which occurred on a 23 May:
2004 Five persons by the collapse of a 30x50-meter section
of the roof over a waiting area of terminal 2E at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle
airport, near Paris, France, at 06:55 (04:55 UT). That terminal had been
inaugurated in June 2003, after at least two construction delays due to
Asher Iluz [photo >], 33, Israeli, in a cross-fire
ambush on the road outside Ariel, West Bank. He driving his car on his way
to supervise a road paving between Ariel to Rehalim. Also in the car was
his bodyguard Yitzhak Goldstein, 29. The shots came from the village of
Ariel. The two Israelis drove 300 meters under fire before Iluz was fatally
shot in the head and Goldstein was wounded by shrapnel after he managed
to fire back at the ambushers. The ambushers used both M-16s and Kalashnikov
submachine guns. This brings the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 472 Palestinians
and 85 Israelis.
2001: 14 Mexican undocumented immigrants,
of thirst, 40 km inside the US, in the desert near Wellton, Arizona,
with temperatures reaching 46ºC. They were among a group of 27 smuggled
into the US on 19 May east of Yuma in the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife
Refuge. The smugglers left them there, promising to return with water and
instructing them to walk for "a couple of hours" to a highway (which actually
was more than 80 km away). One of the survivors dies the next day while
being transported to a hospital by the Border Patrol.
Jonathan Stauffer, 15, of neisseria meninigitidis, freshman at
West Branch High School, in Alliance, Ohio. The death from the same cause
of another student from the same school on 28 May would cause a scare and
motivate a preventive mass vaccination.
1994 Miguel Peralta,
teniente, por una bomba adosada a su coche por terroristas de ETA (Euzkadi
1992 Giovanni Falcone, anti-mafia
judge, by the explosion of 500 kg of TNT at the passage of his car in Palermo.
1992 Bo and Virginia Simmons, of Daingerfield, Texas, murdered.
Of this Tony Lee Walker, a Black, would be convicted in 1993. He would be
executed by lethal injection on 10 September 2002.
Yupanqui, cantautor y escritor argentino.
Hayden, actor y escritor estadounidense.
Elisée Chabaud, French painter, sculptor, and writer, born
on 03 (04?) October 1882.
1945 Heinrich Himmler,
born on 07 October 1900, Reichsführer of the SS, suicide
The architect of Hitler's program to exterminate European Jews commits
suicide in Luneburg prison, one day after being arrested by the British.
As head of the Waffen-Schutzstaffel
("Armed Black Shirts"), the military arm of the Nazi Party, and assistant
chief of the Gestapo (the secret police), Himmler was able over time
to consolidate his control over all police forces of the Reich. The
power he would ultimately wield would rival that of the German army;
it would also prove highly effective in eliminating all opposition
to Hitler and the party, as well as in carrying out the Führer's
Final Solution. It was Himmler who organized the creation of death
camps throughout Eastern Europe and a pool of slave laborers.
Himmler's megalomania, which included
a plan to surrender to the Western Allies late in the war in order
to pursue the fight against Russia unimpeded, caused Hitler to strip
him of all his offices and order his arrest. Himmler attempted to
slip out of Germany disguised as a soldier, but was caught by the
British. He swallowed a cyanide capsule a day later. Himmler has been
portrayed in many films, including The Eagle Has Landed,
with Donald Pleasance as Himmler.
1939: 26 sailors aboard the US Navy submarine Squalus
as it goes down off New Hampshire in 75 meters of water. 33 of the 59 men
aboard are saved in a daring rescue with a diving bell.
1941:: 130 sailors on HMS
Kelly, sunk by German dive-bombers
One of the survivors is Captain Lord Louis Mountbatten, second cousin
of King George VI of Britain and the only man other than the king
to hold rank in all three military services simultaneously. He is
among those thrown into the Mediterranean Sea when his destroyer is
among several British cruisers, destroyers, and battleships sunk off
Crete by German dive-bombers. The Kelly was attacked by 24
bombers; 130 crewmembers were killed. Mountbatten was still on the
bridge of the ship when it finally flipped over; nevertheless, he
managed to swim to shore and take control of the rescue operation.
He would ultimately accept, as senior
Allied officer present, the surrender of Japanese land forces within
Southeast Asia by General Sieshiro Itagaki. Mountbatten survived the
terror of war against the Axis powers, only to be killed by an Irish
Republic Army bomb, planted on his boat, on 26 August 1979.
Side note: Just a day before
the sinking of the Kelly, the battleship Valiant
was damaged but not sunk during an equally vicious German air attack,
also off Crete, which succeeded in sinking two cruisers and four destroyers.
