• Grizzly becomes threatened species... • English Restoration... • Police represses union... • Ypres offensive stops... • UK coalition government... • US Constitutional Convention... • Fenians attack Canada... • Martyrs of the Commune... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Inspiration for Der Tod in Venedig... • Emerson is born... • 1st Battle of Winchester... • Lincoln suspends habeas corpus... • National Front in Saigon... • New Viet Cong offensive... • Shakespeare allowed in China... • Flight 191 crashes... • 1st ordination in US... • 1st international WWW conference... • 1st US copyright law...
a 25 May:
|2000 Iranian state radio announced that former President
Hashemi Rafsanjani had resigned from the incoming parliament, depriving
hard-liners of a leading figure in the power struggle between conservatives
2000 The US government proposed a rating system telling consumers how prone vehicles are to rolling over
| 1993 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU aprueba la creación
de un Tribunal Internacional de Crímenes de Guerra en la ex Yugoslavia.
1992 El democristiano Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, tras trece días de votaciones, es elegido presidente de la República italiana.
1991 Foreigners fled the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa as rebels closed in on the city.
1991 Israel completed "Operation Solomon," which had evacuated 15'000 Ethiopian Jews to their promised land.
1989 Sesión constitutiva del Congreso de Diputados del Pueblo nuevo Parlamento soviético que ratifica a Mijail Sergueevich Gorbachov como presidente del Soviet Supremo.
1985 Juan Pablo II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] nombra 28 nuevos cardenales, entre ellos el arzobispo de Madrid, Angel Suquía Goicoechea [02 Oct 1916 – 13 Jul 2006]. —(080524)
1984 Claudio Sánchez Albornoz, de 90 años, premio Príncipe de Asturias de Comunicación y Humanidades.
1981 Daniel Goodwin, wearing a "Spiderman" costume, scales the outside of Chicago's Sears Tower in 7 1/2 hours.
1980 Jacek Wszoka of Poland sets high jump record (2.34 m)
1979 Israel begins to return Sinai to Egypt
1961 President Kennedy asked the US to work toward putting a man on the moon by the end of the decade.
1960 Auriol annonce qu'il ne siégera plus au Conseil constitutionnel, car le régime s'oriente "vers un système de pouvoir personnel et arbitraire"
| 1947 El Senado de EE.UU. aprueba el Acta Nacional de
Seguridad, por la que se crea la CIA.
1946 Transjordan (now Jordan) gains independence from Britain, becoming a kingdom as it proclaimed its new monarch, King Abdullah Ibn Ul-Hussein. (National Day) Transjordania se proclama Estado independiente.
1945 Arther C Clark proposes relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit
1940 Charles de Gaulle (colonel depuis le 25 décembre 1939) est nommé général de brigade à titre temporaire.
1927 Henry Ford stops producing Model T car (begins Model A)
1926 El jefe rifeño Abd-el-Krim se rinde en Marruecos a las fuerzas francesas.
1911 The "20 November 1910" revolution in Mexico finally overthrows President Diaz
1876 The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland (org. 1743) united with the Free Church of Scotland (org. 1843) to form the new Free Church of Scotland. (In 1929 the Free Church merged with the Mother Church, afterward retaining the name Church of Scotland.)
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1862 Battle of First Winchester, Virginia
1810 Argentina declares independence from Napoleonic Spain (Natl Day) La población de Buenos Aires, al enterarse de la caída de Sevilla en manos francesas y de la disolución de la Junta que ejercía el poder en nombre del destronado Fernando VII, depone al último virrey, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros y la Torre, y constituye la Junta Provisional del Río de la Plata. — La bourgeoisie créole de Buenos Aires chasse le vice-roi d'Espagne. Elle commence à songer à l'indépendance.
1787 The US Constitutional
Four years after the United States won independence, fifty-five state delegates (enough delegates for a quorum), including Revolutionary War hero George Washington, convene in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to establish a new US government.
In 1786, defects in the post-Revolutionary Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce. Congress endorsed a plan to draft a new constitution, and on 25 May 1787, the Constitutional Convention begins its proceedings at Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania State House. The building, which is now known as Independence Hall, had earlier seen the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the signing of the Articles of Convention.
