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ALTERNATE SITES     ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” MAY 26     wikipedia
• Senate acquits Andrew Johnson... • Pequot Amerindians massacred... • Strategic Arms Limitation... • Dunkirk evacuation... • Last Czar is crowned... • Senate acquits Andrew Johnson... • Martyrs of the Commune... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Ford goons beat up union leaders... • National bank project... • Last Rebs surrender... • US charges USSR with spying... • Aussies leave for Vietnam... • North Vietnamese take Snoul... • Montana Territory... • Polar flyer dies... • Teacher shot dead by 7th grader... • Poet Housman is born... • Adobe president kidnapped...
^  On a 26 May:
2006 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] celebrates Mass in Pilsudski Square in Warsaw. — His homily mentions Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] and Cardinal Wyszynski [03 Aug 1901 – 28 May 1981]. —(060603)
2005 Following the 08 March 2005 vote of the city council of Pretoria requesting the change of the city's name to Tshwane, the South African Geographical Names Council (SAGNC) approves the change. Tshwane is already the name of the Metropolitan Municipality in which Pretoria, and a number of surrounding towns are located. However the name change will not become official unless approved by the Minister of Arts and Culture (not yet done as of 13 Mar 2007), then surviving court challenges, submitted to public comment, and finally voted by parliament. —(070313)
2002 Álvaro Uribe Vélez [04 Jul 1952~] is elected as President of Colombia for a 4-year term to start on 07 August 2002. Francisco Santos Calderón is elected Vice-President. Uribe is a hawkish former governor of the department of Antioquia (1995-1997), whose father was slain by guerrillas in a botched kidnapping attempt. Vélez gets 53% of the votes thus avoiding a runoff (which, if no one had more than 50%, would have been on 16 June) with his main opponent, Horacio Serpa, a Liberal Party populist and former interior minister who favors a negotiated settlement with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), as do other candidates: Luis Eduardo Garzón, a labor leader from the left; Noemí Sanín, a former foreign minister; and Ingrid Betancourt, a former senator kidnapped by rebels but still on the ballot. However most Colombians are tired of the negotiations with the FARC which have taken place during the 4-year Andrés Pastrana presidency without stopping the killing of some 3500 people a year started nearly 40 years ago. Uribe promises to double to 300'000 the numbers of soldiers and policemen fighting the FARC's 17'000 guerillas. However he may violate human rights and tolerate the right-wing paramilitaries, which are as murderous as the FARC. On 28 May 2006 Uribe would be re-elected (with 63% of the vote) for another 4-year term. —(060529)
2001 In the evening, first night of race riots in Oldham, England, between Whites and Asians (whose parents came from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) who are about 50'000 in the population of 220'000. The riots resume the following night.
1992 Adobe's president is kidnapped
      The generous philanthropy of Charles Geschke, president of Adobe Systems, had attracted the attention of two would-be kidnappers in Silicon Valley. The two abduct Geschke at gunpoint in broad daylight, blindfold him with duct tape, and keep him chained and handcuffed in a rented house.
      The FBI nabbed one of the kidnappers during a ransom drop and rescued Geschke on 30 May 1992. Ironically, a neighbor of Geschke's had noticed a man, who later proved to be one of the kidnappers, rifling through Geschke's mail several days earlier. She had written down the license plate number; however, not knowing Geschke was missing, she never gave the number to the police until after Geschke had been returned.
1984 Frisbee is kept aloft for 27 minutes 52 seconds in Philadelphia.
1978 first legal gambling casino opens in Atlantic City.
1977 Movie "Star Wars" debuts.
1977 George H. Willig scales the outside of the 110-story South Tower of New York's World Trade Center; he is arrested at the top and, the next day, fined $1.10..
^ 1972 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I
     In Moscow, President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Leonid I. Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, which limits the US and the USSR to two hundred antiballistic missiles each, which are to be divided between two defensive systems.
      Nixon had arrived in Moscow on May 22 for his second visit, his first as president, becoming the first US president to ever visit the USSR. During a week of summit meetings with Brezhnev and other Soviet officials, the US and the USSR reached a complex of agreements (SALT I). One laid the groundwork for a joint space flight in 1975, but the most important were the Interim Agreement and Protocol on Limitation of Strategic Offensive Weapons and the Treaty on Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems which limited the US and the USSR to two hundred antiballistic missiles each, to be divided between two defensive systems. President Nixon returned to the United States on May 30.
      Nixon had visited Moscow once before — as US vice-president in 1959. As President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s vice-president, Nixon made frequent official trips abroad, including a historic trip to Moscow to tour the Soviet capital and to attend the US Trade and Cultural Fair in Sokolniki Park. Soon after Vice President Nixon arrived on July 23, 1959, he opened an informal debate with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev about the merits and disadvantages of their governments’ political and economic systems. Known as the "Kitchen Debate" because of a particularly heated exchange between Khrushchev and Nixon that occurred in the kitchen of a model US home at the American fair, the dialogue was a defining moment in the Cold War.
1971 North Vietnamese seize Snoul, Cambodia
      In Cambodia, an estimated 1000 North Vietnamese capture the strategic rubber plantation town of Snoul, driving out 2000 South Vietnamese as US air strikes support the Allied forces. Snoul gave the communists control of sections of Routes 7 and 13 that led into South Vietnam and access to large amounts of abandoned military equipment and supplies. On 31 May, the Cambodian government called for peace talks if all North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces agreed to withdraw. The communists rejected the bid. Cambodia ultimately fell to the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies in April 1975.
1966 British Guiana gains independence, takes the name Guyana
^ 1965 Australian troops depart for Vietnam
      Eight hundred Australian troops depart for Vietnam and New Zealand announces that it will send an artillery battalion. The Australian government had first sent troops to Vietnam in 1964 in the form of a small aviation detachment and an engineer civic action team. They were increasing their commitment to the war with the deployment of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (RAR). In 1966, the Australians once again increased their troop strength in Vietnam with the formation of the First Australian Task Force, which established a base of operations near Ba Ria in Phuoc Tuy province. The task force included two infantry battalions, a medium tank squadron, and a helicopter squadron, as well as signal, engineer, and other support forces. By 1969, Australian forces in Vietnam totaled an estimated 8000 persons. New Zealand had initially sent a small engineer detachment to South Vietnam, but later sent an artillery battery in July 1965. Over time, the New Zealand contingent, which was placed under the operational control of the First Australian Task Force, grew to over 1000 men. The Australian and New Zealand contingents were part of the Free World Military Forces, also known as the "many flags" program, which was an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. Australia and New Zealand began to withdraw their troops in 1970, following the lead of the United States as it drastically reduced its troop commitment to South Vietnam.
1965 Revised intl Convention on Safety of Life at Sea takes effect
1961 USAF bomber flies the Atlantic in a record of just over 3 hours
1961 Freedom Ride Coordinating Committee established in Atlanta
^ 1960 United States charges Soviets with espionage
      During a meeting of the United Nations Security Council, US ambassador to the United Nations Henry Cabot Lodge charges that the Soviet Union has engaged in espionage activities at the US embassy in Moscow for years. The charges were obviously an attempt by the United States to deflect Soviet criticisms following the downing of an American U-2 spy plane over Russia earlier in the month. On May 1, 1960, a highly sophisticated (and supposedly invulnerable) US spy plane, the U-2, was shot down over the Soviet Union. Although US officials at first denied the existence of any such spy planes, the Soviets gleefully produced both the wreckage of the plane and its pilot, Francis Gary Powers. Embarrassed US officials, including President Dwight D. Eisenhower, were forced to publicly admit that the United States was indeed spying on the Soviet Union with the high altitude planes.
      However, the US government consistently declared that it was doing nothing that the Soviets themselves were not doing. As evidence of that charge, Henry Cabot Lodge brought the issue before the UN Security Council. There, he produced a wooden reproduction of the Great Seal of the United States. Nestled inside was a small listening and transmitting device. Lodge claimed that the seal had been presented to the US embassy in Moscow in 1945 by a group of Russian citizens. In 1952, a security sweep of the embassy discovered the listening device. Lodge went on to note that more than 100 other such devices had been found in the US embassies in Russia and other communist-bloc countries during the last few years. The Soviet representative on the Security Council chuckled often during Lodge's presentation and then asked, "From what plays were these props taken and when will it open?" Despite the US charges of Soviet espionage, nothing could undo the damage of the downed U-2 spy plane, the subsequent denials, and the public embarrassment suffered by Eisenhower and other US officials when they were caught in a lie. Just 10 days before Lodge's presentation in the Security Council, a summit meeting between Eisenhower and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev ended with each side exchanging angry accusations about spying and bad faith.