Among the crewmen of the Valiant was Lord Mountbatten's nephew,
Prince Philip of Greece.
1937 John Davison Rockefeller
Sr., born on 08 July 1839, US industrialist and philanthropist,
founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry
and was the first great US business trust.
Rockefeller moved with his family to Cleveland in 1853, and six years
later he established his first enterprise, a commission business dealing
in hay, grain, meats, and other goods. Sensing the commercial potential
of the expanding oil production in western Pennsylvania in the early
1860s, he built his first oil refinery, near Cleveland, in 1863. Within
two years it was the largest refinery in the area, and thereafter
Rockefeller devoted himself exclusively to the oil business.
In 1870 Rockefeller and a few associates incorporated the Standard
Oil Company (Ohio). Because of Rockefeller's emphasis upon economical
operations, Standard prospered and began to buy out its competitors
until, by 1872, it controlled nearly all the refineries in Cleveland.
That fact enabled the company to negotiate with railroads for favored
rates on its shipments of oil. It acquired pipelines and terminal
facilities, purchased competing refineries in other cities, and vigorously
sought to expand its markets in the United States and abroad. By 1882
it had a near monopoly of the oil business in the United States. In
1881 Rockefeller and his associates placed the stock of Standard of
Ohio and its affiliates in other states under the control of a board
of nine trustees, with Rockefeller at the head. They thus established
the first major U.S. “trust” and set a pattern of organization
for other monopolies.
competitive practices of Standard Oil, which many regarded as ruthless,
and the growing public hostility toward monopolies, of which Standard
was the best known, caused some industrialized states to enact anti-monopoly
laws and led to the passage by the US Congress of the Sherman Antitrust
Act (1890). In 1892 the Ohio Supreme Court held that the Standard
Oil Trust was a monopoly in violation of an Ohio law prohibiting monopolies.
Rockefeller evaded the decision by dissolving the trust and transferring
its properties to companies in other states, with interlocking directorates
so that the same nine men controlled the operations of the affiliated
companies. In 1899 these companies were brought back together in a
holding company, Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), which existed
until 1911, when the US Supreme Court declared it in violation of
the Sherman Antitrust Act, and therefore illegal.
A devout Baptist, Rockefeller turned his attention increasingly during
the 1890s to charities and benevolence; after 1897 he devoted himself
completely to philanthropy. He made possible the founding of the University
of Chicago in 1892, and by the time of his death had given it more
than $80 million. In association with his son, John D. Rockefeller
Jr. [29 Jan 1874 – 11 May 1960],
he created major philanthropic institutions, including the Rockefeller
Institute for Medical Research (renamed Rockefeller University) in
New York City (1901); the General Education Board (1902); and the
Rockefeller Foundation (1913). Rockefeller's benefactions during his
lifetime totaled more than $500 million, while his and his son's totaled
more than $2.5 billion by 1955.
1918 Maxime-Émile-Louis Maufra, French Impressionist
painter and printmaker born on 17 May 1861. MORE
ON MAUFRA AT ART 4 MAY 17
with links to images.
1934 Bonnie Parker,
23,and Clyde Barrow, 25, shot dead
The notorious Depression-era
outlaws Bonnie and Clyde are shot to death by Texas and Louisiana
state police officers as they attempt to escape apprehension in a
stolen 1934 Ford V-8 near Bienville Parish, Louisiana..
Bonnie and Clyde had met in Texas in 1930 while nineteen-year-old
Bonnie was visiting her husband in a Texas jail, where he was for
murder. At the time, Bonnie was tending bar. Clyde was arrested for
burglary and sent to prison soon after they met. Bonnie smuggled a
gun, taped to her thigh, into prison to help him escape. He was eventually
caught in Ohio and brought back to prison. When a personal appeal
from his mother to the Texas governor earned his release in 1932,
he vowed never to return.
Bonnie was caught stealing a car, she had to spend three months in
prison, while Clyde went on a robbery spree. He then killed a sheriff
and deputy at a barn dance in Oklahoma. In the fall of 1932, the pair
spent their time carrying out small-time robberies throughout Texas
and Oklahoma. At one such robbery, they picked up W. D. Jones, a gas
station attendant, who joined their team for the next 18 months. Buck
Barrow, Clyde's brother who was recently pardoned by the new Texas
governor, Ma Ferguson, also joined the gang, along with his wife.
Later they were joined by escaped murderer Raymond Hamilton.
The media latched onto Bonnie and Clyde,
who were nicknamed "Suicide Sal" and "Texas Rattlesnake," respectively.