On 17 September 1787, after three months of debate moderated by convention president George Washington, the new US constitution, which created a strong federal government with an intricate system of checks and balances, was signed by thirty-eight of the forty-one delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine out of the thirteen states.
Beginning on 07 December, five states Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document as it failed to reserve powers not delegated by the Constitution to the states, unless specifically prohibited, and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press, and the right to bear arms.
In February of 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On 21 June 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on 04 March 1789.
At the first session of the US Congress, held in New York City on the appointed day, only nine of twenty-two senators and thirteen of fifty-nine representatives showed up to begin negotiations for the Constitution's amendment. Sixth months later, the first Congress of the United States adopted twelve amendments to the US Constitution the Bill of Rights and sent them to the states for ratification. This action led to the eventual ratification of the Constitution by the last of the thirteen original colonies: North Carolina and Rhode Island.
Four years after the United States won its independence from England, 55 state delegates, including George Washington, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin, convene in Philadelphia to compose a new US constitution. The Articles of Confederation, ratified several months before the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781, provided for a loose confederation of US states, which were sovereign in most of their affairs. On paper, Congress the central authority had the power to govern foreign affairs, conduct war, and regulate currency, but in practice these powers were sharply limited because Congress was given no authority to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops. By 1786, it was apparent that the Union would soon break up if the Articles of Confederation were not amended or replaced. Five states met in Annapolis, Maryland, to discuss the issue, and all the states were invited to send delegates to a new constitutional convention to be held in Philadelphia. On 25 May 1787, delegates representing every state except Rhode Island convened at Philadelphia's Pennsylvania State House for the Constitutional Convention. The building, which is now known as Independence Hall, had earlier seen the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the signing of the Articles of Confederation. The assembly immediately discarded the idea of amending the Articles of Confederation and set about drawing up a new scheme of government. Revolutionary War hero George Washington, a delegate from Virginia, was elected convention president.
During three months of debate, the delegates devised a brilliant federal system characterized by an intricate system of checks and balances. The convention was divided over the issue of state representation in Congress, as more populated states sought proportional legislation, and smaller states wanted equal representation. The problem was resolved by the Connecticut Compromise, which proposed a bicameral legislature with proportional representation in the lower house (House of Representatives) and equal representation of the states in the upper house (Senate). On 17 September 1787, the Constitution of the United States of America was signed by 38 of the 41 delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine of the 13 states. Beginning on 07 December, five states Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document, as it failed to reserve undelegated powers to the states and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
In February 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On 21 June 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on 04 March 1789. On 25 September 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted 12 amendments to the US Constitution the Bill of Rights and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of these amendments were ratified in 1791. In November 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the US Constitution. Rhode Island, which opposed federal control of currency and was critical of compromise on the issue of slavery, resisted ratifying the Constitution until the US government threatened to sever commercial relations with the state. On 29 May 1790, Rhode Island voted by two votes to ratify the document, and the last of the original 13 colonies joined the United States. Today the US Constitution is the oldest written constitution in operation in the world.
| 1784 Jews are expelled from Warsaw by Marshall Mniszek.
1720 Le navire Grand-Saint-Antoine, entre dans le port de Marseille. Il ramène de Syrie un passager clandestin, le bacille de la peste. En quelques mois, la ville de Marseille va perdre la moitié de ses 100'000 habitants.
1410 Juan XXIII alcanza el solio pontificio.
1244 Jaime I, rey de Aragón, y el Infante don Alfonso, en nombre de Fernando III de Castilla, firman el tratado de Almizra en el Campo de Mirra (Alicante), acuerdo por el que se establecen los límites entre aragoneses y castellanos..
1085 Alfonso VI of Castile captures Toledo, Spain, bringing the Moorish center of science into Christian hands.
585 -BC- first known prediction of a solar eclipse.