1948 South Africa elects a nationalist govt with apartheid policy
1946 A patent is filed in the United States for the H-bomb. It was the second atomic bomb, dropped on Nagasaki, that induced the Japanese to surrender.
1943 first president of a black country to visit US (Edwin Barclay, Liberia)
1940 Chute de Calais — Entrevue Reynaud - Churchill à Londres
^ 1940 Dunkirk evacuation.
      Two weeks after German forces invaded France, the British initiate Operation Dynamo — the total evacuation of Allied forces from the beach at Dunkirk on the Belgian coast. On 10 May, the German Wehrmacht had stormed into Belgium, Holland, and the Netherlands, and, two days later, descended on France. In a lightning strike, German forces simply out-flanked the northwest corners of the Maginot Line, an impregnable defense at the French-German border. Within a week, Dutch and Belgian resistance had ended, making the Allied defense of France untenable.
      On 26 May, with German tanks racing across Western Europe, the British begin what would be the largest evacuation of military forces in history. The ten-day evacuation, during which 340'000 British, French, and Belgian soldiers were brought to the safety of the British isle, was constantly attacked by the German air force. All British citizens in possession of sea-worthy vessels were asked to lend their ships to the effort, and all but 40'000 of the Allied soldiers who massed at Dunkirk escaped capture.
      With Western Europe abandoned by its defenders, the German army swept through the rest of France, and on 14 June, Paris fell to the Nazis. Eight days later, Henri Pétain and other French leaders signed an armistice with the Nazis at Compiègne and Germany occupied half the country, leaving the other half in the hands of their puppet French rulers.
      On 06 June 1944, liberation of Western Europe finally began with the successful Allied landed in Normandy.
1938 US House of Representatives' Committee on un-American Activities begins work
1937 San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge opens.
^ 1937 Ford goons photographed beating up union leaders
      Union leaders and Ford Service Department men clashed in a violent confrontation on the Miller Road Overpass outside Gate 4 of the Ford River Rouge Plant in Dearborn, Michigan. The clash came three months after the UAW achieved its first landmark victory at Ford, when they had forced the company to negotiate a policy toward organized labor by staging a lengthy sit-down strike at the Rouge complex. The sit-down strike had succeeded largely because of the support of Michigan Governor Frank Murphy, who protected the strikers' right to bargain collectively. However, the labor agreement did little in the way of changing the day-to-day life of Ford workers.
      At the time of the victory, the UAW was still a relatively small, well-organized group. Legally, Henry Ford was forced to give ground, but he did not relinquish his opposition to organized laborers. Instead, he allowed Harry Bennett, head of the Ford Service Department, to build an increasingly muscular force of Ford officials charged with the job of maintaining discipline in the work place. Bennett had, in the past, used what amounted to thug tactics to intimidate workers. After the sit-down strike, tensions ran high between employees and labor officials.
      On this day in 1937, UAW organizers Walter Reuther, Bob Kanter, J.J. Kennedy, and Richard Frankensteen were distributing leaflets among the workers at the Rouge complex when they were approached by a gang of Bennett's men. [photo: Ford men approach Reuther and Frankensteen, third and second from right] The Ford Servicemen brutally beat the four unionists while many other union sympathizers, including eleven women, were injured in the resulting melee.
     The attack was no surprise to Ford employees. One man summed up the tone at the Rouge factory: "I was glad to have a job but scared to go to work." One of the Ford Servicemen involved in the incident was Elmer Janovski, a twenty-six-year-old ex-bootlegger who had been personally hired by Bennett. "We were told there was trouble — Reuther and Frankensteen were passing out flyers," said Janovski. "I started fighting with them. I didn't poke Reuther, but I poked the others, including the newspaper cameraman."
      The newspaper camera operator in question was what made the Battle of the Overpass an extraordinary event. The day after the struggle, all of America was witness to the primitive tactics with which Henry Ford subdued organized laborers who had the law on their side. The publicity didn't end Ford's opposition to organized labor, but it certainly made his eventual acquiescence inevitable.
      Reuther later recalled the event. He said that anti-union thugs "surrounded us and started to beat us up.... The men picked me up about eight different times and threw me down on my back on the concrete and while I was on the ground, they kicked me in the face and head and other parts of my body." Ironically, Janovski was fired from Ford and bounced between a number of low-paying jobs at automobile factories before he, too, joined the union. Some time later, he ran into Reuther at a labor rally in Detroit. "I told him that I was one of the guys on the other side at the Overpass," he said. "Reuther told me, 'It's all forgotten... we're all happy now... we're all brothers.' "
      Today, a reported 5000 of River Rouge's 13'000 employees cross the Miller Overpass on the way to work. The landmark is a physical reminder of the suffering undertaken by brave workers who strove for a better quality of life.
1918 Georgian Social Democratic Republic declares independence from Russia
1903 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of the 3 Gables.
^ 1896 Last Czar of Russia, Nicholas II, is crowned.
      He was neither trained nor inclined to rule, which did not help the autocracy he sought to preserve in an era desperate for change. He dismissed a petition for political reforms and refused to agree to a constitutional monarchy. This political inflexibility eventually helped the Bolsheviks to seize power, and in 1918, three centuries of the Romanov dynasty ended when Nicholas and his family were shot to death by Lenin's Red Guards.
      Nicholas II, the last czar, is crowned ruler of Russia in the old Ouspensky Cathedral in Moscow. Nicholas was neither trained nor inclined to rule, which did not help the autocracy he sought to preserve in an era desperate for change. Born in 1868, he succeeded to the Russian throne upon the death of his father, Czar Alexander III, in November 1894. That same month, the new czar married Alexandra, a German-born princess who came to have great influence over her husband. After a period of mourning for his late father, Nicholas and Alexandra were crowned czar and czarina in May 1896. As the ruler of Russia, Nicholas resisted calls for reform and sought to maintain czarist absolutism; although he lacked the strength of will necessary for such a task. The disastrous outcome of the Russo-Japanese War led to the Russian Revolution of 1905, which Nicholas only defused after approving a representative assembly — the Duma — and promising constitutional reforms. The czar soon retracted these concessions and repeatedly dissolved the Duma, contributing to the growing public support enjoyed by the Bolsheviks and other revolutionary groups.
      In 1914, Nicholas led his country into another costly war — World War I — and discontent grew as food became scarce, soldiers became war-weary, and devastating defeats at the hands of Germany demonstrated the ineffectiveness of Russia under Nicholas. In 1915, the czar personally took over command of the army, leaving the Czarina Alexandra in control at home. Her unpopular court was dominated by the Russian mystic Rasputin, who replaced the czar's competent ministers and officials with questionable nominees. In March 1917, the army garrison at Petrograd joined striking workers in demanding socialist reforms, and Nicholas II was called on to abdicate. On 15 March, he renounced the throne in favor of his brother Michael, whose refusal of the crown brought an end to the czarist autocracy in Russia. Nicholas, his wife, and children were held at the Czarskoye Selo palace by Russia's Provisional Government and in August moved to Tobolsk in Western Siberia under pressure from the Petrograd Soviet, the powerful coalition of soldiers' and workers' councils that shared power with the Provisional Government in the first stage of the Russian Revolution. In November 1917, the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin seized power in Russia and set about establishing the world's first communist state.