The pair loved the attention, posing for snapshots with their arsenal
of weapons. In early 1934, they barely escaped a trap in Missouri,
killing two lawmen in the ensuing shootout. Buck and his wife, Blanche,
were shot and captured, but Buck died from his wounds. Texas Ranger
Frank Hamer finally caught up with Bonnie and Clyde in May, after
tracking them for more than three months.
For over two years, the couple evaded local police officers in rural
counties of Texas, Louisiana, and New Mexico, and it was not until
the Bureau of Investigation (later known as the FBI) became involved
that the law finally gained ground on Bonnie and Clyde. The Bureau
of Investigation, curiously enough, could only investigate the two
on the grounds of the National Motor Vehicle Act, which stipulated
that federal agents had jurisdiction to pursue suspects accused of
interstate transportation of a stolen automobile. Investigators initially
traced a stolen vehicle to the house of Clyde Barrow's aunt. As officers
stepped up the pressure to catch Bonnie and Clyde, the well-armed
couple went about adding to their own firepower.
In the spring of 1934, following a tip, federal agents traced the
gang to a remote county in southwest Louisiana. A certain Methvin
family was said to have been aiding and abetting the Bonnie and Clyde
gang for over a year and it was learned that Bonnie and Clyde, along
with some of the Methvins, had staged a party at Black Lake, Louisiana,
on the night of 21 May.
Two days later, just before dawn, a posse of police officers from
Texas and Louisiana, including Texas Ranger Frank Hamer who had been
tracking the couple for more than three months., laid an ambush for
Bonnie and Clyde along the highway near Gibsland and Sailes, Louisiana.
In the early morning, Bonnie and Clyde appeared in their tan 1934
Ford V-8. . The officers reported that the coupe attempted to flee,
but more likely, owing to the fact that Bonnie and Clyde had killed
five policemen, the posse opened fire without warning. In two minutes,
deputies shoot 187 bullets. Bonnie and Clyde were each shot over twenty
times, and were dead by the time their Ford rolled to a stop against
an embankment on the south side of the road. Their bullet-riddled
1934 Ford later became a valuable collectible.
Bonnie and Clyde gained a place in popular mythology as dustbowl Robin
Hoods. The 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde, starring Warren Beatty
as Clyde and Faye Dunaway as Bonnie, portrayed a charming and irreverent
pair who took their game too far. Examination of the couple's past,
as well as an examination of their victims, shows that Bonnie and
Clyde were more likely carefree killers. Their popularity owed to
the mistrust of the authorities of the Dustbowl during the Depression
era, and to the couple's uncanny ability to elude the police for over
1896 José Asunción Silva Gómez, poeta y prosista colombiano.
1906 Henrik Ibsen,
born on 20 March 1828, major Norwegian playwright of the late 19th
century who introduced to the European stage a new order of moral
analysis that was placed against a severely realistic middle-class
background and developed with economy of action, penetrating dialogue,
and rigorous thought.
born at Skien, a small lumbering town of southern Norway. His father
was a respected general merchant in the community until 1836, when
he suffered the permanent disgrace of going bankrupt. As a result,
he sank into a querulous penury, which his wife's withdrawn and somber
religiosity did nothing to mitigate. There was no redeeming the family
misfortunes; as soon as he could, aged just 15, Henrik moved to Grimstad,
a hamlet of some 800 persons 110 km down the coast. There he supported
himself meagerly as an apothecary's apprentice while studying nights
for admission to the university. And during this period he used his
few leisure moments to write a play.
This work, Catilina (1850), grew out of the Latin texts Ibsen
had to study for his university examinations. Though not a very good
play, it showed a natural bent for the theater and embodied themes,
the rebellious hero, his destructive mistress, that would preoccupy
Ibsen as long as he lived. In 1850 he went to Christiania (known since
1925 by its older name of Oslo), studied for entrance examinations
there, and settled into the student quarter—though not, however,
into classes. For the theatre was in his blood, and at the age of
only 23 he got himself appointed director and playwright to a new
theatre at Bergen, in which capacity he had to write a new play every
This was a wonderful opportunity
for a young man eager to work in drama, but it brought Ibsen up against
a range of fearsome problems he was ill-equipped to handle. In the
medieval Icelandic sagas Norway possessed a heroic, austere literature
of unique magnificence; but the stage on which these materials had
to be set was then dominated by the drawing-room drama of the French
playwright Eugène Scribe and by the actors, acting traditions,
and language of Denmark. Out of these materials young Ibsen was asked
to create a “national drama.”
