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Events, deaths, births, of 22 MAY
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[For May 22 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 011700s: Jun 021800s: Jun 031900~2099: Jun 04]
• War of the Roses begins... • Victor Hugo dies... • Sherlock Holmes' creator is born... • Muore Manzoni... • Berlin~Rome Axis... • Senator assaults senator... • Great Emigration to Oregon... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Windows 3.0... • Nixon arrives in Moscow... • Protectionist victory... • Rusk warns North Vietnam... • Proposals conflict at Vietnam peace talks...
^  On a 22 May:
2001 Afghanistan's ruling Taliban announces that it will require Hindus to wear identity labels on their clothing to distinguish them from Muslims, purportedly to exempt them from the religious police's enforcement of the Taliban's fanatically medieval interpretation of Islam, which has led them to prohibit music, education of women, statues (they destroyed archeological treasure Buddhas), the trimming of beards, and to require women to be totally covered by a burqa. There is indeed an active religious police, headed by Mohammed Wali, busy enforcing the above and many other so-called Islamic rules that violate human rights. The Taliban has also become an internationally pariah regime for harboring Saudi exile terrorist boss billionaire Osama bin Laden.
2001 In Tuscany, Lina Maiale, 73, decides to change her name to Lina Meri. "Maiale" means pig in Italian.
2000 The US Supreme Court strikes down, 5-4, a federal law that shielded children from sex-oriented cable TV channels.
2000 A committee of the Arkansas Supreme Court recommends that US President Clinton be disbarred for giving false testimony about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky in the Paula Jones sexual harassment case. (Clinton later would agree to give up his Arkansas law license for five years.)
1996 The General Accounting Office tells a US Senate committee that Defense Department computers had sustained an estimated 250'000 attacks by hackers in 1995, and that the rate of attacks is doubling yearly.
1995 Microsoft calls off an attempt to buy Intuit, maker of the popular Quicken financial software. At the time, Microsoft Money has 22% of the personal-finance software market, while Quicken has 70%. The Justice Department had filed an antitrust suit in April to block the acquisition, arguing that financial software was one of the few remaining software sectors not dominated by Microsoft.
1995 A US district court judge dismisses a lawsuit alleging that a woman had contracted brain cancer from using a cell phone. The judge said the case lacked sufficient medical evidence about the health effects of cell phones.
1993 Cult science-fiction director David Blaire uploads the first digital film to the Internet: Wax: Or the Discovery of Television Among the Bees.
1991 Sonia Gandhi, the Italian-born wife of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, was designated to lead his Congress Party through national elections, one day after his assassination. However, Mrs. Gandhi turned down the position.
1990 After years of conflict, pro-Western North Yemen and pro-Soviet South Yemen merged to form a single nation, the Republic of Yemen. — Los líderes de Yemen del Norte, Alí Abdalla Salej, y de Yemen del Sur, Jaida Abu Baker, proclaman en Adén el nacimiento de la República del Yemen.
1990 Dow Jones avg hits a record 2852.23
1988 Karoly Grosz, partidario de la perestroika, primer ministro de Hungría.
1981 François Mitterrand forma un Gobierno de izquierda en Francia.
1979 Canadians vote in parliamentary elections that put the Progressive Conservatives in power, ending the 11-year tenure of Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
1977 Final European scheduled run of the Orient Express (94 years)
^ 1977 Jimmy Carter reaffirms his commitment to human rights
      President Jimmy Carter, in a speech delivered at Notre Dame University, reaffirms his commitment to human rights as a cornerstone of US foreign policy and disparages the "inordinate fear of communism which once led us to embrace any dictator who joined us in that fear." Carter's speech marked a new direction for US Cold War policy, one that led to both accolades and controversy. Jimmy Carter was elected president in 1976, during a time when America was still reeling from the trauma of the Vietnam War and many were questioning the very basis of US foreign diplomacy.
      Carter promised change, and during an address at Notre Dame University on 22 May 1977, he sketched out his vision for the future of US diplomacy. He began by noting the "great recent successes" in nations such as India, Greece, and Spain in bringing about democratic governments. These successes had renewed America's confidence in the strength of democracy and would now "free" the United States from the "inordinate fear of communism" that once led America to ally itself with brutal dictators who agreed to help fight the communist menace. What was needed in the "new world" that America faced was "a policy based on constant decency in its values and on optimism in our historical vision." Carter then outlined the steps he was taking to strengthen this "commitment to human rights as a fundamental tenet of our foreign policy." The US's foreign policy, he concluded, should be "rooted in our moral values, which never change."
      Carter's commitment to the protection and advancement of human rights as the keystone to his foreign policy brought him applause from many Americans and others around the world that believed that the United States, in battling the Soviet Union, had resorted to reprehensible actions. The Vietnam War had shattered the vision of America as a protector of the weak and defender of freedom, and Carter's accent on moral values struck a resonant chord with many disillusioned Americans. The policy also resulted in some controversy, however. When long-time dictators Anastacio Somoza of Nicaragua and the Shah of Iran fell from power in 1979, critics of Carter's human rights policy blamed the president for the demise of two governments, which had been strong allies in the war against communism. Ronald Reagan, in his successful 1980 presidential campaign against Carter, constantly reiterated his theme that his opponent's policies had severely weakened America in its struggle against the Soviet Union.
1972 Ceylon becomes Republic of Sri Lanka as its constitution is ratified
1972 US President Nixon arrives in Moscow       ^top^
for a summit with Soviet leaders, becoming the first US president to ever visit the USS.R.
      However, although it was Nixon’s first visit to the Soviet Union as president, he had visited Moscow once before — as US vice-president in 1959. As President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s vice-president, Nixon made frequent official trips abroad, including a historic trip to Moscow to tour the Soviet capital and to attend the US Trade and Cultural Fair in Sokolniki Park. Soon after Vice President Nixon arrived on July 23, 1959, he opened an informal debate with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev about the merits and disadvantages of their governments’ political and economic systems. Known as the "Kitchen Debate" because of a particularly heated exchange between Khrushchev and Nixon that occurred in the kitchen of a model US home at the American fair, the dialogue was a defining moment in the Cold War.
      Nixon’s second visit to Moscow in May 1972, this time as president, was for a far more conciliatory purpose. During a week of summit meetings with Soviet leader Leonid I. Brezhnev and other Soviet officials, the US and the USS.R. reached a number of agreements, including one that laid the groundwork for a joint space flight in 1975. On May 26, Nixon and Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, the most significant of the agreements reached during the summit. The treaty limited the US and the USS.R. to two hundred antiballistic missiles each, which were to be divided between two defensive systems. President Nixon returned to the United States on May 30.
^ 1969 Conflicting proposals at Vietnam peace talks.
      Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, at the 18th plenary session of the Paris peace talks, says he finds common ground for discussion in the proposals of President Richard Nixon and the National Liberation Front. In reply, Nguyen Thanh Le, spokesman for the North Vietnamese, said the programs were "as different as day and night." At the 16th plenary session of the Paris talks on May 8, the National Liberation Front had presented a 10-point program for an "overall solution" to the war. This proposal included an unconditional withdrawal of United States and Allied troops from Vietnam; the establishment of a coalition government and the holding of free elections; the demand that the South Vietnamese settle their own affairs "without foreign interference"; and the eventual reunification of North and South Vietnam.
      In a speech to the US public on 14 May, President Nixon responded to the Communist plan with a proposal of his own. He proposed a phased, mutual withdrawal of major portions of US Allied and North Vietnamese forces from South Vietnam over a 12-month period. The remaining non-South Vietnamese forces would withdraw to enclaves and abide by a cease-fire until withdrawals were completed. Nixon also insisted that North Vietnamese forces withdraw from Cambodia and Laos at the same time and offered internationally supervised elections for South Vietnam. Nixon's offer of a "simultaneous start on withdrawal" represented a revision of the last formal proposal offered by the Johnson administration in October 1966. In the earlier proposal, known as the "Manila formula," the United States stated that the withdrawal of US forces would be completed within six months after the North Vietnamese left South Vietnam. In the end, Nguyen Thanh Le's observation was on target. The communists' proposal and Nixon's counteroffer were very different and there was, in fact, almost no common ground. Neither side relented and nothing meaningful came from this diplomatic exchange.
1967 The General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church (PCUS) adopted the Confession of 1967. It was the first major declaration of faith adopted by this branch of Protestantism since the Westminster Confession of 1647.
1967 Egyptian president Nassar closes Straits of Tiran to Israel
^ 1964 Rusk warns North Vietnamese.