      In April 1918, Nicholas and his family were transferred to Yekaterinburg in the Urals, which sealed their doom. Civil war broke out in Russia in June 1918, and in July the anti-Bolshevik "White" Russian forces advanced on Yekaterinburg during a campaign against the Bolshevik forces. Local authorities were ordered to prevent a rescue of the Romanovs, and after a secret meeting by the Yekaterinburg Soviet, a death sentence was passed on the imperial family. Just after midnight on 17 July, Nicholas, Alexandra, their five children, and four family retainers were ordered to dress quickly and go down to the cellar of the house in which they were being held. There, the family and servants were arranged in two rows for a photograph they were told was being taken to quell rumors that they had escaped. Suddenly, a dozen armed men burst into the room and gunned down the imperial family in a hail of gunfire. The remains of Nicholas, Alexandra, and three of their children were excavated in a forest near Yekaterinburg in 1991 and positively identified two years later using mtDNA. The Crown Prince Alexei and one Romanov daughter were not accounted for, fueling the persistent legend that Anastasia, the youngest Romanov daughter, had survived the execution of her family. Of the several "Anastasias" that surfaced in Europe in the decade after the Russian Revolution, Anna Anderson, who died in the United States in 1968, was the most convincing. In 1994, however, scientists used mtDNA to prove that Anna Anderson was not Anastasia but a Polish woman named Franziska Schanzkowska.
1876 HMS Challenger returns from 128'000-km oceanographic exploration.
^ 1865 The last Confederate army surrenders
      Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi division, is the last general of the Confederate Army to surrender. Smith, who had become commander of the area in January 1863, was charged with keeping the Mississippi River open to the Southerners. Yet he was more interested in recapturing Arkansas and Missouri largely because of the influence of Arkansans in the Confederate Congress who helped to secure his appointment. Drawing sharp criticism for his failure to provide relief for Vicksburg in the summer of 1863, Smith later conducted the resistance to the failed Union Red River campaign of 1864. When the Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee and Joseph Johnston surrendered in the spring of 1865, Smith continued to resist with his small army in Texas. He insisted that Lee and Johnston were prisoners of war and decried Confederate deserters of the cause. On 26 May, General Simon Buckner, acting for Smith, meets with Union officers in New Orleans to arrange the surrender of Smith's force under terms similar to Lee's surrender at Appomattox. Smith reluctantly agrees, and officially lays down his arms at Galveston on 02 June. Smith himself fled to Mexico, and then to Cuba, before returning to Virginia in November 1865 to sign an amnesty oath. He was the last surviving full Confederate general until his death in 1893.
^ 1868 US President Johnson's impeachment fails
      At the end of an historic two-month trial, the US Senate failed by just one vote to convict President Andrew Johnson of the impeachment charges that had been levied against him by the House of Representatives three months before. The Senators voted thirty-five guilty and nineteen not guilty on the second article of impeachment, a charge related to his violation of the Tenure of Office Act in the previous year. Ten days earlier, the Senate had likewise narrowly failed to convict Johnson on another article of impeachment, the eleventh, voting an identical thirty-five for conviction and nineteen for acquittal. Twice failing to achieve the two-thirds majority needed to convict the president, the radical Republicans in Congress dropped the matter, and Johnson remained in office.
      At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, Andrew Johnson, a senator from Tennessee, was the only US senator from a seceding state who remained loyal to the Union. In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln appointed him military governor of Tennessee, and in 1864, he was elected vice-president of the United States. Inaugurated after Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, President Johnson enacted a lenient Reconstruction policy for the defeated South, including almost total amnesty to ex-Confederates, a program of rapid restoration of US state status for the seceded states, and the approval of new, local Southern governments, which were able to legislate "Black Codes" that preserved the system of slavery in all but its name.
      The Republican-dominated Congress greatly opposed Johnson’s Reconstruction program, and on March 2, 1867, passed the Tenure of Office Act over the president’s veto. The bill prohibited the president from removing officials confirmed by the Senate without senatorial approval, and was designed to shield members of Johnson’s cabinet like Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton who had been a leading radical Republican in the Lincoln administration. In the fall of 1867, President Johnson attempted to test the constitutionality of the act by replacing Stanton with General Ulysses S. Grant. However, the US Supreme Court refused to rule on the case and Grant turned the office back to Stanton after the Senate passed a measure refusing the dismissal.
      On 21 February 1868, Johnson decided to rid himself of Stanton once and for all, and appointed General Lorenzo Thomas, an individual far less favorable to the Congress than Grant, as secretary of war. Stanton refused to yield, barricading himself in his office, and the House of Representatives, which had already discussed impeachment after Johnson’s first dismissal of Stanton, initiated formal impeachment proceedings against the president. On 24 February, the House voted eleven impeachment articles against Johnson, nine of which cited Johnson’s removal of Stanton in violation of the Tenure of Office Act. On 13 March, the impeachment trial of President Johnson began in the US Senate under the direction of US Supreme Court Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase. On 16 May and again on 26 May, the Senate narrowly fell short of the two-thirds majority needed to convict Johnson, and he remained in the White House. Nevertheless, he chose not to actively seek reelection, and in November of the same year, Ulysses S. Grant, who supported the Republicans’ radical Reconstruction policies, was elected president of the United States.
1865 Surrender of Confederate General E. K. Smith's Trans-Mississippi forces, the last Confederate army to surrender, in Shreveport, Louisiana
1864 Montana Territory       ^top^
      Created Anxious to create new free territories in the dark days of the Civil War, US President Abraham Lincoln signs an act creating the Montana territory. However Montana was on the unstable frontier and Sidney Edgerton, the territory’s first governor, fled after suffering through several months of Indian raids. Among those Indians known to have inhabited Montana in the nineteenth century are the Sioux, the Blackfoot, the Shoshone, the Arapaho, the Cheyenne, the Kutenai, the Flathead, and others.
      The vast area of what we now call Montana had become a US possession in 1803 under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase. Two years later, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, the first Europeans known to have explored the region, documented their passage through Montana on their journey to the Pacific Ocean. Significant US settlement did not begin in Montana until the 1850s, when the discovery of gold brought people to rapidly growing mining camps such as those at Bannack and Virginia City.
      In 1864, Montana was deemed worthy of territorial status, and twenty-five years later, entered the Union as the forty-first state.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Skirmish at Calico Rock, Arkansas
1858 In Pittsburgh, the Associate Presbyterian and the Associate Reformed Presbyterian churches merged to form the United Presbyterian Church in North America.
1856 Brigadier General Ned Beal of the California militia is sent by the governor to the Four Creeks region to treat with the warring Yokut Indians. The Tule River War.
1835 A resolution is passed in the US Congress stating that Congress has no authority over state slavery laws.
1831 Russians defeat Poles at the Battle of Ostrolenska.
1805 Napoléon Bonaparte is crowned king of Italy.
1790 Territory South of River Ohio created by Congress
^ 1781 US Congress approves national bank project
      1781 was a big year for Robert Morris, the Philadelphia merchant who guided, and even helped finance, the Revolutionary War effort. First, he was appointed chief of finance, charged with steering and stabilizing the nation’s finances during its early days as a nation. And, on 26 May, Congress approved Morris's proposal for a national bank. After months of wrangling and debate, during which "radical egalitarians" lobbed attacks at the Morris' putatively privileged institution, the newly christened Bank of North America received the United States’s very first bank charter on 31 December 1781. Modeled after the Bank of England, Morris’ Philadelphia-based bank proved to be a fast success and inspired Alexander Hamilton to found the Bank of New York in 1791.
      However, the Bank’s good fortunes failed to rub off on Morris, who, after serving in various political offices, made an ill-fated foray into land speculation. Morris wound up bankrupt and was forced to spend three years (1798-1801) in debtors’ prison.
1736 Battle of Ackia (La), British and Chickasaw Indians defeat the French .
1670 A treaty is signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV ending hostilities between them. Although seldom seen on the battlefield, King Louis XIV masterminded the rise of France to a world power.
1647 A new law bans Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty is banishment or death for a second offense.
1573 On the inland lake of Haarlemmermeer the Dutch and Spanish navies meet in battle. It is in the middle of the Dutch Revolt against Spain. — MORE AT ART “4” MAY about the painting Battle of Haarlemmermeer, 26 May 1573 (1621) by Vroom [1563 – 02 Feb 1640 buried], and the historical background, including the role of the Sea Beggars.
1521 Martin Luther is banned by the Edict of Worms because of his religious beliefs and writings.
1328 William of Ockham forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII
1232 Pope Gregory IX sent the first Inquisition team to Aragon in Spain, after turning it over to the Dominicans the previous year.
0017 Germanicus of Rome celebrates his victory over the Germans.
TO THE TOP
< 25 May 27 May >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 26 May:

2006 Tiffany Souers, 20, civil engineering student at Clemson University, South Carolina, is strangled with a bikini top, early in the morning, in her off-campus apartment a few kilometers from the university. — (060602)
2006 Édouard Michelin, born on 13 August 1963, drowns while fishing, managing partner and CEO of the Michelin company. He was the great-grandson of Édouard Michelin [23 Jun 1859 – 25 Aug 1940], co-founder of the company, in 1888, with his brother André Jules Michelin [16 Jan 1853 – 04 Apr 1931]. — (060527)
2006 Ten Taliban rebels and one policeman of the patrol they ambush in Ghazni province, Afghanistan. — (060526)
2003 Gretchen Cross of Vermont, born on 23 September 1892 in Colorado.
2003 Bull, shot by a police sharpshooter in Lancaster, England, after it escaped from an animal auction and charged into — worse than a china shop — nearby G and B Antiques' warehouse, where it destroyed antique china and other collectibles.
2003 Samr Arar, 11, Palestinian boy shot in the head by Israeli troops firing at a crowd of stone throwers in a village near Ramallah, West Bank, in the evening.

2003:: 62 Spanish soldiers and 13 crew members, who are all those on board a chartered Yakolev-42 plane of the Ukrainian company Sredizemnomorske, which, at 04:45 crashes into a mountain on its third attempt to land in thick fog for refueling at Trabzon, Turkey, and ammunition explodes. The Spaniards were 40 from the Army , 21 from the Air Force, and 1 from the Guardia Civil. They were returning home from Kabul, Afghanistan, where they were part of the peacekeeping force. 12 of the crew members were Ukrainian, 1 was Belarussian.
— List of the dead Spaniards (with their place of birth):
From the Army:
  • the coronel José Ramón Solar Ferro (Noja, Cantabria)
  • the 4 comandantes: the veterinario José Antonio Fernández Martínez (Madrid) — Antonio Novo Ferrero (Guitiriz, Lugo) — Felipe Antonio Perla Muedra (Madrid) — José Manuel Ripollés Barrios (Sidi Ifni)
  • the 6 capitanes: Manuel Gómez Generes (Pamplona) — Ignacio González Castilla (Madrid) — Santiago Gracia Royo (Zaragoza) — Juan Ignacio López de Borbón (Madrid) — José María Muñoz Damián (Zaragoza) — Jesús Mariano Piñán del Blanco (Gijón, Asturias)
  • the 4 tenientes: Antonio Cebrecos Ruiz (Santander) — Mario González Vicente (Madrid) — Sergio Maldonado Franco (Herrera de Pisuerga,Valladolid) Subteniente Godofredo López Cristóbal (Valdeolivas, Cuenca)
  • the subteniente Godofredo López Cristóbal (Valdeolivas, Cuenca)
  • the 7 brigadas (Sgt. Majors): César Garciela González (Vigo) — Juan Bonel Suárez (Madrid) — Francisco Javier Cobas Ligero (Ceuta) — Miguel Angel Díaz Caballero (Granada) — Emilio Gonzalo López (Madrid) — Juan Carlos Jiménez Sánchez (Madrid) — José Ignacio Pacho González (Bilbao)
  • the 7 sargentos primeros: Blas Aguilar Ortega (Valencia) — Francisco de Alarcón García (Valencia) — Francisco Javier Hernández Sánchez (Murcia) — Sergio López Sáez (Zaragoza) — Iñigo Maldonado Franco (H.de Pisuerga, Palencia) — Rafael Martínez Micó (Alfafar, Valencia) — Alberto Antonio Mustienes Luesma (Zaragoza)
  • the 6 sargentos: David González Paredes (Zaragoza) — Eduardo Hernández Mañez (Valencia) — Juan Ramón Maneiro Cruz (Madrid) — Juan Jesús Nieto Mesa (Montehermoso, Cáceres) — José Gabino Nve Hernández (Bata, Guinea) — Miguel Sánchez Alcázar (Villanueva de los Infantes, Ciudad Real)
  • the 3 cabos primeros: Juan Jesús Rivas Rodríguez (Salamanca) — Feliciano Vegas Javier (Cáceres) — José Ignacio Viciosa García (Palencia)
  • the cabo José Israel Ferrer Navarro (Albacete)
    From the Air Force:
  • the teniente David Gil Fresnillo (Segovia)
  • the subteniente Joaquín Alvarez Vega (San Esteban de Pravia, Asturias)
  • the 4 brigadas: José María Pazos Vidal (Marín, Pontevedra) — Eduardo Rodríguez Alonso (Sotes, La Rioja) — Francisco Moro Aller (Valdesogo, León) — Pedro Rodríguez Alvarez (Sotes, La Rioja)
  • the alférez (cadet) David Paños Saá (Madrid)
  • the 5 sargentos primeros: José M. Sencianes López (Málaga) — José Luis Moreno Murcia (Barcelona) — Miguel A. Algaba García (Madrid) — Ismael Hipólito Lor Vicente (Zaragoza) — José Antonio Tornero Rodenas (Albacete)
  • the sargento Francisco J. Cardona Gil (Valencia)
  • the 3 cabos primeros: Fernando España Aparisi (Valencia) — Vicente Agulló Canda (Lalín, Pontevedra) — Juan C. Bohabonay Domínguez (Las Palmas)
  • the cabo Javier Gómez de la Mano (León)
  • the 4 soldados: David García Díaz (Santander) — Edgar Vilardell Iniesta (Hospitalet de Llobergat, Barcelona) — Carlos Oriz García (Zaragoza). — Miguel Angel Calvo Puentes (Madrid)
    From the Guardia Civil:
  • the comandante Francisco Javier García Gimeno (Ceuta)