First at Bergen and then at the Norwegian Theatre in Christiania from
1857 to 1862, Ibsen tried to make palatable dramatic fare out of incongruous
ingredients. In addition to writing plays which were uncongenial to
him and unacceptable to audiences, he did a lot of directing. He was
too inhibited to make a forceful director, but too intelligent not
to pick up a great deal of practical stage wisdom from his experience.
After he moved to Christiania and after his marriage to Suzannah Thoresen
in 1858, he began to develop qualities of independence and authority
that had been hidden before.
of the last plays that Ibsen wrote for the Norwegian stage showed
signs of new spiritual energy. Kjaerlighedens komedie (1862;
Love's Comedy), a satire on romantic illusions, was violently unpopular,
but it expressed an authentic theme of anti-idealism that Ibsen would
soon make his own; and in Kongsem nerne (1863; The Pretenders)
he dramatized the mysterious inner authority that makes a man a man,
a king, or a great playwright. This one play was in fact the national
drama after which Ibsen had been groping so long, and before long
it would be recognized as such. But it came too late; though the play
was good, the theatre in Christiania was bankrupt, and Ibsen's career
as a stage writer was apparently at an end.
But the death of his theater was the liberation of Ibsen as a playwright.
Without regard for a public he thought petty and illiberal, without
care for traditions he found hollow and pretentious, he could now
write for himself. He decided to go abroad, and applied for a small
state grant. He was awarded part of it, and in April 1864 he left
Norway for Italy. For the next 27 years he lived abroad, mainly in
Rome, Dresden, and Munich, returning to Norway only for short visits
in 1874 and 1885. For reasons that he sometimes summarized as “small-mindedness,”
his homeland had left a very bitter taste in his mouth.
With him into exile Ibsen brought the fragments of a long semi-dramatic
poem to be named Brand
. Its central figure is a dynamic rural pastor who takes his religious
calling with a blazing sincerity that transcends not only all forms
of compromise but all traces of human sympathy and warmth as well.
“All or nothing” is the demand that his god makes of Brand
and that Brand in turn makes of others. He is a moral hero, but he
is also a moral monster, and his heart is torn by the anguish that
his moral program demands he inflict on his family. He never hesitates,
never ceases to tower over the petty compromisers and spiritual sluggards
surrounding him. Yet in the last scene where Brand stands alone before
his god, a voice thunders from an avalanche that, even as it crushes
the pastor physically, repudiates his whole moral life as well: “He
is the god of love,” says the voice from on high. So the play
is not only a denunciation of small-mindedness but a tragedy of the
spirit that would transcend it. The poem faced its readers not just
with a choice but with an impasse; the heroic alternative was also
a destructive (and self-destructive) alternative. In Norway Brand
was a tremendous popular success, even though (and in part because)
its central meaning was so troubling.
Hard on the heels of Brand (1866) came Peer
Gynt (1867), another drama in rhymed couplets presenting
an utterly antithetical view of human nature. If Brand is a moral
monolith, Peer Gynt is a capering will-o'-the-wisp, a buoyant and
self-centered opportunist who is aimless, yielding, and wholly unprincipled,
yet who remains a lovable and beloved rascal. The wild and mocking
poetry of Peer Gynt has ended by overshadowing Brand
in the popular judgment. But these two figures are interdependent
and antithetical types who under different guises run through most
of Ibsen's classic work. Like Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, they are
universal archetypes as well as unforgettable individuals.
With these two poetic dramas, Ibsen won his battle with the world;
he paused now to work out his future. A philosophical historical drama
on the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate had long been on his mind;
he finished it in 1873 under the title Kejser og Galilaeer,
but in a ten-act form too diffuse and discursive for the stage. He
wrote a modern satire, De unges forbund (1869; The League
of Youth) and then after many preliminary drafts a prose satire on
small-town politics, Samfundets støtter (1877; Pillars
of Society). But Ibsen had not yet found his proper voice; when he
did, its effect was not to criticize or reform social life but to
blow it up. The explosion came with Et
dukkehjem (1879; A Doll's House ).
This play presents a very ordinary family—a bank manager named
Torvald Helmer, his wife Nora, and their three little children. Torvald
supposes himself the ethical member of the family, while his wife
assumes the role of a pretty irresponsible in order to flatter him.
Into this snug, not to say stifling, arrangement intrude several hard-minded
outsiders, one of whom threatens to expose a fraud that Nora had once
committed (without her husband's knowledge) in order to obtain a loan
needed to save his life. When Nora's husband finally learns about
this dangerous secret, he reacts with outrage and repudiates her out
of concern for his own social reputation. Utterly disillusioned about
her husband, whom she now sees as a hollow fraud, Nora declares her
independence of him and their children and leaves them, slamming the
door of the house behind her in the final scene.