2006 Ahmed Rachid; Nasser Ali Hatem; and Wissam Adel Odah; murdered by Islamist terrorist in the afternoon in the Saidiya district of Baghdad, Iraq, because they were wearing shorts. Rachid was the coach of Iraq's olympic tennis team, of which the other two were members. — (060528)
2005 Gregory Scott Johnson [18 Feb 1965–], by lethal injection in Indiana, for the 23 June 1985 beating and stomping murder of Ruby Hutslar, 82, during burglary of her home which he then set on fire. Johnson was denied a reprieve which he had sought in order to donate his liver to his sister, 48, who suffers from nonalcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. His heavy weight and hepatitis B antibodies make him an unsuitable donor.
2005 Sunil Dutt, born on 06 June 1929, is found dead of an unexpected heart attack in his suburban Mumbai home. He was the Sports Minister of India, had been elected to Parliament 5 times, but was best known as an actor in 102 movies such as Mother India (1957), Waqt (1965), Reshma Aur Shera, Geeta Mera Naam, Gumraah, Waqt, Humraaz, Khandaan, Padosan, and Milan.
2004 Ali Abbas Mohammed, 13, by a car bomb near the roadside stall where he and his father, Abbas Mohammed, 40, sold cigarettes, drinks, food, in Baghdad, Iraq, near the Australian embassy.
2003 Siegfried F. Widera, 62, of head injuries as he was being taken to a hospital after jumping from his hotel room's second story balcony in Mazatlán, Mexico, when police were about to arrest him at the request of police in California and Wisconsin, where he was accused of 42 counts of child molestation. Widera was ordained a Catholic priest in 1967. In 1973 he was convicted of sexual misconduct with an adolescent boy in the Milwaukee area and sentenced to three years' probation. In 1976, he was moved from Milwaukee to Orange County, California, where he was laicized in 1985 following more accusations of sexual abuse of boys.
2003 Father Antonio Ferrua SJ, 102, Vatican archeologist who was in charge of the 1940s excavation under St. Peter's Basilica which discovered the tomb and bones of Saint Peter.
2002 Palestinian newborn son of Fadia Mustafa, dies in the morning after she was delayed by Israeli Army barriers on her way to the hospital.
2002 All 206 passengers and 19 crew members aboard a China Airlines Flight C1611, a Boeing 747~200, which, at 15:30, suddenly explodes at 10'000 m altitude, breaks up into four pieces, and crashes in the Taiwan Straits north of the Penghu islands, about 50 km Taiwan's coast, 20 minutes after taking off from Taipei bound for Hong Kong.
2002:: Over 200 persons as a passenger train rams into the rear of a freight train collide at the station in Moamba, Mozambique, at about 05:00. Some 400 are injured.
2001 Azzam Mizher, 24, by bomb in a package an arms dealer had left with him and other Palestinian gunmen, in the Balata refugee camp, West Bank. Four others are wounded. This brings the body count of the al-Aqsa intifada to to 478 Palestinians and 85 Israelis.
2001 Hussein Abu Nasser, 22, as his suicide-bomb-truck exploded prematurely under gunfire from an Israeli army outpost at the Netzarim junction, which it was approaching at high speed after bypassing a roadblock. Nasser was a Hamas member and a student of Islamic culture at the Islamic University in Gaza City, resident of the Jebaliya refugee camp near Gaza City.
2001 Two Islamic Jihad suicide bombers, in Hadera, Israel, attack, as their car carrying explosives explodes (prematurely?) alongside an Israeli bus near the central bus station.
1971 Gustave-Adolphe Mossa, Nice French artist and writer, born on 28 January 1883. — MORE ON MOSSA AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1963 Tommaso Boggio, Italian mathematician born on 22 December 1877.
1956 Johann Radon, Austrian mathematician born on 16 December 1887. He applied the calculus of variations to differential geometry which led to applications in number theory. He discovered curves whch are now named after him. His best known results involve combining the integration theories of Lebesgue and Stieltjes. He did not discover radon gas, that was done in 1900 by the German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn.
