight into Arab Hebron.
      Gilad Zar, like his father, rarely spoke to the press, but after he survived the last ambush against him, he told reporters that "we have to put (the Arabs) on their knees, send them back in time 15 years and make them grateful every day for us letting them work for us." He said that "us pleading with them for peace and a cease-fire is abnormal ... the right way is to create a different situation in which they beg us for a cease-fire." In addition to his wife, he left eight children, the oldest 15, and the youngest a few months old.
^ 1998 Barry Morris Goldwater, US senator from Arizona (1953–1964, 1969–1987) and Republican presidential candidate in 1964, born on 01 January 1909.
      Goldwater dropped out of college and began working in his family's Phoenix department store, Goldwater's, of which he was president from 1937 to 1953. He was elected to the Phoenix city council in 1949, and in 1952 he narrowly won election to the US Senate. He was reelected in 1958 by a large majority. A extremist conservative Republican, he called for a harsher diplomatic stance toward the Soviet Union, opposed arms-control negotiations with that country, and charged the Democrats with creating a quasi-socialist state at home.
      After winning several key victories in the 1964 primary elections, Goldwater won the Republican presidential nomination on the first ballot.He fought a determined campaign against the incumbent president, Lyndon B. Johnson [27 Aug 1908 – 22 Jan 1993], but national prosperity worked in Johnson's favor, and Goldwater was handicapped by the charge that he was an extreme anticommunist who might carry the country into war with the Soviet Union. Goldwater and his vice-presidential running mate, William E. Miller, were decisively defeated in the election (03 November 1964); they carried only Arizona and five states in the Deep South.
      In 1968 Goldwater was reelected to the Senate and was reelected thereafter until he retired in 1987. He led the delegation of senior Republican politicians who on 07 August 1974, persuaded President Richard M. Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] to resign from office. Goldwater moderated many of his views in later years and became a symbol of high-minded conservative Republicanism. His published works include The Conscience of a Conservative (1960), The Coming Breakpoint (1976), and With No Apologies (1979). .
1995 Margaret Chase Smith, 97, the first woman to serve in both the US House of Representatives and the Senate, in Skowhegan, Maine.
Judge Wood--1994 Erich Honecker, líder de la desaparecida República Democrática Alemana (RDA).
1985:: 35 persons in rioting between British and Italian spectators at the European Cup soccer final in Brussels.
1979 John H. Wood Jr., judge of the US Court of the Western District of Texas [photo >], shot by Charles Harrelson (father of the actor Woody Harrelson) hired by the defendant in a narcotics trial to prevent Wood from presiding over the trial. Harrelson would be sentenced to life in prison.
1970 John Gunther, 68, author/host (John Gunther's High Road)
1958 Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón, poeta español, P. Nobel 1956.
1934 Heihachiro Togo, almirante japonés, héroe de la guerra ruso-japonesa.
1930 George Washington Thomas Lambert, Australian painter, draftsman, and sculptor, who was born on 13 September 1873 in Saint-Petersburg. — MORE ON LAMBERT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
^ 1924 Pierre-Paul Cambon, Paris French diplomat born on 20 January 1843. As ambassador to Great Britain (1898–1920) he was instrumental in the formation of the Anglo-French agreement known as the Entente Cordiale.
      A law graduate (1870) and an ardent republican, Cambon served as secretary to the future statesman Jules Ferry [05 Apr 1832 – 13 Mar 1893], then mayor of Paris. Sent to the département of Bouches-du-Rhône as secretary-general of the prefecture (April 1871), Cambon later served in several other départements.
      In February 1882 Ferry arranged for Cambon's appointment as resident minister in Tunisia, where he successfully organized the French protectorate. After his ambassadorship to Spain (from August 1891), he was transferred to Turkey, but he failed in his efforts to negotiate a British withdrawal from Egypt. In August 1898, amid the severe tensions of the Fashoda crisis, Cambon became ambassador to Great Britain. His first years there were spent in smoothing over Anglo-French relations and were crowned by the signing of the agreement of 08 April 1904, the Entente Cordiale.
      Its immediate effect was to strengthen France's position in its conflicts over Morocco (1905–1906 and 1911) with Germany, and in the long run it prepared the way for the alliance against the Central Powers in World War I (1914-1918). During that war Cambon continued to play a vital role in cooperation between the two allies. After service as a representative on the Turkish commission of the Versailles Conference (February 1920), he resigned his ambassadorship (December 1920) and in retirement was elected to the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences.
1921 Abbott Henderson Thayer, US painter born on 12 August 1849. With his son, Gerald, Thayer published Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom (1909), and he promoted the idea of camouflage for soldiers and ships in World War I. — MORE ON THAYER AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1917 William Davidson Niven, British mathematician born in 1843.
^ 1916 More casualties as Germans take Mort Homme at Verdun.
      During the First World War Verdun was a fortified French garrison town on the River Meuse 200 km east of Paris. In December 1915, General Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Staff of the German Army, decided to attack Verdun. Although he admitted he would be unable to break through at these point on the Western Front, he argued that in defending Verdun, the Germans would "bleed the French army white".
      The German attack on Verdun started on 21 February 1916. A million troops, led by Crown Prince Wilhelm, faced only about 200'000 French defenders. The following day the French was forced to retreat to their second line of trenches. By 24 February the French had moved back to the third line and were only 8km from Verdun.
      On 24th February, General Henri-Philippe Pétain was appointed commander of the Verdun sector. He gave orders that no more withdrawals would take place. He arranged for every spare French soldier to this part of the Western Front. Of the 330 infantry regiments of the French Army, 259 eventually fought at Verdun.