Audiences were scandalized at Ibsen's refusal in A Doll's House
to scrape together (as any other contemporary playwright would have
done) a “happy ending,” however shoddy or contrived. But
that was not Ibsen's way; his play was about knowing oneself and being
true to that self. Torvald, who had thought all along that he was
a sturdy ethical agent, proves to be a hypocrite and a weak compromiser;
his wife is not only an ethical idealist, but a destructive one, as
severe as Brand.
The setting of
A Doll's House is ordinary to the point of transparency.
Ibsen's plot exploits with cold precision the process known as “analytic
exposition.” A secret plan (Nora's forgery) is about to be concluded
(she can now finish repaying the loan), but before the last step can
be taken, a bit of the truth must be told, and the whole deception
unravels. It is a pattern of stage action at once simple and powerful.
Ibsen used this technique often, and it gained for him an international
Ibsen's next play, Gengangere
(1881; Ghosts ), created even more dismay and distaste than its predecessor
by showing worse consequences of covering up even more ugly truths.
Ostensibly the play's theme is congenital venereal disease, but on
another level, it deals with the power of ingrained moral contamination
to undermine the most determined idealism. Even after lecherous Captain
Alving is in his grave, his ghost will not be laid to rest. In the
play, the lying memorial that his conventionally-minded widow has
erected to his memory burns down even as his son goes insane from
inherited syphilis and his illegitimate daughter advances inexorably
toward her destiny in a brothel. The play is a grim study of contamination
spreading through a family under cover of the widowed Mrs. Alving's
timidly respectable views.
dealing with syphilis on top of one dealing with a wife's abandonment
of her family sealed Ibsen's reputation as a Bad Old Man, but progressive
theatres in England and all across the Continent began putting on
his plays. His audiences were often small, but there were many of
them, and they took his plays very seriously. So did conventionally-minded
critics; they denounced Ibsen as if he had desecrated all that was
sacred and holy. Ibsen's response took the form of a direct dramatic
counterattack. Doctor Stockmann, the hero of En folkefiende (1882;
An Enemy of the People ), functions as Ibsen's personal spokesman.
In the play he is a medical officer, charged with inspecting the public
baths on which the prosperity of his native town depends. When he
finds their water to be contaminated, he says so publicly, though
the town officials and townspeople try to silence him. When he still
insists on speaking the truth, he is officially declared an “enemy
of the people.” Though portrayed as a victim, Doctor Stockmann,
like all Ibsen's idealistic truth-tellers after Brand, also carries
within him a deep strain of destructiveness. (His attacks on the baths
will, after all, ruin the town; it's just that by comparison with
the truth, he doesn't care about this.) Ibsen's next play would make
this minor chord dominant.
(1884; The Wild Duck ) Ibsen completely reversed his viewpoint by
presenting on stage a gratuitous, destructive truth-teller whose compulsion
visits catastrophic misery on a family of helpless innocents. With
the help of a number of comforting delusions, Hjalmar Ekdal and his
little family are living a somewhat squalid but essentially cheerful
existence. Upon these helpless weaklings descends an infatuated truth-teller,
Gregers Werle. He cuts away the moral foundations (delusive as they
are) on which the family has lived, leaving them despondent and shattered
by the weight of a guilt too heavy to bear. The havoc wrought on the
Ekdal family is rather pathetic than tragic; but the working out of
the action achieves a kind of mournful poetry that is quite new in
Each of this
series of Ibsen's classic modern dramas grows by extension or reversal
out of its predecessor; they form an unbroken string. The last of
the sequence is Rosmers holm (1886), in which variants of
the destructive saint (Brand) and the all-too-human rogue (Peer) once
more strive to define their identities, but this time on a level of
moral sensitivity that gives the play a special air of silver serenity.
Ex-parson Johannes Rosmer is the ethical personality, while the adventuress
Rebecca West is his antagonist. Haunting them both out of the past
is the spirit of the parson's late wife, who had committed suicide
under the subtle influence, we learn, of Rebecca West, and because
of her husband's high-minded indifference to sex. At issue for the
future is a choice between bold, unrestricted freedom and the ancient,
conservative traditions of Rosmer's house. But even as he is persuaded
by Rebecca's emancipated spirit, she is touched by his staid, decorous
view of life. Each is contaminated by the other, and for differing
but complementary reasons, they tempt one another toward the fatal
millpond in which Rosmer's wife drowned. The play ends with a double
suicide in which both Rosmer and Rebecca, each for the other's reasons,
do justice on themselves.
playwriting career by no means ended with Rosmersholm, but thereafter
he turned toward a more self-analytic and symbolic mode of writing
that is quite different from the plays that made his world reputation.
