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Events, deaths, births, of 25 MAY
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• Grizzly becomes threatened species... • English Restoration... • Police represses union... • Ypres offensive stops... • UK coalition government... • US Constitutional Convention... • Fenians attack Canada... • Martyrs of the Commune... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Inspiration for Der Tod in Venedig... • Emerson is born... • 1st Battle of Winchester... • Lincoln suspends habeas corpus... • National Front in Saigon... • New Viet Cong offensive... • Shakespeare allowed in China... • Flight 191 crashes... • 1st ordination in US... • 1st international WWW conference... • 1st US copyright law...
^  On a 25 May:
^ 2005 Report on Human Rights in 2004 is released by Amnesty International
     It covers the five regions of the world with impartiality (the worst violators, of course, reject the report with the most energy):
Africa  / America / Asia and Pacific / Europe and Central Asia / Middle East and North Africa
including the following 149 countries:
Central Africa
  Central African Republic
  Democratic Republic of Congo
  Equatorial Guinea

Southern Africa
  South Africa
East Africa

West Africa
  Burkina Faso
  Côte d'Ivoire
  Sierra Leone
Central America
  El Salvador

South America
North America

  Dominican Republic
  Trinidad & Tobago
East Asia
  North Korea
  South Korea

South-East Asia
  Brunei Darussalam
  Viet Nam
South Asia
  Sri Lanka

  New Zealand
  Papua New Guinea
  Solomon Islands
Eastern Europe
  Czech Republic
  Slovak Republic