      The German advance was brought to a halt at the end of February. On 6 March, the German Fifth Army launched a new attack at Verdun. The Germans advanced 3km before they were stopped in front of the area around Mort Homme Hill. The French held this strategic point until it was finally secured by the Germans on 29 May, and Fort Vaux fell on 7th June, after a long siege.
      Further attacks continued throughout the summer and early autumn. However, the scale of the German attacks were reduced by the need to transfer troops to defend their front-line at the Somme. The French now counter-attacked and General Charles Mangin became a national hero when the forts at Douaumont and Vaux were recaptured by 2 November 1916. Over the next six weeks the French infantry gained another 2 km at Verdun.
      Verdun, the longest battle of the First World War, ended on the 18th December. The French Army lost about 550'000 men at Verdun. It is estimated that the German Army suffered 434'000 casualties. About half of all casualties at Verdun were killed.
^ 1914:: 840 passengers and 172 crew members in the sinking of the Empress of Ireland
      In one of the worst ship disasters in history, the British liner Empress of Ireland, bound for Liverpool, England, carrying 1057 passengers and 420 crew members, collided with the Norwegian freighter Storstad in the mouth of Canada’s St. Lawrence River. The Storstad penetrated five meters into the Empress of Ireland’s starboard side, and the vessel sunk within fourteen minutes, drowning, among the passengers, 134 of the 138 children (97%), 269 of the 310 women (87%), and 437 of the 609 men (72%), and 41% of the crew. The tragedy came two years after the Titanic was sunk by colliding with an iceberg in the North Atlantic, leaving more than 1500 people dead but galvanizing public demands for maritime safety standards.
      With structural precautions superior to those on the Titanic, crews trained extensively in emergency procedures, and more than enough lifejackets and lifeboats, the Empress was designed for optimum safety. However, in the dark of night at about 02:00 on May 29, 1914, a heavy fog came upon the Empress and the Storstad as they neared each other. Although the Empress and the Storstad spotted each other several minutes before the collision, altered courses and confused signals brought them into their fateful embrace. Only seven lifeboats escaped the rapidly sinking vessel. However, thanks to the efforts of the crew of the Storstad, scores of people were pulled out of the dangerously cold waters.
1905 Francisco Silvela y La Vielleuze, político y escritor español.
1892 Bah 'u'll h Death of prophet (Ascension of Baha'Ullah-'Azamat 7, 49)
1862 Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor duque de San Miguel, militar y político español.
1858 Johann Moritz Rugendas, German painter born on 29 March 1802. — MORE ON RUGENDAS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1857 Agustina Zaragoza y Doménech, "Agustina de Aragón", célebre heroína española.
1839 Joachim Hao Kaizhi [1782–], Chinese Catholic lay catechist. He was baptized at the age of about 20. In the great persecution of 1814 he had been taken with many other faithful and subjected to cruel torture. Sent into exile in Tartary, he remained there for almost 20 years. Returning to his homeland, he was arrested again and refused to apostatize. Following that, and the death sentence having been confirmed by the emperor, he was strangled. He was one of the 120 Chinese Catholics and foreign missionaries in China who were canonized on 01 October 2000. —(070708)
^ 1814 Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de La Pagerie, widowed vicomtesse de Beauharnais, repudiated Joséphine Bonaparte empress of the French.
      She was born in Martinique on 23 June 1763, the eldest daughter of Joseph Tascher de La Pagerie, an impoverished aristocrat who had a commission in the navy. In 1779 she married a rich army officer, Alexandre vicomte de Beauharnais [28 May 1760 – 23 Jun 1794], and moved to Paris. Although she bore him two children, Hortense and Eugène, the vain Alexandre was ashamed of her provincial manners and lack of sophistication and declined to present her at the court of Marie-Antoinette at Versailles; his indifference grew so great that in March 1785 she obtained a separation. She remained in Paris three years, learning the ways of the fashionable world, and went back to Martinique in 1788. In 1790 a slave uprising on the island forced her to return to Paris, which was then in the throes of the Revolution. She frequented high society, but her life was endangered when her husband, who had been serving in the Revolutionary army, fell out of favor with the left-wing Jacobins and was guillotined. Joséphine herself was imprisoned; but after the coup d'état of 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794) put an end to the Terror, she was released and by the time of the inauguration of the Directory was a leader of Paris society.
      No longer unsophisticated, Joséphine was able to catch the fancy of Napoléon Bonaparte [15 Aug 1869 – 05 May 1821], then a rising young army officer. She agreed to marry him after he had been appointed commander of the Italian expedition. Married in a civil ceremony on 09 March 1796, Joséphine was an indifferent wife, declining to answer the future emperor's passionate love letters and, while he was campaigning in Egypt in 1798–1799, flirting with another army officer in a most compromising manner. Bonaparte threatened to divorce her, but her children dissuaded him, and he eventually forgave her, even agreeing to pay the enormous debts she had accumulated. During the Consulate (1799–1804) she was careful to cause no more scandals and used her social position to advance her husband's political fortunes. After Napoléon became emperor of the French in May 1804, she persuaded him to marry her anew with religious rites; the ceremony, which the Emperor arranged most reluctantly, took place on 01 December 1804. The following day she attended Napoléon's self-coronation in the presence of the Pope in Notre-Dame as empress.