      In a major speech before the American Law Institute in Washington DC, Secretary of State Dean Rusk explicitly accuses North Vietnam of initiating and directing the aggression in South Vietnam. US withdrawal, said Rusk, "would mean not only grievous losses to the free world in Southeast and Southern Asia but a drastic loss of confidence in the will and capacity of the free world." He concluded: "There is a simple prescription for peace — leave your neighbors alone."
      In the fall, there was incontrovertible evidence that North Vietnamese regular troops were moving down the Ho Chi Minh Trail to join the Viet Cong in their war against the Saigon government and its forces. Elsewhere in Southeast Asia, Thailand mobilized its border provinces against incursions by the communist Pathet Lao forces from Laos and agreed to the use of bases by the US Air Force for reconnaissance, search and rescue, and even attacks against the Pathet Lao. By the end of the year, some 75 US aircraft would be based in Thailand to assist in operations against the Pathet Lao. Eventually, Thailand permitted the United States to use its air bases for operations against the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese in South Vietnam, and ultimately to launch bombing raids against North Vietnam. In addition, Thailand sent combat troops to South Vietnam, numbering 11'000 at the height of the Thai commitment.
1960 Virtually all coastal towns between 37th and 44th parallels severely damaged by tsunami that strikes Hilo, Hawaii at 01:04.
1955 the oldest man to drive in the Grand Prix (aged 55) finished 6th
1947 The “Truman Doctrine” is enacted as Congress appropriated military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.
1947 first US ballistic missile fired
1945 El presidente de la Agencia Judía, David Ben Gurión, presenta ante el gobierno de Londres la petición del establecimiento de un estado hebreo en Palestina.
1944 Rail bombing campaign starts       ^top^
      US and British aircraft begin a systematic bombing raid on railroads in Germany and other parts of northern Europe, called Operation Chattanooga Choo-Choo. The operation is a success; Germany is forced to scramble for laborers, including foreign slave laborers, to repair the widespread damage exacted on its railway network.
1939 Berlin-Rome Axis is forged in steel       ^top^
      In the last few months before the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Italian leader Benito Mussolini signed the so-called "Pact of Steel" with Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, uniting Fascist Italy with Germany in a formal military and political alliance and strengthening the "Berlin-Rome Axis." Mussolini coined the nickname "Pact of Steel" (he had also come up with the metaphor of an "axis" binding Rome and Berlin) after reconsidering his first choice, "Pact of Blood." Both sides were fearful and distrustful of the other, and only sketchily shared their prospective plans. The result was both Italy and Germany, rather than acting in unison, would often "react" to the precipitous military action of the other.
     Despite recent Italian military victories in Ethiopia and Albania, many Italians, including a faction of the Fascist party, resented Mussolini’s signature of the agreement. In addition to hastening the outbreak of a war that few in Italy wanted, many questioned how the sovereignty of Italy figured in Hitler’s plans for German world domination.
      After seizing power over Italy in 1925, Mussolini appealed to his country’s former Western allies for new treaties, but his brutal 1935 invasion of Ethiopia ended all hope of alliance with the Western democracies. In 1936, Mussolini joined Hitler in his support of Francisco Franco’s Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, prompting the signing of a treaty of cooperation in foreign policy between Italy and Germany in 1937.
      In 1939, in the last few months preceding the outbreak of World War II in Europe, the two governments’ relationship was reinforced by the Pact of Steel. However, as German armies stormed across Europe, Italy waited until it was assured of Germany’s success before officially entering the war. In March 1940, Hitler and Mussolini met, and on 10 June of the same year, with France going down in defeat, Italy declared war against the Allied powers. In September 1940, Japan, which had signed a cooperative pact with Italy and Germany in late 1936, formally joined the Axis with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in Berlin.
1930 Presentación, por primera vez, de un espectáculo de televisión, en un teatro de Schenectady (Estados Unidos).
1911 Portugal adopta como tipo oro el escudo de cien centavos.
1906 The US grants Patent Number 821'393 to O. & W. Wright of Dayton, Ohio, for a Flying Machine.
1875 Noruega introduce el sistema métrico decimal.
1872 Amnesty Act restores civil rights to Southerners (except for 500)
1868 The "Great Train Robbery" takes place near Marshfield, Indiana, as seven members of the Reno gang steal $96'000.
1863 War Dept establishes Bureau of Colored Troops
1863 Second assault on Vicksburg, Mississippi
1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi ocupa las alturas que rodean Palermo.
1858 Confederación Granadina (now Colombia) forms
1856 Senator assaults senator       ^top^
     In the US Senate, on 19 May and 20 May 1856, Senator Charles Sumner, 45, of Massachusetts had denounced the "Crime against Kansas" (the Kansas-Nebraska Act) as "in every respect a swindle" and characterized its authors, Senators Andrew P. Butler and Stephen A. Douglas, as myrmidons (followers) of slavery. Two days later Congressman Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina invaded the Senate, labelled the speech a libel on his state and on his uncle, Senator Butler, and then severely beat Sumner with a cane. It took three years for Sumner to recover from the beating. Congress did not expel Brooks, and some legislators carried weapons to future sessions.
     Southern Congressman Preston Brooks savagely beats Northern Senator Charles Sumner in the halls of Congress as tensions rise over the expansion of slavery. When the controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 was passed, popular sovereignty was applied within the two new territories and people were given the right to decide the slave issue by vote. Because the act nullified the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the debate over slavery intensified. Northerners were incensed that slavery could again resurface in an area where it had been banned for over 30 years. When violence broke out in Kansas Territory, the issue became central in Congress. On May 19, Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner, an ardent abolitionist, began a two-day speech on the Senate floor in which he decried the "crime against Kansas" and blasted three of his colleagues by name, one of which—South Carolina Senator Andrew P. Butler—was elderly, sick, and absent from the proceedings. Butler's cousin, Representative Preston Brooks, who had a history of violence, took it upon himself to defend the honor of his kin. Wielding the cane he used for injuries he incurred in a duel over a political debate in 1840, Brooks entered the Senate chamber and attacked Sumner at his desk, which was bolted to the floor. Sumner's legs were pinned by the desk so he could not escape the savage beating. It was not until other congressmen subdued Brooks that Sumner finally escaped. Brooks became an instant hero in the South, and supporters sent him many replacement canes. He was vilified in the North and became a symbol of the stereotypically inflexible, uncompromising representative of the slave power. The incident exemplified the growing hostility between the two camps in the prewar years. Sumner did not return to the Senate for three years while he recovered.
Wagon on the Oregon Trail1843 The Great Emigration departs for Oregon       ^top^
      A massive wagon train, made up of a thousand settlers and a thousand head of cattle, set off down the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri. Known as the "Great Emigration," the expedition came two years after the first modest party of settlers made the long, overland journey to Oregon.
      After leaving Independence, the wagon train followed the Sante Fe Trail for some forty miles and then turned northwest to the Platte River, which they followed along its northern route to Fort Laramie, Wyoming. From there, they traveled on to the Rocky Mountains, which they passed through by way of the broad, level South Pass that led to the basin of the Colorado River.
      The travelers then went southwest to Fort Bridger, northwest across a divide to Fort Hall on the Snake River, and on to Fort Boise, where they gained supplies for the difficult journey over the Blue Mountains and into Oregon. The massive wagon train finally arrived in October, completing the 3000-km journey from Independence in five months. In the next year, four more wagon trains made the journey, and by 1845, the number of emigrants exceeded three thousand. Travel along the Oregon Trail gradually declined with the coming of the railroads, and the route was finally abandoned in the 1870s.
    A thousand pioneers head West on the Oregon Trail The first major wagon train to the northwest departs from Elm Grove, Missouri, on the Oregon Trail. Although US sovereignty over the Oregon Territory was not clearly established until 1846, American fur trappers and missionary groups had been living in the region for decades. Dozens of books and lectures proclaimed Oregon's agricultural potential, tweaking the interest of American farmers. The first overland immigrants to Oregon, intending primarily to farm, came in 1841 when a small band of 70 pioneers left Independence, Missouri. They followed a route blazed by fur traders, which took them west along the Platte River through the Rocky Mountains via the easy South Pass in Wyoming and then northwest to the Columbia River. In the years to come, pioneers came to call the route the Oregon Trail.