Baltic States

Western Europe
Commonwealth Of Independent States
  Russian Federation

South-East Europe
  Serbia and Montenegro
Middle East
  Israel/Occupied Territories
  Palestinian Authority
Middle East
  Saudi Arabia
North Africa
  Morocco/Western Sahara
The US under the “Dubya” Bush regime does not commit the very worst human rights violations in the world, but, because it is the most influential country, and the one which most loudly proclaims its alleged commitment to freedom and democracy, its human rights violations, which are well publicized and shocking enough, have the most damaging effect worldwide.
2000 Iranian state radio announced that former President Hashemi Rafsanjani had resigned from the incoming parliament, depriving hard-liners of a leading figure in the power struggle between conservatives and reformists.
2000 The US government proposed a rating system telling consumers how prone vehicles are to rolling over
^ 1994 First International World Wide Web Conference
opens at CERN, the European Particle Physics Lab in Geneva. The two-day conference was heavily oversubscribed: Some eight hundred people applied, but only four hundred were admitted. Sometimes referred to as the "Woodstock of the Web," the conference generated new directions for the Internet.
      The Web had evolved at CERN under the guidance of British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee, who had started work in 1989 on a hypertext system that would enable documents to "link" to each other easily. By 1990, he had created the basic structure of the World Wide Web, which was posted on the Internet in the summer of 1991.
      Berners-Lee continued to develop the Web through 1993, working with feedback from Internet users. By late 1991 and early 1992, the Web was widely discussed, and in early 1993, Marc Andreessen and other computer graduate students at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released the Mosaic browser, Netscape's precursor.
1994 The media report that Compaq Computer Corporation had unseated IBM and Apple as the world's leading computer seller. Compaq would retain its lead position throughout the rest of the decade. Compaq's US market share reached 12.4%, beating out Apple's top ranking: Apple's share slipped from 13.5% to 10.4%. Apple's decline in market share would continue, dwindling to 3% by 1997.
1993 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU aprueba la creación de un Tribunal Internacional de Crímenes de Guerra en la ex Yugoslavia.
1992 El democristiano Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, tras trece días de votaciones, es elegido presidente de la República italiana.
1991 Foreigners fled the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa as rebels closed in on the city.
1991 Israel completed "Operation Solomon," which had evacuated 15'000 Ethiopian Jews to their promised land.
1989 Sesión constitutiva del Congreso de Diputados del Pueblo — nuevo Parlamento soviético — que ratifica a Mijail Sergueevich Gorbachov como presidente del Soviet Supremo.
1985 Juan Pablo II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] nombra 28 nuevos cardenales, entre ellos el arzobispo de Madrid, Angel Suquía Goicoechea [02 Oct 1916 – 13 Jul 2006]. —(080524)
1984 Claudio Sánchez Albornoz, de 90 años, premio Príncipe de Asturias de Comunicación y Humanidades.
1981 Daniel Goodwin, wearing a "Spiderman" costume, scales the outside of Chicago's Sears Tower in 7 1/2 hours.
1980 Jacek Wszoka of Poland sets high jump record (2.34 m)
1979 Israel begins to return Sinai to Egypt
^ 1977 Chinese government removes ban on Shakespeare
      A new sign of political liberalization appears in China, when the communist government lifts its decade-old ban on the writings of William Shakespeare. The action by the Chinese government was additional evidence that the Cultural Revolution was over. In 1966, Mao Tse-Tung, the ruler of the People's Republic of China, announced a "Cultural Revolution," which was designed to restore communist revolutionary fervor and vigor to Chinese society. His wife, Chiang Ching, was made the unofficial secretary of culture for China. What the revolution meant in practice, however, was the assassination of officials deemed to have lost their dedication to the communist cause and the arrest and detention of thousands of other officials and citizens for vaguely defined "crimes against the state." It also meant the banning of any cultural work — music, literature, film, or theater — that did not have the required ideological content. By the early 1970s, however, China was desperate to open new and improved relations with the West, particularly the United States, partially because of its desire for new sources of trade but also because of its increasing fear of confrontation with the Soviet Union. President Richard Nixon's 1973 trip to China was part of this campaign. In October 1976, the Cultural Revolution was officially declared ended, and the May 1977 announcement of the end of the ban on the works of William Shakespeare was clear evidence of this. It was a move that cost little, but was sure to reap public relations benefits with Western society that often looked askance at China's puritanical and repressive cultural life. Together with the announcement that the ban was lifted, the Chinese government also stated that a Chinese-language edition of the Bard's works would soon be available.
^ 1975 Grizzly bear is classified as a threatened species
      The grizzly bear, once the undisputed king of the western wilderness of North America, is given US federal protection as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Before the Anglo-Americans began invading their territory, the grizzly bear inhabited most of the country west of the Mississippi from Mexico north to the Arctic Circle. Its only serious competitors for food were the Amerindians, who considered it a sacred animal-although they did hunt the bear as a test of strength and its long claws were prized symbols of status. Because of the grizzly's fearsome size and aggressive nature, most early European explorers of the West noted their encounters with the animal. During their expedition to the Pacific, Lewis and Clark encountered many of the bears and were awed by their impressive speed and power. On 01 July 1805, while the expedition was making the slow portage around the Great Falls of the Missouri River in Montana, Lewis wrote in his journal that grizzlies were all around their camp. "We have therefore determined to beat up their quarters tomorrow," he continued, "and kill them or drive them from their haunts about this place."No more bears there !
      Because of such hunting and the general destruction of their habitat, the grizzly began to disappear in concert with the settlement of the West. California, which is estimated to have once been home to 10'000 grizzlies and placed the animal's image on its state flag, no longer had any of the bears by 1924. During subsequent decades, grizzlies gradually disappeared from their native homes in Texas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Kansas, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, the Dakotas, and probably Colorado and Washington. Outside of Alaska, by the 1970s small populations of bears remained only in a few isolated wilderness areas and national parks in Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho. In a last ditch effort to halt the decline, Congress designated the grizzly a threatened species on this day in 1975. Protected from hunting and trapping, grizzly populations have slowly begun to recover. However, there are still probably fewer than 1000 grizzlies in the lower 48 states today, nearly half of them in Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks. Recently, plans to reintroduce the species into two wilderness areas in Idaho and Washington have met with controversy. The future of the grizzly bear will depend on human willingness to share their habitats with the bears and set aside areas of wilderness large enough for them to survive.
^ 1969 National Democratic Front formed in Saigon
      South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu assumes personal leadership of the National Social Democratic Front at its inaugural meeting in Saigon. Thieu said the establishment of this coalition party was "the first concrete step in unifying the political factions in South Vietnam for the coming political struggle with the communists," and emphasized that the new party would not be "totalitarian or despotic." The six major parties comprising the NSDF coalition were: the Greater Union Force, composed largely of militant Roman Catholic refugees from North Vietnam; the Social Humanist Party, successor to the Can Lao party, which had held power under the Ngo Dinh Diem regime; the Revolutionary Dai Viet, created to fight the French; the Social Democratic Party, a faction of the Hoa Hao religious sect; the United Vietnam Kuomintang, formed as an anti-French party; and the People's Alliance for Social Revolution, a pro-government bloc formed in 1968.
^ 1968 New Viet Cong offensive on Saigon.
      The Communists launch their third major assault of the year on Saigon. The heaviest fighting occurred during the first three days of June, and again centered on Cholon, the Chinese section of Saigon, where US and South Vietnamese forces used helicopters, fighter-bombers, and tanks to dislodge deeply entrenched Viet Cong infiltrators. A captured enemy directive, which the US command made public on 28 May, indicated that the Viet Cong saw the offensive as a means of influencing the Paris peace talks in their favor.
1963 Organization for African Unity formed by Chad, Mauritania and Zambia, , in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..— Se firma en Addis Abeba el Acta de fundación de la Organización para la Unidad Africana (OUA).
1961 President Kennedy asked the US to work toward putting a man on the moon by the end of the decade.
1960 Auriol annonce qu'il ne siégera plus au Conseil constitutionnel, car le régime s'oriente "vers un système de pouvoir personnel et arbitraire"
1947 El Senado de EE.UU. aprueba el Acta Nacional de Seguridad, por la que se crea la CIA.
1946 Transjordan (now Jordan) gains independence from Britain, becoming a kingdom as it proclaimed its new monarch, King Abdullah Ibn Ul-Hussein. (National Day) — Transjordania se proclama Estado independiente.
1945 Arther C Clark proposes relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit
1940 Charles de Gaulle (colonel depuis le 25 décembre 1939) est nommé général de brigade à titre temporaire.
1927 Henry Ford stops producing Model T car (begins Model A)
1926 El jefe rifeño Abd-el-Krim se rinde en Marruecos a las fuerzas francesas.
^ 1915 Coalition government in UK.
     Herbert Asquith was born in Morley, Yorkshire in 1852. Educated at the City of London and Balliol College, Oxford, he became a lawyer in 1876. In the 1886 General Election Asquith was elected as the Liberal MP for East Fife. He was a member of the opposition for his first six years in the House of Commons but after the 1892 General Election, William Gladstone formed a new Liberal administration. Gladstone had been impressed by Asquith and appointed him as Home Secretary. Asquith held the post until the Marquees of Salisbury and the Conservatives took power in 1895.
      The Liberals were out of power until the 1906 General Election. The new Prime Minister, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, gave Asquith the important post of Chancellor of the Exchequer. Asquith's strong opposition to women's suffrage made him extremely unpopular with the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). Suffragists were particularly angry that the man who was responsible for deciding how much tax they paid, should deny them political representation. Several times in 1906, members of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) made attempts to disrupt meetings where he was speaking.
      In April 1908, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman resigned and Asquith replaced him as Prime Minister. Working closely with David Lloyd George, his radical Chancellor of the Exchequer, Asquith introduced a whole series of reforms including the Old Age Pensions Act and the People's Budget that resulted to a conflict with the House of Lords.
      The Conservatives, who had a large majority in the House of Lords, objected to this attempt to redistribute wealth, and made it clear that they intended to block these proposals. David Lloyd George reacted by touring the country making speeches in working-class areas on behalf of the budget and portraying the nobility as men who were using their privileged position to stop the poor from receiving their old age pensions. After a long struggle with the House of Lords Asquith and the Liberal government finally got his budget through parliament.
      With the House of Lords extremely unpopular with the British people, the Liberal government decided to take action to reduce its powers. The 1911 Parliament Act drastically cut the powers of the Lords. They were no longer allowed to prevent the passage of 'money bills' and it also restricted their ability to delay other legislation to three sessions of parliament.
      When the House of Lords attempted to stop this bill's passage, Asquith, appealed to George V for help. Asquith, who had just obtained a victory in the 1910 General Election, was in a strong position, and the king agreed that if necessary he would create 250 new Liberal peers to remove the Conservative majority in the Lords. Faced with the prospect of a House of Lords with a permanent Liberal majority, the Conservatives agreed to let the 1911 Parliament Act to become law.
      Although several leading members of the government favored granting women the vote, Asquith still opposed the measure. However, during the 1910 General Election campaign Asquith announced that if he was returned to power he would make sure that women with property would get the franchise. When Asquith changed his mind in November 1911 and instead announced legislation that would enable all adult males to vote, the WSPU organized a window breaking campaign including an attack on Asquith's home.
      After the outbreak of the First World War Asquith made strenuous attempts to achieve political solidarity and on 25 May 1915 Asquith forms a coalition government. Gradually the Conservatives in the cabinet began to question Asquith's abilities as a war leader. So also did Lord Northcliffe, the powerful newspaper baron, and his newspapers, The Daily Mail and The Times led the attack on Asquith. In December, 1916 David Lloyd George agreed to collaborate with the Conservatives in the cabinet to remove Asquith from power.
      Lloyd George's decision to join the Conservatives in removing Herbert Asquith split the Liberal Party. In the 1918 General Election, many Liberals supported candidates who remained loyal to Asquith. Despite this, Lloyd George's Coalition group won 459 seats and had a large majority over the Labour Party and the Liberal Party.
      Asquith lost his seat in East Fife in 1918 and William Wedgwood Benn led the groups opposed to Lloyd George's government. John Benn, who was also opposed to Lloyd George, gave the group the name, Wee Frees, after a small group of Free Church of Scotland members who refused to accept the union of their church with the United Presbyterian Church.