1944 Inhabitants of Tito's home village, massacred by Nazi troops. Germany launches Operation Knight's Move, in an attempt to seize Yugoslav communist partisan leader Tito. Using parachute drops and glider troops, German forces land in the Yugoslavian village of Drvar, where Josep Broz Tito, leader of the anti-Axis guerilla movement, is believed to be. The village is decimated: men, women, and children are all killed by German troops in search of Tito, who escapes.
1944 Hundreds of Hungarian Jews, shot after they flee on way to gas chamber. As several hundred Hungarian Jews are being led to a gas chamber in Birkenau (a supplementary camp, part of the Auschwitz complex known as Auschwitz II), they run into the woods, suspecting their fate. Searchlights flood the surrounding area, enabling the SS, who controlled the camp, to shoot all those who fled. This is the second such revolt in three days.
1927 Cristóbal Magallanes Jara [30 Jul 1869–] and Agustín Caloca Cortés [05 May 1898–], Mexican saints, shot in Colotlán, Jalisco (Diocese of Zacatecas), for the crime of being Catholic priests, during the Cristero uprising, which they opposed. _ .Magallanes nació en Totaltiche, Jalisco. (Arquidiócesis de Guadalajara). Párroco de su tierra natal. Sacerdote de fe ardiente, prudente director de sus hermanos sacerdotes y pastor lleno de celo que se entregó a la promoción humana y cristiana de sus feligreses. Misionero entre los indígenas huicholes y ferviente propagador del Rosario a la Santísima Virgen María. Las vocaciones sacerdotales eran la parte más cuidada de su viña. Cuando los perseguidores de la Iglesia clausuraron el Seminario de Guadalajara, él se ofreció para fundar en su parroquia un Seminario con el fin de proteger, orientar y formar a los futuros sacerdotes y logró abundante cosecha. El 25 de mayo de 1927 fue fusilado en Colotlán, Jal. (Diócesis de Zacatecas). Frente al verdugo confortó a su ministro y compañero de martirio, Padre Agustín Caloca, diciéndole: “Tranquilízate, hijo, Dios quiere mártires; sólo un momento y después el cielo”. Luego dirigiéndose a la tropa, exclamó: “Yo muero inocente, y pido a Dios que mi sangre sirva para la unión de mis hermanos mexicanos”.
Caloca nació en San Juan Bautista del Teúl, Zacatecas. Ministro en la parroquia de Totatiche y Prefecto del Seminario Auxiliar establecido en la misma población, para quienes fue un modelo de pureza sacerdotal. Fue hecho prisionero después de ayudar a escapar a los seminaristas y conducido a la misma prisión en donde se encontraba su párroco el Sr. Cura Magallanes. Un militar, en atención a su juventud, le ofreció la libertad, pero no aceptó si no la concedían también al señor Cura. Frente al pelotón encargado de su ejecución, la actitud y las palabras de su párroco lo llenaron de fortaleza y pudo exclamar: “Por Dios vivimos y por Él morimos”. .— 21 May 2000 canonization homily by Pope John Paul II (translations: English, Italiano, Portugués) —(080517)
1924 Liubov' Sergeyevna Popova, Moscovite Constructivist painter and designer born on 24 April 1889. — MORE ON POPOVA AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1919 Unas 16'000 personas en la erupción del volcán Kloet (Java)
1902 Franz Richard Unterberger, German artist born on 15 August 1838.
1899 Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, político y orador español.
1689 Charles Erard (or Errard) de Bressuire fils, French painter, draftsman, architect, and writer, born in 1606.
1681 Pedro Calderón de la Barca, dramaturgo español.
1648 Antoine Le Nain, French Baroque era painter born in 1588, who dies just two days after his brother Louis Le Nain [1505 23 May 1648], being survived by third brother Mathieu Le Nain le Chevalier [1607 20 Apr 1677]. All three worked together and their individual works cannot be distinguished. So you can get links to images and read a lot MORE ON all 3 LE NAIN AT ART 4 MAY 23, date of the death of Louis.
1555 Regnier Gemma “Frisius”, Frieslander mathematician born on 08 December 1508. He applied his mathematical expertise to geography, astronomy and map making. He became the leading theoretical mathematician in the Low Countries.