      In 1842, a slightly larger group of 100 pioneers made the 3000 km journey to Oregon. The next year, however, the number of emigrants rose to 1000. The sudden increase was a product of a severe depression in the Midwest combined with a flood of propaganda from fur traders, missionaries, and government officials extolling the virtues of the land. Farmers dissatisfied with their prospects in Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, hoped to find better lives in the supposed paradise of Oregon. On this day in 1843, some 1000 men, women, and children climbed aboard their wagons and steered their horses west out of the small town of Elm Grove, Missouri. The train comprised more than 100 wagons with a herd of 5000 oxen and cattle trailing behind. Dr. Elijah White, a Presbyterian missionary who had made the trip the year before, served as guide. The first section of the Oregon Trail ran through the relatively flat country of the Great Plains. Obstacles were few, though the river crossings could be dangerous for wagons. The danger of Indian attacks was a small but genuine risk. To be on the safe side, the pioneers drew their wagons into a circle at night to create a makeshift stockade. If they feared Indians might raid their livestock-the Plains tribes valued the horses, though generally ignored the oxen-they would drive the animals into the enclosure. Although many neophyte pioneers believed Indians were their greatest threat, they quickly learned that they were more likely to be injured or killed by a host of more mundane causes. Obstacles included accidental discharge of firearms, falling off mules or horses, drowning in river crossings, and disease. After entering the mountains, the trail also became much more difficult, with steep ascents and descents over rocky terrain. The pioneers risked injury from overturned and runaway wagons. Yet, as with the 1000-person party that made the journey in 1843, the vast majority of pioneers on the trail survived to reach their destination in the fertile, well-watered land of western Oregon. The migration of 1844 was smaller than that of the previous season, but in 1845 it jumped to nearly 3000. Thereafter, migration on the Oregon Trail was an annual event, although the practice of traveling in giant convoys of wagons gave way to many smaller bands of one or two-dozen wagons. The trail was heavily traveled until 1884, when the Union Pacific constructed a railway along the route.
1848 Se celebra la Asamblea Nacional de Berlín, convocada por Federico Guillermo III, rey de Prusia, para elaborar una constitución.
1824 Protectionist victory for Henry Clay..      ^top^
      During the early spring of 1824, lawyer-turned-legislator Henry Clay vigorously stumped for the passage of a protectionist tariff. Playing on national pride, Clay positioned the tariff as a potent tool for bolstering America's fiscal and social well-being. With its blend of protectionist measures and domestic trade initiatives, the tariff was designed to break the nation's putatively heavy reliance on foreign goods. But, Clay's campaign, which included a marathon two-day speech before the House of Representatives, was met with some fierce resistance, most notably from Daniel Webster, who hit the House floor in early April to deliver his own two-day take on the tariff. Webster passionately argued against the legislation, dismissing it as an affront to free trade. However, when the dust, settled, Clay was the victor: on this day in 1824, the House passed the Tariff of 1824.
1807 Townsend Speakman first sells fruit-flavored carbonated drinks (Phila)
1795 (3 prairial an III) BEUGNET Albert, gendarme, domicilié à Paris, abandonne le poste de l'Arsenal, les 1, 3 et 4 prairial an 3.ce pourquoi il sera condamné à mort par la commission militaire établie à Paris le 3 prairial.
1795 (3 prairial an III) CHAUVEL Jean Louis, serrurier, domicilié à Paris, porte au bout de sa bayonnette la tête du représentant Ferraud, ce pourquoi il sera condamné à mort par le conseil militaire le 11 prairial an III (30 mai 1795)..
1794 (3 prairial an II) PORTEFAIX Marie, domicilié à Paulhiac (Lozère), est condamnée à la déportation à vie, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme receleuse de prêtres réfractaires.
1792 MANNEVILLE G. F. veuve Colbert-Maulévier, âgée de 61 ans, née à Rouen, département de la Seine Inférieure, ex noble, ex marquise, domiciliée à Paris, rentre en France, ayant émigré plusieures fois pour rejoindre son fils aussi émigré elle sera pour cela condamnée à mort le 8 thermidor an II (26 juillet 1794), par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspiratrice.
1790 En France, l'assemblée nationale décide que "la guerre ne pourra être déclarée que par un décret du corps législatif rendu sur la proposition formelle du roi". C'est Mirabeau qui est à l'origine de ce décret pour satisfaire les deux parties qui s'affrontaient : les conservateurs voulaient laisser cette prérogative au roi contrairement aux démocrates qui voulaient la donner au parlement.
1761 first life insurance policy in US is issued, in Philadelphia.
1541 In Germany, the Ratisbon (Regensburg) Conference ended, its mission to reunify the Catholic Church having failed. From this time on, the Protestant movement became permanent.
1526 Se firma una alianza entre Francisco I de Francia, el papa Clemente VII, las ciudades italianas de Milán, Florencia y Venecia, y Enrique VIII de Inglaterra para combatir a Carlos I de España y V de Alemania.
1370 Jews are expelled from Brussels, Belgium
0760 14th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 May:

2006:: 35 Taliban rebels and 34 innocent civilians in US air raid, started shortly before midnight the previous day, on village Azizi (aka Hajiyan), Kandahar province, Afghanistan, where the rebels were hiding in a madrassa (where 9 civilians died) and fled into a home (where 25 civilians died) during the raid. Some 15 civilians are wounded. — (060526)
3-year-old killed by Israel2004 Palestinian suicide bomber, 19, of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, in the afternoon, as he was challenged by Israeli soldiers 30 meters from the Bekaot roadblock in the northern Jordan Valley, West Bank. One Israeli soldier and four Palestinian bystanders are injured.
2004 Rawan Mohammed Abu Zeid, 3, Palestinian girl, shot in the neck and head by Israeli snipers, as she left her home in the Brazil neighborhood of Rafah, Gaza Strip, to go, with other children and no adults, to a nearby store to buy candy. [Rawan during her funeral >]
2004 A German, shot as he leaves a supermarket in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, at 18:15 (15:15 UT).
2004 A woman in her home, and four policemen of some 20 outside the neighboring home of Abdul-Jabbar Youssef al-Sheikhli, in Baghdad, Iraq, by a car bomb. Al-Sheikhli, of the Shiite Muslim Dawa party, who is slightly injured, is the deputy minister in charge of security in the puppet government of Iraq.
2002 Mahmoud Titi, Iyad Abu Hamdan, 22, and Imad Al-Khatib, 25, by rockets fired from Israeli tanks, in the evening, near Nablus, West Bank. The Israelis say that they targeted Titi because he was a regional commander in the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, responsible for the deaths of 11 Israelis, among them five people killed in a shooting attack at the Seafood Market restaurant in Tel Aviv in March 2002.
^ Ben Walker1998 Ben Walker, 16, from injuries received the previous day
in the shooting at Thurston High School in Springfield, Oregon, where Mikael Nickkolauson, 17, was shot dead and more than 20 other people were wounded by Kipland P. Kinkel, 15, who had already killed his parents at home the evening before.
1997 Alfred Day Hershey, científico estadounidense.
1974 Irmgard Flügge-Lotz, German US mathematician born on 16 July 1903. She worked on numerical methods for solving differential equations especially in fluid dynamics.
1967 James Langston Hughes, writer of novels, stories, poems, and plays about the life of US Blacks. He was born on 01 February 1902. Author of The Weary Blues (1925) — Shakespeare in Harlem — The Dream Keeper — Not Without Laughter — The Ways of White Folks — The Big Sea — Popo and Fifina.
1933 José María Vargas Vila, escritor colombiano.
1918 Carlos Octavio Bunge, polígrafo argentino.
1910 Jules Renard, French educator and author born on 22 Feb 1864.
1902 Lilly Martin Spencer, English US painter born in 1822. — MORE ON SPENCER AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1895 Isaac Peral y Caballero, marino e inventor español.
^ Victor Hugo1885 Victor Hugo, in Paris, France
[Hugo's photograph by Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) >]
      Victor Hugo was born in Besançon on 26 February 1802, the son of one of Napoléon's officers. While still a teenager, Victor decided to become a writer. Although he studied law, he also founded a literary review to which he and other emerging writers published their work. In 1822, Hugo married his childhood sweetheart, Adèle Foucher, and published his first volume of poetry, which won him a pension from Louis XVIII.
Victor Hufo      In 1823, Hugo published his first novel, Han d'Islande. About this time, he began meeting regularly with a group of Romantics. His 1827 play, Cromwell, embraced the tenets of Romanticism, which he laid out in the play's preface. The following year, despite a contract to begin work on a novel called Notre Dame de Paris, he set to work on two plays. The first, Marion de Lorme (1829), was censored for its candid portrayal of a courtesan purified by love. The second, Hernani ou L'honneur castillan, became the touchstone for a bitter and protracted debate between French Classicists and Romantics.