      The Conservative members of the coalition government decided to replace David Lloyd George with Andrew Bonar Law in October, 1922. In the General Election that followed, the Conservatives won 345 seats. Only 54 Liberals in the House of Commons supported Lloyd George whereas Asquith had the support of 62 MPs.
      Asquith returned to the House of Commons after the 1923 General Election when he was elected to represent Paisley. Herbert Asquith, who was granted the title, the Earl of Oxford in 1925, died in 1928.
^ 1915 Germans abandon Ypres offensive.
     Ypres, a medieval town in Belgium, was taken by the German Army at the beginning of the war. However, by early October, 1914, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was able to recapture the town. The 1st Battle of Ypres took place between 15th October and 22nd November, 1914. It is estimated that about 135'000 Germans were killed or badly wounded during this offensive.
      In April, 1915, the German launched another major offensive at Ypres. After a brief preliminary bombardment, the Germans used chlorine gas against the French and Algerian troops defending the area north of the town. The troops fled in terror and left a 7 km gap in the Allied line. Wearing primitive gas-masks, the Germans advanced cautiously into the gap. The arrival of the British Second Army blocked the German advance but the Allied forces had been disadvantaged by the loss of the high ground north of Ypres.
      Heavy fighting and frequent gas attacks continued around Ypres until 25th May. The Allied line held, but the German Fourth Army was able to use its new higher positions to bombard the town with heavy artillery. This inflicted heavy losses and Ypres was virtually demolished by the German shells during this period.
1914 British House of Commons passes Irish Home Rule — Irlanda obtiene un estatuto de autonomía limitada.
1911 The "20 November 1910" revolution in Mexico finally overthrows President Diaz
^ 1911 Thomas Mann gets inspiration for Der Tod in Venedig as he visits the Lido
     Possibly modeled on Wagner [22 May 1813 – 13 Feb 1883] who died in Venice (of heart failure), the main character of the novel, Gustav von Aschenbach, is an aging German writer who is the paragon of solemn dignity and fastidious self-discipline. Determinedly cerebral and duty-bound, he believes that true art is produced only in "defiant despite" of corrupting passions and physical weaknesses.
     When Aschenbach has the urge to travel, he tells himself that he might find artistic inspiration from a change of scene. Aschenbach's subsequent trip to Venice is the first indulgence he has allowed himself in years; it signals the beginning of his decline. Aschenbach allows the languid Venetian atmosphere and gently rocking gondolas to lull him into a defenseless state. At his hotel he notices an extremely beautiful fourteen-year-old Polish boy named Tadzio, who is visiting with his mother, sisters, and governess. At first, Aschenbach's interest in the boy is purely aesthetic, or so he tells himself. However, he soon falls deeply and obsessively in love with the boy, although the two never have direct contact.
     Aschenbach spends days on end watching Tadzio play on the beach, even following his family around the streets of Venice. Cholera infects the city, and although the authorities try to conceal the danger from the tourists, Aschenbach soon learns the facts about the lethal epidemic. However, he cannot bear to leave Tadzio and stays on in Venice. He becomes progressively daring in his pursuit of the boy, gradually becoming more and more debased, until he finally dies of the cholera, degraded, a slave to his passions, stripped of his dignity.
      Mann [06 Jun 1875 – 12 Aug 1955] was born in Germany, the second son of a grain merchant who expected Thomas to take over the business. His father died when Mann was 15, and his mother moved the family to Munich. Mann worked as a clerk at an insurance company and studied to become a journalist. In 1898, he published his first collection of stories, followed by his first novel, Buddenbrooks (1901), the saga of a family's decline from wealth. He published two more novellas, Tonio Kröger and Tristan, in 1903.
      Mann married in 1905 and later fathered six children. In 1912, his novella Death in Venice was published. The story of a revered German writer who chooses to stay in cholera-stricken Venice to gaze on a beautiful young man he's never met, the book considers the dilemma of the artist's position in society. Mann published numerous essays about great thinkers like Freud, Goethe, and Nietzsche and continued to write novels. In 1924, he published his acclaimed book The Magic Mountain, the story of a young man who visits a tuberculosis sanitorium and finds a microcosm of society.
      Five years later, Mann won the Nobel Prize. When Hitler came to power, Mann moved to Switzerland, then to the US in 1938. Mann lived in Santa Monica, California, from 1941 to 1953. His later work includes Joseph and His Brothers (1934) and Doctor Faustus (1947). Mann died in Switzerland in 1955.
     Other works of Thomas Mann: Königliche Hoheit, Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen, 1918, (Reflections of an Unpolitical Man), essays. Der Zauberberg, 1924, translated to The Magic Mountain, 1927, a novel, which won him the Nobel Prize in 1929. Mario und der Zauberer, 1930, translated to Mario and the Magician, 1934. Lotte in Weimar, 1939, a novel. Appel an die Vermunft, 1930, translated to Appeal to Reason, 1942, an essay. Achtung Europa! and Deutsche Hörer, 1945, collections of his anti-Hitler broadcasts to Germany. Leiden und Gröbe der Meister, 1933, translated to The Sufferings and Greatness of the Masters, 1947, literary essays. The Beloved Returns, a novel. Die vertauschten Köpfe, 1940, translated to The Transposed Heads, 1941, a short novel. Joseph and his Brothers, a tetralogy of novels. Doktor Faustus, 1947, translated 1948, a novel. Der Erwählte, 1951. Die Betrogene, 1953. Bekenntnisse des Hochstapler's Felix Krull, Part I, 1954, translated to Confessions of Felix Krull: Confidence Man, 1955, a novel. JOHN CAREY'S BOOKS OF THE CENTURY in The Sunday Times Books, 15th. August, 1999, page 7. "This is Thomas Mann's only comic novel. It shares themes with his serious work, but surrounds them with mockery. The effect is wonderfully enlivening - like chatting with a brainy friend after he has had a few drinks." "Mann kept it by him for years, adding to it from time to time, but never finished it. That is no surprise. It is a novel you never want to stop reading, so stopping writing it would surely have been a wrench." Last Essay, translated 1959. Sketch of My Life,
"Gustav von Aschenbach war etwas unter Mittelgröße, brünett, rasiert. Sein Kopf erschien ein wenig zu groß im Verhältnis zu der fast zierlichen Gestalt. Sein rückwärts gebürstetes Haar, am Scheitel gelichtet, an den Schläfen sehr voll und stark ergraut, umrahmte eine hohe, zerklüftete und gleichsam narbige Stirn. Der Bügel einer Goldbrille mit randlosen Gläsern schnitt in die Wurzel der gedrungenen, edel gebogenen Nase ein. Der Mund war groß, oft schlaff, oft plötzlich schmal und gespannt; die Wangenpartie mager und gefurcht, das wohlausgebildete Kinn weich gespalten. Bedeutende Schicksale schienen über dies meist leidend seitwärts geneigte Haupt hinweggegangen zu sein, und doch war die Kunst es gewesen, die hier jene physiognomische Durchbildung übernommen hatte, welche sonst das Werk eines schweren bewegten Lebens ist. ... Sie beglückt tiefer, sie verzehrt rascher. Sie gräbt in das Antlitz ihres Dieners die Spuren imaginärer und geistiger Abenteuer, und sie erzeugt, selbst bei klösterlicher Stille des äußeren Daseins, auf die Dauer eine Verwöhntheit, Überfeinerung, Müdigkeit und Neugier der Nerven, wie ein Leben voll ausschweifender Leidenschaften und Genüsse sie kaum hervorzubringen vermag."
— Thomas Mann: Der Tod in Venedig, Zweites Kapitel
1883 Se establece en Alemania, por idea de Otto von Bismarck, el Seguro de Enfermedad, con lo que este país se adelantó a las demás naciones de Europa en materia social.
1876 The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland (org. 1743) united with the Free Church of Scotland (org. 1843) to form the new Free Church of Scotland. (In 1929 the Free Church merged with the Mother Church, afterward retaining the name Church of Scotland.)
^ 1870 Canada attacked by Fenians
      John O'Neill, 36, one of the top Fenian leaders, with his followers, attacks Canada for the second time, after years of threatening to do so. Born in Ireland, O'Neill had immigrated to the United States at the age of 14. After serving as a Union cavalry officer during the US Civil War, O'Neill  settled in Tennessee. He became interested in the Fenian scheme of capturing Canada and holding it hostage in order to secure Irish freedom from Great Britain. O'Neill gathered troops from his area and in 1866 led a Nashville detachment to Buffalo in preparation for the assault on Canada. With 600 men he crossed the Niagara River and took the Canadian village of Fort Erie. Before British troops could retaliate, O'Neill's force defeated a group of Canadian militiamen at the Battle of Limestone Ridge and fled back to the United States. There he was arrested for violating the neutrality laws, but the charges were dropped.
      The Canadians repulsed O'Neill's 1870 raid along the Vermont border, O'Neill's troops fled, and he was arrested by a US marshall. Convicted and sentenced to two years in prison, O'Neill served only three months before being pardoned by President Ulysses S. Grant.
1864 Battle of New Hope Church, Georgia
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1862 Battle of First Winchester, Virginia
^ 1862 First Battle of Winchester, Virginia
      Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson notches a victory on his brilliant campaign in the Shenandoah Valley. Jackson, with 17'000 soldiers under his command, was sent to the Shenandoah to relieve pressure on the Confederate troops near Richmond, who were facing the growing force of George McClellan on the James Peninsula. In early May, Jackson struck John C. Fremont's force at McDowell, in western Virginia. After driving Fremont out of the area, Jackson turned his attention to an army under the command of Nathaniel Banks, situated at the north end of the Shenandoah Valley. With only 10,000 troops, Banks had the unenviable task of holding off the fast-moving Jackson. On 25 May, Jackson found Banks outside of Winchester. He attacked the Union force but was initially repulsed. The Confederates then struck each Union flank, and this time the Yankee line broke. A confused retreat ensued through the town of Winchester, and even some residents fired on the departing Yankees. Banks fled the Shenandoah into Maryland, and Jackson continued his rampage. The Union lost 62 killed, 243 wounded, and over 1700 captured or missing, while Jackson's men lost 68 killed and 329 wounded. The numbers from Jackson's 1862 valley campaign are stunning. His men marched 550 km in a month; occupied 60'000 Yankee soldiers, preventing them from applying pressure on Richmond; won four battles against three armies; and inflicted twice as many casualties as they suffered. Jackson's record cemented his reputation as one of the greatest generals of all time.
^ 1861 US President Lincoln unconstitutionally suspends the writ of habeas corpus
      During the US Civil War, John Merryman, a state legislator from Maryland, is arrested for attempting to hinder Union troops from moving from Baltimore to Washington during the Civil War and is held at Fort McHenry by Union military officials. His attorney immediately seeks a writ of habeas corpus so that a federal court could examine the charges. However, President Abraham Lincoln decides to suspend the right of habeas corpus, and the general in command of Fort McHenry refuses to turn Merryman over to the authorities.
      Federal judge Roger Taney, the chief justice of the Supreme Court (and also the author of the infamous Dred Scott decision), issues a ruling that President Lincoln did not have the authority to suspend habeas corpus. Lincoln didn't respond, appeal, or order the release of Merryman. But during a July 4 speech, Lincoln was defiant, insisting that he needed to suspend the rules in order to put down the rebellion in the South.
      Five years later, a new Supreme Court essentially backed Justice Taney's ruling: In an unrelated case, the court held that only Congress could suspend habeas corpus and that civilians were not subject to military courts, even in times of war.
      This was not the first or last time that the US federal government willfully ignored its own laws during times of strife. In the worst instance, hundreds of thousands of Japanese Americans were illegally sent to concentration camps following the attack on Pearl Harbor and the US's entry into World War II. The Supreme Court also condemned this blatant violation of civil rights, but not until after all the Japanese Americans had been released. Fifty years later, those held in the internment camps were awarded some monetary compensation by the US government
1846 Le prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, neveu de Napoléon 1er, s'évade du fort de Ham, déguisé en ouvrier avec une solive sur l'épaule, après six ans de captivité pour cause de complot contre l'État. Deux ans plus tard, le révolutionnaire sera le premier président de la République française et aux cinq ans, il restaurera à son profit le titre d'empereur.
1810 Argentina declares independence from Napoleonic Spain (Natl Day) — La población de Buenos Aires, al enterarse de la caída de Sevilla en manos francesas y de la disolución de la Junta que ejercía el poder en nombre del destronado Fernando VII, depone al último virrey, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros y la Torre, y constituye la Junta Provisional del Río de la Plata. — La bourgeoisie créole de Buenos Aires chasse le vice-roi d'Espagne. Elle commence à songer à l'indépendance.
^ 1805 Police represses union
      The history of the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers is marked by some heady milestones, including their twin distinctions as both the first and oldest trade union in the United States. However, on this day in 1805, members of the Cordwainers were part of an ignoble event that presaged labor's troubles with management over the next two centuries.
      In the midst of a strike aimed at winning better wages, the shoemakers were confronted by local police. Acting under orders from a local judge, the officers not only stopped the strike, but also arrested a number of the Cordwainers on charges of criminal conspiracy. In particular, the strikers were accused of violating an English common law that barred schemes aimed at forcing wage increases. As it turned out, these charges, and the subsequent arrests, had stemmed from the Cordwainers’ employers, who had appealed to the court to intervene in the strike. The event marked the first, though hardly the last time, that employers would turn to the judicial system to help smash a strike.