1261 Alexander IV (Rinaldo dei Segni), 62, pope since 1254. Alexander was appointed cardinal deacon (1227) and cardinal bishop of Ostia (1231) by his uncle Pope Gregory IX. After becoming pope, Alexander followed the policies of his predecessor Innocent IV: he continued war on Manfred, Emperor Frederick II's bastard son (who was crowned king of Sicily in 1258), by excommunicating him and investing Edmund, son of Henry III of England, with the papal fief of Sicily. He supported the friars at Paris against the secular professors, extended the Inquisition in France, worked for reunion between eastern Christians and Rome, and attempted in vain to organize a crusade against the Tatars.
1085 St Gregory VII, pope (1073-1085)
1968 The Gateway Arch, part of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, was dedicated.
1927 Robert Ludlum spy novelist (Bourne Identity)
1922 Enrico Berlinguer, dirigente comunista italiano.
1921 Jack Steinberger, estadounidense nacido en Alemania, Premio Nobel de Física en 1988.
1889 Igor Sikorsky developed a working helicopter.
1882 Gottardo Guido Segantini, Swiss artist who died in 1974.
1879 William Maxwell Aitken Beaverbrook, financiero y político canadiense.
1846 Gustave Jean Jacquet, French artist who died in 1909.
1841 Eugène-Samuel Grasset, Swiss-born French illustrator, decorative artist, and printmaker, who died on 23 October 1917. — more
1840 Cynara, fictional narrator of The Wind Done Gone. (the year is my guess). Cynara [picture >] is a mulatto offspring of the white master and a black mammy on the Georgian plantation 'Tata,' and tells her story of living in the South after the Civil War in 1873. She is the half-sister of 'Other' (Scarlett O'Hara in Gone With the Wind), whose former husband is 'R'. (corresponds to Rhett Butler). The couple 'Dreamy Gentleman' and 'Mealy Mouth' correspond to Ashley and Melanie Wilkes. The Wind Done Gone, by Alice Randall, is a parody of Gone With the Wind, to give the Blacks' point of view. On 25 May 2001 an appeals court overturned a lower court's decision which had imposed prior restraint on the publication of The Wind Done Gone.
1828 Karl Mikhaillovich Peterson, Russian mathematician who died on 19 April 1881. He worked mainly in differential geometry. A class of surfaces is named after him. Author of Über Curven und Flächen (1868).
1817 Cornelis Springer, Dutch painter and printmaker who died on 20 (18?) February 1891. — MORE ON SPRINGER AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1764 Jan Frans van Dael, Flemish painter and lithographer who died on 20 March 1840. — MORE ON VAN DAEL AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1749 Gregorio Funes, primer historiador del Río de la Plata.
1616 Carlo Carlino Dolci, Florentine painter who died on 17 January 1686. MORE ON DOLCI AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
|Holidays Argentina : Day of the May Revolution/National
Day (1810) / Chad, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Zambia :
African Freedom/Unity Day / Jordan : Independence Day/Arab
Renaissance Day (1946) / Lybia, Sudan : Sudan National
Day/May Revolution Day (1969) / Yugoslavia : Day of Youth
Religious Observances Anglican : Deposition of St Aldelmus, bishop/confessor / RC : St Urban I, pope (222-230), martyr / -BC- Buddhist-Hong Kong : Buddha's Birthday / Ang, RC : Bede the Venerable, priest, monk of Jarrow (opt) / RC : St Gregory VII, pope [1073-85], confessor (opt) / RC : St Mary Magdalen dei Pazzi, virgin / RC : St Madeleine Sophie Barat, virgin / Santos Gregorio, Urbano y Beda el Venerable; santa María Magdalena.
Thoughts for the day:
If your work speaks for itself, don't interrupt.
If your work interrupts, speak for yourself.
A historian is a prophet in reverse. Friedrich von Schlegel, German diplomat and writer [10 Mar 1772 – 12 Jan 1829].
A historian is a prophet who has suffered reverses.
A historian is like a car driver who looks only in the rear-view mirror.
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updated Sunday 25-May-2008 1:43 UT
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