Among his later plays are Fruen fra havet (1888; The Lady
from the Sea), Hedda Gabler (1890), Bygmester Solness
(1892; The Master Builder), Lille Eyolf (1894), John
Gabriel Borkman (1896), and Naar vi døde vaagner
(1899; When We Dead Awaken). Two of these plays, Hedda Gabler
and The Master Builder, are vitalized by the presence of
a demonically idealistic and totally destructive female such as first
appeared in Catilina. Another obsessive personage in these
late plays is an aging artist who is bitterly aware of his failing
powers. Personal and confessional feelings infuse many of these last
dramas; perhaps these resulted from Ibsen's decision in 1891 to return
to Norway, or perhaps from the series of fascinated, fearful dalliances
he had with young women in his later years. After his return to Norway,
Ibsen continued to write plays until a stroke in 1900 and another
a year later reduced him to a bedridden invalid. He died in Kristiania
Ibsen was in the forefront
of those early modern authors whom one could refer to as the great
disturbers; he belongs with Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Friedrich Nietzsche,
and William Blake. Ibsen wrote plays about mostly prosaic and commonplace
persons; but from them he elicited insights of devastating directness,
great subtlety, and occasional flashes of rare beauty. His plots are
not cleverly contrived games but deliberate acts of cognition, in
which persons are stripped of their accumulated disguises and forced
to acknowledge their true selves, for better or worse. Thus, he made
his audiences reexamine with painful earnestness the moral foundation
of their being. During the last half of the 19th century he turned
the European stage back from what it had become, a plaything and a
distraction for the bored, to make it what it had been long ago among
the ancient Greeks, an instrument for passing doom-judgment on the
In English translations:
A Doll's House (Gutenberg text)
Early Plays: Catiline, The Warrior's Barrow, Olaf Liljekrans
An Enemy of the People
Ghosts: A Domestic Tragedy in Three Acts
The Lady From the Sea
The Master Builder
Pillars of Society
When We Dead Awaken
The Wild Duck
Ernst Neumann, German mathematician born on 11 Sep 1798. He
was the father of mathematician Carl
Gottfried Neumann, [07 May 1832 – 27 Mar 1925].
Henri Halphen, French mathematician born on 30 October 1844.
Clausen, Danish mathematician and astronomer born on 16 January
1801. He wrote over 150 papers on pure mathematics, applied mathematics,
astronomy and geophysics. In 1854 he proved that F6, the 6th Fermat number
2n+ 1 where n = 26, is not a prime. It is 18'446'744'073'709'551'617,
which, in 1880, Landry prime factored as 274'177 x 67'280'421'310'721.
The first to show that, contrary to Fermat's August 1640 guess, not all
the Fermat numbers Fp (numbers of the form 2n+ 1 where n is the
pth power of 2) were prime, was Euler
[15 Apr 1707 – 18 Sep 1783] in 1732 when he discovered that P5, 2n+
1 where n = 25, which is 4'294'967'297, has the prime factorization
641 x 6'700'417. Since then, thanks in part to supercomputers,
research into Fermat numbers has gone much further, but no Fermat number
has been proved to be a prime beyond the 4th (2n+ 1 where n =
24 , i.e. 216+ 1 = 65'537), but some have been proved
not to be prime, including all Fp with 4 < p <23 (but no factor of
F14, F20, or F22 has yet been found). For example, on 25 July 1999, John
Cosgrave announced that F382'447, 2n+ 1 where n is the 115'128-digit
number 2382'447, has the prime factor 3 x 2382'449 + 1.
It was only in 1970 that F7, the 7th Fermat number (2n+ 1 where
n = 27), 340'282'366'920'938'463'463'374'607'431'768'211'457,
was prime factorized as (116'503'103'764'643 x 29 + 1) x (11'141'971'095'088'142'685
x 29 + 1) which is 59'649'589'127'497'217 x 5'704'689'200'685'129'054'721,
though it had been proved not to be a prime more than 60 years earlier.
1873 Prilidiano Pueyrredón, pintor argentino.
Cauchy, Paris mathematician born on 21 August 1857. He pioneered
the study of analysis, both real and complex, and the theory of permutation
groups. He also researched in convergence and divergence of infinite series,
differential equations, determinants, probability and mathematical physics.