^ 1793 First Catholic priest ordained in the US
      In Baltimore, Father Stephen Theodore Badin, 25, becomes the first Catholic priest to be ordained in the United States. Badin is ordained by Bishop John Carroll, an early advocate of US Catholicism, and appointed to the Catholic mission in Kentucky. Badin afterward served as a frontier missionary, and played a key role in establishing Catholicism in Kentucky, Indiana and Tennessee during the early nineteenth century.
      In British colonial America, there were few English-speaking Catholics outside of Maryland, which was established in 1634 as a haven for Roman Catholics persecuted in England. One hundred years later, John Carroll was born in Baltimore into a prominent Catholic family. As secondary Catholic education was forbidden by the British colonial authorities, Carroll traveled to Europe, where he was ordained in 1769. Returning to America, he aided the Patriot cause during the Revolutionary War, and in 1790 was chosen by the Vatican to become the first bishop of the US Catholic Church.
      Carroll supported the separation between church and state, and advocated an autonomous US clergy that would elect its own bishops and carry out its own training. In his early years as bishop, he endorsed the use of English in the liturgy, and in 1793 presided over the first ordination of a Catholic priest on US soil. Although the US Catholic Church grew substantially under Carroll’s leadership, it was the mass immigration of Catholics from Ireland, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Balkans during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that made Catholicism a major force in US religious life.
1790 First US copyright protection law enacted       ^top^
by Congress, and President George Washington signs the bill six days later. Copyright protection extended for fourteen years, with renewal rights granted only to living filers. Until 1981, software was protected only by copyright law, not by patent law. As a result, the general concepts and ideas behind software-such as the spreadsheet-were not given the same measure of protection as hardware, making it much easier to copy software ideas directly.
^ 1787 The US Constitutional Convention begins
      Four years after the United States won independence, fifty-five state delegates (enough delegates for a quorum), including Revolutionary War hero George Washington, convene in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to establish a new US government.
      In 1786, defects in the post-Revolutionary Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce. Congress endorsed a plan to draft a new constitution, and on 25 May 1787, the Constitutional Convention begins its proceedings at Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania State House. The building, which is now known as Independence Hall, had earlier seen the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the signing of the Articles of Convention.
      On 17 September 1787, after three months of debate moderated by convention president George Washington, the new US constitution, which created a strong federal government with an intricate system of checks and balances, was signed by thirty-eight of the forty-one delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine out of the thirteen states.
      Beginning on 07 December, five states — Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut — ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document as it failed to reserve powers not delegated by the Constitution to the states, unless specifically prohibited, and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press, and the right to bear arms.
      In February of 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On 21 June 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on 04 March 1789.
      At the first session of the US Congress, held in New York City on the appointed day, only nine of twenty-two senators and thirteen of fifty-nine representatives showed up to begin negotiations for the Constitution's amendment. Sixth months later, the first Congress of the United States adopted twelve amendments to the US Constitution — the Bill of Rights — and sent them to the states for ratification. This action led to the eventual ratification of the Constitution by the last of the thirteen original colonies: North Carolina and Rhode Island.
      Four years after the United States won its independence from England, 55 state delegates, including George Washington, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin, convene in Philadelphia to compose a new US constitution. The Articles of Confederation, ratified several months before the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781, provided for a loose confederation of US states, which were sovereign in most of their affairs. On paper, Congress — the central authority — had the power to govern foreign affairs, conduct war, and regulate currency, but in practice these powers were sharply limited because Congress was given no authority to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops. By 1786, it was apparent that the Union would soon break up if the Articles of Confederation were not amended or replaced. Five states met in Annapolis, Maryland, to discuss the issue, and all the states were invited to send delegates to a new constitutional convention to be held in Philadelphia. On 25 May 1787, delegates representing every state except Rhode Island convened at Philadelphia's Pennsylvania State House for the Constitutional Convention. The building, which is now known as Independence Hall, had earlier seen the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the signing of the Articles of Confederation. The assembly immediately discarded the idea of amending the Articles of Confederation and set about drawing up a new scheme of government. Revolutionary War hero George Washington, a delegate from Virginia, was elected convention president.
      During three months of debate, the delegates devised a brilliant federal system characterized by an intricate system of checks and balances. The convention was divided over the issue of state representation in Congress, as more populated states sought proportional legislation, and smaller states wanted equal representation. The problem was resolved by the Connecticut Compromise, which proposed a bicameral legislature with proportional representation in the lower house (House of Representatives) and equal representation of the states in the upper house (Senate). On 17 September 1787, the Constitution of the United States of America was signed by 38 of the 41 delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine of the 13 states. Beginning on 07 December, five states — Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut — ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document, as it failed to reserve undelegated powers to the states and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
      In February 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On 21 June 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on 04 March 1789. On 25 September 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted 12 amendments to the US Constitution — the Bill of Rights — and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of these amendments were ratified in 1791. In November 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the US Constitution. Rhode Island, which opposed federal control of currency and was critical of compromise on the issue of slavery, resisted ratifying the Constitution until the US government threatened to sever commercial relations with the state. On 29 May 1790, Rhode Island voted by two votes to ratify the document, and the last of the original 13 colonies joined the United States. Today the US Constitution is the oldest written constitution in operation in the world.
1784 Jews are expelled from Warsaw by Marshall Mniszek.
1720 Le navire Grand-Saint-Antoine, entre dans le port de Marseille. Il ramène de Syrie un passager clandestin, le bacille de la peste. En quelques mois, la ville de Marseille va perdre la moitié de ses 100'000 habitants.
^ 1660 The English Restoration
      Under invitation by leaders of the English Commonwealth, Charles II, the exiled king of England, lands at Dover, England, to assume the throne and end eleven years of military rule.
      Prince of Wales at the time of the English Civil War, Charles fled to France after Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarians defeated King Charles I’s Royalists in 1646. In 1649, Charles vainly attempted to save his father’s life by presenting Parliament a signed blank sheet of paper, thereby granting whatever terms were required. However, Oliver Cromwell was determined to execute Charles I, and on 30 January 1649, the king was beheaded in London.
      After his father's death, Charles was proclaimed king of Scotland and parts of Ireland and England, and traveled to Scotland to raise an army. In 1651, he invaded England but was defeated by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester. Charles escaped to France, and later lived in exile in Germany and then in the Spanish Netherlands.
      After Cromwell’s death in 1658, the English republican experiment faltered. Cromwell’s son Richard proved an ineffectual leader and the public resented the strict Puritanism of England’s military rulers.
      In 1660, in what became known as the English Restoration, General George Monck met with Charles and arranged to restore him in exchange for a promise of amnesty and religious toleration for his former enemies. On 25 May 1660, Charles lands at Dover, and four days later enters London in triumph. In the first year of the Restoration, Oliver Cromwell was posthumously convicted of treason and his body disinterred from its tomb in Westminster Abbey and hanged from the gallows at Tyburn.
1521 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V pronounces Martin Luther an outlaw and heretic for refusing to recant his teachings while at the Diet of Worms (held the previous month).
1410 Juan XXIII alcanza el solio pontificio.
1244 Jaime I, rey de Aragón, y el Infante don Alfonso, en nombre de Fernando III de Castilla, firman el tratado de Almizra en el Campo de Mirra (Alicante), acuerdo por el que se establecen los límites entre aragoneses y castellanos..
1085 Alfonso VI of Castile captures Toledo, Spain, bringing the Moorish center of science into Christian hands.
— 585 -BC- first known prediction of a solar eclipse.
< 24 May 26 May >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 25 May:

2006 Ahmed Rachid; Nasser Ali Hatem; and Wissam Adel Odah; murdered by Islamist terrorist in the afternoon in the Saidiya district of Baghdad, Iraq, because they were wearing shorts. Rachid was the coach of Iraq's olympic tennis team, of which the other two were members. — (060528)
2005 Gregory Scott Johnson [18 Feb 1965–], by lethal injection in Indiana, for the 23 June 1985 beating and stomping murder of Ruby Hutslar, 82, during burglary of her home which he then set on fire. Johnson was denied a reprieve which he had sought in order to donate his liver to his sister, 48, who suffers from nonalcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. His heavy weight and hepatitis B antibodies make him an unsuitable donor.
2005 Sunil Dutt, born on 06 June 1929, is found dead of an unexpected heart attack in his suburban Mumbai home. He was the Sports Minister of India, had been elected to Parliament 5 times, but was best known as an actor in 102 movies such as Mother India (1957), Waqt (1965), Reshma Aur Shera, Geeta Mera Naam, Gumraah, Waqt, Humraaz, Khandaan, Padosan, and Milan.
2004 Ali Abbas Mohammed, 13, by a car bomb near the roadside stall where he and his father, Abbas Mohammed, 40, sold cigarettes, drinks, food, in Baghdad, Iraq, near the Australian embassy.
2003 Siegfried F. Widera, 62, of head injuries as he was being taken to a hospital after jumping from his hotel room's second story balcony in Mazatlán, Mexico, when police were about to arrest him at the request of police in California and Wisconsin, where he was accused of 42 counts of child molestation. Widera was ordained a Catholic priest in 1967. In 1973 he was convicted of sexual misconduct with an adolescent boy in the Milwaukee area and sentenced to three years' probation. In 1976, he was moved from Milwaukee to Orange County, California, where he was laicized in 1985 following more accusations of sexual abuse of boys.
2003 Father Antonio Ferrua SJ, 102, Vatican archeologist who was in charge of the 1940s excavation under St. Peter's Basilica which discovered the tomb and bones of Saint Peter.
2002 Palestinian newborn son of Fadia Mustafa, dies in the morning after she was delayed by Israeli Army barriers on her way to the hospital.
2002 All 206 passengers and 19 crew members aboard a China Airlines Flight C1611, a Boeing 747~200, which, at 15:30, suddenly explodes at 10'000 m altitude, breaks up into four pieces, and crashes in the Taiwan Straits north of the Penghu islands, about 50 km Taiwan's coast, 20 minutes after taking off from Taipei bound for Hong Kong.
2002:: Over 200 persons as a passenger train rams into the rear of a freight train collide at the station in Moamba, Mozambique, at about 05:00. Some 400 are injured.
2001 Azzam Mizher, 24, by bomb in a package an arms dealer had left with him and other Palestinian gunmen, in the Balata refugee camp, West Bank. Four others are wounded. This brings the body count of the al-Aqsa intifada to to 478 Palestinians and 85 Israelis.
2001 Hussein Abu Nasser, 22, as his suicide-bomb-truck exploded prematurely under gunfire from an Israeli army outpost at the Netzarim junction, which it was approaching at high speed after bypassing a roadblock. Nasser was a Hamas member and a student of Islamic culture at the Islamic University in Gaza City, resident of the Jebaliya refugee camp near Gaza City.
2001 Two Islamic Jihad suicide bombers, in Hadera, Israel, attack, as their car carrying explosives explodes (prematurely?) alongside an Israeli bus near the central bus station.
^ 1979:: 273 persons in the crash of Flight 191.
      On Friday afternoon, Memorial Day weekend, American Airlines Flight 191, a Los Angeles-bound DC-10, takes off at 3:03 PM CDT from Chicago-O'Hare International airport with 271 aboard. As Flight 191 raises its front during the initial stage of the take-off, an engine under the left wing breaks off with its pylon assembly and falls to the runway. The aircraft climbs to about 100 meters above the ground, and then begins to spin to the left, continuing its leftward roll until the wings are past the vertical position, with the nose pitched down below the horizon. Moments later, the aircraft crashes into an open field about 800 meters from its takeoff point, killing all 271 people aboard and two others in a nearby trailer park. It is the worst domestic air crash in US history. Mechanics had ignored proper procedure in reattaching one of the DC-10's 5900-kg wing engine and pylon assemblies after servicing, and cracked the engine mount, which fatigued and broke, allowing the engine to fall off.
1971 Jo Etha Collier young black woman killed by 3 whites in Drew Mississippi.
1971 Gustave-Adolphe Mossa, Nice French artist and writer, born on 28 January 1883. — MORE ON MOSSA AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1963 Tommaso Boggio, Italian mathematician born on 22 December 1877.
1956 Johann Radon, Austrian mathematician born on 16 December 1887. He applied the calculus of variations to differential geometry which led to applications in number theory. He discovered curves whch are now named after him. His best known results involve combining the integration theories of Lebesgue and Stieltjes. He did not discover radon gas, that was done in 1900 by the German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn.
1944 Inhabitants of Tito's home village, massacred by Nazi troops. Germany launches Operation Knight's Move, in an attempt to seize Yugoslav communist partisan leader Tito. Using parachute drops and glider troops, German forces land in the Yugoslavian village of Drvar, where Josep Broz Tito, leader of the anti-Axis guerilla movement, is believed to be. The village is decimated: men, women, and children are all killed by German troops in search of Tito, who escapes.
1944 Hundreds of Hungarian Jews, shot after they flee on way to gas chamber. As several hundred Hungarian Jews are being led to a gas chamber in Birkenau (a supplementary camp, part of the Auschwitz complex known as Auschwitz II), they run into the woods, suspecting their fate. Searchlights flood the surrounding area, enabling the SS, who controlled the camp, to shoot all those who fled. This is the second such revolt in three days.
1927 Cristóbal Magallanes Jara [30 Jul 1869–] and Agustín Caloca Cortés [05 May 1898–], Mexican saints, shot in Colotlán, Jalisco (Diocese of Zacatecas), for the crime of being Catholic priests, during the Cristero uprising, which they opposed. _ .Magallanes nació en Totaltiche, Jalisco. (Arquidiócesis de Guadalajara). Párroco de su tierra natal. Sacerdote de fe ardiente, prudente director de sus hermanos sacerdotes y pastor lleno de celo que se entregó a la promoción humana y cristiana de sus feligreses. Misionero entre los indígenas huicholes y ferviente propagador del Rosario a la Santísima Virgen María. Las vocaciones sacerdotales eran la parte más cuidada de su viña. Cuando los perseguidores de la Iglesia clausuraron el Seminario de Guadalajara, él se ofreció para fundar en su parroquia un Seminario con el fin de proteger, orientar y formar a los futuros sacerdotes y logró abundante cosecha. El 25 de mayo de 1927 fue fusilado en Colotlán, Jal. (Diócesis de Zacatecas). Frente al verdugo confortó a su ministro y compañero de martirio, Padre Agustín Caloca, diciéndole: “Tranquilízate, hijo, Dios quiere mártires; sólo un momento y después el cielo”. Luego dirigiéndose a la tropa, exclamó: “Yo muero inocente, y pido a Dios que mi sangre sirva para la unión de mis hermanos mexicanos”.
     Caloca nació en San Juan Bautista del Teúl, Zacatecas. Ministro en la parroquia de Totatiche y Prefecto del Seminario Auxiliar establecido en la misma población, para quienes fue un modelo de pureza sacerdotal. Fue hecho prisionero después de ayudar a escapar a los seminaristas y conducido a la misma prisión en donde se encontraba su párroco el Sr. Cura Magallanes. Un militar, en atención a su juventud, le ofreció la libertad, pero no aceptó si no la concedían también al señor Cura. Frente al pelotón encargado de su ejecución, la actitud y las palabras de su párroco lo llenaron de fortaleza y pudo exclamar: “Por Dios vivimos y por Él morimos”. .— 21 May 2000 canonization homily by Pope John Paul II (translations: English, Italiano, Portugués) —(080517)
1924 Liubov' Sergeyevna Popova, Moscovite Constructivist painter and designer born on 24 April 1889. — MORE ON POPOVA AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1919 Unas 16'000 personas en la erupción del volcán Kloet (Java)