[< etching by Rodin]
      On 15 January 1831, Hugo finally completed Notre-Dame de Paris, which pleaded for an aesthetic that would tolerate the imperfect, the grotesque. The book also had a simpler agenda: to increase appreciation of old Gothic structures, which had become the object of vandalism and neglect
      In the 1830s, Hugo wrote numerous plays, many of which were written as vehicles for the actress Juliette Drouet, with whom Hugo was romantically connected starting in 1833. In 1841, Hugo was elected to the prestigious Académie Française, but two years later he lost his beloved daughter and her husband when they were drowned in an accident. His expressed his profound grief in a poetry collection called Les Contemplations (1856). Hugo was forced to flee France when Napoléon III came to power; he did not return for 20 years. While still in exile, he completed Les Misérables (1862), which became a hit in France and abroad. He returned to Paris during the Franco-Prussian War and was hailed a national hero. Hugo's writing spanned more than six decades, and he was given a national funeral and buried in the Pantheon after his death.
     Victor Hugo was also an artist who produced some 4000 drawings. — MORE ON  HUGO THE ARTIST AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
  • Hernani ou L'honneur castillan : drame, [Paris, Français, 25 février 1830]
  • Le télégraphe : satire
  • Odes et poésies diverses
  • Lucrèce Borgia : drame, [Paris, Porte-Saint-Martin, 2 février 1833]
  • Marie Tudor
  • Napoléon le Petit
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. Tome premier
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. Tome deuxième
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. Tome troisième
  • Han d'Islande
  • Notre-Dame de Paris
  • Notre-Dame de Paris
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les Misérables. [Tome V à IX]
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. [Tome X-XI]
  • Les travailleurs de la mer. [Tome X-XI]
  • L'homme qui rit. [Tome XII-XIII]
  • L'homme qui rit. [Tome XII-XIII]
  • Quatre-vingt-treize. [Tome XIV]
  • Ruy Blas
  • Les Contemplations
  • Les Miserables volume I
  • volume II
  • volume III
  • volume IV
  • volume V
  • Les Miserables (complete: 3.2 MB)
  • The Memoirs of Victor Hugo
  • Notre-Dame de Paris
  • Notre Dame de Paris
  • ^ 1873 Alessandro Manzoni, in Milan, poet, playwright, novelist.
        Alessandro Manzoni, uno dei più grandi scrittori non solo del XIX secolo, ma della letteratura europea dal Medioevo in poi
         Italian poet and novelist whose novel I promessi sposi (The Betrothed, 1952) had immense patriotic appeal for Italians of the nationalistic Risorgimento period and is generally ranked among the masterpieces of world literature. Manzoni was born in Milan on 7 March 1785p
         Manzoni wrote (1812-15) a series of religious poems, Inni sacri (1815), on the church feasts of Christmas, Good Friday, and Easter, and a hymn to Mary. The last, and perhaps the finest, of the series, La pentecoste, was published in 1822.
         During these years, Manzoni also produced the treatise Osservazioni sulla morale cattolica(1819); an ode on the Piedmontese revolution of 1821, Marzo 1821; and two historical tragedies influenced by Shakespeare: Il conte di Carmagnola (1820), a romantic work depicting a 15th-century conflict between Venice and Milan; and Adelchi (performed 1822), a richly poetic drama about Charlemagne's overthrow of the Lombard kingdom and conquest of Italy. Another ode, written on the death of Napoleon in 1821, Il cinque maggio (1822), was considered by Goethe, one of the first to translate it into German, as the greatest of many written to commemorate the event.
          Manzoni's masterpiece, I promessi sposi, 3 vol. (1825-27), is a novel set in early 17th-century Lombardy during the period of the Milanese insurrection, the Thirty Years' War, and the plague. It is a sympathetic portrayal of the struggle of two peasant lovers whose wish to marry is thwarted by a vicious local tyrant and the cowardice of their parish priest. A courageous friar takes up the lovers' cause and helps them through many adventures to safety and marriage. Manzoni's resigned tolerance of the evils of life and his concept of religion as the ultimate comfort and inspiration of humanity give the novel its moral dimension, while a pleasant vein of humor in the book contributes to the reader's enjoyment. The novel brought Manzoni immediate fame and praise from all quarters, in Italy and elsewhere. Prompted by the patriotic urge to forge a language that would be accessible to a wide readership rather than a narrow elite, Manzoni decided to write his novel in an idiom as close as possible to contemporary educated Florentine speech. The final edition of I promessi sposi (1840-42), rendered in clear, expressive prose purged of all antiquated rhetorical forms, reached exactly the sort of broad audience he had aimed at, and its prose became the model for many subsequent Italian writers.
    Biografia e Rittrato di Manzoni
    MANZONI ONLINE: I Promessi SposiI Promessi SposiI Promessi SposiStoria della colonna infameLe odi civiliGli inni sacriAdelchiIl Conte di CarmagnolaDel romanzo storicoLettera a Cesare Taparelli D'AzeglioLettre à Chauvet — (in English translation): I Promessi Sposi, or The Betrothed
    1868 Julius Plücker, German mathematician and, from 1847 to 1865, physicist, born on 16 June 1801. He made important contributions to analytic geometry and physics.
    1815 William Spence, Scottish mathematician born in 1777.
    1813 Johann-Jakob Dorner I, German painter born on 18 July 1741. — more with links to images.
    1802 Martha Dandridge Custis Washington, 71. of a severe fever.
    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    1795 (3 prairial an III):
    MICHEL Pierre
    (dit Ethenot), tailleur, sergent au ci-devant régiment d'Austrasie, domicilié à Toul (Meurthe), comme émigré, par la commission militaire de Bruxelles.
    1794 (3 prairial an II):
    AUDIER Marguerite (femme Bauzac), domiciliée à Solignac, canton du Puy (Haute Loire), comme receleuse de prêtre réfractaire, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Haute Loire.
    BAUZAC Jean, domicilié à Solignac, canton du Puy (Haute-Loire), comme receleur de prêtres réfractaires , par le tribunal criminel du département de la Haute Loire
    BRUGNIERE Jean Baptiste, ex curé, domicilié à Gabriac, canton de Florac (Lozère), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    ROUVIERRE Jean Baptiste (dit Collet), domicilié à Sallelles (Lozère), comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    BEHAGUE Isabelle Florence, 62 ans, née et demeurant à St Omer, épouse de Fournier Félix, à Arras
    MICHAUX Charles Thomas Joseph, 42 ans, né à Brully près de Liège, à Arras
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    BOURGEOIS Louis Philippe, natif d'Uzès, perruquier, sergent de la garde nationale, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir de complicité, favorisé l'émigration d'un grand nombre de contre-révolutionnaires, ébranlé la fidélité des soldats de la liberté, et provoqué la dissolution de la représentation de la représentation nationale.
    CARRE Louis, 31 ans, né à Brienne (Aube), épicier, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur, en faisant des achats de numéraire beaucoup au-dessous de la valeur réelle, en discréditant les assignats.
    COURSIN Jean, brocanteur, 41 ans, natif de Carnay (Manche), domicilié à Paris, pour avoir cherché à discréditer les assignats, en faisant des achats en numéraire, au-dessous de leur valeur réelle.
    JUERY Jean, 30 ans, né à Perret (Cantal), domestique, ensuite brocanteur, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur soit en favorisant les ennemis extérieurs, soit en discréditant les assignats.
    ROYER Felix, jardinier, 28 ans, natif de Boulogne (Gard), chasseur dans la légion des Alpes, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir entretenu des correspondances contenues des correspondances contenant des provocation à la royauté, et tendantes à soustraire le tyran Capet au supplice.
    PAUL Pierre, marchand de cannes, 40 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme ayant eu des correspondances avec les ennemis extérieurs et intérieurs de la république.
    VASSEUR (dit Cyre), caporal dans l’armée révolutionnaire, 42 ans, natif de Barly-Pont-Leu (Somme), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir entretenu des correspondance avec les émigrés.
    GAYDON Marie Nicolas, fruitier, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
    JAROUFFLET Jean, notaire public à Moulins, 51 ans, né et domicilié à Moulins (Allier), comme conspirateur.
    KEUTSCHEN Jean Baptiste, tailleur, 36 ans, né à Egnieux, dans la forêt-Noire, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
    LEFLOT Claude Alexis, capitaine général des douanes de la République, 43 ans, né à Moère (Manche), domicilié à Treguiers (Côtes-du-Nord), comme conspirateur.