1842 José de Espronceda poeta romántico español.
1794 (4 prairial an II) Ferraud, représentant du Peuple,
a la tête coupée par BOUCHER Luc, marchand de vin, domicilié à Paris, dans
la convention nationale, ce pourquoi ledit Boucher sera par la commission
militaire établie à Paris le 6 prairial.
à mort par la Révolution:
1795 (4 prairial an III):
Baptiste, gendarme, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir
abandonné le poste de l'arsenal, et de s'être mêlé parmi les révoltés,
par le conseil militaire à Paris.
domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, capitaine des canonniers
de la section de Popincourt, par le conseil militaire, comme convaincu
d’être auteur et complice d’un complot tendant à dissoudre la Convention
nationale, en assassiner les membres, et d’avoir subordonné la garde
de ladite section.
1794 (4 prairial
ex vicaire, domicilié à Troujet (Allier), comme réfractaire à la Loi,
, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
Jacques François (dit Fontbroges), ex noble et conseiller
au ci-devant parlement de Bordeaux, 60 ans, né à Libourne, domicilié
à Bordeaux (Gironde), , par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux,
comme conspirateur, pour avoir entretenu des correspondance avec des
contre-révolutionnaires décidés, notamment le commandant du château
de Loches, nommé Bois-Lambert.
20 ans, natif de Meinz en Allemagne, cordonnier, domicilié à Lyon
(Rhône), , , par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Lyon, comme
MOINE Sébastien, prêtre, domicilié
à Mourmoiron (Vaucluse), comme réfractaire à la loi, , par le tribunal
criminel dudit département.
NOURY Jacques Etienne,
prêtre, domicilié à Courtezon (Vaucluse), comme réfractaire à la loi,
, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
Jean Baptiste, 75 ans, tisserand, demeurant à Febvin Pilfart,
DUMETZ Antoine François, 73 ans, menuisier
à Febvin Palfart, guillotiné à Arras
le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BARTH Antoine Martin, 33 ans, né et domicilié à Paris,
comme conspirateur et comme convaincu d'être complice de la conspiration
qui a existé comme les intérêts de la république, à l'effet de l'anéantir,
et de rétablir le despotisme, soit en annulant ou faisant annuler
différents marchés .
DIDIER Pierre Louis, 35
ans, né à Givry (Aisne), commis papetier, domicilié à Paris, comme
convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos, et fait des écrits tendant à anéantir
LANOUE Jean Baptiste, 37 ans, peintre
en Bâtiment, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos
et fait des écrits tendants à anéantir la liberté.
Jean François, 69 ans, ouvrier en Guêtres, fournisseur pour
la République, né et domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur et pour
fourniture défectueuse dans les magasins de la République.
Alexandre, ex administrateur de l’habillement, 55 ans, natif
de Saint Ecboillé (Seine et Oise), domicilié à Paris, comme prévaricateur,
en faisant et favorisant des livraisons de fournitures infidèles et
défectueuses dans les magasins de la république.
André, 60 ans, né à Versailles (Seine et Oise), commis des
guerres jusqu'au 1 juillet 1793, domicilié à Paris, comme prévaricateur.
FORTIN Gabriel Joseph, employé à l’habillement des
troupes, 44 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme prévaricateur.
CANOLLE Jean, 50 ans, natif de Benat en Périgord,
minéralogiste, domicilié au Péage du Roussillon, département de l’Isère,
COITARD Avoye (dit Faville),
domiciliée à Paris, département de la Seine, condamnée à mort comme
Joseph Antoine, 31 ans, né à Tarascon, hussard au 1er régiment
ex-noble domicilié à Lyon (Rhône).
BAREME Joseph Auguste,
32 ans, né à Tarascon, ex-noble, hussard au 1er régiment, domicilié
à Lyon (Rhône).
BAREME Joseph Henri, 35 ans,
né à Tarascon, ex-noble, brigadier fourrier au 1er régiment d'hussards,
domicilié à Tarascon (Bouches-du-Rhône).
veuve Dupré, garde-malade, âgée de 52 ans, née à Mala (Côte-d’Or),
domiciliée à Paris.
GAUDON Marie Nicolas, 34
ans, né à Mégève (Mont-Blanc), domicilié à Paris.
GUILBAUD Jean René, domestique, à la Chapelle-Hormier (Vendée),
par la commission militaire séante aux Sables, comme brigand de la
1782 Virgilius Erichsen,
Danish painter, active also in Russia, specialized in portraits
(especially of Catherine the Great), born on 02 September 1722. MORE
ON ERIKSEN AT ART 4 MAY with
links to images.