      Joséphine's place in the world now seemed secure. The marriages of her children Hortense de Beauharnais [10 Apr 1783 – 05 Oct 1837] in 1802 to Napoléon's brother Louis Bonaparte [02 Sep 1778 – 25 Jul 1846](thanks to which Hortense became queen of Holland and mother of Napoleon III [20 Apr 1808 – 09 Jan 1873]) and Eugène de Beauharnais [03 Sep 1781 – 21 Feb 1824] in 1806 to Amelia Augusta daughter of the King of Bavaria Maximilian I [27 May 1756 – 13 Oct 1825], seemed to establish her position; but her extravagance and, above all, her inability to give Napoléon a son put a strain on their marriage. Hoping to make a politically convenient marriage with Marie-Louise, daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria, Napoleon in January 1810 arranged for the nullification of his 1804 marriage on the grounds that a parish priest had not been present at the ceremony. This slight technical irregularity, which seems to have been premeditated, enabled him to dispose of Joséphine without having to resort to a divorce, which would have displeased both the church and the Austrian emperor. Joséphine retreated to her private residence at Malmaison, outside Paris, where she continued to entertain lavishly, with the Emperor paying the bills. After Napoleon's first abdication (06 April 1814) she won the protection of the Russian emperor Alexander I but died soon after.
1784 George Barret Sr., Irish English painter born in 1728, specialized in Landscapes. — MORE ON BARRET AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1695 il cavaliere Giuseppe Recco, Neapolitan still-life painter born on 12 June 1634. — MORE ON RECCO AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1660 Frans van Schooten II, Dutch mathematician born in 1615. He was one of the main promoters of Cartesian geometry.
1461 Unos 28'000 combatientes en la Batalla de Towton, la más sangrienta de la guerra civil (entre los York y los Lancaster, 1455-1485) de sucesión a la Corona de Inglaterra denominada "de las Dos Rosas".
1453 Constantino XIII Paleólogo, "Dragases", último emperador de Oriente.
 
< 28 May 30 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 29 May:

2004 Baby Gorilla, at the Denver Zoo.
2001 The Itanium computer chip is introduced by Intel, two years behind schedule and after 10 years and over $1 billion in development. It is aimed at the corporate and server markets, as its 64-bit architecture enables 16 terabytes of memory instead of the 4 gigabytes of the 32-bit Pentium and Celeron. But the Itanium first release is twice as slow as the Pentium, and therefore will be used mainly for testing.
1957 Jean-Christophe Yoccoz, French mathematician.
1930 Edward Philip George Seaga, político jamaicano.
1922 Francisco Rodriguez Adrados, filólogo español.
1922 Iannis Xenakis Braila Romania, composer/architect/mathematician.
^ 1920 The Offshore Pirate is published.
     It is 23 year-old F. Scott Fitzgerald's third Saturday Evening Post story during the month. It demonstrates his rapid development as a versatile fiction writer. It is the first story that develops Fitzgerald's recurrent plot idea of a heroine won by her lover's performance of an extraordinary deed. The story had originally ended with the weak explanation that it was all Ardita's dream. Fitzgerald rewrote the conclusion to emphasize the storyness of the story: "The last line takes Lorimer [the editor of the Post] at his word. Its one of the best lines I've ever written." The Offshore Pirate was collected in Flappers and Philosophers.
It was Fitzgerald's own favorite among his short stories, even more than A Diamond As Big as the Ritz
1919 Simone Ortega, escritora española especializada en materias culinarias.
^ 1917 John Fitzgerald Kennedy, (35th US President, 1961-1963: the youngest person and first Roman Catholic ever elected to that office, the first to win a Purple Heart and the 4th US President to be assassinated (22 November 1963); first Pulitzer Prize winner: Profiles in Courage). Kennedy faced a number of foreign crises, especially in Cuba and Berlin, but managed to secure such achievements as the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and the Alliance for Progress. He was assassinated while riding in a motorcade in Dallas.
      The second of the 9 children of Joseph Patrick Kennedy [06 Sep 1888 – 16 Nov 1969] and Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy [22 Jul 1890 – 22 Jan 1995] J. F. Kennedy was reared in a family that demanded intense physical and intellectual competition among the siblings, the family's touch football games at their Hyannis Port retreat later became legendary, and was schooled in the religious teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and the political precepts of the Democratic Party. His father was the son of wine importer and state senator Patrick Joseph Kennedy [14 Jan 1858 – 1929] and had acquired a multimillion-dollar fortune in banking, bootlegging, shipbuilding, and the film industry, and as a skilled player of the stock market. His mother, Rose, was the daughter of P.J. Kennedy's political rival then ally John F. “Honey Fitz” Fitzgerald [11 Feb 1863 – 02 Oct 1950], US Congressman (04 Mar 1895 - 03 Mar 1901) and mayor of Boston (1906-1908, 1910-1914). They established trust funds for their children that guaranteed lifelong financial independence. After serving as the head of the Securities and Exchange Commission, Joseph Kennedy became the US ambassador to Great Britain, and for six months in 1938 John served as his secretary, drawing on that experience to write his senior thesis at Harvard University (B.S., 1940) on Great Britain's military unpreparedness. He then expanded that thesis into a best-selling book, Why England Slept (1940).
      In the fall of 1941 J. F. Kennedy joined the US Navy and two years later was sent to the South Pacific. By the time he was discharged in 1945 his older brother, Joe, who their father had expected would be the first Kennedy to run for office, had been killed in the war, and the family's political standard passed to John, who had planned to pursue an academic or journalistic career. John Kennedy himself had barely escaped death in battle. Commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat, he was gravely injured when a Japanese destroyer sank it in the Solomon Islands. Marooned far behind enemy lines, he led his men back to safety and was awarded the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Medal for heroism. He also returned to active command at his own request. (These events were later depicted in a major Hollywood film, PT 109, that contributedto the Kennedy mystique). However, the further injury to his back, which had bothered him since his teens, never really healed. Despite operations in 1944, 1954, and 1955, he was in pain for much of the rest of his life. He also suffered from Addison's disease, though this affliction was publicly concealed. “At least one-half of the days he spent on this earth,” wrotehis brother Robert, “were days of intense physical pain.” (After he became president, Kennedy combatted the pain with injections of amphetamines—then thought to be harmless and used by more than a few celebrities for their energizing effect. According to some reports,both Kennedy and the first lady became heavily dependent on these injections through weekly use.) None of this prevented Kennedy from undertaking a strenuous life in politics. His family expected him to run for public office and to win.