    DEVAUX Philippe, 32 ans, adjudant général de l'armée du Nord, domicilié à Paris, complice de Dumourier.
    ^ 1455 The Duke of Somerset, and Thomas de Clifford, and 300 nobles as the War of the Roses begins
          In the opening battle of the England’s thirty-year War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI’s Lancastrian forces at the Battle of St. Albans. Many Lancastrian nobles perish, including the duke of Somerset and Thomas de Clifford, and the king is forced to submit to the rule of Richard of York, the former protector of England.
          In the 1450s, English failures in the Hundred Years War with France, coupled with periodic fits of insanity suffered by King Henry VI, led to a power struggle between the houses of York, whose badge was a red rose, and Lancaster, later associated with a white rose. Richard, the leader of the Yorkist opposition, was appointed protector in 1453, but in the next year the king regained his sanity and York was excluded from the Royal Council.
          In 1455, Richard raised an army of 3000 men, and in May, the Yorkists marched to London. On 22 May, a smaller Lancastrian force met them at St. Albans, thirty kilometers northwest of London, and three hundred nobles perished before the Lancastrians fled the field. After the battle, Richard again was made English protector. Five years later, he was killed, but his son was crowned as King Edward IV in 1461.
          The War of Roses left little mark on the common English people but severely thinned the ranks of the English nobility. Among the royalty who perished were Richard Neville, the earl of Warwick, and kings Henry VI and Richard III. In 1486, King Henry VII’s marriage to Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV, united the houses of Lancaster and York and effectively ended the bloody War of the Roses.
          In the opening battle of England's War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI's Lancastrian forces at St. Albans, 30 km northwest of London. Many Lancastrian nobles perished, including Edmund Beaufort, the duke of Somerset, and the king was forced to submit to the rule of his cousin, Richard of York. The dynastic struggle between the House of York, whose badge was a red rose, and the House of Lancaster, later associated with a white rose, would stretch on for 30 years. Both families, closely related, claimed the throne through descent from the sons of Edward III, the king of England from 1327 to 1377. The first Lancastrian king was Henry IV in 1399, and rebellion and lawlessness were rife during his reign. His son, Henry V, was more successful and won major victories in the Hundred Years War against France. His son and successor, Henry VI, had few kingly qualities and lost most of the French land his father had conquered. At home, chaos prevailed and lords with private armies challenged Henry VI's authority. At times, his ambitious queen, Margaret of Anjou, effectively controlled the crown. In 1453, Henry lapsed into insanity, and in 1454 Parliament appointed Richard, duke of York, as protector of the realm. Henry and York's grandfathers were the fourth and third sons of Edward III, respectively. When Henry recovered in late 1454, he dismissed York and restored the authority of Margaret, who saw York as a threat to the succession of their son, Prince Edward. York raised an army of 3000 men, and in May the Yorkists marched to London.
          On 22 May 1455, York meets Henry's forces at St. Albans while on the northern road to the capital. The bloody encounter lasts less than an hour, and the Yorkists carried the day. The duke of Somerset, Margaret's great ally, was killed, and Henry was captured by the Yorkists. After the battle, Richard again was made English protector, but in 1456 Margaret regained the upper hand. An uneasy peace was broken in 1459, and in 1460 the Lancastrians were defeated, and York was granted the right to ascend to the throne upon Henry's death. The Lancastrians then gathered forces in northern England and in December 1460 surprised and killed York outside his castle near Wakefield. York's son Edward reached London before Margaret and was proclaimed King Edward IV. In March 1461, Edward won a decisive victory against the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton, the bloodiest of the war. Henry, Margaret, and their son fled to Scotland, and the first phase of the war was over. Yorkist rivalry would later lead to the overthrow of Edward in 1470 and the restoration of Henry VI.
          The next year, Edward returned from exile in the Netherlands, defeated Margaret's forces, killed her son, and imprisoned Henry in the Tower of London, where he was murdered. Edward IV then ruled uninterrupted until his death in 1483. His eldest son was proclaimed Edward V, but Edward IV's brother, Richard III, seized the crown and imprisoned Edward and his younger brother in the Tower of London, where they disappeared, probably murdered. In 1485, Richard III was defeated and killed by Lancastrians led by Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth Field. Henry Tudor was proclaimed King Henry VII, the first Tudor king. Henry was the grandson of Catherine of Valois, the widow of Henry V, and Owen Tudor. In 1486, he married Edward IV's daughter Elizabeth of York, thereby uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian claims. This event is seen as marking the end of the War of Roses; although some Yorkists supported in 1487 an unsuccessful rebellion against Henry, led by Lambert Simnel. The War of Roses left little mark on the common English people but severely thinned the ranks of the English nobility.
    < 21 May 23 May >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 22 May:
    ^ 1990 Windows 3.0
          Microsoft unveils Windows 3.0 at gala events in twenty cities around the world, linked by satellite to a theater in New York City. The show features a speech by Bill Gates, as well as laser lights, videos, and surround sound. Microsoft spent $10 million publicizing the new release in what was generally regarded as the most expensive software introduction to date. Industry experts praised the software as a major improvement over earlier versions of Windows.
          Apple, alarmed by the success of the new software, sued Microsoft for stealing its user-friendly interface but ultimately lost the case. Meanwhile, IBM tried to reestablish its dominance in the personal computer business by pushing its OS/2 operating system, which Microsoft had helped develop, but it never had much success. Windows 3.0 captured consumers' loyalty and sold three million copies in its first year.
    1943 Betty Williams, pacifista irlandesa que obtuvo el premio Nobel de la Paz.
    Unabomber^ 1942 Theodore Kaczynski Jr., “the Unabomber”, in Chicago.
          On 03 April 1996, at his small wilderness cabin near Lincoln, Montana, Kaczynski would be arrested by FBI agents and charged with being the “Unabomber”, the elusive terrorist blamed for sixteen mail bombs that killed three people and severely injured eleven others between 1978 and 1995.
          Kaczynski won a scholarship to study mathematics at Harvard University at age sixteen. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley before abruptly resigning in 1969. Apparently disillusioned with the world around him, he retreated to a family property in Montana, where he developed a philosophy of radical environmentalism and militant opposition to modern technology. 1978, he manufactured and sent his first mail bomb to a professor at Northwestern University, and a public safety officer was wounded while opening the suspicious package. 1979, his third known terrorist bomb exploded on an American Airlines flight, causing minor injuries from smoke inhalation. As Kaczynski usually targeted universities and airlines, federal investigators began calling their suspect the Unabomber, an acronym of sorts for university, airline, and bomber. 1987, a woman saw a man wearing dark glasses and a hooded sweatshirt placing what turned out to be the bomb next to a businessman's car in Salt Lake City. The sketch of the man that emerged became the only representation of the alleged Unabomber. 1993, various federal departments established the UNABOM Task Force, which intensified the search for a Unabomber suspect.
          On 19 September, 1995, The Washington Post published the so-called "Unabomber's Manifesto," a sixty-five-page thesis on what Kaczynski perceived to be the problems with America's industrial and technological society. The newspaper, which split the cost with The New York Times, was assured that by publishing the essay future bombings would be avoided. Kaczynski's brother, David, read the essay and recognized his brother's ideas and language, leading him to inform the FBI in February of 1996 that he suspected his brother was the Unabomber. On 03 April, Ted Kaczynski was arrested at his cabin in Montana, and extensive evidence, including a live bomb, was uncovered at the site. Indicted on over a dozen counts of terrorism, he appeared briefly in court in June of 1998 to plead not guilty to all charges. Over the next year and a half, Kaczynski wrangled with his defense attorneys, who, against his wishes, wanted to issue an insanity plea that he believed compromised his political motives and beliefs. In January of 1998, at the scheduled start of the Unabomber trial, he expressed his desire to acquire a new defense team. Two days later, Judge Garland Burrell rejected Kaczynski's request and also approved his attorney's plan to portray him as a paranoid schizophrenic. Kaczynski next asked the judge to allow him to represent himself, but the request was likewise denied, even after an official psychiatrist and both the prosecution and defense deemed him fit to do so. On 22 January, 1998, Ted Kaczynski pleaded guilty and was spared the death penalty. On 04 April 1998, the Unabomber was sentenced to four consecutive life sentences without the possibility of parole.
         At his small wilderness cabin near Lincoln, Montana, Theodore John Kaczynski is arrested by FBI agents and accused of being the Unabomber, the elusive terrorist blamed for 16 mail bombs that killed three people and injured 23 during an 18-year period. Kaczynski, born in Chicago in 1942, won a scholarship to study mathematics at Harvard University at age 16. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. Although celebrated as a brilliant mathematician, he suffered from persistent social and emotional problems, and in 1969 abruptly ended his promising career at Berkeley. Disillusioned with the world around him, he tried to buy land in the Canadian wilderness but in 1971 settled for a 1.4-acre plot near his brother's home in Montana.
          For the next 25 years, Kaczynski lived as a hermit, occasionally working odd jobs and traveling but mostly living off his land. He developed a philosophy of radical environmentalism and militant opposition to modern technology, and tried to get academic essays on the subjects published. It was the rejection of one of his papers by two Chicago-area universities in 1978 that may have prompted him to manufacture and deliver his first mail bomb. The package was addressed to the University of Illinois from Northwestern University, but was returned to Northwestern, where a security guard was seriously wounded while opening the suspicious package. In 1979, Kaczynski struck again at Northwestern, injuring a student at the Technological Institute. Later that year, his third bomb exploded on an American Airlines flight, causing injuries from smoke inhalation. In 1980, a bomb mailed to the home of Percy Wood, the president of United Airlines, injured Wood when he tried to open it.
          As Kaczynski seemed to be targeting universities and airlines, federal investigators began calling their suspect the Unabomber, an acronym of sorts for university, airline, and bomber. From 1981 to 1985, there were seven more bombs, four at universities, one at a professor's home, one at the Boeing Company in Auburn, Wash., and one at a computer store in Sacramento. Six people were injured, and in 1985 the owner of the computer store was killed — the Unabomber's first murder. In 1987, a woman saw a man wearing aviator glasses and a hooded sweatshirt placing what turned out to be a bomb outside a computer store in Salt Lake City. The sketch of the suspect that emerged became the first representation of the Unabomber, and Kaczynski, fearing capture, halted his terrorist campaign for six years. In June 1993, a lethal mail bomb severely injured a University of California geneticist at his home, and two days later a computer science professor at Yale was badly injured by a similar bomb.
          Various federal departments established the UNABOM Task Force, which launched an intensive search for a Unabomber suspect. In 1994, a mail bomb killed an advertising executive at his home in New Jersey. Kaczynski had mistakenly thought that the man worked for a firm that repaired the Exxon Company's public relations after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. In April 1995, a bomb killed the president of a timber-industry lobbying group. It was the Unabomber's last attack.
          Soon after, Kaczynski sent a manifesto to The New York Times and The Washington Post, saying he would stop the killing if it were published. In 1995, The Washington Post published the so-called "Unabomber's Manifesto," a 35'000-word thesis on what Kaczynski perceived to be the problems with the US's industrial and technological society. Kaczynski's brother, David, read the essay and recognized his brother's ideas and language; he informed the FBI in February 1996 that he suspected that his brother was the Unabomber.
          On 03 April 1996, Ted Kaczynski is arrested at his cabin in Montana, and extensive evidence — including a live bomb and an original copy of the manifesto — are discovered at the site. Indicted on more than a dozen federal charges, he appeared briefly in court in 1996 to plead not guilty to all charges. During the next year and a half, Kaczynski wrangled with his defense attorneys, who wanted to issue an insanity plea against his wishes. Kaczynski wanted to defend what he saw as legitimate political motives in carrying out the attacks, but at the start of the Unabomber trial in January 1998 the judge rejected his requests to get a new defense team and to represent himself. On 22 January 1998, Kaczynski pleaded guilty on all counts and was spared the death penalty. He showed no remorse for his crimes and in May 1998 was sentenced to four life sentences plus 30 years.
    1936 Morgan Scott Peck, US psychiatrist who died of cancer on 25 September 25. He was the author of self-help books: The Road Less Traveled (1978), Further Along the Road Less Traveled (1993), The Road Less Traveled and Beyond (1997). — (051003) 1925 Jean Tinguely, artista suizo.
    1922 Concha Alós Domingo, escritora española.
    1912 Herbert Brovarnik “Herbert Charles Brown” US chemist whose pioneering work with inorganic and organic boron compounds won him (along with Georg Wittig) the 1979 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
    1903 Yves-André Rocard, French mathematician who died on 16 March 1992.
    1900 Associated Press is founded.
    1881 (Julian date) Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov: go to Art “4” June 03 Gregorian
    1880 Bessie Ellen Edna Davidson, British artist who died in 1965.
    1865 Alfred Cardew Dixon, English mathematician who died on 04 May 1936. He worked both on ordinary and partial differential equations studying abelian integrals, automorphic functions and functional equations.
    1859 Arthur Conan Doyle, in Scotland, the creator of Sherlock Holmes.       ^top^
          Doyle studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, where he met Dr. Joseph Bell, a teacher with extraordinary deductive reasoning power. Bell partly inspired Doyle's character Sherlock Holmes years later. After medical school, Doyle moved to London, where his slow medical practice left him ample free time to write.
          His first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, was published in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887. Starting in 1891, a series of Holmes stories appeared in The Strand magazine. Holmes enabled Doyle to leave his medical practice in 1891 and devote himself to writing, but the author soon grew weary of his creation. In The Final Problem, he killed off both Holmes and his nemesis, Dr. Moriarty, only to resuscitate Holmes later due to popular demand.
          In 1902, Doyle was knighted for his work with a field hospital in South Africa.
          In addition to dozens of Sherlock Holmes stories and several novels, Doyle wrote history, pursued whaling, and engaged in many adventures and athletic endeavors. After his son died in World War I, Doyle became a dedicated spiritualist. He died in 1930.
  • A Scandal in Bohemia
  • The Redheaded League
  • A Case of Identity
  • The Boscombe Valley Mystery
  • The Five Orange Pips
  • The Man with the Twisted Lip
  • The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle
  • The Adventure of the Speckled Band
  • The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb
  • The Adventure of the Noble Bachelor
  • The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet
  • The Adventure of the Copper Beeches
  • Silver Blaze
  • The Yellow Face
  • The Stockbroker's Clerk
  • The "Gloria Scott"
  • The Musgrave Ritual
  • The Reigate Puzzle
  • The Crooked Man
  • The Resident Patient
  • The Greek Interpreter
  • The Naval Treaty
  • The Final Problem
  • The Adventure of the Illustrious Client
  • The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier
  • The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone
  • The Adventure of the Three Gables
  • The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire
  • The Adventure of the Three Garridebs
  • The Problem of Thor Bridge
  • The Adventure of the Creeping Man
  • The Adventure of the Lion's Mane
  • The Adventure of the Veiled Lodger
  • The Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place
  • The Adventure of the Retired Colorman
  • The Adventure of the Empty House
  • The Adventure of the Norwood Builder
  • The Adventure of the Dancing Men
  • The Adventure of the Solitary Cyclist
  • The Adventure of the Priory School
  • The Adventure of Black Peter
  • The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton
  • The Adventure of the Six Napoléons
  • The Adventure of the Three Students
  • The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez
  • The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter
  • The Adventure of the Abbey Grange
  • The Adventure of the Second Stain
  • The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge
  • The Adventure of the Cardboard Box
  • The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans
  • The Adventure of the Devil's Foot
  • The Adventure of the Red Circle
  • The Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax
  • The Adventure of the Dying Detective
  • His Last Bow — An Epilogue of Sherlock Holmes
  • The Adventures of Gerard
  • The Adventures of Gerard
  • The Crime of the Congo
  • The Horror of the Heights
  • The New Revelation
  • The New Revelation
  • The Valley of Fear
  • The Valley of Fear
  • Round the Red Lamp
  • Beyond the City
  • The Land of Mist (1926)
  • The Lost World (1912)
  • The Lost World
  • The Lost World
  • The Parasite
  • The Poison Belt
  • The Poison Belt
  • Sir Nigel
  • The Captain of the Polestar and Other Tales
  • The Stark Munro Letters
  • Tales of Terror and Mystery
  • Through the Magic Door
  • The Vital Message
  • The Disintegration Machine (1928)
  • When The World Screamed (1929)
  • The White Company
  • co-author of Jane Annie
  • 1848 Hermann Cäsar Hannibal Schubert, German mathematician who died on 20 July 1911.
    1848 Friedrich Hermann Karl “Fritz” von Uhde, German painter who died on 25 February 1911. — MORE ON VON UHDE AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1844 Mary Stevenson Cassatt, expatriate US Impressionist painter who died on 14 June 1926, specialized in Children.