1902 Franz Richard Unterberger, German artist born on 15 August 1838.
1899 Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, político y orador español.
^ 1871 Martyrs of the Commune of Paris.
     The revolutionary party which took possession of the city after the siege of Paris by the Prussians began, in the last days of March, to arrest the priests and religious to whom personal character or official position gave a certain prominence. No reason was given for these arbitrary measures, except the hatred with which the leaders of the Commune regarded the Catholic Church and her ministers.
     (2) The Dominican Fathers, who perished on 25 May, belonged to the College of Arcueil, close to Paris. Their superior was Father Captier, who founded the college and under whose government it had prospered. With him were for religious of his order: Fathers Bourard, Delhorme Cottrault, and Chatagneret, and eight laymen, who belonged to the college, either as professors or as servants. They were arrested on 19 May and imprisoned in the outlying fort of Bicêtre, where they suffered from hunger and thirst.
      On 25 May they were transferred from Bicêtre to a prison within the city, situated on the Avenue d'Italie. The excitement and anarchy that reigned in Paris, and the insults that were levelled at the prisoners as they were led from one prison to another prepared them for the worst; they made their confession and prepared for death. Towards five in the afternoon, they were commanded to go into the street one by one: Father Captier, whose strong faith sustained his companion's courage, turned to them: "Let us go, my friends, for the sake of God". The street was filled with armed men who discharged their guns at the prisoners as they passed. Father Captier was mortally wounded; his companions fell here and there; some were killed on the spot; others lingered on till their assassins put them out of their pain. Their dead bodies remained for twenty-four hours on the ground, exposed to an insult; only the next morning, when the troops from Versailles had conquered the Commune, were they claimed by the victims' friends and conveyed to Arcueil.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1795 (6 prairial an III):
Domiciliés à Paris, par la commission militaire établie à Paris:
BOUCHER Luc, marchand de vin, domicilié à Paris, pour avoir coupé la tête au représentant du Peuple Ferraud dans la convention nationale le 4 prairial an 3.
     ... gendarmes convaincus d'avoir abandonné le poste de l'Arsenal et s'être mêle parmi les révoltés contre la Convention nationale les 3 et 4 prairial an 3:
BENON Charles — CROALA Abraham — CROALA Edme — FOSSIER Pierre — FOURNEL Joseph — GUILLEMAIN Nicolas — HENNEBAUT Jean Baptiste — LACOUR Charles — LAMARCHE Charles Antoine — PACOT François — PRUDHOMME Jean Baptiste — RAGNAUCOURT Aubert — REBOUT Antoine — RICHARD François Charles
1794 (6 prairial an II):
DAVESNES François, manœuvrier, domicilié à Mézières (Ardennes), comme distributeur de faux assignats, , par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray (Nord):
DENIN Albert, conducteur d'artillerie, comme ayant avili et discrédité les assignats.
LOCQUET Caroline, fermier, comme ayant cherché à rétablir la royauté.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
MAUCLAIRE Pierre, brocanteur, 39 ans, né à Troyes (Aube), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir fait des écrits tendants à provoquer la contre-révolution.
PERARD Catherine, 38 ans, blanchisseuse, native de Gigé (Côte-d’Or), domiciliée à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant crié : Vive le roi, vive la reine et sa famille.
PRUDHOMME Pierre, marchand de poissons, 48 ans, né et domicilié Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant crié : Vive le roi, vive la reine et sa famille.
BIRAGUES J. B. Charles, (dit Lisledon), né audit lieu, 58 ans, ex noble, lieutenant des chasses à Montargis, domicilié à Villemondin, canton de Montargis (Loiret), comme conspirateur.
CUVIER Jacques Jean Baptiste, architecte, 42 ans, né à Paris, domicilié à Vanvres (Seine), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
DEMEAUX Marie Anne, femme Hibert, 50 ans, née à N.D. d'Aquin, près Auxerre (Yonne), domiciliée à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
JOLY François, inspecteur général des rôles au département de la Côte-d'Or, 56 ans, né à Pontarlier-sur-Saône, domicilié à Dijon (Côte-d'Or), comme conspirateur.
LANCRY Louis Claude Joseph (dit Prouleroy), ex officier des gardes françaises, 25 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
SALER Nicolas, boulanger, pour avoir servi d'interprète aux troupes Prussiennes, guillotiné à Metz
VIAUD Etienne Benjamin, marin, domicilié à Barbatre (Vendée), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire des Sables.
1699 Julien Franciscus de Geest, Flemish artist.
1689 Charles Erard (or Errard) de Bressuire fils, French painter, draftsman, architect, and writer, born in 1606.
1681 Pedro Calderón de la Barca, dramaturgo español.
1648 Antoine Le Nain, French Baroque era painter born in 1588, who dies just two days after his brother Louis Le Nain [1505 – 23 May 1648], being survived by third brother Mathieu Le Nain “le Chevalier” [1607 – 20 Apr 1677]. All three worked together and their individual works cannot be distinguished. So you can get links to images and read a lot MORE ON all 3 LE NAIN AT ART “4” MAY 23, date of the death of Louis.
1555 Regnier Gemma “Frisius”, Frieslander mathematician born on 08 December 1508. He applied his mathematical expertise to geography, astronomy and map making. He became the leading theoretical mathematician in the Low Countries.
1261 Alexander IV (Rinaldo dei Segni), 62, pope since 1254. Alexander was appointed cardinal deacon (1227) and cardinal bishop of Ostia (1231) by his uncle Pope Gregory IX. After becoming pope, Alexander followed the policies of his predecessor Innocent IV: he continued war on Manfred, Emperor Frederick II's bastard son (who was crowned king of Sicily in 1258), by excommunicating him and investing Edmund, son of Henry III of England, with the papal fief of Sicily. He supported the friars at Paris against the secular professors, extended the Inquisition in France, worked for reunion between eastern Christians and Rome, and attempted in vain to organize a crusade against the Tatars.
1085 St Gregory VII, pope (1073-1085)
< 24 May 26 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 25 May:

Cynara1968 The Gateway Arch, part of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, was dedicated.
1927 Robert Ludlum spy novelist (Bourne Identity)
1922 Enrico Berlinguer, dirigente comunista italiano.
1921 Jack Steinberger, estadounidense nacido en Alemania, Premio Nobel de Física en 1988.
1889 Igor Sikorsky developed a working helicopter.
1882 Gottardo Guido Segantini, Swiss artist who died in 1974.
1879 William Maxwell Aitken Beaverbrook, financiero y político canadiense.
1846 Gustave Jean Jacquet, French artist who died in 1909.
1841 Eugène-Samuel Grasset, Swiss-born French illustrator, decorative artist, and printmaker, who died on 23 October 1917. — more
1840 Cynara, fictional narrator of The Wind Done Gone. (the year is my guess). Cynara [picture >] is a mulatto offspring of the white master and a black mammy on the Georgian plantation 'Tata,' and tells her story of living in the South after the Civil War in 1873. She is the half-sister of 'Other' (Scarlett O'Hara in Gone With the Wind), whose former husband is 'R'. (corresponds to Rhett Butler). The couple 'Dreamy Gentleman' and 'Mealy Mouth' correspond to Ashley and Melanie Wilkes. The Wind Done Gone, by Alice Randall, is a parody of Gone With the Wind, to give the Blacks' point of view. On 25 May 2001 an appeals court overturned a lower court's decision which had imposed prior restraint on the publication of The Wind Done Gone.
1828 Karl Mikhaillovich Peterson, Russian mathematician who died on 19 April 1881. He worked mainly in differential geometry. A class of surfaces is named after him. Author of Über Curven und Flächen (1868).
1817 Cornelis Springer, Dutch painter and printmaker who died on 20 (18?)  February 1891. — MORE ON SPRINGER AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
^ 1803 Ralph Waldo Emerson, lecturer, writer, poet, editor, philosopher, who died on 27 April 1882. He was the leading exponent of New England Transcendentalism of writers and philosophers, a part of the 19th century Romantic movement. They adopted an idealistic system of thought based on a belief in the essential unity of all creation, the innate goodness of man, and the supremacy of insight (over logic and experience) for the revelation of the deepest truths. Their eclectic sources included German transcendentalism (especially as communicated by Samuel Taylor Coleridge [21 Oct 1772 – 25 Jul 1834] and Thomas Carlyle [04 Dec 1795 – 05 Feb 1881), Platonism and Neoplatonism, the Indian and Chinese scriptures, and the writings of such mystics as Emanuel Swedenborg [29 Jan 1688 – 29 Mar 1772] and Jakob Böhme [1575 – 21 Nov 1624].
Ralph Waldo Emerson was the son of the Reverend William Emerson [06 May 1759 – 12 May 1811], a Unitarian clergyman and friend of the arts. The son inherited the profession of divinity, which had attracted all his ancestors in direct line from Puritan days. The family of his mother, Ruth Haskins [09 Nov 1768 – 16 Nov 1853], was strongly Anglican, and among influences on Emerson were such Anglican writers and thinkers as Ralph Cudworth [1617 – 26 Jun 1688], Robert Leighton [1611 – 25 Jun 1684], Jeremy Taylor [bap. 15 Aug 1613 – 13 Aug 1667], and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
      After William Emerson father died, his son was left largely to the intellectual care of his aunt Mary Moody Emerson [25 Aug 1774 – 01 May 1863], who took her duties seriously. In 1812 Emerson entered the Boston Public Latin School, where his juvenile verses were encouraged and his literary gifts recognized. In 1817 he entered Harvard College, where he began his journals, which may be the most remarkable record of the “march of Mind” to appear in the United States. He graduated in 1821 and taught school while preparing for part-time study in the Harvard Divinity School. Though Emerson was licensed to preach in the Unitarian community in 1826, illness slowed the progress of his career, and he was not ordained to the Unitarian ministry at the Second Church, Boston, until 1829. There he began to win fame as a preacher, and his position seemed secure. On 10 (30?) September 1829 he married Ellen Louisa Tucker [1808 – 08 Feb 1831]. After she died of tuberculosis, his grief drove him to question his beliefs and his profession. But in the previous few years Emerson had already begun to question Christian doctrines. His brother William Emerson [31 Jul 1801 – 13 Sep 1868], who had gone to Germany, had acquainted him with the new biblical criticism and the doubts that had been cast on the historicity of miracles. Emerson's own sermons, from the first, had been unusually free of traditional doctrine and were instead a personal exploration of the uses of spirit, showing an idealistic tendency and announcing his personal doctrine of self-reliance and self-sufficiency. Indeed, his sermons had divested Christianity of all external or historical supports and made its basis one's private intuition of the universal moral law and its test a life of virtuous accomplishment. Unitarianism had little appeal to him by now, and on 28 October 1832 he resigned from the ministry.
     When Emerson left the church, he was in search of a more certain conviction of God than that granted by the historical evidences of miracles. He wanted his own revelation, i.e., a direct and immediate experience of God. On 25 December 1832, he left on a trip to Europe. In Paris he saw Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu's collection of natural specimens arranged in a developmental order that confirmed his belief in man's spiritual relation to nature. In England he paid memorable visits to Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth [07 Apr 1770 – 23 Apr 1850], and (on 26 Aug 1833) Thomas Carlyle. After returning home on 09 October 1833, he began to write Nature. He gave his first lecture, "The Uses of Natural History", at the Masonic Temple, Boston, on 05 November 1833 and soon established himself as a popular and influential lecturer. By 1834 he had found a permanent home in Concord, Massachusetts, and on 14 September 1835 he married Lydia Jackson [20 Sep 1802 – 13 Nov 1892] and settled into the kind of quiet domestic life that was essential to his work.
      The 1830s saw Emerson become an independent literary man. During this decade his own personal doubts and difficulties were increasingly shared by other intellectuals. Before the decade was over his personal manifestos, Nature, “The American Scholar” and the Divinity School Address (15 Jul 1838), had rallied together a group that came to be called the Transcendentalists, of which he was popularly acknowledged the spokesman. Emerson helped initiate Transcendentalism by publishing anonymously in Boston on 09 September 1836 a book of 95 pages entitled Nature. Having found the answers to his spiritual doubts, he formulated his essential philosophy, and almost everything he ever wrote afterward was an extension, amplification, or amendment of the ideas he first affirmed in Nature.
      Emerson's religious doubts had lain deeper than his objection to the Unitarians' retention of belief in the historicity of miracles. He was also deeply unsettled by the mechanistic conception of the universe according to the physics of Newton [04 Jan 1643 – 31 Mar 1727] and by the psychology of sensation of Locke [29 Aug 1632 – 28 Oct 1704] that he had learned at Harvard. Emerson felt that there was no place for free will in the chains of mechanical cause and effect that rationalist philosophers conceived the world as being made up of. This world could be known only through the senses rather than through thought and intuition; it determined men physically and psychologically; and yet it made them victims of circumstance, beings whose superfluous mental powers were incapable of truly ascertaining reality.
      Emerson reclaimed an idealistic philosophy from this dead end of 18th-century rationalism by once again asserting the human ability to transcend the materialistic world of sense experience and facts and become conscious of the all-pervading spirit of the universe and the potentialities of human freedom. God could best be found by looking inward into one's own self, one's own soul, and from such an enlightened self-awareness would in turn come freedom of action and the ability to change one's world according to the dictates of one's ideals and conscience. Human spiritual renewal thus proceeds from the individual's intimate personal experience of his own portion of the divine “oversoul,” which is present in and permeates the entire creation and all living things, and which is accessible if only a person takes the trouble to look for it. Emerson enunciates how “reason,” which to him denotes the intuitive awareness of eternal truth, can be relied upon in ways quite different from one's reliance on “understanding”, i.e., the ordinary gathering of sense-data and the logical comprehension of the material world. Emerson's doctrine of self-sufficiency and self-reliance naturally springs from his view that the individual need only look into his own heart for the spiritual guidance that has hitherto been the province of the established churches. The individual must then have the courage to be himself and to trust the inner force within him as he lives his life according to his intuitively derived precepts.
      Obviously these ideas are far from original, and it is clear that Emerson was influenced in his formulation of them by his previous readings of Neoplatonist philosophy, the works of Coleridge and other European Romantics, the writings of Emmanuel Swedenborg, Hindu philosophy, and other sources. What set Emerson apart from others who were expressing similar Transcendentalist notions were his abilities as a polished literary stylist able to express his thought with vividness and breadth of vision. His philosophical exposition has a peculiar power and an organic unity whose cumulative effect was highly suggestive and stimulating to his contemporary readers' imaginations.
      In a 31 August 1837 lecture entitled “The American Scholar”, Emerson described the resources and duties of the new liberated intellectual that he himself had become. This address was in effect a challenge to the Harvard intelligentsia, warning against pedantry, imitation of others, traditionalism, and scholarship unrelated to life. Emerson's “Address at Divinity College,” Harvard University, in 1838 was another challenge, this time directed against a lifeless Christian tradition, especially Unitarianism as he had known it. He dismissed religious institutions and the divinity of Jesus as failures in man's attempt to encounter deity directly through the moral principle or through an intuited sentiment of virtue. This address alienated many, left him with few opportunities to preach, and resulted in his being ostracized by Harvard for many years. Young disciples, however, joined the informal Transcendental Club (founded in 1836) and encouraged him in his activities.
      In Emerson helped launch The Dial (1st issue 01 Jul 1840), first edited by Margaret Fuller [23 May 1810 – 19 Jul 1850] and later by himself, thus providing an outlet for the new ideas Transcendentalists were trying to present to the US. Though short-lived, the magazine provided a rallying point for the younger members of the school. From his continuing lecture series, he gathered his Essays into two volumes (1841, 1844), which made him internationally famous. In his first volume of Essays Emerson consolidated his thoughts on moral individualism and preached the ethics of self-reliance, the duty of self-cultivation, and the need for the expression of self. The second volume of Essays shows Emerson accommodating his earlier idealism to the limitations of real life; his later works show an increasing acquiescence to the state of things, less reliance on self, greater respect for society, and an awareness of the ambiguities and incompleteness of genius.
      His Representative Men (1849) contained biographies of Plato [427-347bc], Swedenborg, Montaigne [28 Feb 1533 – 23 Sep 1592], Shakespeare [26 Apr 1564 – 23 Apr 1616], Napoléon [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821], and Goethe [28 Aug 1749 – 22 Mar 1832]. In English Traits he gave a character analysis of a people from which he himself stemmed. The Conduct of Life (1860), Emerson's most mature work, reveals a developed humanism together with a full awareness of man's limitations. It may be considered as partly confession. Emerson's collected Poems (published on 25 Dec 1846) were supplemented by others in May-Day and Other Pieces (1867), and the two volumes established his reputation as a major US poet.
      By the 1860s Emerson's reputation in the US was secure, for time was wearing down the novelty of his rebellion as he slowly accommodated himself to society. He continued to give frequent lectures, but the writing he did after 1860 shows a waning of his intellectual powers. A new generation knew only the old Emerson and had absorbed his teaching without recalling the acrimony it had occasioned. After his death Emerson was transformed into the Sage of Concord, shorn of his power as a liberator and enrolled among the worthies of the very tradition he had set out to destroy.
      Emerson's voice and rhetoric sustained the faith of thousands in the US lecture circuits between 1834 and the US Civil War. He served as a cultural middleman through whom the aesthetic and philosophical currents of Europe passed to the US, and he led his countrymen during the burst of literary glory known as the US renaissance (1835–1865). As a principal spokesman for Transcendentalism, the US tributary of European Romanticism, Emerson gave direction to a religious, philosophical, and ethical movement that above all stressed belief in the spiritual potential of every man.