    [below: the plane completely broken up into small pieces]
  • the plane disintegrated

    2002 Andrew Clements, 35, an Army soldier; Norman OK detective Wayne Martin, and his wife, Susan; Misty Johnson, 28, her husband, James Johnson, 30, and their daughter Shay Nicole Johnson, 3; Gail Shanahan, 49, Maggie Green; and some 8 others as a dozen vehicles fall into the 3~meter deep Arkansas River when a 150~meter section of a highway I~10 606-meter-long bridge collapses, hit by two towed barges at about 08:00, near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. The Johnsons, from Lavaca, Ark., were en route to Tulsa. Horse trainers Shanahan and Green were returning to Texas with a trailer hauling four horses which also drowned. The Martins were heading to Arkansas for a family reunion.
    [photos below : one end of the collapsed bridge section rests on top of the barges]
    collapsed bridge collapsed bridge
    2002 Ribsy, 16, thrown out of a window of the 23rd floor downtown Manhattan apartment of Eugenia Miller, its human (Ribsy was a terrier-poodle mix dog), by her ex-boy friend, John Jefferson, 43, in a rage after a two-day binge of crack cocaine, after he had thrown out her television, air conditioner, stereo, and clothing off the balcony. After pleading guilty, Jefferson would be sentenced, on 19 December 2002, to 2 years in prison for the murder of Ribsy, and another 10 years for robbery (a 22 May knifepoint holdup), burglary (his forcible entry into Miller's apartment), contempt of court, and stalking Miller..
    2001 Bethany Nolan, at the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, as an emergency operation fails to correct her heart and other problems. She is then surgically separated from Alyssa Nolan with whom she was born conjoined at the head on 03 May 2001.
    ^ Brazill at trial, 8 May 20012000 Barry Grunow, 35, teacher of English at Community Middle School, in Lake Worth, just south of West Palm Beach.
    shot dead by skinny seventh grader Nathaniel Brazill, 13, on the last day of the school year. The boy earned A's and B's, he was on the honor roll, a "model student" with perfect attendance, a flute player, he had been picked to be a student mediator at the school next fall,.he loved to joke around. Mr. Grunow had taught at the school for seven years; he was married and had a 5-year-old son and an infant daughter.
          Barry had been sent home by an assistant principal at about 13:00 (local time) for throwing water balloons in class. At home, the boy took a compact 8-cm "Raven" semi-automatic pistol loaded with four bullets. He had stolen it from his grandfather's dresser drawer a week before. He had talked about getting a gun from his grandfather's house a few weeks ago after an argument with a boy over a girl, but no one took him seriously.
         The boy rode his bicycle back to school a couple hours later with the gun in his pocket. He went to Mr. Grunow's class. Stretched across the front of the room over a blackboard was a banner that read: "Welcome to Mr. Grunow's Class." Mr. Grunow was standing out in the hall, telling everybody to go back into class because it wasn't time to be dismissed." Barry was trying to talk to two girls from the class. The teacher told him to leave, the boy pulled out the gun and shot Gunrow in the face.
          Not long afterwards, Barry, on his bicycle, flagged down a police officer about 400 m from the school and surrendered. He told investigators he liked Grunow, who was popular with students. Brazill would stand trial as an adult in May 2001 and, on 27 July 2001, be sentenced to 28 years in prison without possibility of parole.
    [< photo: Nathaniel Brazill, now 14, testifies at his murder trial at the Palm Beach county courthouse in West Palm Beach, Florida, 8 May 2001].
    1993 Tahar Djaout, poète et journaliste algérien, assassiné.
    1991 All 223 aboard a Lauda Air Boeing 767 which crashes in Thailand, due to an engine thrust reverser inexplicably activated shortly after takeoff.
    ^ Ellsworth1951 Lincoln Ellsworth, 71.
         Born on 12 May 1880, Ellsworth [photo >] was a US explorer, engineer, and scientist who led the first trans-Arctic (1926) and trans-Antarctic (1935) air crossings.
         A wealthy adventurer, Ellsworth was a surveyor and engineer in Canada for five years (1903-08), worked for three years with the US Biological Survey, and served in the US Army in World War I, training as an aviator. In 1924 he led the Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, Md.) trans-Andean topographic survey from the Amazon River basin to the Pacific shores of Peru.
          Fascinated with polar air exploration, he financed and accompanied two such expeditions with the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. On the first (1925) they reached latitude 87º44' N in two amphibian planes; an emergency landing without radio caused them to be given up for lost. After 30 days of grim effort, they carved out a takeoff field on the rough polar ice pack, after which one plane, overloaded with the total party of six, returned to Spitsbergen (now Svaalbard), off northern Norway.
          The following year Ellsworth and the Italian explorer Umberto Nobile made the first crossing of the North Polar Basin in the dirigible Norge — a 5463-kilometer journey from Spitsbergen to Alaska that won worldwide acclaim. In 1931 Ellsworth made a 1300-kilometer canoe trip through central Labrador and later that year, for the American Geographical Society, made flights over Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya — Arctic islands north of Russia.
          In 1935, on the third of four private expeditions to the Antarctic, he and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon flew across the continent from the Antarctic Peninsula to the Little America base on Ross Ice Shelf; they completed the journey on foot after running out of fuel. The area they covered, including the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains, is now named Ellsworth Land and Marie Byrd Land. In 1939 he again flew over Antarctica and named the American Highland in the Indian Ocean quadrant.
    1926 Frank Nelson Cole, US mathematician born on 20 September 1861. He was the first to factor (with a computer it would be easy) 267 – 1 = 147573952589676412927 = 761838257287 x 193707721 (he used quadratic remainders).
    1913 José Vela Zanetti, pintor y académico español. —(080526)
    1902 Jean Joseph Benjamin Constant, French painter and printmaker born on 10 June 1845, specialized in Orientalism. — MORE ON CONSTANT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    ^ 1871: The martyrs of the Commune of Paris.
         The revolutionary party which took possession of the city after the siege of Paris by the Prussians began, in the last days of March, to arrest the priests and religious to whom personal character or official position gave a certain prominence. No reason was given for these arbitrary measures, except the hatred with which the leaders of the Commune regarded the Catholic Church and her ministers.
         The third group of martyrs perished on 26 May; the revolutionists were now driven back by the steady advance of the regular troops, and only the heights of Belleville were still in the possession of the Commune. Over fifty prisoners were taken from the prison of La Roquette and conducted on foot to this last stronghold of the revolution. Among them were eleven ecclesiastics: three Jesuits, four members of the Congregation of the Sacred Heart and Mary, three secular priests, and one seminarist. All displayed heroic courage, the best known among them was Father Olivaint, rector of the Jesuit house of the Rue de Sèvres, who thirsted for martyrdom. After a painful journey through the streets, which were filled with an infuriated rabble, the prisoner were herded into an enclosure, called the cité Vincennes, on the height of Belleville. Here they were hacked to pieces by a crowd of men, women, and even children. There was no attempt to organize a regular execution like the one at La Roquette; the massacre lasted an hour, and most of the bodies were disfigured beyond recognition. Only a few hours later the regular troops forced their way to La Roquette, delivered the prioners that still remained there, and took possession of Belleville, the stronghold of Commune.
    ^ 1868 Michael Barrett, 27, an Irish man, is hanged in front of Newgate jail, for a crime which he probably did not commit. It is the last public execution in England.
         He was arrested in mysterious circumstances in Glasgow some weeks after the Clerkenwell Explosion, sent to London and charged with causing the explosion. The Clerkenwell Explosion was part of a desperate attempt by London Fenians to rescue two leading Fenians, Richard Burke and Joseph Casey, from prison. A cask of gunpowder was fired close to the wall of the Clerkenwell House of Detention, on 13 December 1867 at 15.45, a time when the prisoners were allowed into the yard for exercise. The prison authorities, however, were forewarned, and, on that day, the prisoners had been exercised in the morning instead. So the attempt failed. The explosion destroyed several neighboring houses causing the death of 12 persons and wounding some 120.
          The Fenians (or Irish Republican Brotherhood) was a nationalist secret society whose name derives from the Fianna Eireann, the legendary band of Irish warriors led by the fictional Finn MacCumhaill. In Ireland the society was founded in 1858 by James Stephens. The name Irish Republican Brotherhood continued to be used after Fenianism proper had died out in the early 1870s. Arthur Griffith [31 Mar 1871 – 12 Aug 1922], a member of the Brotherhood, founded the Irish nationalist party Sinn Féin (“We Ourselves”) in 1905.
         The Fenian uprising was prepared by the Fenian Irish Republican Brotherhood early in 1867 with the aim of winning independence for Ireland. It was to start on 05 March. The organizers planned to conduct guerilla warfare from bases in woods and mountainous areas. However the Fenians military inexperience and the fact that the authorities got to know their intentions prevented the plan from succeeding. Armed revolt broke out only in some eastern and southern counties. The insurgents seized several police barracks and stations and for a short time gained control of the town of Killmalock in County Limerick. There were also clashes with the police in the suburbs of Dublin and Cork. Half of the 169 insurgents brought to trial were sentenced to hard labor.
          Michael Barrett was tried with Anne Justice, William and Timothy Desmond, Nicholas English, and John O'Keeffe, on 20 April, O'Keeffe on the 24 and the two Desmonds and English on the 27. On this latter day Barrett was found guilty and condemned to death.
          Barrett was probably innocent of the crime of which he was convicted. The police may have made him the scapegoat to convince the public that it had successfully solved the case. A young boy called Wheeler is suspected of having been forced by the police to testify that he knew Barrett and saw him at the scene of the crime. Another prosecution witness called Bird was probably bribed. The court chose to disbelieve eight citizens who made the journey from Glasgow to testify that Barrett had been there when the explosion had taken place.
          In fact a plausible theory is that the whole Clerkenwell plot was engineered by the police. Why would the Fenians have planned an explosion so powerful that it might well have killed the prisoners, if they had been in the yard? By whom were the prison authorities forewarned? The aftermath was the opposite of what the Fenians would have hoped. The Manchester executions had brought much sympathy and support for the Fenians, not only in Ireland but also in England. But the Clerkenwell rescue attempt and the disastrous results of the explosion ended this.
         Barrett's speech from the dock, made without notes, included biblical quotations and lasted 40 minutes. He maintained his innocence and stated that he never wilfully, maliciously or intentionally injured any fellow human being that he was aware of. "No", he said, "not even in character."
    1868 , an Irish fenian is hanged in front of Newgate Jail, for the explosion by which he had attempted to blow up the Clerkenwell prison.
    1851 Bertrand-Georges de Bayle
    , French artist born on 22 October 1788.
    1821 Marie-Françoise-Constance Mayer-Lamartinière, French Neoclassical painter born in 1775. — more with links to images.
    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    1794 (7 prairial an II):
    Domiciliés à Serrant, département du Morbihan, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
    MAYEUX Pierre, prêtre réfractaire, et attaché à la commune, comme réfractaire à la loi.
    MERLEY Jacquette, femme Gusmart, et TREGAROT Jeanne, femme Clément, comme receleuses de prêtre réfractaire.
    Par le tribunal révvolutionnaire séant à Cambray (Nord):
    DENIS Benoît, fabricant de toilettes, domicilié à Lesdain, comme convaincu d'espionnage.
    FONTAINE Henri Joseph, domicilié à Caudry, comme ayant conduit des fourrages à l'ennemi.
    GARGAU Hector Antoine Joseph, ex noble, le 7 prairial an 3, comme ayant voulu faire assassiner les patriotes.
    LAGACHE Hector Joseph, employé dans l'administration de vivres, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    LEPELVE Jean Joseph, jardinier, domicilié au faubourg de Cambray, comme convaincu d'espionnage.
    MILON Pierre (dit Belair), garde-des-bois, 80 ans, comme ayant porté sur son habit des boutons aux armes du ci-devant roi.
    POUILLÉ Jean Baptiste, domicilié à Cambray, comme déserteur, s'étant enrôlé dans les troupes autrichiennes.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    MILCENT Claude Louis Michel, Créole, 54 ans, né et domicilié à St Dominique, avant la révolution, capitaine d'une milice Bourgeoise, et d'une compagnie d'hommes de couleurs, et membre de l'assemblée provinciale du Cap; en 1790, il vint faire sa résidence en France, rédigea un journal nommé le Créole patriote, comme ayant fait une fausse déposition, mais Robespierre avait juré sa perte.
    HANNONET Jean Baptiste Marie, 51 ans, receveur des sels, du district de Noyon né à Guissard, domicilié à Noyon (Oise), comme conspirateur, pour avoir tenu des propos tendant à opérer la dissolution de la convention nationale.
    1793:
    DURANT Pierre Jean, fils, domicilié à Campagnac (Aveyron), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    RIOT Joseph, maire de landaul, domicilié à Landoaul (Morbihan), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    1785 Niccolo Guardi, Italian artist born on 09 December 1715.
    1709 Bernardus van Schendel, Dutch artist born in 1649.
    1691 Jacob Leiser, leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Mary's succession to the throne, is executed for treason.
    1637 Some 500 Pequot Amerindians, massacred       ^top^
         In the first major "battle" of the Pequot War, an allied Puritan and Mohegan force under English captains John Mason and John Underhill attacked a Pequot village in Connecticut, completely destroying the village and massacring some 500 Indian women, men, and children.
          As the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay spread further into Connecticut, they came into conflict with the Pequots, a warlike tribe centered along the Thames River in southeastern Connecticut. By the spring of 1637, thirteen English colonists and traders had been killed by the Pequot, and Massachusetts Bay governor John Endecott organized a large military force to punish the Indians.
          On 23 April, two hundred Pequot warriors responded defiantly to the colonial mobilization by attacking a Connecticut settlement, killing six men and three women, and taking two girls away.
          Two hours before dawn on 26 May 1837, the Puritan and their Indian allies marched on the Pequot village at Mystic, slaughtering all but a handful of its inhabitants. On 05 June, Captain Mason attacked another Pequot village, this one near present-day Stonington, Connecticut, and again the Indians inhabitants were defeated and massacred. On 28 July, a third attack and massacre occurred near present-day Fairfield, Connecticut, and the Pequot War came to an end. Most of the surviving Pequot were sold into slavery, although a handful escaped to join other southern New England tribes.
    1592 Dirck Barendsz, Dutch painter and draftsman born in 1534. — more
     
    < 25 May 27 May >
    Births which occurred on a 26 May:
    1951 Sally Ride, astronaut, the first US woman to ride in a space vehicle.
    ^ 1937 San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge opens.
          San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge, a stunning technological and artistic achievement, opens to the public after five years of construction. On opening day, "Pedestrian Day", some 200'000 bridge walkers marvel at the 1280-meter-long suspension bridge, which spans the Golden Gate Strait at the entrance to San Francisco Bay and connects San Francisco and Marin County. On 28 May, the Golden Gate Bridge opened to vehicular traffic. The concept of bridging the nearly mile-wide Golden Gate Strait was proposed as early as 1872, but it was not until the early 1920s that public opinion in San Francisco began to favor such an undertaking. In 1921, Cincinnati-born bridge engineer Joseph Strauss submitted a preliminary proposal: a combination suspension-cantilever that could be built for $27 million. Although unsightly compared with the final result, his design was affordable, and Strauss became the recognized leader of the effort to bridge the Golden Gate Strait. During the next few years, Strauss' design evolved rapidly, thanks to the contributions of consulting engineer Leon S. Moisseiff, architect Irving F. Morrow, and others. Moisseiff's concept of a simple suspension bridge was accepted by Strauss, and Morrow, along with his wife, Gertrude, developed the Golden Gate Bridge's elegant Art Deco design. Morrow would later help choose the bridge's trademark color: "international orange," a brilliant vermilion color that resists rust and fading and suits the natural beauty of San Francisco and its picturesque sunsets. In 1929, Strauss was selected as chief engineer.
          To finance the bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District was formed in 1928, consisting of San Francisco, Marin, Sonoma, Del Norte, and parts of Mendocino and Napa counties. These counties agreed to collectively take out a large bond, which would then be paid back through bridge tolls. In November 1930, residents of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District voted 3-1 to put their homes, farms, and businesses up as collateral to support a $35 million bond to build Strauss' Golden Gate Bridge. Construction began on 05 January 1933, at the height of the Great Depression. Strauss and his workers overcame many difficulties: strong tides, frequent storms and fogs, and the problem of blasting rock 20 meters below the water to plant earthquake-proof foundations. Eleven men died during construction. On 27 May 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge is opened to great acclaim, a symbol of progress in the Bay Area during a time of economic crisis. At 1280 meters, it was the longest bridge in the world until the completion of New York City's Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in 1964. Today, the Golden Gate Bridge remains one of the world's most recognizable architectural structures.
    -Golden Gate Bridge-
    1931 Sven Herman Axel Delblanc, Swedish scholar, novelist, and playwright, who died of cancer on 15 December 1992. He mixed realism with the fantastic. A recurrent theme in Delblanc's work is the conflict between human freedom and overpowering social system. Delblanc's breakthrough book was Prästkappan (1963), a picaresque tale, based on the Hercules myth but set in the 18th-century Germany.
    1910 CEO (Chase Manhattan Bank)
    ^ 1910 Laurance Spelman Rockefeller, [–11 Jul 2004], US venture capitalist and philanthropist, who died on 11 July 2004. He was the third of the five sons of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. [29 Jan 1874 – 11 May 1960].
          He graduated from Princeton University with a degree in philosophy (1932) but became the most business-minded of all the Rockefeller brothers. He participated in the founding of Eastern Airlines (1938) and, within a few years, held the largest share of the company's stock (100 percent of its preferred). He was also associated with McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. During World War II he was in the U.S. Navy. After the war he engaged in a wide range of investments, from resort hotels to nuclear equipment and computers. In later life he became more involved in various conservation programs, especially as chairman of the Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality (1969–1973), president of the American Conservation Association, and chairman of the New York Zoological Society.
    1907 Marion Michael MorrisonJohn Wayne "The Duke" [–11 Jun 1979], Academy Award-winning actor: True Grit [1969], Hondo, Rio Bravo - over 200 films.
    1903 Carey Estes Kefauver [–10 Aug 1963] (Sen-D-Tn). After leading a much-publicized investigation into organized crime in the early 1950s, he sought the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States, in 1952 and again in 1956. In 1956, he was selected by the Democratic National Convention to be the running mate of presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson [05 Feb 1900 – 14 Jul 1965].
    1899 Otto Neugebauer, Austrian historian of ancient mathematics. He died on 19 February 1990.
    1898 Max Gubler, Swiss painter who died on 29 July 1973. — links to a biography and images.
    1896 Yuri Dmitrievich Sokolov, Ukrainian mathematician who died on 02 February 1971.
    1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average's first day, created by journalist Charles Henry Dow, founder of the Wall Street Journal. The original 12 stocks in the industrial average are: American Cotton Oil, American Sugar, American Tobacco, Chicago Gas, Distilling & Cattle Feeding, General Electric, Laclede Gas, National Lead, North American, Tennesee Coal & Iron, US Leather preferred, US Rubber. General Electric is the only one among the 30 stocks in the average in 2000. See http://averages.dowjones.com/ddorigin.html
    1893 Vilhelm Henry Lundstrom, Danish artist who died in 1950.
    1878 Spencer Frederick Gore, British painter who died on 27 March 1914. — MORE ON GORE AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1874 Ernest Leonard Blumenschein, US painter who died in 1960, specialized in the US West. — links to images.
    1868 (25 May?) Jules Alexandre Grün, French painter, illustrator, and poster artist who died on 15 February 1934. — MORE ON GRÜN AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1867 Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes of Teck, the only daughter of Prinz von Teck, who was a member of the royal house of Württemberg. She was also a great-granddaughter of king George III of Great Britain. On 06 July 1893 she married George, duke of York [03 Jun 1865 – 20 Jan 1936], who became king George V on 06 May 1910. She became the the mother of kings Edward VIII [23 Jun 1894 – 28 May 1972] and George VI [14 Dec 1895 – 06 Feb 1952]. She died on 24 March 1953.
    ^ 1859 Alfred Edward Housman , English scholar and poet who died on 30 April 1936. His lyrics express a Romantic pessimism in a spare, simple style.
         Housman, whose father was a solicitor, was one of seven children. He much preferred his mother; and her death on his 12th birthday was a cruel blow, which is surely one source of the pessimism his poetry expresses. While a student at Oxford, he was further oppressed by his dawning realization of homosexual desires. These came to focus in an intense love for one of his fellow students, an athletic young man who became his friend but who could not reciprocate his love. In turmoil emotionally, Housman failed to pass his final examination at Oxford, although he had been a brilliant scholar.
          From 1882 to 1892 he worked as a clerk in the Patent Office in London. In the evenings he studied Latin texts in the British Museum reading room and developed a consummate gift for correcting errors in them, owing to his mastery of the language and his feeling for the way poets choose their words. Articles he wrote for journals caught the attention of scholars and led to his appointment in 1892 as professor of Latin at University College, London.
          Apparently convinced that he must live without love, Housman became increasingly reclusive and for solace turned to his notebooks, in which he had begun to write the poems that eventually made up A Shropshire Lad (1896). For models he claimed the poems of Heinrich Heine [13 Dec 1797 – 17 Feb 1856], the songs of William Shakespeare [26 Apr 1564 – 23 Apr 1616], and the Scottish border ballads. Each provided him with a way of expressing emotion clearly and yet keeping it at a certain distance. For the same purpose, he assumed in his lyrics the unlikely role of farm laborer and set them in Shropshire, a county he had not yet visited when he began to write the first poems. The popularity of A Shropshire Lad grew slowly but so surely that Last Poems (1922) had astonishing success for a book of verse.
          Housman regarded himself principally as a Latinist and avoided the literary world. In 1911 he became professor of Latin at Cambridge, teaching there almost up to his death. His major scholarly effort, to which he devoted more than 30 years, was an annotated edition of Astronomica by the 1st century AD Roman didactic poet Marcus Manilius (1903–1930), whose poetry he did not like {who does?} but who gave him ample scope for emendation. Some of the asperity and directness that appears in Housman's lyrics also is found in his scholarship, in which he defended common sense with a sarcastic wit that helped to make him widely feared. A lecture, The Name and Nature of Poetry (1933), gives Housman's considered views of the art. His brother Laurence Housman [18 Jul 1865 – 20 Feb 1959] selected the verses for the posthumous volume More Poems (1936). Housman's Letters appeared in 1971.

    HOUSMAN ONLINE: A Shropshire LadA Shropshire LadA Shropshire LadThe Blue Moon
    Could man be drunk forever

    Could man be drunk for ever
    With liquor, love, or fights,
    Lief should I rouse at morning
    And lief lie down at nights.

    But men at whiles are sober
    And think by fits and starts,
    And if they think they fasten
    Their hands upon their hearts.

    On Wenlock Edge

    On Wenlock Edge the wood's in trouble;
    His forest fleece the Wrekin heaves;
    The gale, it plies the saplings double,
    And thick on Severn snow the leaves.

    'Twould blow like this through holt and hanger
    When Uricon the city stood:
    'Tis the old wind in the old anger,
    But then it threshed another wood.


    Then, 'twas before my time, the Roman
    At yonder heaving hill would stare:
    The blood that warms an English yeoman,
    The thoughts that hurt him, they were there.

    There, like the wind through woods in riot,
    Through him the gale of life blew high;
    The tree of man was never quiet:
    Then 'twas the Roman, now 'tis I.

    The gale it plies the saplings double,
    It blows so hard, 'twill soon be gone:
    To-day the Roman and his trouble
    Are ashes under Uricon.

    1850 Amelie Helga Lundahl, Swedish French artist who died on 20 August 1914.
    1846 Eduard von Grützner, German artist who died in 1925.
    1840 Alfred Wordsworth Thompson, US artist who died on 18 August 1896. — link to an image.
    click for full etching image^ 1822 Edmond-Louis-Antoine Huot de Goncourt French writer who died on 16 July 1896.
    Click here for enlarged 1870 photo by “Nadar” [05 Apr 1820 – 21 Mar 1910]
    {Click on image for etching portrait by Bracquemond [28 May 1833 – 27 Oct 1914] >}.

          Edmond and his brother Jules-Alfred Huot de Goncourt [17 Dec 1830 – 20 Jun 1870] were constant collaborators who, despite and partly because of neurotic sensibility, contributed solidly to the Naturalistic novel, social history, and art criticism. Above all, they are remembered for their perceptive, revealing Journal and for Edmond's legacy, the Académie Goncourt, which annually awards a prize to the author of an outstanding work of French literature.
          The Goncourts' widowed mother left them an income that enabled the brothers to live in modest comfort without working and rescued Edmond from a treasury clerkship that had driven him to suicidal despair. The brothers immediately began to lead a life doubly dominated by aesthetics and self-indulgence. Amateur artists, they first made a sketching tour of France, Algeria, and Switzerland. Back home in their Paris flat, they made a fetish of orderly housekeeping, but their lives were continually disordered by noises, upset stomachs, insomnia, and neurasthenia. Neither of them married. All the mistresses appearing in the Journal no doubt belonged to Jules, whose fatal stroke presumably was preceded by syphilis.
          From attempts at art the brothers turned to plays and in 1851 published a novel, En 18, all without success. As journalists, they were arrested in 1852, though later acquitted, for an “outrage against public morality,” which consisted of quoting mildly erotic Renaissance verses in one of their articles. The brothers achieved more success with a series of social histories, which they began publishing in 1854. These drew on private correspondence, newspaper accounts, brochures, even dinner menus and dress patterns to recreate the life of specific periods in French history. As art critics, the Goncourts' most notable achievement was L'Art du dix-huitième siècle (1859–1875), which helped redeem the reputations of such masters of that time as Antoine Watteau.
          The same meticulous documentation and attention to detail went into the Goncourts' novels. The brothers covered a vast range of social environments in their novels: the world of journalism and literature in Charles Demailly (1860); that of medicine and the hospital in Soeur Philomène (1861); upper middle-class society in Renée Mauperin (1864); and the artistic world in Manette Salomon (1867). The Goncourts' frank presentation of upper and lower social classes and their clinical dissection of social relations helped establish Naturalism and paved the way for such novelists as Émile Zola and George Moore. The most lasting of their novels, Germinie Lacerteux (1864), was based on the double life of their ugly, seemingly impeccable servant, Rose, who stole their money to pay for nocturnal orgies and men's attentions. It is one of the first realistic French novels of working-class life. Most of the other novels, however, including Madame Gervaisais, suffer from overly long exposition and description, excessive detail, and mannered, artificial language.
          The Goncourts began keeping their monumental Journal in 1851, and Edmond continued it for 26 more years from Jules's death in 1870 until his own. The diary weaves through every social stratum, from the hovels where the brothers sought atmosphere for Germinie Lacerteux to dinners with great men of the day. Full of critical judgments, scabrous anecdotes,descriptive sketches, literary gossip, and thumbnail portraits, the complete Journal is at once a revealing autobiography and a monumental history of social and literary life in 19th-century Paris. The Académie Goncourt, first conceived by the brothers in 1867, was officially constituted in 1903.
    1814 Albertus Steenbergen, Dutch artist who died in 1900.
    1810 Christen Købke, Danish Realist painter who died on 07 February 1848. — MORE ON KØBKE AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1788 Baby without a brain born to Mary Clark of England.
    1667 Abraham de Moivre, French Hugenot mathematician, who would be a refugee in England from 1685 (18 Oct 1685: révocation de l'Édit de Nantes), and would die there on 27 November 1754. He pioneered the development of analytic geometry and the theory of probability. (De Moivre's theorem). Author of The Doctrine of Chance (1718).
    1787 Franz Steinfeld, Austrian artist who died on 05 November 1868.
    1759 John-Nost Sartorius, British artist who died in 1828. — links to images.
    Holidays  Guyana : Independence Day (1966)

    Religious Observances RC : St Eleutherius, pope [175-178], martyr / RC, Ang : Augustine, English Apostle, first abp of Canterbury (opt) / RC : St Philip Neri, priest
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “If reality wants to get in touch with me, it knows where I am."
    “If reality wants to get in touch with me, I'm not here."
    “If reality wants to get in touch with me, it's unreal."
    “If reality wants to get in touch with me, I want to know why."
    “If reality wants to get in touch with me, I would be happy to make its acquaintance."
    “If reality wants to get in touch with me, what does it want from me?”
    “Life is a tragedy full of joy.”
    — Bernard Malamud, US author [26 Apr 1914 – 18 Mar 1986].
    “Life is a comedy full of sorrow.”

    “Life is a drama lit by a brief candle.”
    “Do not burn the midnight candle at both ends.”

    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4may/h4may26.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4may/h4may26.html
    http://www.geocities.com/history4may/history/h4may/h4may26.html
    updated Monday 26-May-2008 22:29 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.40 Wednesday 16-May-2007 2:58 UT
    v.6.51 Sunday 04-Jun-2006 2:26 UT
    v. 5.40 Wednesday 04-May-2005 1:23 UT
    Wednesday 26-May-2004 4:49 UT

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