    MORE ON CASSATT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1820 Thomas Worthington Whittredge, US Hudson River School painter who died on 25 February 1910. [same birthday and same deathday as von Uhde, but 27 more years of life.]
    1813 Richard Wagner Leipsig Germany, composer (Ring, Flying Dutchman)
    Click for full portrait^ 1813 Richard Wagner, German dramatic composer and theorist who died on 13 February 1883 in Venice. His operas and music had a revolutionary influence on the course of Western music, either by extension of his discoveries or reaction against them. Among his major works are Der fliegende Holländer (02 Jan 1843), Tannhäuser (19 Oct 1845), Lohengrin (28 Aug 1850), Tristan und Isolde (10 Jun 1865), Parsifal (26 Jul 1882), and his great tetralogy, Der Ring des Nibelungen (1869–1876).
          The artistic and theatrical background of Wagner's early years (several elder sisters became opera singers or actresses) was a main formative influence. Impulsive and self-willed, he was a negligent scholar at the Kreuzschule, Dresden, and the Nicholaischule, Leipzig. He frequented concerts, however, taught himself the piano and composition, and read the plays of Shakespeare, Goethe, and Schiller.
          Wagner, attracted by the glamour of student life, enrolled at Leipzig University, but as an adjunct with inferior privileges, since he had not completed his preparatory schooling. Although he lived wildly, he applied himself earnestly to composition. Because of his impatience with all academic techniques, he spent a mere six months acquiring a groundwork with Theodor Weinlig, cantor of the Thomasschule; but his real schooling was a close personal study of the scores of the masters, notably the quartets and symphonies of Beethoven. His own Symphony in C Major was performed at the Leipzig Gewandhaus concerts in 1833. On leaving the university that year, he spent the summer as operatic coach at Würzburg, where he composed his first opera, Die Feen, based on a fantastic tale by Carlo Gozzi. He failed to get the opera produced at Leipzig and became conductor to a provincial theatrical troupe from Magdeburg, having fallen in love with one of the actresses of the troupe, Wilhelmine (Minna) Planer, whom he married in 1836. The single performance of his second opera, Das Liebesverbot, after Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, was a disaster.
          In 1839, fleeing from his creditors, he decided to put into operation his long-cherished plan to win renown in Paris, but his three years in Paris were calamitous. Despite a recommendation from the influential gallicized German composer Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner could not break into the closed circle at the Opéra. Living with a colony of poor German artists, he staved off starvation by means of musical journalism and hackwork. Nevertheless, in 1840 he completed Rienzi (after Bulwer-Lytton's novel), and in 1841 he composed his first representative opera, Der fliegende Holländer, based on the legend about a ship's captain condemned to sail forever.
          In 1842, aged 29, he gladly returned to Dresden, where Rienzi was triumphantly performed on 20 October 1842. The next year Der fliegende Holländer (produced at Dresden, 02 January 1843) was less successful, since the audience expected a work in the French–Italian tradition similar to Rienzi, and was puzzled by the innovative way the new opera integrated the music with the dramatic content. But Wagner was appointed conductor of the court opera, a post that he held until 1849. On 19 October 1845, Tannhäuser (based, like all his future works, on Germanic legends) was coolly received but soon proved a steady attraction; after this, each new work achieved public popularity despite persistent hostility from many critics.
          The refusal of the court opera authorities in Dresden to stage his next opera, Lohengrin, was not based on artistic reasons; rather, they were alienated by Wagner's projected administrative and artistic reforms. His proposals would have taken control of the opera away from the court and created a national theatre whose productions would be chosen by a union of dramatists and composers. Preoccupied with ideas of social regeneration, he then became embroiled in the German revolution of 1848–1849. Wagner wrote a number of articles advocating revolution and took an active part in the Dresden uprising of 1849. When the uprising failed, a warrant was issued for his arrest and he fled from Germany, unable to attend the first performance of Lohengrin at Weimar, given by his friend Franz Liszt on 28 August 1850.
          For the next 15 years Wagner was not to present any further new works. Until 1858 he lived in Zürich, composing, writing treatises, and conducting (he directed the London Philharmonic concerts in 1855). Having already studied the Siegfried legend and the Norse myths as a possible basis for an opera, and having written an operatic “poem,” Siegfrieds Tod, in which he conceived of Siegfried as the new type of man who would emerge after the successful revolution he hoped for, he now wrote a number of prose volumes on revolution, social and artistic. From 1849 to 1852 he produced his basic prose works: Die Kunst und die Revolution, Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft (The Art Work of the Future), Eine Mitteilung an meine Freunde, and Oper und Drama. The latter outlined a new, revolutionary type of musical stage work—the vast work, in fact, on which he was engaged. By 1852 he had added to the poem of Siegfrieds Tod three others to precede it, the whole being called Der Ring des Nibelungen and providing the basis for a tetralogy of musical dramas: Das Rheingold; Die Walküre; Der junge Siegfried; and Siegfrieds Tod, later called Götterdämmerung (The Twilight of the Gods).
          The Ring reveals Wagner's mature style and method, to which he had found his way at last during the period when his thought was devoted to social questions. Looking forward to the imminent creation of a socialist state, he prophesied the disappearance of opera as artificial entertainment for an elite and the emergence of a new kind of musical stage work for the people, expressing the self-realization of free humanity. This new work was later to be called “music drama,” though Wagner never used this term, preferring “drama.”
          Wagner's new art form would be a poetic drama that should find full expression as a musical drama when it was set to a continuous vocal-symphonic texture. This texture would be woven from basic thematic ideas, which Wagner called “motives,” but which have come to be known by the term Leitmotiv (“leading motive”) invented by one of his disciples. These would arise naturally as expressive vocal phrases sung by characters and would be developed by the orchestra as “reminiscences” to express the dramatic and psychological development.
          This conception found full embodiment in The Ring, except that the leading motives did not always arise as vocal utterances but were often introduced by the orchestra to portray characters, emotions, or events in the drama. With his use of this method, Wagner rose immediately to his amazing full stature: his style became unified and deepened immeasurably, and he was able to fill his works from end to end with intensely characteristic music. Except for moments in The Rheingold, his old weaknesses, formal and stylistic, vanished altogether, and with them disappeared the last vestiges of the old “opera.” By 1857 his style had been enriched by the stimulus of Liszt's tone poems and their new harmonic subtleties, and he had composed Das Rheingold, The Valkyrie, and two acts of Siegfried. But he now suspended work on The Ring: the impossibility of mounting this colossus within the foreseeable future was enforcing a stalemate on his career and led him to project a “normal” work capable of immediate production. Also, his optimistic social philosophy had yielded to a metaphysical, world-renouncing pessimism, nurtured by his discovery of the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer. The outcome was Tristan und Isolde (1857–1859), of which the crystallizing agent was his hopeless love for Mathilde Wesendonk (the wife of a rich patron), which led to separation from his wife, Minna.
          Because of the Wesendonk affair, life in Zürich had become too embarrassing, and Wagner completed Tristan in Venice and Lucerne, Switzererland. The work revealed a new subtlety in his use of leading motives, which in The Rheingold and The Valkyrie he had used mainly to explain the action of the drama. The impact of Schopenhauer's theory of the supremacy of music among the arts led him to tilt the expressive balance of musical drama more toward music: the leading motives ceased to remain neatly identifiable with their dramatic sources but worked with greater psychological complexity, in the manner of free association.
         In 1859 Wagner went to Paris, where, the following year, productions of a revised version of Tannhäuser were fiascoes. But in 1861 an amnesty allowed him to return to Germany; from there he went to Vienna, where he heard Lohengrin for the first time. He remained in Vienna for about a year, then traveled widely as a conductor and awaited a projected production of Tristan. When this work was not produced because the artists were bewildered by its revolutionary stylistic innovations, Wagner began a second “normal” work, the comedy-opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, for which he incorporated into his new conception of music drama certain of the old “operatic”elements. By 1864, however, his expenditure on a grand scale and inveterate habits of borrowing and living on others had brought him to financial disaster: he had to flee from Vienna to avoid imprisonment for debt. He arrived in Stuttgart without a penny, a man of 51 without a future, almost at the end of his tether.
          Something like a miracle saved him. He had always made loyal friends, owing to his fascinating personality, his manifest genius, and his artistic integrity, and now a new friend of the highest influence came to his rescue. On 10 March 1864, “Der Verrückte König” Ludwig II [25 Aug 1845 – 13 Jun 1886], a youth of 18, ascended the throne of Bavaria; he was a fanatical admirer of Wagner's art and, having read the poem of The Ring (published the year before with a plea for financial support), invited Wagner to complete the work in Munich.