      Kennedy did not disappoint his family; in fact, he never lost an election. His first opportunity came in 1946, when he ran for Congress. Although still physically weak from his war injuries, he campaigned aggressively, bypassing the Democratic organization in the Massachusetts 11th congressional district and depending instead upon his family, college friends, and fellownavy officers. In the Democratic primary he received nearly double the vote of his nearest opponent; in the November election he overwhelmed the Republican candidate. He was only 29.
      Kennedy served three terms in the House of Representatives (1947–1953) as a liberal. He advocated better working conditions, more public housing, higherwages, lower prices, cheaper rents, and more Social Security for the aged. In foreign policy he was an early supporter of Cold War policies. He backed the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan but was sharply critical of the Truman administration's record in Asia. He accused the State Department of trying to force Chiang Kai-shek [31 Oct 1887 – 05 Apr 1975] into a coalition with Mao Zedong [26 Dec 1893 – 09 Sep 1976]. "What our young men had saved," he told the House on 25 January 1949, "our diplomats and our President have frittered away." His congressional district in Boston was a safe seat, but Kennedy was too ambitious to remain long in the House of Representatives. In 1952 he ran for the US Senate against the popular incumbent, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr [05 Jul 1902 – 27 Feb 1985]. His mother and sisters Eunice, Patricia, and Jean held "Kennedy teas" across the state. Thousands of volunteers flocked to help, including his 27-year-old brother Robert Kennedy [20 Nov 1925 – 06 Jun 1968], who managed the campaign. That fall the Republican presidential candidate, General Dwight D. Eisenhower [], carried Massachusetts by 208'000 votes; but Kennedy defeated Lodge by 70'000 votes. Less than a year later, on 12 September 1953, Kennedy enhanced his electoral appeal by marrying Jacqueline Lee Bouvier [28 Jul 1929 – 19 May 1994]. Twelve years younger than Kennedy and from a socially prominent family, the beautiful “Jackie” was the perfect complement to the handsome politician; they made a glamorous couple.
      As a senator, Kennedy quickly won a reputation for responsiveness to requests from constituents, except on certain occasions when the national interest was at stake. In 1954 he was the only New England senator to approve an extension of President Eisenhower's reciprocal-trade powers, and he vigorously backed the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway, despite the fact that over a period of 20 years no Massachusetts senator or congressman had ever voted for it.
      To the disappointment of liberal Democrats, Kennedy soft-pedaled the demagogic excesses of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy [14 Nov 1908 – 02 May 1957] of Wisconsin, who in the early 1950s conducted witch-hunting campaigns against government workers accused of being communists. Kennedy's father liked McCarthy, contributed to his campaign, and even entertained him in the family's compound at Hyannis Port on Cape Cod in Massachusetts. Kennedy himself disapproved of McCarthy, but as he once observed, "Half my people in Massachusetts look on McCarthy as a hero." Yet on the Senate vote over condemnation of McCarthy's conduct (1954), Kennedy expected to vote against him. He prepared a speech explaining why, but he was absent on theday of the vote. Later, at a National Press Club Gridiron dinner, costumed reporters sang, "Where were you, John, where were you, John, when the Senate censured Joe?" Actually, John had been in a hospital, in critical condition after back surgery. He spent the next six months lying strapped to a board in his father's house in Palm Beach, Florida. It was during this period that he worked on Profiles in Courage (1956), an account of eight great US Senators (John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster, Thomas Hart Benton, Robert A. Taft, Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar, George Norris, Sam Houston, Edmund G. Ross) who had defied popular opinion in matters of conscience, which was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1957. Although Kennedy was credited as the book's author, it was later revealed that his assistant Theodore Sorensen had done much of the research and writing.
      Back in the Senate, Kennedy led a fight against a proposal to abolish the electoral college, crusaded for labor reform, and became increasingly committed to civil rights legislation. As a member of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in the late 1950s, he advocated extensive foreign aid to the emerging nations in Africa and Asia, and he surprised his colleagues by calling upon France to grant Algerian independence. During these years his political outlook was moving leftward. Possibly because of their father's dynamic personality, the sons of Joseph Kennedy matured slowly. Gradually John's stature among Democrats grew, until he had inherited the legions that had once followed Governor Adlai E. Stevenson [05 Feb 1900 – 14 Jul 1965] of Illinois, the two-time presidential candidate who by appealing to idealism had transformed the Democratic Party and made Kennedy's rise possible.
     Kennedy had nearly become Stevenson's vice presidential running mate in 1956. The charismatic young New Englander's near victory and his televised speech of concession (Estes Kefauver won the vice presidential nomination) brought him into some 40 million American homes. Overnight he had become one of the best known political figures in the country. Already his campaign for the 1960 nomination had begun. One newspaperman calledhim a "young man in a hurry." Kennedy felt that he had to redouble his efforts because of thewidespread conviction that no Roman Catholic candidate could be elected president. He made his 1958 race for reelection to the Senate a test of his popularity in Massachusetts. His margin of victory was 874'608 votes, the largest ever in Massachusetts politics and the greatest of any senatorial candidate that year.
      A steady stream of speeches and periodical profiles followed, with photographs of him and hiswife appearing on many a magazine cover. Kennedy's carefully calculated pursuit of the presidency years before the first primary established a practice that became the norm for candidates seeking the nation's highest office. To transport him and his staff around the country, his father bought a 40-passenger Convair aircraft. His brothers Robert "Bobby or Bob" Kennedy and Edward "Teddy or Ted" Kennedy [22 Feb 1932~] pitched in. After having graduated from Harvard University (1948) and from the University of Virginia Law School (1951), Bobby had embarkedon a career as a Justice Department attorney and counsellor for congressional committees. Ted likewise had graduated from Harvard (1956) and from Virginia Law School (1959). Both men were astute campaigners.
      In January 1960 John F. Kennedy formally announced his presidential candidacy. His chief rivals were the senators Hubert H. Humphrey [27 May 1911 – 13 Jan 1978] of Minnesota and Lyndon B. Johnson [27 Aug 1908 – 27 Jan 1973] of Texas. Kennedy knocked Humphrey out of the campaign and dealt the religious taboo against Roman Catholics a blow by winning the primary in Protestant West Virginia. He tackled the Catholic issue again, by avowing his belief in the separation of church and state in a televisedspeech before a group of Protestant ministers in Houston, Texas. Nominated on the first ballot, he balanced the Democratic ticket by choosing Johnson as his running mate. In his acceptance speech Kennedy declared, "We stand on the edge of a New Frontier." Thereafter the phrase “New Frontier” was associated with his presidential programs.
      Another phrase, “the Kennedy style”, encapsulated the candidate's emerging identity. It was glamorous and elitist, an amalgam of his father's wealth, John Kennedy's charisma and easy wit, Jacqueline Kennedy's beauty and fashion sense (the suits and pillbox hats she wore became widely popular), the charm of their children and relatives, and the erudition of the Harvard advisers who surrounded him (called the “best and brightest” by author David Halberstam).
      Kennedy won the general election, narrowly defeating the Republican candidate, Vice President Richard M. Nixon, by a margin of less than 120'000 out of some 70 million votes cast. Many observers, then and since, believed vote fraud contributed to Kennedy's victory, especially in the critical state of Illinois, where Joe Kennedy enlisted the help of the ever-powerful Richard J. Daley [15 May 1902 – 20 Dec 1976, mayor of Chicago. Nixon had defended the Eisenhower record; Kennedy, whose slogan had been "Let's get this country moving again," had deplored unemployment, the sluggish economy, the so-called missile gap (a presumed Soviet superiority over the United States in the number of nuclear-armed missiles), and the new communist government in Havana. A major factor in the campaign was a unique series of four televised debates between the two men; an estimated 85 million–120 million watched one or more of the debates. Both men showed a firm grasp of the issues, but Kennedy's poise in front of the camera, his tony Harvard accent, and good looks (in contrast to Nixon's “five o'clock shadow”) convinced many viewers that he had won the debate. As president, Kennedy continued to exploit the new medium, sparkling in precedent-setting televised weekly press conferences.
      He was the youngest man and the first Roman Catholic ever elected to the presidency of the United States. His administration lasted 1037 days. From the onset he was concerned with foreign affairs. In his memorable inaugural address he called upon the people of the US "to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle…against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself." He declared:
     In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility, I welcome it.…The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can trulylight the world. And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.
      The administration's first brush with foreign affairs was a disaster. In the last year of the Eisenhower presidency, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had equipped and trained a brigade of anticommunist Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland. The Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously advised the new president that this force, once ashore, would spark a general uprising against the Cuban leader, Fidel Castro [13 Aug 1927 – >13 Aug 2067 according to a prediction by his physician]. But the 17 April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion was a fiasco; every man on the beachhead was either killed or captured. Kennedy assumed "sole responsibility" for the setback. Privately he told his father that he would never again accept a Joint Chiefs recommendation without first challenging it.
      The Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev [17 Apr 1894 – 11 Sep 1971], thought he had taken the young president's measure when the two leaders met in Vienna in June 1961. Khrushchev ordered a wall built between East and West Berlin and threatened to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany. The president activated National Guard and reserve units, and Khrushchev backed down on his separate peace threat. Kennedy then a made a dramatic visit to West Berlin, where he told a cheering crowd, “Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is ‘Ich bin ein Berliner.'” In October 1962 a buildup of Soviet short- and intermediate-range nuclear missiles was discovered in Cuba. Kennedy demanded that the missiles be dismantled; he ordered a "quarantine" of Cuba—in effect, a blockade that would stop Soviet ships from reaching that island. For 13 days nuclear war seemed near; then the Soviet premier announced that the offensive weapons would be withdrawn. Ten months later Kennedy scored his greatest foreign triumph when Khrushchev and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan of Great Britain joined him in signing the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. Yet Kennedy's commitment to combat the spread of communism led him to escalate US involvement in the conflict in Vietnam, where he sent not just supplies and financialassistance, as President Eisenhower had, but 16'000 military advisers as well.
      Because of his slender victory in 1960, Kennedy approached Congress warily, and with good reason; Congress was largely indifferent to his legislative program. It approved his Alliance for Progress (Alianza) in Latin America and his Peace Corps, which won the enthusiastic endorsement of thousands of college students. But his two most cherished projects, massive income tax cuts and a sweeping civil rights measure, were not passed until after his death. In May 1961 Kennedy committed the United States to land a man on the Moon by the end of thedecade, and while he would not live to see this achievement either, his advocacy of the space program contributed to the successful launch of the first US manned spaceflights.
      He was an immensely popular president, at home and abroad. At times he seemed to be everywhere at once, encouraging better physical fitness, improving the morale of government workers, bringing brilliant advisers to the White House, and beautifying Washington, DC. His wife joined him as an advocate for American culture. Their two young children, Caroline Bouvier and John F., Jr., were familiar throughout the country. The charm and optimism of the Kennedy family seemed contagious, sparking the idealism of a generation for whom the Kennedy White House became, in journalist Theodore White's famous analogy, Camelot, the magical court of Arthurian legend, which was celebrated in a popular Broadway musical of the early 1960s.
      Joseph Kennedy, meanwhile, had been incapacitated in Hyannis Port by a stroke, but the other Kennedys were in and out of Washington. Robert Kennedy, as John's attorney general, was the second most powerful man in the country. He advised the president on all matters of foreign and domestic policy, national security, and political affairs.
      In 1962 Edward Kennedy was elected to the president's former Senate seat in Massachusetts. Their sister Eunice's husband, R. Sargent Shriver, Jr., became director of the Peace Corps. Their sister Jean's husband, Stephen Smith, was preparing to manage the Democratic Party's 1964 presidential campaign. Another sister, Patricia, had married Peter Lawford, an English-born actor who served the family as an unofficial envoy to the entertainment world. All Americans knew who Rose, Jackie, Bobby, and Teddy were, and most could identify Bobby's wife as Ethel and Teddy's wife as Joan. But if the first family had become US royalty, its image of perfection would be tainted years later by allegations of marital infidelity by the president (most notably, an affair with motion picture icon Marilyn Monroe) and of his association with members of organized crime.
      President Kennedy believed that his Republican opponent in 1964 would be Senator Barry Goldwater [01 Jan 1909 – 29 May 1998] of Arizona. He was convinced that he could bury Goldwater under an avalanche of votes, thus receiving a mandate for major legislative reforms. One obstacle to his plan was a feud in Vice President Johnson's home state of Texas between Governor John B. Connally, Jr.,and Senator Ralph Yarborough, both Democrats. To present a show of unity, the president decided to tour the state with both men.
      On Friday 22 November 1963, he and Jacqueline Kennedy were in an open limousine riding slowly in a motorcade through downtown Dallas. At 12:30 the president was struck by two rifle bullets, one at the base of his neck and one inthe head. He was dead upon arrival at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Governor Connally, though also gravely wounded, recovered. Vice President Johnson took the oath as president at 14:38. Lee Harvey Oswald [18 Oct 1939 – 24 Nov 1963], a Dallas citizen, was accused of the slaying. Two days later Oswald was shot to death by Jack Ruby [25 Mar 1911 – 03 Jan 1967], a local nightclub owner with connections to the criminal underworld, in the basement of a Dallas police station.
      A presidential commission headed by the chief justice of the United States, Earl Warren [19 Mar 1891 – 09 Jul 1974], later found that neither the sniper nor his killer "was part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy," but that Oswald had acted alone. The Warren Commission, however, was not able to convincingly explain all the particular circumstances of Kennedy's murder. In 1979 a special committee of the US House of Representatives declared that although the president had undoubtedly been slain by Oswald, acoustic analysis suggested the presence of a second gunman who had missed. But this declaration did little to squelch the theories that Oswald was part of a conspiracy involving either CIA agents angered over Kennedy's handling of the Bay of Pigs fiasco or members of organized crime seeking revenge for Attorney General Bobby Kennedy's relentless criminal investigations. Kennedy's assassination, the most notorious political murder of the 20th century, remains a source of bafflement, controversy, and speculation.
      John Kennedy was dead, but the Kennedy mystique was still alive. Both Robert and Ted ran for president (in 1968 and 1980, respectively). Yet tragedy would become nearly synonymous with the Kennedys when Bobby, too, was assassinated on the campaign trail in 1968.
      Jacqueline Kennedy and her two children moved from the White House to a home in the Georgetown section of Washington. Continuing crowds of the worshipful and curious made peace there impossible, however, and in the summer of 1964 she moved to New York City. Pursuit continued until October 20, 1968, when she married Aristotle Onassis [20 Jan 1906 – 15 Mar 1975], a wealthy Greek shipping magnate. The Associated Press said that the marriage "broke the spell of almost complete adulation of a woman who had become virtually a legend in her own time." Widowed by Onassis, the former first lady returned to the public eye in the mid-1970s as a high-profile book editor, and she remained among the most admired women in the United States until her death in 1994. As an adult, daughter Caroline was jealous of her own privacy, but John Kennedy Jr., like his sister, a lawyer and like his father, debonair and handsome, was much more of a public figure. Long remembered as “John-John,” the three-year-old who stoically saluted his father's casket during live television coverage of the funeral procession, John Jr. became the founder and editor-in-chief of the political magazine George in the mid-1990s. In 1999, when John Jr., his wife, and his sister-in-law died in the crash of the private plane he waspiloting, the event was the focus of an international media watch that further proved the immortality of the Kennedy mystique. It was yet another chapter in the family's “curse” of tragedy.
     
^ 1906 Terence Hanbury White, in Bombay, future author of The Once and Future King.
     His English parents were employed by the British civil service. White attended Cambridge, where he published a book of poems. He taught school for six years until his autobiographical work England Have My Bones (1936) gained critical success. He quit teaching to write full time and became increasingly reclusive. He studied medieval history and wrote books about hunting, fishing, and animals. In 1939, he published the enormously successful The Sword in the Stone, a retelling of the legends of King Arthur, which became a US Book-of-the-Month Club selection. He published four more books in the Arthurian saga during the next several years. In 1958, the volumes were collected in The Once and Future King. White died aboard a ship in Athens in 1964. After his death, the final volume of the King Arthur series was found among his papers and published in 1977 as The Book of Merlyn.
1903 Leslie Townes (Bob) Hope Kent England, entertainer (famous profile)
1897 Edward Wolfe, British artist who died in 1982. — more with links to images.
1893 Karel “Charles” Loewner, Jewish Czech US mathematician who died on 08 January 1968.
1885 Erwin Findlay Freundlich, German astronomer and mathematician who died on 24 July 1964. He worked with Einstein on measurements of the orbit of Mercury to confirm the general theory of relativity.
1882 Harry Bateman, English mathematician who died on 21 January 1946.
1880 Oswald Spengler Germany, philosopher, author of Die Untergang des Abendlandes (Decline of the West)
1875 Giovanni Gentile, filósofo fascista italiano.
^ 1874 Gilbert Keith Chesterton English journalist / novelist / poet / critic
      Chesterton created the Father Brown crime- fiction series. He died on 14 June 1936.
     Critic and author of verse, essays, novels, and short stories, Chesterton was known also for his exuberant personality and rotund figure. He was educated at St. Paul's School and later studied art at the Slade School and literature at University College, London. His writings to 1910 were of three kinds. First, his social criticism, largely in his voluminous journalism, was gathered in The Defendant (1901), Twelve Types (1902), and Heretics (1905). In it he expressed strongly pro-Boer views in the South African War. Politically, he began as a Liberal but after a brief radical period became, with his Christian and medievalist friend Hilaire Belloc, a Distributist, favoring the distribution of land. This phase of his thinking is exemplified by What's Wrong with the World (1910).
      His second preoccupation was literary criticism. Robert Browning (1903) was followed by Charles Dickens (1906) and Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens (1911), prefaces to the individual novels, which are among his finest contributions to criticism. His George Bernard Shaw (1909) and The Victorian Age in Literature (1913) together with William Blake (1910) and the later monographs William Cobbett (1925) and Robert Louis Stevenson (1927) have a spontaneity that places them above the works of many academic critics.
      Chesterton's third major concern was theology and religious argument. He was converted from Anglicanism to Roman Catholicism in 1922. Although he had written on Christianity earlier, as in his book Orthodoxy (1909), his conversion added edge to his controversial writing, notably The Catholic Church and Conversion (1926), his writings in G.K.'s Weekly, and Avowals and Denials (1934). Other works arising from his conversion were St. Francis of Assisi (1923), the essay in historical theology The Everlasting Man (1925), and St. Thomas Aquinas (1933).
      In his verse Chesterton was a master of ballad forms, as shown in the stirring “Lepanto” (1911). When it was not uproariously comic, his verse was frankly partisan and didactic. His essays developed his shrewd, paradoxical irreverence to its ultimate point of real seriousness. He is seen at his happiest in such essays as “On Running After One's Hat” (1908) and “A Defence of Nonsense” (1901), in which he says that nonsense and faith are “the two supreme symbolic assertions of truth” and “to draw out the soul of things with a syllogism is as impossible as to draw out Leviathan with a hook.”
      Many readers value Chesterton's fiction most highly. The Napoleon of Notting Hill (1904), a romance of civil war in suburban London, was followed by the loosely knit collection of short stories, The Club of Queer Trades (1905), and the popular allegorical novel The Man WhoWas Thursday (1908). But the most successful association of fiction with social judgment is in Chesterton's series on the priest-sleuth Father Brown: The Innocence of Father Brown (1911), followed by The Wisdom of Father Brown (1914), The Incredulity of Father Brown (1926), The Secret of Father Brown (1927), and The Scandal of Father Brown (1935). Chesterton's friendships were with men as diverse as H.G. Wells, Shaw, Belloc, and Max Beerbohm. His Autobiography was published in 1936.

CHESTERTON ONLINE:
  • Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens
  • The Ballad of the White Horse
  • Charles Dickens
  • Chesterton Day by Day: Selections from the Writings in Prose and Verse of G. K. Chesterton, with an Extract for every Day of the Year and for each of the Moveable Feasts
  • Greybeards at Play: Literature and Art for Old Gentlemen
  • The Innocence of Father Brown
  • The Innocence of Father Brown
  • The Innocence of Father Brown (PDF)
  • The Wisdom of Father Brown
  • The Man Who Knew Too Much
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Club of Queer Trades
  • The Club of Queer Trades
  • Trees of Pride
  • Manalive
  • Manalive
  • Manalive
  • A Miscellany of Men
  • Orthodoxy
  • Heretics
  • Heretics
  • Utopia of Usurers, and Other Essays
  • What's Wrong with the World Today
  • What's Wrong With the World
  • co-author of: Leo Tolstoy
  • 1863 Marcelino Peña Muñoz, Spanish painter.
    1860 Isaac Albéniz, compositor y pianista español.
    1845 Alberto Urdaneta Urdaneta, Colombian painter, engraver, and publicist. — links to images.
    1840 Hans Makart, Austrian academic painter who died on 03 October 1884. — MORE ON MAKART AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1838 Gérard-Marie-François Firmin-Girard, French academic painter who died on 08 January 1921. — more with links to images.
    Louise Michel^

    1830
    Clémence-Louise Michel,
    {1878 photo by “Nadar” [05 Apr 1820 – 21 Mar 1910] >}
    ,
    French anarchist who died on 10 January 1905. She fervently preached revolutionary socialist themes. Rejecting parliamentary reform, she believed in sensational acts of violence and advocated class war.
          Liberally educated and trained as a teacher, Michel developed her revolutionary ideas while teaching (1866–1870) at Montmartre, in Paris. During the German siege of Paris (19 Sep 1870 – 28 Jan 1871), she worked in the ambulance service and in May 1871 fought zealously with the National Guard defending the Paris Commune against the Versailles troops. After the 28 May 1871 defeat of the Commune she was court-martialed and sentenced to prison.
          Freed by the amnesty of 1880, Michel renewed her revolutionary campaign and lectured throughout France, but she was imprisoned for three years for inciting a riot. From 1886 to 1896 she lived in London, always keeping in touch with revolutionary developments on the Continent. In 1896 she returned to France and lectured on revolutionary themes until her death. Her writings reveal a strong sense of social consciousness. Besides her Mémoires (1886), she published both poetry and prose.
    1801 Pedro Santana, militar y político dominicano.
    ^ Patrick Henry's Address, by Chappel1736 (17 May Julian) Patrick Henry
          American revolutionary patriot: who on his twenty-ninth birthday, nine days a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, would present a series of resolutions opposing the British Stamp Act, and conclude his introduction of the Virginia Resolutions with the fiery words “Caesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third — ” when, it is reported, voices cried out, "Treason! treason!" He continued, " — and George the Third may profit by their example! If this be treason make the most of it."
         Then, on 23 March 1775, before the second Virginia Convention, Patrick Henry would voice American opposition to the increasingly oppressive British rule over the American colonies with his “...give me liberty, or give me death!” speech.
          [There seems to be more people who say: "Give me liberty or give me wealth!". What I would say is: "Give me liberty or give me freedom!” or “Give me liberty or I'll give you death!” or “Give me liberty or I'll take it by force!”]
          Following the signing of the American Declaration of Independence on 04 July 1776, Patrick Henry was appointed governor of Virginia by the Continental Congress. The first major American opposition to British policy came in 1765 after Parliament passed the Stamp Act, a taxation measure to raise revenues for a standing British army in America. Under the banner of "no taxation without representation," colonists convened the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 to vocalize their opposition to the tax. With its enactment on01 November 1765, most colonists called for a boycott of British goods and some organized attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After months of protest, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1765, and most colonists quietly accepted British rule until Parliament’s enactment of the Tea Act in 1773, which granted the East India Company a monopoly on the American tea trade. Viewed as another example of taxation without representation, militant Patriots in Massachusetts organized the "Boston Tea Party," which saw British tea valued at some ten thousand pounds dumped into Boston harbor. Parliament, outraged by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant destruction of British property, enacted the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, in the following year. The colonists subsequently called the first Continental Congress to consider a united American resistance against the British. With the other colonies watching intently, Massachusetts led the resistance to the British, forming a shadow revolutionary government and establishing militias to resist the increasing British military presence across the colony. In April 1775, Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, ordered British troops to march to Concord, Massachusetts, where a Patriot arsenal was known to exist. On 19 April 1775, the British regulars encountered a group of American militiamen at Lexington and the first volleys of the US War of Independence were fired.
    Introductory Note: In March of 1770, the English, had, in fact, abolished all the duties it had imposed, except that on tea. Quite aside from the rumblings coming from the colonies, these duties were being felt at home. The Townsend duties had an impact on the British commercial classes, for, there was a decline in exports. Even the tax on tea was reduced so as to cure the smuggling problem. At these lower rates, this tea tax would likely have been tolerable in the colonies, except for this: in May of 1773 the East India Company had been given authority to sell its tea free of duty except that which was to be sold in North America. In December of 1773, there then occurred the Boston Tea Party. In response, England, in 1774, passed a number of acts including The Boston Port Act, The Quartering Act and The Massachusetts Government Act. The effect of these acts was to close Boston to foreign traffic, change the government and the courts of justice of Massachusetts and to legalized the quartering of British troops in colonial homes. The aim of these measures was to curb rebellion. In return the civilian leaders of the colonies met at Philadelphia, on 05 September 1774: The first Continental Congress. It passed five measures affecting the relations of the colonies with the mother-country. It forbade the import of English wares and ordered the cessation of all exports to Great Britain, unless they were to be given redress of the colonial grievances prior. Further, it approved of the opposition offered to the late acts of Parliament by the people of Massachusetts Bay. It then issued proclamations to the colonies, both north and south, which called for their support. Thus, it was, that on 23 March 1775, at Virginia, the largest colony in America, and with the greatest ties and more English-like then any of the other colonies, a meeting of its delegates took place in St. John's church in Richmond. A number of the delegates were abhorred by the notion that they should take steps which might lead to war with the mother-country. The resolution was presented by Patrick Henry. Before the vote was taken, he delivered a speech in support. He stood; silent at first, then spoke quietly and proceeded gradually to increase his speech in force and in loudness reaching at the end a crescendo that still echoes and will likely always echo in the hearts of men.
         No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. But different men often see the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope that it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen, if, entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve.
          This is no time for ceremony. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to God and our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of treason towards my country, and of an act of disloyalty towards the majesty of heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.
          Mr. President, it is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren, till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation?
          For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth — to know the worst and to provide for it. I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House?
          Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with these warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation — the last arguments to which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motives for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies?
          No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer on the subject? Nothing.
          We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer.
          Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament.
          Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope.
          If we wish to be free — if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending — if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained, we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us!
          They tell us, sir, that we are weak — unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance, by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot?
          Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of the means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us.
          The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable — and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come!
          It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, "Peace! Peace!" — but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!
    The vote of the Virginia delegates barely passed, but it passed; and the movement we have come to know as the American Revolution was to receive the support which it needed. Fighting erupted on 19 April 1775, at Lexington and Concord, and was followed that year by the capture of Fort Ticonderoga from the British, the battle of Bunker Hill (June), and the unsuccessful colonial assault on Quebec. Patrick Henry died on 06 June 1799.
    1630 (Julian date: go to 08 Jun Gregorian) Charles II, king of England.
     
    Holidays England : Oak Apple Day/Nettle Day (1660) / Rhode Island : Ratification Day (1790) / Wisconsin : Admission Day (1848)

    Religious Observances Christian-Andorra : Our Lady of Canolic / old RC : St Mary Magdalen dei Pazzi, virgin / Luth : Jiri Tranovsky, hymn writer / Baha'i : Death (ascension) of prophet Bah 'u'll h ('Azamat 7, 49) / Santos Maximino, Eleuterio, Teodosia, Bona y Restituta.
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