  • Selected works
  • Self-Reliance
  • The Young American
  • The American Scholar
  • The Conduct of Life
  • The Conduct of Life
  • Representative Men
  • An Address Delivered Before the Senior Class in Divinity College
  • Literary Ethics: An Oration Delivered Before the Literary Societies of Dartmouth College, July 24, 1838
  • Man the Reformer
  • The Method of Nature
  • Nature, Addresses, and Lectures
  • The Early Poems
  • Poems
  • English Traits
  • English Traits
  • Essays
  • Essays
  • Essays
  • 1785 William Frederick Witherington, Britist painter who died on 10 April 1865. — more with an image and links to more images.
    1764 Jan Frans van Dael, Flemish painter and lithographer who died on 20 March 1840. MORE ON VAN DAEL AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1749 Gregorio Funes, primer historiador del Río de la Plata.
    1616 Carlo “Carlino” Dolci, Florentine painter who died on 17 January 1686. — MORE ON DOLCI AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    Holidays Argentina : Day of the May Revolution/National Day (1810) / Chad, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Zambia : African Freedom/Unity Day / Jordan : Independence Day/Arab Renaissance Day (1946) / Lybia, Sudan : Sudan National Day/May Revolution Day (1969) / Yugoslavia : Day of Youth

    Religious Observances Anglican : Deposition of St Aldelmus, bishop/confessor / RC : St Urban I, pope (222-230), martyr / -BC- Buddhist-Hong Kong : Buddha's Birthday / Ang, RC : Bede the Venerable, priest, monk of Jarrow (opt) / RC : St Gregory VII, pope [1073-85], confessor (opt) / RC : St Mary Magdalen dei Pazzi, virgin / RC : St Madeleine Sophie Barat, virgin / Santos Gregorio, Urbano y Beda el Venerable; santa María Magdalena.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “If your work speaks for itself, don't interrupt.”
    “If your work interrupts, speak for yourself.”
    “A historian is a prophet in reverse.”
    — Friedrich von Schlegel, German diplomat and writer [10 Mar 1772 – 12 Jan 1829].
    “A historian is a prophet who has suffered reverses.”
    “A historian is like a car driver who looks only in the rear-view mirror.”
    updated Sunday 25-May-2008 1:43 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.40 Monday 21-May-2007 20:43 UT
    v.6.40 Sunday 28-May-2006 14:49 UT
    v.5.42 Thursday 26-May-2005 3:45 UT
    Thursday 27-May-2004 22:44 UT

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