          The King set him up in a villa, and during the next six years there were successful Munich productions of all of Wagner's representative works to date, including the first performances of Tristan (1865), The Meistersinger (1868), The Rheingold (1869), and The Valkyrie (1870), the first two directed by the great Wagner conductor Hans von Bülow. Initially a new theater at Munich was projected for this purpose, with a music school attached, but this came to nothing because of the opposition aroused by Wagner's way of living. Not only did he constantly run into debt, despite his princely salary, but he also attempted to interfere in the government of the kingdom; in addition, he became the lover of von Bülow's wife, Cosima, the daughter of Liszt. She bore him three children, Isolde, Eva, and Siegfried, before her divorce in 1870 and her marriage to Wagner in the same year. For all these reasons, Wagner thought it advisable to leave Munich as early as 1865, but he never forfeited the friendship of the King, who set him up at Triebschen on the Lake of Lucerne.
          In 1869 Wagner had resumed work on The Ring which he now brought to its world-renouncing conclusion. It had been agreed with the King that the tetralogy should be first performed in its entirety at Munich, but Wagner broke the agreement, convinced that a new type of theatre must be built for the purpose. Having discovered a suitable site at the Bavarian town of Bayreuth, he toured Germany, conducting concerts to raise funds and encouraging the formation of societies to support the plan, and in 1872 the foundation stone was laid. In 1874 Wagner moved into a house at Bayreuth that he called Wahnfried (“Peace from Illusion”). The whole vast project was eventually realized, in spite of enormous artistic, administrative, and financial difficulties. The King, who had provided Wahnfried for Wagner, contributed a substantial sum, and mortgages were raised that were later paid off by royalties. The Ring received its triumphant first complete performance in the new Festspielhaus at Bayreuth on 13, 14, 16, and 17 August 1876.
          Wagner spent the rest of his life at Wahnfried, making a visit to London in 1877 to give a successful series of concerts and then making several to Italy. During these years he composed his last work, the sacred festival drama Parsifal, begun in 1877 and produced at Bayreuth in 1882; he also dictated to his wife his autobiography, Mein Leben, begun in 1865. He died of heart failure, at the height of his fame, and was buried in the grounds of Wahnfried in the tomb he had himself prepared. Since then, except for interruptions caused by World Wars I and II, the Festspielhaus has staged yearly festivals of Wagner's works.
         Wagner's single-handed creation of his own type of musical drama was a fantastic accomplishment, considering the scale and scope of his art. His method was to condense the confused mass of material at his disposal, the innumerable conflicting versions of the legend chosen as a basis, into a taut dramatic scheme. In this scheme, as in his model, the Oresteia of Aeschylus, the stage events are few but crucial, the main part of the action being devoted to the working out of the characters' motivations.
          In setting the poem he used his mastery of construction on the largest scale, which he had learned from studying Beethoven, to keep the broad outlines clear while he consistently developed the leading motives to mirror every shifting nuance of the psychological situation. Criticism of these motives as arbitrary, factual labels shows a misunderstanding of Wagner. He called them “carriers of the feeling,” and, owing to their essentially emotional character, their pliability, and Wagner's resource in alternating, transforming, and combining them, they function as subtle expressions of the changing feelings behind the dramatic symbols.
          The result of these methods was a new art form, of which the distinguishing feature was a profound and complex symbolism working on three indivisible planes, dramatic, verbal, and musical. The vital significance of this symbolism has been increasingly realized. The common theme of all his mature works, except The Meistersinger, is the romantic concept of “redemption through love”; but this element, used rather naively in the three early operas, became, in the later musical dramas, a mere catalyst for much deeper complexes of ideas. + ZOOM IN +In The Ring there are at least five interwoven strands of overt meaning concerned with German nationalism, international Socialism, the philosophy of Schopenhauer, Buddhism, and Christianity. On another level, there is a prophetic treatment of some of the themes of psychoanalysis: power complex arising from sexual inhibition; incest; mother fixation; and Oedipus complex.
    [for full portrait, 1276x1128pix, 120kb; click on image >>>]
          Tristan stands in a line of symbolism extending from the themes of “night” and “death” explored by such German Romantic poets as Novalis [1772–1801], through the Schopenhauerian indictment of life as an evil illusion and the renunciation of the will to live, to the modern psychological discovery of a close connection between erotic desire and the death wish. The Meistersinger stands apart as a work in which certain familiar themes are treated on a purely conscious plane with mellow wisdom and humor: the impulsiveness of youth and the resignation of age, the ecstasy of youthful love, the value of music itself as an art. In Wagner's last work, Parsifal, the symbolism returns on a deeper level than before. He has been much criticized for this strongly personal treatment of a religious subject, which mingles the concepts of sacred and profane love; but in the light of later explorations in the field of psychology his insight into the relationship between religious and sexual experience seems merely in advance of its time. The themes of innocence and purity, sexual indulgence and suffering, remorse and sexual renunciation are treated in Parsifal with a subtle intensity and depth of compassion that probe deeply into the unconscious and make the opera in some ways the most visionary of all Wagner's works.
          Wagner's influence, as a musical dramatist and as a composer, was a powerful one. Although few operatic composers have been able to follow him in providing their own librettos, all have profited from his reform in the matter of giving dramatic depth, continuity, and cohesion to their works.
          In the purely musical field, Wagner's influence was even more far-reaching. He developed such a wide expressive range that he was able to make each of his works inhabit a unique emotional world of its own, and, in doing so, he raised the melodic and harmonic style of German music to what many regard as its highest emotional and sensuous intensity. Much of the subsequent history of music stems from him, either by extension of his discoveries or reaction against them.
         Thomas Mann [06 Jun 1875 – 12 Aug 1955] may have modeled on Wagner the main character of his novel Der Tod in Venedig (1912), Gustav von Aschenbach.
         Wagner advocated the "final solution" to the "Jewish problem" (Endlösung der Judenfrage: the extermination of Jews) long before those policies were put into practice by Adolf Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945] and his Nazi regime. That made Wagner a favorite composer of Hitler..

    Portrait of Wagner (1894; 600x466pix, 73kb) by Franz Seraph von Lenbach [13 December 1836 – 06 May 1903]
    Portrait of Wagner (18 Jan 1882; 1126x904pix, 182kb) by Renoir [25 Feb 1841 – 03 December 1919]
    1808 Gérard de Nerval, French writer. NERVAL ONLINE: Oeuvres
    1733 Hubert Marius Robert, French Rococo era painter who died on 15 April 1808, called “Robert des Ruines” because of his paintings of ruined Roman monuments based on his Italian drawings. He was one of the first curators of the Louvre. — MORE ON ROBERT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1700 Michel-François Dandré-Bardon, French painter and teacher who died on 04 July 1783. — links to images.
    1671 La ciudad de Versailles, su carta de fundación es otorgada por Louis XIV de Francia.
    1650 Richard Brakenburg, Dutch artist who died on 28 December 1702.
    Holidays Angel's Camp, Calif : Jumping Frog Jubilee Day / Haiti : National Sovereignty Day / Sri Lanka : Republic Day (1972) / US : National Maritime Day / Canada : Victoria Day (1819) ( Monday )

    Religious Observances RC : St Rita of Cascia, widow; invoked in desperate cases / Orth : Translat of Relics of St Nicholas the Wonderworker (5/9 OS) / Christian-Scotland : Term Day / Santos Faustino y Timoteo; santas Joaquina de Vedruna, Rita y Quiteria.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Talent is like money; you don't have to have some to talk about it.”
    Jules Renard [22 Feb 1864 – 22 May 1910]. {but you have to have the talent to talk about what you don't have}
    “Kindness is like cancer; you don't have to have it to talk about it.”
    [etc. etc. etc.]
    “Talent is like cancer; you don't have to have it to think you have it.
    “Do not let fear confine your life inside a shell of doubt. A turtle never moves until his head is sticking out.”
    Charles Ghigna [25 Aug 1946~]
    “One disadvantage of having nothing to do: You can't stop and rest.”
    “One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea.”
    — Walter Bagehot, English editor and economist [03 Feb 1826 – 24 Mar 1877].
    updated Wednesday 21-May-2008 15:29 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.40 Sunday 20-May-2007 12:32 UT
    v.6.41 Friday 26-May-2006 19:16 UT
    Sunday 01-May-2005 3:06 UT
    Saturday 29-May-2004 17:19 UT

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