1726 Jean-Baptiste Nattier, suicide
in the Bastille, French painter born on 27 September 1678. — more
1669 Joris Abrahamszoon van der Haagen, Dutch painter born
in the period 1615-1620. — links
1701 Captain William
Kidd, hanged, for piracy and murder
At London’s Execution Dock, British privateer William Kidd, popularly
known as Captain Kidd, is hanged for his convictions on five counts
of piracy and one count of murder.
Born in Strathclyde, Scotland, Kidd established himself as a sea captain
before settling in New York, where he bought property and married.
In 1695, while in London, the earl of Bellomont, a recently appointed
governor of New York, commissioned him to defend English ships from
pirates in the Red Sea. In 1696, Kidd sailed to New York aboard the
Adventure Galley, enlisted men for the mission, and set sail for the
Indian Ocean. The expedition met with little success, and failed to
capture a major prize until February 1698, when the Quedagh Merchant,
an Indian vessel allegedly sailing under a French pass was taken.
Word of Kidd’s capture of the merchantman,
which was loaded with gold, jewels, silk, sugar, and guns, aroused
significant controversy in Britain, as the ship had an English captain.
Suspicions that he had turned to piracy were apparently confirmed
when he sailed to St. Mary’s, Madagascar, an infamous pirate haven,
where he negotiated with a known pirate and abandoned the Adventure
Galley for an unknown purpose.
From there, he traveled to the West Indies on the Quedagh Merchant,
where he learned of the piracy charges against him. Intending to clear
his name, he sailed to New York and delivered himself to the colonial
authorities, claiming that the vessels he had attacked were lawful
prizes. However, he was arrested and, as English law did not allow
pirates to be tried in the colonies, he was taken to London. In 1701,
he was tried on five charges of piracy and one charge of murdering
The Tories used the trial as a political
opportunity to embarrass his Whig sponsors, and the latter chose to
give up Kidd as a scapegoat rather than back his possibly correct
claims to legitimacy. He was convicted on all counts, and on 23 May
1701, he was executed by hanging. In later years, a legend grew up
around the story of William Kidd, although reports of his fabled buried
treasure have not been substantiated.
1668 (burial) Philips Wouwerman, Dutch
era painter baptized as an infant on 24 May 1619. MORE
ON WOUWERMAN AT ART 4 MAY 24
with links to images.
1648 Louis Le Nain, French
Baroque era painter born in 1593 (1603?), brother of Antoine
Le Nain [1588 25 May 1648] and Mathieu
Le Nain le Chevalier [1607 20 Apr 1677]. The
three brothers worked together, often on the same picture, so that it is
impossible to make individual attributions and the three brothers are treated
as a single artist. MORE
ON LE NAIN AT ART 4 MAY
with links to images.
1627 Luis de Góngora y Argote,
poeta y dramaturgo español.
Savonarola Ferrariensis, Domenico da Pescia, and Silvestro Maruffi,
tortured, hanged and burnt in Piazza Signoria, in Florence
was an Italian Dominican preacher, reformer, and martyr, renowned
for his clash with tyrannical rulers and a corrupt clergy. After the
overthrow of the Medici in 1494, Savonarola was the sole leader of
Florence, setting up a democratic republic. His chief enemies were
the Duke of Milan and Pope Alexander VI, who issued numerous restraints
against him, all of which were ignored.
Girolamo Savonarola, born on 21 September 1452 in Ferrara, was for
some time prior of the Convent of San Marco. Inspired by an aversion
for worldly things, and the highest religious ideals, with his example
and his obscurely threatening and prophetic sermons he condemned first
the corrupt way of life of Florence then the church hierarchy in Rome.
Ignoring numerous reprimands and contemptuous of danger, he was condemned
to death: together with his fellow friars, da Pescia and Maruffi.
In the beginning Savonarola
was filled with zeal, piety, and self-sacrifice for the regeneration
of religious life. He was led to offend against these virtues by his
fanaticism, obstinacy, and disobedience. He was not a heretic in matters
of faith. The erection of his statue at the foot of Luther's monument
at Worms as a reputed "forerunner of the Reformation" is entirely
unwarranted. Among his writings mention should be made of: Triumphus
Crucis de fidei veritate (Florence, 1497), his chief work, an
apology for Christianity; Compendium revelationum (Florence,
1495); Scelta di prediche e scritti, Trattato circa il
Reggimento di Firenze ; further letters in the Archivio.
storico italiano, App. XIII ; poems edited by Rians. The Dialogo
della verita (1497) and fifteen sermons were placed later on
the Index of Prohibited Books.
SAVONAROLA ONLINE: (English translation): Sermon
on the Our Father (11 January 1496)
on image for portrait of Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo >]