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• Ann Boleyn is beheaded... • Report on Bacon's Rebellion... • Spanish Armada... • Ho Chi Minh is born... • Pol Pot is born... • Ogden Nash dies... • Court: Protocols of Elders of Zion a forgery... • Free~state men massacred... • Girl captured by Comanches... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Gustav Line collapses... • South Vietnamese push towards An Loc... • Air reconnaissance over Laos... • No nukes in space... • Wilde released... • Battle of Spotsylvania ends... • Siege of Vicksburg begins... • Oyster ban... • Ohio Company chartered... • Lawrence of Arabia dies... • US embassy found bugged... • D~Day planned...
"Happy Sindane"^  On a 19 May:

2003 “Happy Sindane” [photo >], believed to be 16 years old, goes to a police station in Bronkhorstspruit, South Africa, and says that, from his White Afrikaans-speaking family in Johannesburg, at age 6 he was kidnapped by a maid who gave him to a Black Ndebele-speaking couple in a rural area, where they made him watch herds and do agricultural work. He is fluent in Ndebele and seems to speak very little Afrikaans.
     The boy is taken to Bronkhorstspruit's Sizanani Place of Safety. He became a media celebrity. Paint maker Dulux used his image without authorization and played on his confused ethnic background in one of its "any color you can think of" advertisements, and Pretoria University's Tuks FM parodied his parentage in its "Jou Ma" slogan.
      After an investigation which included DNA testing, the Bronkhorstspruit Magistrate's Court ruled on 30 September 2003, he was born Abbey Mzayiya in Thembisa Hospital on 25 June 1984, to Rina Mzayiya, Black servant of the White man Henry Nick, of Chartwell, Fourways, who in all likelihood is the boy's father.Rina Mzayiya abandoned her son in 1990 to Betty Sindane and Thomas Banda, who raised him in Tweefontein, Mpumalanga, for two years, after which her father, Koos, cared for him. Betty Sindane, who had misunderstood his first name Abbey, is the one who got him the name Happy.
     Being 19, Abbey was not protected by the Child Care Act. But the CMR Welfare Organisation would continue to train him, and he would stay on at Sizanani as the home's electrician. The Sizanani Trust would administer the 100'000-rand fund that Dulux set up in compensation to him. Abbey said that he was looking forward to being able to support himself and financially assist his Sindane foster brothers. He said he could not wait to meet his two half-brothers by Rina Mzayiya, one of whom lives in Zimbabwe and the other in Diepsloot, Pretoria, as well as his mother's relatives in Stutterheim, in the Eastern Cape. He also wanted to find his father, but in that he had no success. Rina Mzayiya had already died.
     Abbey Mzayiya was again in the news when, sprawled on the the Groblersdal road near Bronkhorstspruit, east of Pretoria (due to an epileptic seizure perhaps), he was gravely injured by being driven over by a mini-bus taxi headed to Ekangala and then by a car late on 03 April 2004. A few years after that he was reported to be suffering from mental illness. —(070503)
DNA price chart
2161
Syzygy: 8 of 9 planets aligned on same side of sun.

2003 Genentech (DNA) announces that the phase III trial of their drug Avastin plus chemotherapy indicates that it markedly extends the survival of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. The Genentech shares are upgraded to Outperform by Goldman Sachs from In~Line, by Robert W. Baird from Neutral, by Ryan Beck from Market Perform. They are also upgraded by CIBC World Markets from Sector Perfrom to Sector Outperform, by Jefferies & Co. and by WR Hambrecht from Hold to Buy, by First Albany from Buy to Strong Buy, and by SG Cowen from Market Perform to Strong Buy. However Genentech is downgraded by AG Edwards from Buy to Hold, and by Banc of America from Neutral to Sell. On the NYSE 33.7 million of the 510 million Genentech shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $37.90 to an intraday high of $55.25 and close at $54.85. They had traded as low as $25.10 as recently as 10 July 2002, and as high as $117.25 on 28 February 2000, after starting trading at $31.75 on 19 July 1999. — [4~year price chart >]

ENMD price chart 2003 Without any recent news, or analyst upgrades of their own, 9.8 million of the 24.4 million shares of EntreMed (ENMD) are traded on the NASDAQ, rising a similar percentage as those of Genentech, apparently in sympathy, from a previous close of $2.61 to an intraday high of $3.78 and closing at $3.74. On 22 April 2003, EntreMed had published preclinical findings that their drug Panzem(R)'s anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis activity is dependent on the drug candidate's ability to successfully inhibit both microtubules and HIF (hypoxia inducible factor 1). These data established Panzem(R) [2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2)], EntreMed's lead clinical drug candidate, as a new, small molecule inhibitor of HIF, a factor that is over-expressed in more than 70% of human cancers and their metastases, including breast, prostate, brain, lung, and head and neck cancers. Besides cancer, HIF is also associated with diseases of the bone and diseases that are mediated by inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis. Following this, ENMD shares spiked from an intraday low of $1.08 on 22 April 2003 (8.6 million shares traded) to an intraday high of $4.19 on 23 April 2003 (13 million shares traded), before falling back to an intraday low of $2.14 on 30 April 2003. Prior to that they had made their all-time high ($98.50) on the same day as Genentech's: 28 February 2000. — [5~year price chart >]

John Paul II2002 Pope John Paul II [< photo], the day after his 82nd birthday, visibly handicapped by Parkinson's disease, performs a two-and-a-half hour canonization of five saints, including the first Brazilian one: Italian-born Mother Paulina, who moved to Brazil in the 19th century and died in 1942 after founding an order of nuns to help orphans, children of former slaves and the elderly in the São Paulo area.

2000
China and the European Union reached a market-opening trade deal, clearing Beijing's largest remaining hurdle to joining the World Trade Organization.
2000 Masked gunmen launched a coup in Fiji that toppled Prime Minister Mahendra Chaudhry, the country's first ethnic Indian premier.


1992 The 27th Amendment to the US Constitution, prohibiting Congress from giving itself mid-term pay raises, went into effect.
1991 Martial-law courts in Kuwait began trying people accused of collaborating with Iraqi occupation forces, sentencing one man to life in prison for wearing a Saddam Hussein T-shirt. (The trials came under international criticism, and were halted.)
1989 The Dow Jones Industrial Average passes 2500 for first time, closes at 2501.1
1976 Gold ownership is legalized in Australia.
^ 1972 South Vietnamese fight to open road to An Loc
      Units of South Vietnam's 9th and 21st Divisions, along with several South Vietnamese airborne battalions, open new stretches of road south of An Loc and come within three kilometers of the besieged city. In the Central Highlands, North Vietnamese troops, preceded by heavy shelling, tried to break through the lines of South Vietnam's 23rd Division defending Kontum, but the South Vietnamese troops held firm. These actions were part of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces on March 30 to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 troops and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north and Kontum in the Central Highlands, included An Loc farther to the south.
      Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the defenders suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisors and American airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and retook Quang Tri in September. With the Communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared (prematurely) that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, which he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces.
1971 USSR launches Mars 2, first spacecraft to crash land on Mars
^ 1967 Soviets ratify treaty banning nuclear weapons in space
      One of the first major treaties designed to limit the spread of nuclear weapons goes into effect as the USSR ratifies treaty with UK and US banning nuclear weapons from outer space. The United States, Great Britain, and several dozen other nations had already signed and/or ratified the treaty. With the advent of the so-called "space race" between the United States and the Soviet Union, which had begun in 1957 when the Russians successfully launched the Sputnik satellite, some began to fear that outer space might be the next frontier for the expansion of nuclear weapons. To forestall that eventuality, an effort directed by the United Nations came to fruition in January 1967 when the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and dozens of other nations signed off on a treaty banning nuclear weapons from outer space. The agreement also banned nations from using the moon, other planets, or any other "celestial bodies" as military outposts or bases. The agreement was yet another step toward limiting nuclear weapons. In 1959, dozens of nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, had agreed to ban nuclear weapons from Antarctica. In July 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed, banning open-air and underwater nuclear tests. With the action taken in May 1967, outer space was also officially declared off-limits for nuclear weapons.
^ 1964 Bugging of US embassy in Moscow is announced
      In Washington, the US State Department announced that the US embassy in Moscow had been bugged, citing evidence of a network of forty microphones that had been found embedded in the embassy’s walls.
      However, unbeknownst to US civilians outraged by revelations of the undiplomatic Cold War-era espionage, US officials were aware of a far more sinister anti-embassy program underway in Moscow at the time. Beginning sometime in the 1950s, Soviet authorities began aiming microwave radiation against the embassy, initially, it was suspected, as part of a program to cause disoriented behavior, nerve disorders, or even heart attacks among the embassy personnel. In the early 1960s, US intelligence became aware of the Soviet’s use of offensive radiation and
      US President John F. Kennedy responded by authorizing "Operation Pandora," a top secret research program into the anti-personnel possibilities of non-ionizing microwave radiation. Because of supposed national security issues, US workers at the Moscow embassy were not informed of their continuous exposure to the dangerous radiation until 1976, when suspicions of the KGB’s use of the invisible weapon was publicly confirmed by US intelligence officials.      By that time at least two US ambassadors had been likely killed as a direct result of the radiation attacks, which probably caused an increase of cancer among the embassy personnel, reproductive problems that may have resulted in birth defects, and possibly even psychological disorders. Although Soviet officials initially denied the attacks, they later contended that the emissions had been employed in an attempt to incapacitate American surveillance devices, not as an anti-personnel weapon.
1964 US begins air reconnaissance over Laos.
      The United States initiates low-altitude target reconnaissance flights over southern Laos by US Navy and Air Force aircraft. Two days later, similar flights were commenced over northern Laos. These flights were code-named Yankee Team and were meant to assist the Royal Lao forces in their fight against the communist Pathet Lao and their North Vietnamese and Viet Cong allies.
1958 The United States and Canada established the North American Air Defense Command.
^ 1944 The Gustav Line collapses
      During World War II, Allied forces broke through the so-called Gustav Line at Monte Cassino, Italy, effectively ending the German defense of Rome.
      On 08 September 1943, the unconditional surrender of Italy had been announced days after British Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery landed his Eighth Army unopposed on the Italian peninsula.
      However, the Germans were not about to allow the Allies this toehold on the continent, and resistance stiffened, culminating in the fortification of the so-called Volturno Line across the peninsula just north of Naples. For the next three months, the Allied force, made up of primarily British and American armies, but also New Zealander, Canadian, French-Moroccan, and Italian Resistance units, pounded away at the Volturno Line, eventually forcing the Germans north to the Gustav Line, which straddled the peninsula about 120 km south of Rome.
      On 22 January, an Allied force landed at Anzio north of the German fortified line, but they failed to gain much more than a beachhead, and suffered through intense German air and artillery attacks for the next four months.
      Beginning on 11 May, the Allies launched a major offensive along the Gustav Line, and on 18 May, Monte Cassino, a highly strategic town, fell to the Allies. The next day, the Allies stormed across the Gustav Line, and, on 23 May, Allied forces at Anzio joined in the offensive and began to break out. On 01 June, the Germans began a mass withdrawal to a line north of Rome, and on 04 June, the first units of US troops entered the former Fascist capital. The next day, Allied forces pushed through Rome in pursuit of the Germans.
^ 1943 Churchill and FDR plan D-Day
      British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and US President Franklin Roosevelt set a date for the cross-Channel landing that would become D-Day-May 1, 1944. That date will prove a bit premature, as bad weather becomes a factor. Addressing a joint session of Congress, Churchill warned that the real danger at present was the "dragging-out of the war at enormous expense" because of the risk that the Allies would become "tired or bored or split" — and play into the hands of Germany and Japan. He pushed for an early and massive attack on the "underbelly of the Axis." And so, to "speed" things up, the British prime minister and President Roosevelt set a date for a cross-Channel invasion of Normandy, in northern France, for May 1, 1944, regardless of the problems presented by the invasion of Italy, which was underway. It would be carried out by 29 divisions, including a Free French division, if possible.
1940 A Moncornet et Crépy-sur-Serre, le colonel de Gaulle et la 4ème DC arrêtent depuis le 17 la progression allemande; ils tiendront encore un jour — Weygand est nommé général en chef à la place de Gamelin.
about it
^ 1935 A Swiss court declares the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature.
      Henry Ford Sr. initiated a campaign of Jew-hate in 1920. His Book, "THE INTERNATIONAL JEW" WAS BASED MAINLY ON "THE PROTOCOLS'. However Ford completely retracted his views expressed in his book:
      "To my great regret I learn that in the Dearborn Independent and in reprint pamphlets entitled, 'THE INTERNATIONAL JEW', there have appeared articles which induce the Jews to regard me as their enemy, promoting anti-Semitism.
      "As a result of this survey I am deeply mortified that this journal, which is intended to be constructive and not destructive, has been made the medium for resurrecting exploded fictions, for giving currency to the so-called Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, which have been demonstrated, as I learn, to be gross forgeries, and for contending that the Jews have been engaged in a conspiracy to control the capital and the industries of the world, besides laying at their door many offenses against decency, public order and good morals...I deem it to be my duty as an honorable man to make amends for the wrong done to the Jews as fellow men and brothers, by asking their forgiveness for the harm which I have unintentionally committed, by retracting, as far as lies within my power the offensive charges laid at their door by these publications, and by giving them the unqualified assurance that henceforth they may look to me for friendship and good will...      "Had I appreciated even the general nature to say nothing of the details of these utterances, I would have forbidden their circulation without a moment's hesitation...This statement is made on my own initiative and wholly in the interest of right and justice, and is in accordance with what I regard as my solemn duty as a man and as a citizen."
      What are the Protocols? 
     
The following is a brief summary of the evil ingredients of this infamous forgery. The "Protocols" are set forth as the minutes of twenty-four secret sessions of "the innermost circle of the rulers of Zion". These fictitious minutes are thus laid down as twenty-four "Protocols" or master plan to enslave the world by the most dastardly and unscrupulous methods imaginable. Here are a few examples:
  • "Our right lies in force. The word "right" is an abstract thought and proved by nothing. The word means no more than: Give me what I want in order that thereby I may have a proof that I am stronger than you." - Protocol 1. Article 12.
  • "The administrators, whom we shall choose from among the public, with strict regard to their capacities for servile obedience, will not be persons trained in the arts of government, and will therefore easily become pawns in our game in the hands of men of learning and genius who will be their advisors, specially bred and reared from early childhood to rule the affairs of the whole world."- Protocol 2. Article 2.
  • "In order to put public opinion into our hands we must bring it into a state of bewilderment by giving expression from all sides to so many contradictory opinions and for such length of time as will suffice to make the gym (Gentiles) lose their heads in the labyrinth and come to see that the best thing is to have no opinion of any kind in matters political, which is not given to the public to understand, because they are understood only by him who guides the public. This is the first secret."- Protocol 5. Article 10.
  • "The Press, which with a few exceptions that may be disregarded, is already entirely in our hands."- Protocol 7. Article 5.
          How Did the Protocols Originate?
          In 1901 a Russian official in the Chancery of the Synod of Moscow named Serge A. Niles published a strange work entitled, "The Great in the Little and the AntiChrist as a Proximate Political Possibility". Nilus expressed the view that only the Holy Russian Empire could save the world from the rule of Antichrist. The idea behind the book was to bolster the absolute authority of the Czarist regime. In 1905 a second edition of the book appeared with one significant addition - the Protocols! Thus was born one of the most infamous documents ever published. And only Nilus himself ever claimed to have seen the original.
          The "Protocols" Exposed as an Infamous Forgery
          In August 1921 Mr. Phillip Graves, correspondent of the London "Times" in Constantinople came into the possession of a small book in a tattered condition. Such an insignificant incident may well have passed unnoticed and been swallowed into oblivion had not Mr. Graves recognized a sentence as being identical with one of the "Protocols". Yet, THIS BOOK HAD THE NAME "JOLI" AS THE AUTHOR!
          Mr. Graves compared the book written by Monsieur Joli with a copy of the "Protocols" and in it he found repeated word for word, paragraph for paragraph and page for page the text of the earlier book written by Joli. The only alteration was that instead of the word "Zion" Joli had written "France", and instead of "We the Jews" the original book had "The Emperor"!
          The book written by Joli was a satire directed against Napoleon III and was entitled "Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu". IT HAD NOTHING WHATEVER TO DO WITH THE JEWS!
          In three consecutive issues dated 16th, 17th and 18th August, 1921 the London Times printed long extracts from the "Protocols" side by side with Joli's "Dialogue in Hell". Thus was the infamous forgery exposed as ONE OF THE MOST INSOLENT FORGERIES OF ALL TIME.
          Count Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi in his book "ANTI-SEMITISM THROUGHOUT THE AGES" (English translation, Hutchinson, 1935) writes: "This plagiarism is an anti-Semitic forgery from the beginning to the end without any connection whatever with Jewish personalities, groups, organizations or conferences. The publication is in no wise, whether directly or indirectly, a product of the Jewish spirit, or Jewish tradition, or of Jewish sentiments and opinions.
          "In the entire fraud committed against humanity which the "Protocols" represents, the Jews are merely innocent objects, while the anti-Semites were the guilty agents. Thousands of Jews have been massacred, maltreated, plundered and imprisoned in the Ukraine and in Germany on account of this forgery. At the same time many millions of non-Jews have been deceived by the "Protocols", they have been induced to commit deeds and to utter words which they would most deeply regret were the facts of the forgery known to them. No book and no event in the history of modern anti-Semitism has played such an important part as this plagiarism; it constitutes the piece de resistance, the choice morsel of after-war anti-Semitism.
          "It is, therefore, they duty of all decent men in the world, be they non-Jews or Jews, Anti-Semites or Philo-Semites, to work with all their might and see to it that this shameless lie, forgery and calumny disappears from the world.
          "It ought to be made clear to all those who know the "Protocols" that the publication is a plagiarism of fatal world importance. The work of enlightenment is not only a duty to the calumniated Jews, but also to truth, for it is no exaggeration to say that the so called "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" are both one of the most insolent forgeries of all time and one of the meanest calumnies which has existed in human history."
          Hitler knew only too well how to manipulate the masses with lies of great magnitude and he exploited the "Protocols" to the fullest extent. Four years after the publication of the warning contained in Count Kalergi's book the harvest of hatred against the Jews began in Europe, and the flames of the holocaust were not extinguished until six million innocent Jewish victims had perished.
          The Law Steps In
          Dr. A. Zander, editor of a Swiss Nazi organ, published a series of articles on the acceptability of the "Protocols". But Swiss law offered redress and community leaders in that country determined to expose the fraudulent basis of the iniquitous document before a well-respected court of justice.
          Trial began in Berne on October 29, 1934, the plaintiffs being Dr. J. Dreyfus-Brodsky, Dr. Marcus Cohen, and Dr. Marcus Ehrenpreis.
          On May 19, 1935, the Cantonal Court of Berne, after full investigation declared the "Protocols" to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature and gave judgment in favor of the Cantonal Bernese Act. The Nazi, Dr. Zander, was fined.
          At Grahamstown, South Africa, in August, 1934, the Court imposed fines totaling 1775 pounds ($4,500) on three men for concocting a modern version of the "Protocols".
  • 1928 51 frogs enter first annual "Frog Jumping Jubilee" (Angel's Camp, California)
    1921 US Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, which established national quotas for immigrants
    ^ Oscar Wilde1897 Oscar Wilde is released from prison.
    after two years of hard labor. His experiences in prison were the basis for his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898).
          Wilde was born and educated in Ireland. He studied at Oxford, graduated with honors in 1878, and remained in London. He became a popular society figure valued at dinner parties for his witty remarks. Embracing the late 19th century aesthetic movement, which embraced art for art's sake, Wilde adopted the flamboyant style of a passionate poet and self-published a volume of verse in 1881. He spent the following year in the United States lecturing on poetry and art.
          Wilde's dapper wardrobe and excessive devotion to art were parodied in Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta Patience in 1882. After returning to Britain, Wilde married and had two children. In 1888, he published a collection of fairy tales he wrote for his children. Meanwhile, he wrote reviews and became editor of Women's World. In 1891, his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, was published. He wrote his first play, The Duchess of Padua, the same year and wrote five more before his arrest. His most successful comedies, including The Importance of Being Earnest and Lady Windermere's Fan, are still performed today.
          In 1891, the Marquess of Queensbury denounced Wilde as a homosexual. Wilde, who was involved with the marquess' son, sued the Marquess for libel but lost the case when evidence supported the marquess' allegations. Because homosexuality was still considered a crime in England, Wilde was arrested. Although his first trial resulted in a hung jury, a second jury sentenced him to two years of hard labor. After his release, Wilde fled to Paris and began writing again. He died of acute meningitis just three years after his release.
    SHORT FICTION by Oscar Wilde:
    Lord Arthur Savile's Crime / The Sphinx without a Secret / The Canterville Ghost / The Model Millionaire / The Happy Prince / The Nightingale and the Rose / The Selfish Giant / The Devoted Friend / The Remarkable Rocket / The Portrait of Mr. W. H. / The Young King / The Birthday of the Infanta / The Fisherman and his Soul / The Star-Child
    PROSE POEMS by Oscar Wilde
    The Artist / The Doer of Good / The Disciples / The Master / The House of Judgement / The Teacher of Wisdom
    1885 The complete Old and New Testament English Revised Version (EV or ERV) of the Bible was first published in England. After a promised 20-year wait, US scholars on the ERV committee published an "Americanized" edition in 1905, known afterward as the American Standard Version (ASV) of the Bible.
    1865 Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union Cavalry in Georgia
    ^ 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania concludes
          A dozen days of fighting around Spotsylvania ends with a Confederate attack against the Union forces. The epic campaign between the Army of the Potomac, under the effective direction of Ulysses S. Grant, and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia began at the beginning of May when Union forces crossed the Rapidan River. After a bloody two-day battle in the Wilderness forest, Grant moved his army further south toward Spotsylvania Court House. This move was a departure from the tactics of the previous three years in the eastern theater of the Civil War. Since 1861, the Army of the Potomac had been coming down to Virginia under different commanders only to be defeated by the Army of Northern Virginia, usually under Lee's direction, and had always returned northward. But Grant was different than the other Union generals. He knew that by this time Lee could not sustain constant combat. The numerical superiority of the Yankees would eventually wear Lee down. When Grant ordered his troops to move south, a surge of enthusiasm swept the Union veterans; they knew that in Grant they had an aggressive leader who would not allow the Confederates time to breathe. Nevertheless, the next stop proved to be more costly than the first. After the battle in the Wilderness, Grant and Lee waged a footrace for the strategic crossroads at Spotsylvania. Lee won the race, and his men dug in. On May 8, Grant attacked Lee, initiating a battle that raged for 12 awful days. The climax came on 12 May, when the two armies struggled for nearly 20 hours over an area that became known as the Bloody Angle. The fighting continued sporadically for the next week as the Yankees tried to eject the Rebels from their breastworks. Finally, when the Confederates attacked on 19 May, Grant prepared to pull out of Spotsylvania. Convinced he could never dislodge the Confederates from their positions, he elected to try to circumvent Lee's army to the south. The Army of the Potomac moved, leaving behind 18'000 casualties at Spotsylvania to the Confederates' 12'000. In less than three weeks Grant had lost 33'000 men, with some of the worst fighting yet to come.
    1864 Last engagement in series of battles known as Spotsylvania
    1862 Homestead Act becomes law provides cheap land for settlement of US West
    1856 Senator Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, speaks out against slavery
    ^ 1836 Cynthia Ann Parker, 11 (or 9?), is captured by Comanches.
          She grows up among the Comanches, marries a Comanche, has children, and then, at age 33 or so, is recaptured by whites, kept away forcibly from her Comanche family, and after ten years or so of captivity, starves herself to death. Her only surviving child was Quanah Parker.
          During a raid, Commanche, Kiowa, and Caddo Indians in Texas kidnap nine-year-old Cynthia Ann Parker and kill her family. Adopted into the Commanche tribe, she lived a happy life until Texas Rangers recaptured her and forced her to return to live again among Anglo-Americans. Silas and Lucy Parker moved their young family from Illinois to Texas in 1832. To protect themselves against the hostile Indians in the region, they erected a solidly constructed civilian stockade about 40 miles east of present-day Waco that came to be called Parker's Fort. The tall wooden stockade was reportedly capable of holding off "a large enemy force" if properly defended. However, when no Indian attacks materialized for many months, the Parker family and the relatives who joined them in the fort became careless. Frequently they left the bulletproof gates to the fort wide open for long periods. On this day in 1836, several hundred Commanche, Kiowa, and Caddo Indians staged a surprise attack. During the ensuing battle, the Indians killed five of the Parkers. In the chaos, the Indians abducted nine-year-old Cynthia Ann Parker and four other white women and children. The Commanche and Caddo bands later divided women and children between them. The Commanche took Parker, and she lived with them for the next 25 years. Like many Plains Indian tribes, the Commanche had long engaged in the practice of kidnapping their enemy's women and children. Sometimes these captives were treated like slaves who provided useful work and could be traded for valuable goods. Often, though, captives eventually became full-fledged members of the tribe, particularly if they were kidnapped as young children. Such was the case with Parker. Anglo-Texans first learned that the young girl might still be alive four years later. A trader named Williams reported seeing Parker with a band of Commanche near the Canadian River in northern Texas. He tried to purchase her release but failed. The Commanche Chief Pahauka allowed Williams to speak to the girl, but she stared at the ground and refused to answer his questions. After four years, Parker apparently had become accustomed to Commanche ways and did not want to leave. In 1845, two other white men saw Parker, who was by then 17 years old. A Commanche warrior told them he was now her husband, and the men reported "she is unwilling to leave" and "she would run off and hide herself to avoid those who went to ransom her." Clearly, Parker had come to think of herself as Commanche. By all accounts, her husband, a rising young warrior named Peta Nocona, treated her well, and the couple was happily married. She gave birth to three children, two boys and a girl, and Nocona was reportedly so pleased with her that he rejected the common practice of taking several wives and remained monogamous. Unfortunately, Nocona was also a warrior engaged in brutal war with the Anglo-American invaders, and he soon attracted the wrath of the Texas Rangers for leading several successful attacks on whites. In December 1860, a Ranger force attacked Nocona's village. The Rangers mortally wounded Nocona and captured Parker and her daughter, Prairie Flower. Returned to Anglo society against her will, Parker was taken to her uncle's farm in Birdville, Texas, where she tried to run away several times. However, with her husband dead and her adopted people fighting a losing battle to survive, Parker apparently resigned herself to an unhappy life among a people she no longer understood. Prairie Flower, her one connection to her old life, died of influenza and pneumonia in 1863. Depressed and lonely, Parker struggled on for seven more years. Weakened by self-imposed starvation, she died of influenza in 1870.
    1822 General Agustín de Iturbide crowns himself Agustín I, 1st emperor of Mexico. His reign would last exactly 10 months.
    1781 Jacques Necker [30 Sep 1732 – 09 Apr 1804] resigns his office (which he held since 29 Jun 1777) of director general of finance of Louis XVI of France, because of the opposition of the leading minister, Jean-Frédéric Phelypeaux comte de Maurepas, and the hostility of queen Marie-Antoinette. Earlier in the year Necker had published his Compte Rendu au Roi claiming a surplus of 10 million livres in the hope of concealing an actual deficit of 46 million livres, due to the attempt to finance French participation in the US War of Independence without raising taxes.
    1780 About midday, near-total darkness descends on much of New England to this day it's cause is still unexplained
    ^ 1749 Ohio Company is chartered
          King George II of England granted the Ohio Company a charter of several hundred thousand acres of land around the forks of the Ohio River, formalizing efforts by the colony of Virginia to expand its settlements westward. France had claimed the entire Ohio River Valley in the previous century, although English fur traders and settlers soon contested these claims. The royal chartering of the Ohio Company, an organization founded primarily by Virginian planters in 1747, directly challenged the French claims and became a direct cause of the outbreak of the last and most important of the French and Indian Wars in 1754. With the defeat of the French in 1763, the Ohio River and the Great Lakes areas were placed within the boundaries of Canada, and the Ohio Company was merged with another land company to better exploit the region. Settlers in Ohio resented these acts and joined the patriots in their struggle against the British in the American Revolution. In 1783, Ohio was ceded to the United States with the signing of the Treaty of Paris and Marietta, Ohio, founded in 1788, was the first permanent American settlement in the Old Northwest. In 1799, after British influence in the area came to an end and Native-American resistance to white settlement was suppressed, Ohio became a US territory. It entered the Union in 1803 as the seventeenth state.
    ^ 1715 No oysters from May to September
          The colony of New York passes a law making it illegal to "gather, rake, take up, or bring to the market, any oysters whatsoever" between the months of May and September. This regulation was only one of many that were passed in the early days of America to help preserve certain species [however this one may have been intended more as a public health measure, for, in the days before refrigeration, oysters were considered unsafe in months without an R].
          In recent years, endangered species laws have been enacted for the protection of animals. However, earlier versions of these laws were more concerned with insuring that hunters would have a steady supply of game. In 1699, Virginia passed a law to prevent people from shooting deer during half the year; Massachusetts made criminals out of those who exported raccoon furs or skins from the state; and New Hampshire made it a criminal offense to kill beaver, mink, otter, and muskrats (but was willing to pay hunters for shooting wolves, bears, and wildcats).
          Fish and game laws were not restricted to the East, though. After the near extinction of the buffalo (it is estimated that 100 million buffalo were killed in a 30-year period at the end of the 1800s), it became a felony to kill buffalo anywhere across the country.
    ^ 1676 Governor of colonial Virginia reports on Bacon's Rebellion.
    The declaration and Remonstrance of Sir William Berkeley his most sacred Majesties Governor and Captain Generall of Virginia
          Sheweth That about the yeare 1660 CoIl. Mathews the then Governor dyed and then in consideration of the service I had don the Country, in defending them from, and destroying great numbers of the Indians, without the loss of three men, in all the time that warr lasted, and in contemplation of the equall and uncorrupt Justice I had distributed to all men, Not onely the Assembly but the unanimous votes of all the Country, concurred to make me Governor in a time, when if the Rebells in England had prevailed, I had certainely dyed for accepting itt, `twas Gentlemen an unfortunate Love, shewed to me, for to shew myselfe gratefull for this, I was willing to accept of this Governement againe, when by my gracious Kings favour I might have had other places much more proffitable, and lesse toylesome then this hath beene. Since that time that I returned into the Country, I call the great God Judge of all things in heaven and earth to wittness, that I doe not know of any thing relateive to this Country wherein I have acted unjustly, corruptly, or negligently in distributeing equall Justice to all men, and takeing all possible care to preserve their proprietys, and defend the from their barbarous enimies.
          But for all this, perhapps I have erred in things I know not of, if I have I am soe conscious of humane frailty, and my owne defects, that I will not onely acknowledge them, but repent of, and amend them, and not like the Rebell Bacon persist in an error, onely because I have comitted itt, and tells me in diverse of his Letters that itt is not for his honnor to confess a fault, but I am of opinion that itt is onely for divells to be incorrigable, and men of principles like the worst of divells, and these he hath, if truth be reported to me, of diverse of his ex pressions of Atheisme, tending to take away all Religion and Laws.
          And now I will state the Question betwixt me as a Governor and Mr. Bacon, and say that if any enimies should invade England, any Councellor Justice of peace or other inferiour officer, might raise what forces they could to protect his Majesties subjects, But I say againe, if after the Kings knowledge of this invasion, any the greatest peere of England, should raise forces against the kings prohibition this would be now, and ever was in all ages and Nations accompted treason. Nay I will goe further, that though this peere was truly zealous for the preservation of his King, and subjects, and had better and greater abillitys then all the rest of his fellow subjects, doe his King and Country service, yett if the King (though by false information) should suspect the contrary, itt were treason in this Noble peere to proceed after the King's prohibition, and for the truth of this I appeale to all the laws of England, and the Laws and constitutions of all other Nations in the world, And yett further itt is declaired by this Parliament that the takeing up Armes for the King and Parliament is treason, for the event shewed that what ever the pretence was to seduce ignorant and well affected people, yett the end was ruinous both to King and people, as this will be if not prevented, I doe therefore againe declair that Bacon proceedeing against all Laws of all Nations modern and ancient, is Rebell to his sacred Majesty and this Country, nor will I insist upon the sweareing of men to live and dye togeather, which is treason by the very words of the Law.
          Now my friends I have lived 34 yeares amongst you, as uncorrupt and dilligent as ever Governor was, Bacon is a man of two yeares amongst you, his person and qualities unknowne to most of you, and to all men else, by any vertuous action that ever I heard of, And that very action which he boasts of, was sickly and fooleishly, and as I am informed treacherously carried to the dishonnor of the English Nation, yett in itt, he lost more men then I did in three yeares Warr, and by the grace of God will putt myselfe to the same daingers and troubles againe when I have brought Bacon to acknowledge the Laws are above him, and I doubt not but by God's assistance to have better success then Bacon hath had, the reason of my hopes are, that I will take Councell of wiser men then my selfe, but Mr. Bacon hath none about him, but the lowest of the people.
          Yett I must further enlarge, that I cannot without your helpe, doe any thinge in this but dye in defence of my King, his laws, and subjects, which I will cheerefully doe, though alone I doe itt, and considering my poore fortunes, I can not leave my poore Wife and friends a better legacy then by dyeing for my King and you: for his sacred Majesty will easeily distinguish betweene Mr. Bacons actions and myne, and Kinges have long Armes, either to reward or punish.
          Now after all this, if Mr. Bacon can shew one precedens or example where such actings in any Nation what ever, was approved of, I will mediate with the King and you for a pardon, and excuce for him, but I can shew him an hundred examples where brave and great men have beene putt to death for gaineing Victorys against the Comand of their Superiors.
          Lastly my most assured friends I would have preserved those Indians that I knew were howerly att our mercy, to have beene our spyes and intelligence, to finde out our bloody enimies, but as soone as I had the least intelligence that they alsoe were trecherous enimies, I gave out Commissions to distrOy them all as the Commissions themselves will speake itt.
          To conclude, I have don what was possible both to friend and enimy, have granted Mr. BacOn three pardons, which he hath scornefully rejected, suppoaseing himselfe stronger to subvert then I and you to maineteyne the Laws, by which onely and Gods assisting grace and mercy, all men mwt hope for peace and safety. I will add noe more though much more is still remaineing to Justifie me and condemne Mr. Bacon, but to desier that this declaration may be read in every County Court in the Country, and that a Court be presently called to doe itt, before the Assembly meet, That your approbation or dissattisfaction of this declaration may be knowne to all the Country, and the Kings Councell to whose most revered Judgments itt is submitted, Given the xxixth day of May, a happy day in the xxv"ith yeare of his most sacred Majesties Reigne, Charles the second, who God grant long and prosperously to Reigne, and lett all his good subjects say Amen.
    1662 England's King Charles II approved a bill requiring all ministers to assent publicly to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.
    1643 Delegates from four New England colonies met in Boston to form a confederation.
    1635 France declares war on Spain, thus entering the “30-Years' War”
    — Read all about it  AT MORE “4” MAY
    ^ 1588 The Spanish Armada sets sail for England
          An enormous Spanish invasion fleet, known as the "Invincible Armada," set sail from Lisbon on a mission to secure control of the English Channel and transport a Spanish army to the British isle from the Netherlands. In the late 1580s, Queen Elizabeth’s support of the Dutch rebels in the Spanish Netherlands led King Philip II of Spain to plan the conquest of England. A giant Spanish invasion fleet was completed by 1587, although Sir Francis Drake’s daring raid on the Spanish port of Cadiz delayed the Armada’s departure until 19 May 1588.
          The Invincible Armada consisted of 130 ships and carried 2500 guns and 30'000 men, two-thirds of them soldiers. Delayed by storms, the Armada did not reach the southern coast of England until late July, and, by that time Elizabeth had prepared an adequate defense. On 21 July, the outnumbered English navy began bombarding the eleven-kilometer-long line of Spanish ships from a safe distance, taking full advantage of their superior long-range guns. Over the next week, the Spanish Armada continued to advance, but its ranks were thinned considerable by the English assault.
          On 28 July, the Spanish retreated to Calais, France, but English sent ships loaded with explosives into the crowded harbor, which, along with damage caused by panicked ship collisions, took a heavy toll on the Armada. The next day, an attempt to reach the Netherlands was thwarted by a small Dutch fleet, and the Spanish were forced to face the pursuing English fleet. The superior English guns again won the day and the Armada retreated north to Scotland. Battered by storms and suffering from a lack of supplies, the Armada sailed on a difficult journey back to Spain around Scotland and the east of Ireland. By the time the last of the surviving fleet reached Spain in October, half of the so-called Invincible Armada had been destroyed. Queen Elizabeth’s decisive defeat of the Armada made England a world-class naval power, and introduced effective long-range weapons into naval warfare for the first time, ending the era of boarding and close-quarter fighting.
    TO THE TOP
    < 18 May 20 May >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 19 May:

    2006 Vitor Negrete [13 Nov 1967–], Brazilian amateur alpinist, climbing alone on 18 May 2006, becomes the first Brazilian to reach the summit of Mount Everest without supplementary oxygen, but then, during his descent, suffers from oxygen deprivation, is rescued by his Sherpa guide, but dies at Camp 3. On 15 May 2006, one of his teammates, David Sharp, of the UK, had died, also from lack of oxygen, on his way up in a solo attempt at the summit. Negrete had reached the summit of Everest on 02 June 2005, with supplementary oxygen. He had also climbed to the summit of Aconcagua five times; he was the first Brazilian to reach that summit from its south face. Negrete was also a prominent Adventure racer since 2001. Among many other adventures, he had crossed the Amazon Rainforest and traveled from São Paulo state to the southern part of South America - Tierra del Fuego - Patagonia on a bicycle. As a UNICAMP researcher in Food Engineering, he helped to introduce pre-industrialized food to poor communities in the Vale do Ribeira, south of São Paulo.. —(070514)

    2006 Ashleigh Ewing, 22, stabbed by Ronald Dixon, 34, of Heaton, England, as she was making a home visit at an apartment in Newcastle upon Tyne on behalf of the charitable organization Mental Health Matters. — (060520)
    2005 Ali Hamid Alwan al-Dulaimy, 31, an engineer and senior Iraqi Oil Ministry official, shot by three men at 08:00 (04:00 UT) outside his home in the Kazimiyah district of Baghdad, as he walked to his car to go to Baghdad University, where he was studying.
    2005 Policeman Omar Majeed Shakir al-Dosh and his father, shot in Samarra, Iraq.
    2005 Ahmed Shawan, 23, Palestinian, in Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, from wounds sustained the previous day from missiles fired from helicopters, which killed another Hamas member.
    2005 Some 40 persons of the 100 or so aboard a boat which sinks in the Meghna River estuary during a severe storm in the Bhola district of Bangladesh.
    2004 Walid Abu Kamar, 11; Mubarak Al Hashash, 11; Mahmoud Mansour, 13; Ahmad Abu Said, 14; Rageb Barhoum, 18; Mohamed Abu Sha'ar, 20; Ala'a Sheikh Id, 20; Fuad Al-Saka, 31; and 2 more Palestinians, part of a peaceful anti-Israeli demonstration in the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip, which is fired upon at 13:45 (10:45 UT) by Israeli missiles from helicopters and a barrage of shells from tank cannons, which the Israelis call “warning shots”. 62 Palestinians are wounded.
    2004 Five Palestinians, including a boy of 13, in the Israeli attack on the Tel Sultan district of Rafah, Gaza Strip, which started early the previous day and which the Israelis say is crucial and will continue “for as long as necessary”, despite the “regrettable” killing of civilians.
    2004 Amal Rikad and her daughters Kholood Rikad, 2, and Anoud Rikad, 1; Fatima Madhi and her sons Raad Madhi, 2, and Ra'ed Madhi, 1; Mohammed Rikad, his wife Morifa Rikad, and their children Saad Rikad, 10, Faisal Rikad, 7, Anoud Rikad, 6, Fasila Rikad, 5, Kholood Rikad, 4, and Inad Rikad, 3; and some 30 other Iraquis of the Bou Fahad tribe, mostly children and women, who had attended a wedding party in Mogr el-Deeb, a village in the desert some 25 km from the Syrian border, by a US helicopter attack from 02:45 until sunrise, against what the US thought was, and, against all evidence, keeps insisting was a safehouse for fighters infiltrating from Syria from where there had been hostile gunfire (but there was none, not even the firing into the air as a traditional way of celebrating). The first bomb hit the huge goat-hair tent where the men were sleeping, so the survivors among them fled to their homes. The attack continued against an adjacent one-story house where women and children were, which explains why most of the victims were women and children. This seems similar to the 01 July 2002 US killing of 48 villagers, and the wounding of 117, at a wedding in the Dehrawud district of Uruzgan province, Afghanistan, where the stupid celebratory firing into the air was really hostile firing at US forces which justified the attack, the US immediately claimed, and repeated after a so-called investigation. — Wikipedia article.
    Dawarme2004 Ayyanna Goud, 45, suicide by swallowing pesticide, in Mehboobnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India. A peasant farmer, he had dug four bore wells in as many years, but all of them ran dry. He was in debt of over two lakh rupees. “The pesticides used failed on the crops, the seeds turned out to be spurious, and the interest on the loan was increasing. The seeds did not germinate and there was no crop. All the money and labor that we put in went waste,” explains Venkatesh Goud, Ayyanna's son. Some 3000 peasants in the drought-ridden Andhra Pradesh state had commited suicide during the past 9 years when the TDP was in power. Electoral promises were made and India's elections concluded on 10 May 2004 put in power the United Progressive Alliance in the national government and the Congress Party in the state. But the peasants despair of getting any relief and Goud's suicide would be followed by hundreds more.
    2003 Three Israelis: Hassan Ben Ismail Tawatha, 41; Avi Zrihan, 36; and security guard Kiril Shremko, 23; and Palestinian woman suicide bomber Hiba Da'arma, 19 [photo >], (name first given as Heba Dawarme) in the afternoon, at the entrance to the Emakim Mall in Afula, Israel, after Shremko's metal detector beeping apparently deterred the terrorist from entering the mall. Some 70 persons are wounded. [chronology of all previous al-Aqsa intifada suicide bombings]
    2003 Shadi Nabaheen, 19, Palestinian suicide bomber riding a bicycle near Kfar Darom, Gaza Strip. No one else is hurt, except three Israeli soldiers lightly wounded, next to whose jeep Nabaheen detonated his explosives.
    2003 Ziad Nasser, 13, Palestinian, shot by Israeli troops fighting Palestinian gunmen in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
    2002 Walter Lord, 84, of Parkinson's disease, narrative historian. Born on 08 October 1917, Lord wrote books about the Titanic's sinking (A Night to Remember, 1955, and The Night Lives On, 1986), the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Day of Infamy, 1957), the years 1900~1915 (The Good Years, 1960), the WW II evacuation of Dunkirk (The Miracle of Dunkirk, 1982), the Battle of Midway (Incredible Victory, 1967), the WW II coast watchers in the Solomons (Lonely Vigil, 1977), the siege of the Alamo (A Time to Stand, 1961), the 1814 Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812 (The Dawn's Early Light, 1972), James Meredith first Black student at the University of Mississippi (The Past That Would Not Die, 1968), also Peary and the Pole (1961), and edited in 1954 The Fremantle Diary (of a British officer and Confederate sympathizer who toured the South for three months in 1863.
    2002 Three Israelis and a suicide bomber, disguised in an Israeli army uniform, in a produce market in Netanya, Israel, at about 16:20. 58 persons are injured.
    2002 More than 600 persons throughout much of India, since early in the month, by pre-monsoon desert winds, the hottest in years. On 10 May the temperature reached 51ºC in the state of Andhra Pradesh, where most of the deaths occured.
    2002 Sergeant Gene Arden Vance, in an ambush by al Qaeda suspects in Paktika province, Afghanistan. He is the 15th US serviceman killed in Afghanistan since the US attacked al-Qaeda and the Taliban in 2001. In this campaign, the US military has been very successful in limiting its own deaths, while seeming indifferent to the deaths of thousands of allied Afghan fighters and innocent civilians, not to mention the enemy.
    2001 Fawaz Al Damej, 35, Palestinian policeman manning a checkpoint near Jenin, shot from a passing car my Israeli Special forces. This brings the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 469 Palestinians and 84 Israelis.
    2001 Tayser Awad Al Arear, 30, Palestinian farmer shot in the chest by Israeli soldiers while he was working his land in the Gaza Strip near the Karni crossing with Israel.
    2001 Hammam Saleem Abdulhaq, 20, Palestinian from Deir Estaya, shot in the head by an Israeli soldier, at the southern entrance of Nablus, where Abdulhaq was participating with 700 others in a protest after the funerals for 11 Palestinians killed in a F-16 air strike the previous day.
    2001 Juan Gutierrez, 24, shot by police when he refused to stop scalping his 3-year-old daughter's head with a steak knife, in Angleton, Texas. Separated from the mother, he had come to visit for the child's birthday. The child is hospitalized and would recover.
    ^ 1994 Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, born on 28 July 1929, wife first of US President John F. Kennedy [29 May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963], and then of super-wealthy Aristotle Onassis [20 Jan 1906 – 15 Mar 1975].
          Jacqueline was the elder of two daughters of Janet Lee and John “Black Jack” Bouvier III, a stock speculator. As a child she developed the interests she would still relish as an adult: horseback riding, writing, and painting. In 1942, after her parents had divorced and her mother married Hugh D. Auchincloss, Jr., a wealthy lawyer, Jacqueline divided her time between the family's Merrywood estate in Virginia and Hammersmith Farm in Newport, Rhode Island.
          From age 15 she attended boarding school; she enrolled at Vassar College in 1947. During her junior year abroad, while studying at the Sorbonne, she polished her French and solidified her affinity for French culture and style, which she sometimes associated with her adored father. She graduated from George Washington University in 1951 and took a job as a reporter-photographer at the Washington Times-Herald.
          In 1951 Jacqueline met John F. Kennedy, a popular congressman from Massachusetts. On 12 September 1953, they wed in St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island. The early years of their marriage included considerable disappointment and sadness. John underwent spinal surgery, and she suffered a miscarriage and delivered a stillborn daughter. Their luck appeared to change with the birth of a healthy daughter, Caroline Bouvier Kennedy [27 Nov 1957~]. John Kennedy was elected president in 1960, just weeks before Jacqueline gave birth to a son, John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. [25 Nov 1960 – 16 Jul 1999]
          The youngest first lady in nearly 80 years, Jacqueline left a distinct mark on the job. During the 1960 election campaign she hired Letitia Baldrige, who was both politically savvy and astute on matters of etiquette, to assist her as social secretary. Through Baldrige, Jacqueline announced that she intended to make the White House a showcase for the US's most talented and accomplished individuals, and she invited musicians, actors, and intellectuals, including Nobel Prize winners, to the executive mansion.
          Her most enduring contribution was her work to restore the White House to its original elegance and to protect its holdings. She established the White House Historical Association, which was charged with educating the public and raising funds, and she wrote the foreword to the association's first edition of The White House: An Historic Guide (1962). To catalog the mansion's holdings, Jacqueline hired a curator from the Smithsonian Institution, a job that eventually became permanent. Congress, acting with the first lady's support, passed a law to encourage donations of valuable art and furniture and made White House furnishings of “artistic or historic importance” the “inalienable property” of the nation, so that residents could not dispose of them at will. After extensive refurbishing, Jacqueline led a nationally televised tour of the White House in February 1962.
          During her short time in the White House, Jacqueline became one of the most popular first ladies. During her travels with the president to Europe (1961) and Central and South America (1962) she won wide praise for her beauty, fashion sense, and facility with languages. Alluding to his wife's immense popularity during their tour of France in 1961, President Kennedy jokingly reintroduced himself to reporters as the “the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris.” Parents named their daughters after Jacqueline, and women copied her bouffant hair style, pillbox hat, and flat-heeled pumps.
          In November 1963 Jacqueline agreed to make one of her infrequent political appearances and accompanied her husband to Texas. She had just returned from a vacation in Greece following the death of her newborn son, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy [07 Aug 1963 – 09 Aug 1963]. As the president's motorcade moved through Dallas, he was assassinated as she sat beside him; 99 minutes later she stood beside Lyndon Johnson in her blood-stained suit as he took the oath of office, an unprecedented appearance by a widowed first lady. On her return to the capital, Jacqueline oversaw the planning of her husband's funeral, using many of the details of the funeral of Abraham Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865] a century earlier. Her quiet dignity (and the sight of her two young children standing beside her during the ceremony) brought an outpouring of admiration from people in the US and all over the world.
          Jacqueline moved to an apartment in New York City, which remained her principal residence for the rest of her life. In October 1968 she married the Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis, but she continued to spend considerable time in New York, where her children attended school. Although the bulk of his estate went to his daughter after his death in 1975, she inherited a sum variously estimated at $20 million to $26 million.
          Returning to her old interest, Jacqueline worked as a consulting editor at Viking Press and later as an associate and senior editor at Doubleday. She also maintained her interest in the arts and in landmark preservation. Although her name was linked romantically with different men, her constant companion during the last 12 years of her life was Maurice Tempelsman, a Belgian-born diamond dealer.
          Soon after she was diagnosed with non-Hodgkins lymphoma in 1994, she died in her New York City apartment. She was buried in Arlington National Cemetery beside John F. Kennedy and the two children who had predeceased them. After her one surviving son, John F. Kennedy, Jr., was killed in a plane accident, many books and articles assessed the recurring role of tragedy in the Kennedy story. But it had been a story of luck and glamour as well, and the name she applied to her first husband's short administration, “Camelot,” seemed to capture much of her essence as well.
    ^ 1971 Frederic Ogden Nash, humorous poet, TV panelist (Masquerade Party).
         Born on 19 August 1902, Nash studied for a year at Harvard University (1920–1921), then held a variety of jobs, advertising, teaching, editing, bond selling, before the success of his poetry enabled him to work full-time at it. He sold his first verse (1930) to The New Yorker, on whose editorial staff he was employed for a time. With the publication of his first collection, Hard Lines (1931), he began a 40-year career during which he produced 20 volumes of verse with such titles as The Bad Parents' Garden of Verse (1936), I'm a Stranger Here Myself (1938), and Everyone but Thee and Me (1962). Making his home in Baltimore, he also did considerable lecturing on tours throughout the United States. He wrote the lyrics for the musicals One Touch of Venus (1943) and Two's Company (1952), as well as several children's books.
          His rhymes are jarringly off or disconcertingly exact, and his ragged stanzas vary from lines of one word to lines that meander the length of a paragraph, often interrupted by inapposite digressions. He said that he learned his prosody from the unintentional blunders of the notoriously slipshod poet Julia Ann Davis Moore [01 Dec 1847 – 05 Jun 1920], The Sweet Singer of Michigan.
    NASH ONLINE: Selected Works
    THE
    COMMON
    COLD



    Go hang yourself, you old M.D,!
    You shall not sneer at me.
    Pick up your hat and stethoscope,
    Go wash your mouth with laundry soap;
    I contemplate a joy exquisite
    In not paying you for your visit.
    I did not call you to be told
    My malady is a common cold.
    By pounding brow and swollen lip;
    By fever's hot and scaly grip;
    By those two red redundant eyes
    That weep like woeful April skies;
    By racking snuffle, snort, and sniff;
    By handkerchief after handkerchief;
    This cold you wave away as naught
    Is the damnedest cold man ever caught!

    Give ear, you scientific fossil!
    Here is the genuine Cold Colossal;
    The Cold of which researchers dream,
    The Perfect Cold, the Cold Supreme.
    This honored system humbly holds
    The Super-cold to end all colds;
    The Cold Crusading for Democracy;
    The Führer of the Streptococcracy
    Bacilli swarm within my portals
    Such as were ne'er conceived by mortals,
    But bred by scientists wise and hoary
    In some Olympic laboratory;
    Bacteria as large as mice,
    With feet of fire and heads of ice
    Who never interrupt for slumber
    Their stamping elephantine rumba.

    A common cold, gadzooks, forsooth!
    Ah, yes. And Lincoln was jostled by Booth;
    Don Juan was a budding gallant,
    And Shakespeare's plays show signs of talent;
    The Arctic winter is fairly coolish,
    And your diagnosis is fairly foolish.
    Oh what a derision history holds
    For the man who belittled the Cold of Colds!
    1954 Max Oppenheimer “MOpp”, Austrian painter and printmaker born on 01 July 1885. — MORE ON MOPP AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1942 Joseph Larmor, Irish mathematical physicist born on 11 July 1857. He worked on electricity, dynamics and thermodynamics.
    ^ 1935 Thomas Edward Lawrence “of Arabia”.
          T.E. Lawrence, also known as Lawrence of Arabia, dies in England from injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash.
          He was then a Royal Air Force mechanic living (since 1927) under the assumed name T.E. Shaw. He had been a British archaeological scholar, military strategist, and author. During World War I, Arab forces revolting against the Turks adopted Lawrence, who had arrived as an archeologist, as their strategic and inspirational leader. He was further immortalized by his autobiography, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926), and by an epic film.
         T.E. Lawrence, known to the world as Lawrence of Arabia, dies as a retired Royal Air Force mechanic living under an assumed name. The legendary war hero, author, and archaeological scholar succumbed to injuries suffered in a motorcycle accident six days before. Thomas Edward Lawrence was born in Tremadoc, Wales, in 1888. In 1896, his family moved to Oxford. Lawrence studied architecture and archaeology, for which he made a trip to Ottoman (Turkish)-controlled Syria and Palestine in 1909. In 1911, he won a fellowship to join an expedition excavating an ancient Hittite settlement on the Euphrates River. He worked there for three years and in his free time traveled and learned Arabic. In 1914, he explored the Sinai, near the frontier of Ottoman-controlled Arabia and British-controlled Egypt. The maps Lawrence and his associates made had immediate strategic value upon the outbreak of war between Britain and the Ottoman Empire in October 1914. Lawrence enlisted in the war and because of his expertise in Arab affairs was assigned to Cairo as an intelligence officer. He spent more than a year in Egypt, processing intelligence information and in 1916 accompanied a British diplomat to Arabia, where Hussein ibn Ali, the emir of Mecca, had proclaimed a revolt against Turkish rule. Lawrence convinced his superiors to aid Hussein's rebellion, and he was sent to join the Arabian army of Hussein's son Faisal as a liaison officer. Under Lawrence's guidance, the Arabians launched an effective guerrilla war against the Turkish lines. He proved a gifted military strategist and was greatly admired by the Bedouin people of Arabia. In July 1917, Arabian forces captured Aqaba near the Sinai and joined the British march on Jerusalem.
          Lawrence was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In November, he was captured by the Turks while reconnoitering behind enemy lines in Arab dress and was tortured and sexually abused before escaping. He rejoined his army, which slowly worked its way north to Damascus, which fell in October 1918. Arabia was liberated, but Lawrence's hope that the peninsula would be united as a single nation was dashed when Arabian factionalism came to the fore after Damascus. Lawrence, exhausted and disillusioned, left for England. Feeling that Britain had exacerbated the rivalries between the Arabian groups, he appeared before King George V and politely refused the medals offered to him. After the war, he lobbied hard for independence for Arab countries and appeared at the Paris peace conference in Arab robes.
          He became something of a legendary figure in his own lifetime, and in 1922 he gave up higher-paying appointments to enlist in the Royal Air Force (RAF) under an assumed name, John Hume Ross. He had just completed writing his monumental war memoir, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, and he hoped to escape his fame and acquire material for a new book. Found out by the press, he was discharged, but in 1923 he managed to enlist as a private in the Royal Tanks Corps under another assumed name, T.E. Shaw, a reference to his friend, Irish writer George Bernard Shaw. In 1925, Lawrence rejoined the RAF and two years later legally changed his last name to Shaw.
          In 1927, an abridged version of his memoir was published and generated tremendous publicity, but the press was unable to locate Lawrence (he was posted to a base in India). In 1929, he returned to England and spent the next six years writing and working as an RAF mechanic. In 1932, his English translation of Homer's Odyssey was published under the name of T.E. Shaw. The Mint, a fictionalized account of Royal Air Force recruit training, was not published until 1955 because of its explicitness. In February 1935, Lawrence was discharged from the RAF and returned to his simple cottage at Clouds Hill, Dorset. On 13 May, he was critically injured while driving his motorcycle through the Dorset countryside. He had swerved to avoid a boy on a bicycle. On 19 May, he died at the hospital of his former RAF camp. All of Britain mourned his passing.
    1924 “Maria Bernarda” Verena Bütler [28 May 1848–] of Switzerland, founder of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Mary Help of Christians. She was canonized on 12 October 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] —(081011)
    1919 Raphael Louis Rafiringa [03 Nov 1856–], Brother of Christian Schools from Madagascar. On 19 May 2008 a Vatican decree recognized his heroic virtues. —(080522)
    1918 Ferdinand Hodler, Swiss Art Nouveau painter, born on 14 March 1853. — MORE ON HODLER AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1914 Cesare Augusto Detti, Italian artist born on 28 December 1847.
    ^ 1898 William Ewart Gladstone, British statesman, four-time prime minister of Great Britain (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886, 1892–1894), born on 29 December 1809.
          Gladstone was of purely Scottish descent. His father, John, made himself a merchant prince and was a member of Parliament (1818–1827). Gladstone was sent to Eton, where he did not particularly distinguish himself. At Christ Church, Oxford, in 1831 he secured first classes in classics and mathematics.
         
    He originally intended to take orders in the Church of England, but his father dissuaded him. He mistrusted parliamentary reform; his speech against it in May 1831 at the Oxford Union, of which he had been president, made a strong impression. One of his Christ Church friends, the son of the Duke of Newcastle, persuaded the Duke to support Gladstone as candidate for Parliament for Newark in the general election of December 1832; and the “Grand Old Man” of Liberalism thus began his parliamentary career as a Tory member. His maiden speech on 03 June 1833, made a decided mark. He held minor office in Sir Robert Peel's short government of 1834–1835, first at the treasury, then as undersecretary for the colonies.
          In July 1839 he married Catherine, the daughter of Sir Stephen Glynne of Hawarden, near Chester. A woman of lively wit, complete discretion, and exceptional charm, she was utterly devoted to her husband, to whom she bore eight children. This marriage gave him a secure base of personal happiness for the rest of his life. It also established him in the aristocratic governing class of the time.
          Gladstone's early parliamentary performances were strongly Tory; but time after time contact with the effects of Tory policy forced him to take a more liberal view. His conversion from conservatism to liberalism took place in prolonged stages, over a generation. Peel made Gladstone vice president of the Board of Trade, and Gladstone's application astonished even hardworking colleagues.
          He embarked on a major simplification of the tariff and became a more thoroughgoing free trader than Peel. In 1843 he entered the Cabinet as president of the Board of Trade. His Railway Act of 1844 set up minimum requirements for railroad companies and provided for eventual state purchase of railway lines. Gladstone also much improved working conditions for London dock workers. Early in 1845, when the Cabinet proposed to increase a state grant to the Irish Roman Catholic college at Maynooth, Gladstone resigned—not because he did not approve of the increase but because it went against views he had published seven years before. Later in 1845 he rejoined the Cabinet as secretary of state for the colonies, until the government fell in 1846. While at the Colonial Office, he was led nearer to Liberalism by being forced to consider the claims of English-speaking colonists to govern themselves.
         The Glynne family estates were deeply involved in the financial panic of 1847. For several years Gladstone was concerned with extricating them. He began charitable work, which was open to a great deal of misinterpretation; he often tried to persuade prostitutes to enter a “rescue” home that he and his wife maintained or in some other way to take up a different way of life.
          Several of Gladstone's closest Oxford friends were among the many Anglicans who converted to Roman Catholicism under the impact of the Oxford Movement. Gladstone had moved to a High Anglican position in Italy just after leaving Oxford. The suspicion that he was Catholic was used against him by his adversaries, of whom he had many in the University of Oxford, for which he was elected MP in August 1847. He scandalized many of his new constituents at once by voting for the admission of Jews to Parliament.
          Gladstone made his first weighty speech on foreign affairs in June 1850, opposing foreign secretary Lord Palmerston in the celebrated Don Pacifico debate over the rights of British nationals abroad. That autumn he visited Naples, where he was appalled by the conditions that he found in the prisons. In July 1851 he published two letters to Lord Aberdeen describing the conditions, and appealing to all conservatives to set an iniquity right. The Neapolitan prisoners were treated even worse than before, and most conservatives, all over Europe, were deaf to his appeal. But Palmerston circulated the letters to all the British missions on the Continent, and they delighted every liberal who heard of them.
          For nine years after Peel's death in 1850, Gladstone's political position was seldom comfortable. As one of the most eminent of the dwindling band of Peelites, he was mistrusted by the leaders of both parties and distrusted some of them, particularly Palmerston and Disraeli, in his turn. He refused to join Lord Derby's government in 1852. At the end of that year, a brilliant attack on Disraeli's budget brought the government down and Gladstone rose in public estimation. He then joined Aberdeen's coalition as chancellor of the Exchequer. In his first budget speech he put forth a bold and comprehensive plan for large reductions in duties, proposed the eventual elimination of the income tax, and carried a scheme for the extension of the legacy duty to real property.
          His budget provided the backbone of the coalition's success in 1853, a year in which he spent much time devising a scheme for a competitive civil service system. He defended the Crimean War as necessary for the defense of the public law of Europe; but its outbreak disrupted his financial plans. Determined to pay for it as far as possible by taxation, he doubled the income tax in 1854. When Aberdeen fell in January 1855, Gladstone agreed to join Palmerston's Cabinet; but he resigned three weeks later, with two other Peelites, rather than embarrass his party by accepting a committee of inquiry into the conduct of the Crimean War. He was, as a result, unpopular in the country; and he made himself more unpopular still by speeches in Parliament in the summer of 1855, in which he held that the war was no longer justified.
          Gladstone helped to defeat Palmerston in the Commons by a speech on China in March 1857. He twice refused to join Derby's government in 1858, in spite of a generous letter from Disraeli. In June 1859 Gladstone cast a vote for Derby's Conservative government on a confidence motion and caused surprise by joining Palmerston's Whig Cabinet as chancellor of the Exchequer a week later. His sole, but overwhelming, reason for joining a statesman he neither liked nor trusted was the critical state of the Italian question. The triumvirate of Palmerston, Russell, and Gladstone did indeed help, over the next 18 months, to secure the unification of almost all Italy.
          Gladstone was constantly at issue with his prime minister over defense spending. By prolonged efforts, he managed to get the service estimates down by 1866 to a lower figure than that for 1859. A further abolition of import duties was achieved by his budget of 1860. His support of an Anglo-French trade treaty doubled the value of trade. He proposed the abolition of the duties on paper, which the House of Lords declined to do. In 1861 Gladstone included the abolition with all the other budget arrangements in a single finance bill that the Lords dared not amend, a procedure that has been followed ever since. Another useful step was the creation of the post office savings bank. These measures brought him increased popularity with the leaders of working class opinion, as did journeys around the main centers of industry.
          In the general election of July 1865, Gladstone was defeated at Oxford but secured a seat in South Lancashire. When Palmerston died in October and Russell became prime minister, Gladstone took over the leadership of the House of Commons, while remaining at the Exchequer.
          Convinced of the need for a further reform of Parliament, he introduced a bill for the moderate extension of the franchise in March 1866, but it foundered in June, and the whole government resigned. Next year Disraeli introduced a stronger Reform Bill that gave a vote to most householders in boroughs. Disraeli became prime minister early in 1868. Russell had resigned from active politics, and Gladstone was the Liberal mentor during the general election at the end of the year. Though Gladstone lost his Lancashire seat, he was returned for Greenwich; and the Liberal Party won handsomely in the country as a whole. His abilities had made him its indispensable leader, and when Disraeli resigned Queen Victoria called on him to form a government.
         Gladstone's first Cabinet (1868–1874) was perhaps the most capable of the century. Its prime minister tried to supervise the work of each department, devoting his main efforts to Irish and foreign policy. The Irish Protestant church was successfully disestablished in 1869, and a first attempt to grapple with oppressive landlordism in Ireland was made unsuccessfully in 1870; abroad, an attempt to promote disarmament in 1868 failed when Bismarck refused to consider it. The Franco-German War took the government completely by surprise, and the Cabinet would not allow Gladstone to propose to Prussia the neutralization of Alsace and Lorraine. The principal achievements of 1871 and 1872, a London declaration by the great powers that they would not in future abrogate treaties without the consent of all the signatories, and the settlement by arbitration of the “Alabama” claim of the United States, look well in retrospect but were thought pusillanimous at the time. The most useful reforms at home were administrative, except for the Education Act of 1870 and the Ballot Act of 1872. When an Irish University Bill failed to pass the Commons in March 1873, Gladstone resigned but was forced back into office by Disraeli's refusal to form a government. In August he reshuffled his Cabinet and again took on the chancellorship of the Exchequer himself. He dissolved Parliament in January 1874, but his party was heavily defeated and his government resigned. Gladstone gave up the party leadership (though he remained MP for Greenwich) and retired to Hawarden to write pamphlets attacking papal infallibility and articles on Homer.
          The indifference of Disraeli's government to the brutality of Turkish reprisals against risings in the Balkans, in 1875–1876, brought Gladstone back to active politics. He published a pamphlet, “Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East,” which demanded that the Turkish irregulars should remove themselves from the peninsula. London society and the London mob, the Queen, and the Whiggish elements in his own party all opposed him. Only some radicals really supported him; yet he triumphed. He gave up his Greenwich seat and stood for the Scottish county of Midlothian. In two tremendous outbursts of oratory, in November 1879 and March 1880, Gladstone secured his own return to Parliament, overthrew a government, and secured a large Liberal majority. The Conservative government had to resign.
         Gladstone foolishly combined again for two and a half years the duties of prime minister and chancellor of the Exchequer. His large apparent majority in the Commons was unruly. Not until 1884 could he introduce a third Reform Act that nearly doubled the electorate by giving votes to householders in country districts. On the Eastern question, he and Granville, the foreign secretary, managed by a brusque naval threat to compel Turkey to cede Thessaly to Greece. Still graver troubles arose in Ireland. The Irish Land Act of 1881, largely Gladstone's own work, in the long run promoted the prosperity of the Irish peasant; but violent crime continued. No alternatives to strong police powers were left, and measures to restrict the freedom of Irish members to obstruct the work of the Commons had to be taken.
         In 1882 the Cabinet was compelled to authorize the occupation of Egypt. Gladstone's settlement of the Egyptian debt question (1885) was honorable to his belief in the concert of Europe but had the unintended effect of tying British foreign policy to that of the Germans. When he allowed Gen. C.G. Gordon to go to Khartoum in Sudan and then failed to rescue him, his death cost Gladstone much popularity. Firm handling of a dispute with Russia over the border of Afghanistan somewhat restored his prestige; but when the government was defeated on the budget in June 1885, he was glad to resign. He refused an offer of an earldom from the Queen.
          Gladstone appreciated the full force of Irish nationalism. He had for years favored Irish Home Rule in the form of a subordinate parliament in Dublin. In 1885 a combination of Irish with Conservative votes had defeated him in June, and he waited silently to see what an Irish–Conservative combination would produce. The general election of November–December1885 returned a Parliament in which the Liberal members exactly equaled the total of Conservatives plus Irish. At this moment, Gladstone's conversion to Home Rule was revealed, and most Conservatives therefore turned against it. Lord Salisbury's government was defeated, and Gladstone formed his third Cabinet in February 1886. His Home Rule Bill was rejected in Parliament in June by a large secession of Whigs, and in the country at a general election in July, and Gladstone resigned office.
          He had kept his Midlothian seat, unopposed, and carried with him into the new Parliament a personal following 190 strong, supported by the National Liberal Federation, the most powerful political machine in the country. He devoted the next six years to an effort to convince the British electorate that to grant Home Rule to the Irish nation would be an act of justice and wisdom. He spoke at many meetings and cooperated with the Irish leader Charles Stewart Parnell. But in 1890 he had a dangerous quarrel with Parnell about the political consequences of the O'Shea divorce. (Gladstone had not believed the rumors about Parnell's liaison, holding that Parnell would never “imperil the future of Ireland for an adulterous intrigue.”) He never sought to correct the stories Parnell spread about him in Ireland. He sanctioned an extensive program of Liberal reforms drawn up at Newcastle in 1891, because it was headed by Home Rule, and on this platform the Liberals won a majority of 40 in the general election of 1892.
          Gladstone formed his fourth Cabinet in August 1892. Its members were held together only by awe of him. He piloted another Home Rule Bill through 85 sittings of the Commons in 1893; the Lords rejected it by the largest majority ever recorded there to that time, 419–41. The Cabinet rejected Gladstone's proposal to dissolve.
          He disagreed with his colleagues on a large increase in naval expenditure and finally resigned, ostensibly because sight and hearing were failing, on 03 March 1894. He was much mortified by the coolness of his last official interview with the Queen, who by now so frankly detested him that she could hardly conceal her feelings. He retired to Hawarden and busied himself with an edition of the works of Bishop Joseph Butler (3 vol., 1896). Humanitarian to the end, in his last great speech, at Liverpool in September 1896, he denounced Turkish atrocities in Armenia. After a painful illness, he died of cancer of the palate at Hawarden.
    1897 John Thomas Peele, British artist born on 11 April 1822.
    1893 Franz Rheinhold, Austrian artist born on 19 December 1816.
    ^ 1864 Nathaniel Hawthorne, US novelist and short story writer.
          Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts on 04 July 1804. Although the infamous Salem witch trials had taken place more than 100 years earlier, the events still hung over the town and made a lasting impression on the young Hawthorne. Witchcraft figured in several of his works, including Young Goodman Brown (1835) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851), in which a house is cursed by a wizard condemned by the witch trials.
          After attending Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, Hawthorne returned to Salem, where he began his career as a writer. He self-published his first book, Fanshawe (1828), but tried to destroy all copies shortly after publication. He later wrote several books of short stories, including Twice Told Tales (1837). In 1841, he tried his hand at communal living at the agricultural cooperative Brook Farm but came away highly disillusioned by the experience, which he fictionalized in his novel The Blithedale Romance (1852).
          Hawthorne married Sophia Peabody in 1842, having at last earned enough money from his writing to start a family. The two lived in a house called the Old Manse, in Concord, Massachusetts, and socialized with Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Branson Alcott, father of writer Louisa May Alcott. Plagued by financial difficulties as his family grew, he took a job in 1845 at Salem's custom house, where he worked for three years. After leaving the job, he spent several months writing The Scarlet Letter, a story of adultery and betrayal in the American colonies of Great Britain, published.on 16 March 1850. It made him famous. In 1853, Hawthorne's old college friend, President Franklin Pierce, appointed him US consul to England, and the family moved to England, where they lived for three years. Hawthorne died in Plymouth, New Hampshire.

    HAWTHORNE ONLINE:
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  • click for FIRST AT VICKSBURG
    ^ 1863 Many Yanks and Rebs as Vicksburg siege begins.


         General Ulysses S. Grant attempts to take the Confederate stronghold at Vicksburg, Mississippi. After making a daring run past Confederate batteries, Union naval forces join troops several kilometers down river. Working together, they detain Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston in Jackson, preventing him from assisting General John C. Pemberton at Vicksburg.
         When Grant's direct assault fails to overwhelm the city, he settles down to a six-week siege. Nineteen kilometers of Northern entrenchments paralleled Confederate earthworks. At some points, soldiers held their separate lines within shouting distance. By mid-June, nearly 80'000 Union troops were massed at the city on the Mississippi River bluffs.
          With Union gunboats on the river and enemy trenches surrounding the city, the citizens and soldiers of Vicksburg were sealed off from supplies. In addition to dwindling food stores, they weathered nearly constant bombardment by land and naval forces. To escape the shells, Vicksburg residents abandoned their homes for caves carved into the city's hills. Weeks passed and starving denizens of "Prairie Dog Village," as Union soldiers dubbed the maze of dugouts, still hoped for salvation at the hands of General Johnston. Pemberton and his 30'000 men surrendered on 04 July 1863.

    Click on the image to see the painting FIRST AT VICKSBURG, a view of the Confederate lines, at Vicksburg, Mississippi, on 19 May 1863, bitterly resisting the assault of the Union 1st Battalion, 13th Infantry, which loses 43% of its men, but, of the attacking force, is alone to fight its color up the steep slope to the top. General Sherman would call its performance “unequalled in the Army” and authorize the 13th Infantry to inscribe First at Vicksburg on its color. Nevertheless it took two more months of hard fighting to capture Vicksburg and split the Confederacy.
    1858 Five free-state men, shot in Le Marais des Cygnes massacre.       ^top^
         Kansas from 1854 to 1861 was the scene of a bitter struggle to determine whether the territory should enter the Union as a free or a slave state. The principle of popular sovereignty embodied in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which created the territory, provided that this decision should be made by a vote of the people. Consequently, free-state and proslavery adherents became rivals for majority control, and strife and bad feelings resulted.

          Numerous instances of lawlessness occurred. Men were attacked, beaten, and occasionally killed, often for no reason except their views on slavery. In Linn and Bourbon Counties, on the eastern Kansas border, raids were frequently carried on by opposing factions.
          This situation continued through 1857 and 1858. On one occasion a leader of the free-state group rode into Trading Post, which had become a rendezvous for a proslavery gang, and — so the story goes — cleaned out the headquarters by dumping several barrels of corn whiskey into the road. Then he notified the proslavery people to leave the territory. No one was hurt and no property was destroyed, except the whiskey.
          A leader of the proslavery faction was Charles Hamilton, a native of Georgia who had come to the border area in 1855 to help make Kansas Territory a slave state. After Hamilton and his friends were forced to leave, he is reported to have sent back word to other proslavery sympathizers "to come out of the territory at once, as we are coming up there to kill snakes, and will treat all we find there as snakes." Shortly thereafter he kept his word.
          On 19 May1858, some thirty men under Hamilton's leadership crossed into Kansas. They arrived at Trading Post in the morning and then set out on the road back toward Missouri, capturing eleven free-state men along the way. None of these men was armed, and it was said that none had taken part in the fighting. Most were former neighbors of Hamilton and had no thought that he meant to do them serious harm. However, they were hurried along and into a defile surrounded by the mounds that characterize the area. There they were herded into line, and Hamilton's men formed another line on the side of the ravine.
          To his men in line, Hamilton gave the order to fire, sending off the first shot himself. The victims fell. Then Hamilton dismounted his firing squad to finish the job with pistols.
          Five free-state men were killed; Hamilton and his gang departed swiftly for Missouri. Only one of them paid the official penalty for the crime; William Griffith of Bates County, Missouri, was arrested in the spring of 1863 and hanged on 30 October. Hamilton returned to Georgia, where he died in 1880.
          Intense excitement followed the massacre. The nation was horrified. Locally, wrathful indignation accompanied feelings of shock. John Brown, arriving at the scene toward the end of June, built a "fort" some 200 meters south of the ravine. It was reported to have been two stories high, walled up with logs and with a flat roof. Water from a spring ran through the house and into a pit at the southwest corner.
          The land on which the fort was built belonged to Eli Snider, a blacksmith. Later he sold it to Brown's friend Charles C. Hadsall, who agreed to let Brown occupy it for military purposes. Brown and his men withdrew at the end of the summer, leaving the fort to Hadsall.
    1845 William John Huggins, British painter born in 1781, specialized in Maritime Scenes. — MORE ON HUGGINS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1824 Francis Maseres, English lawyer, government official, retrograde mathematician born on 15 December 1731.
    1814 Michel-Pierre-Hubert Descours II, French artist born on 27 February 1741.
    1795 James Boswell, born on 29 October 1740, biographer of Samuel Johnson [08 Sep 1709 – 13 Dec 1784].
    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:      
    1793:

    BELLEROSE Jean François, cordonnier, domicilié à Paris, comme distributeur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine.
    GILBERT Jacques, maître d'école, domicilié à Cherbourg (Manche), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
    Domiciliés dans le département du Puy-de-Dôme, comme contre-révolutionnaires, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
    DESORMIERE Augustin, domestique, domicilié à Le Bourgnon — DUBUISSON, cuisinier, domicilié à Le Bourgnon
    GOUTTE-GATA Jean, métayer, domicilié à Thiers — PRADIER Guillaume, fils, domicilié à Auzelle
         ... domiciliés à Vollore, canton de Thiers:
    AUGUEBONNE Jean, métayer — CHOUVEL François, laboureur — CHOUVEL Hugues — DECOUZERE Jean Baptiste, laboureur — LAVEST Anet (dit Bigare), laboureur — POYEL Pierre (dit Chopine), domestique
         ... domiciliés à Augerolles, canton de Thiers:
    BURIAS Jean, (dit Bulhon) domestique — CHAPUT Gilbert, père, aubergiste — DELAIRE Geneviève, veuve Chassonniére — MAURON (dit Laviollette)
    1722 Jan-Karel-Donatus van Beecq, Dutch artist born in 1638.
    1668 Philips Wouwerman (or Wouwermans) ], Haarlem, Netherlands, painter and draftsman, baptized as an infant on 24 May 1619. — more
    1647 Sebastiaen Vrancx, Flemish artist born in the period 1573-1578. — links to images.
    ^Anne Boleyn. head1536 Anne Boleyn, beheaded.
          Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII, is beheaded after being convicted of adultery. [portrait >]
          Henry VIII was not satisfied with two wives: his six wives were, successively,
    1. Catherine of Aragon (married at age 23 in 1509, gave birth on 18 February 1816 to the future queen Mary I, Henry left her in July 1531, and got the Anglican Church started for it to annul his marriage, which it did on 23 May 1533. She died on 07 January 1536 of natural causes),
    2. Anne Boleyn (married at age 26 on 25 January 1533, gave birth on 7 September 1533 to the future queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded on 19 May 1536 for adultery, almost certainly falsely alleged, while Henry was guilty of same).
    3. Jane Seymour (married at age 27 on 30 May 1536, gave birth on 12 October 1537 to Henry's successor, Edward VI, and died of natural causes on 24 October 1537)),
    4. Anne of Cleves, (married at age 24 on 06 January 1940, marriage annulled by Anglican Church on 9 July 1540, she died on 16 July 1557 of natural causes)
    5. Catherine Howard, (married on 09 July 1540, beheaded on 13 February 1542 for treason, namely her premarital affairs)
    6. Catherine Parr. (married at age 31 on 12 July 1543, Henry died 28 January 1547, she remarried and died on 07 September 1548, shortly after giving birth)


    Anne Boleyn, no head -- Henry VIII would have been beheaded if Parliament had been even-handed and declared it treason for an unchaste king to be married. Among his numerous affairs were those with Joan Dobson (giving birth to Etheireda Tudor) , Mary Berkeley (producing in 1525 Thomas Stukely and in 1527 Sir John Perrot 1527), Elizabeth Blount (giving birth in 1519 to Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond), and with Elizabeth Stafford.
    click for portrait of Henry VIIIMany others lost their heads to Henry VIII's multiple marriages, and to the creation of the Church of England to attempt to legitimize them.
        One of the most prominent victims was English Catholic theologian Thomas More, beheaded on 06 July 1535 for refusing to recognize Henry VIII as supreme head of the Church of England, which had broken with the Roman Catholic Church so that Henry VIII could get wife number 2 (which he ordered beheaded less than a year after Thomas More, so as to make room for wife number 3).
         Le 6 juillet 1535, Thomas More, Chancelier de l’Angleterre, a été décapité à l'âge de 57 ans pour son opposition au roi Henri VIII, désireux de contrer l’autorité pontificale afin de casser le mariage avec Catherine d’Aragon et de valider l’union avec Anne Boleyn.
    [< Click on image for Portrait of Henry VIII by Holbein Jr.]
    0804 Alcuin of York, in Tours, France, English abbot, scholar, mathematician, born in 735. He wrote elementary texts on arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
     
    < 18 May 20 May >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 19 May:

    1962 Grigory Mikhaylovich Pasko, Ukrainian-born Russian investigative reporter, who would be sentenced to 4 years at hard labor for reporting on the environmental hazards of the poorly maintained and operated Russian nuclear submarine fleet. — [Pasko case dossier]
    Pol Pot^ 1928 Saloth Sar,
    political leader whose totalitarian regime (1975-1979) imposed severe hardships on the people of Cambodia. His radical communist government forced the mass evacuations of cities, killed or displaced millions of people, and left a legacy of brutality and impoverishment.
         He adopted Pol Pot as his nom de guerre in 1963, when but left Phnom Penh because his Communist ties were suspected by the police.
         The son of a landowning farmer, Saloth Sar was sent at age 5 or 6 to live with an older brother in Phnom Penh, where he was educated. A mediocre student, he failed the entrance examinations for high school and so instead studied carpentry for a year at a technical school in Phnom Penh.
         In his youth, Pol Pot worked on a rubber plantation and spent two years studying to become a Buddhist monk. During World War II, Pol Pot joined the anti-French resistance movement of Ho Chi Minh. By 1946, he was a member of the underground Indochinese Communist Party, and in 1949, he won a scholarship to study radio electronics in Paris.
         In France, contemporaries described Pol Pot as intelligent, convivial and militant—so much so that his studies took a backseat to his political activities. The budding revolutionary failed his examinations three years in a row, to which some attribute his later anti-intellectualism, when he summarily executed educated Cambodians.
         After returning to Phnom Penh in 1953 without a degree, Pol Pot joined the People’s Revolutionary Party of Kampuchea, taught history and geography at a private school and wrote articles for left-wing publications.
    Birth of a revolutionary
    The French withdrew from Indochina in 1954, with Prince Norodom Sihanouk taking power, whom Pol Pot opposed. At the founding congress of the Cambodian Communist Party in 1960, he was elected to the central committee, and was elected party secretary in 1963. Fearing repression from Sihanouk, Pol Pot and other Communist leaders fled to the jungle in the mid-60s, where he helped found the infamous Khmer Rouge guerrilla force.
         During the 1960s, the United States became mired in neighboring Vietnam, picking up where the French left off by trying to destroy Ho Chi Minh’s Communist forces. The war began to spill over into neutral Cambodia, and in 1970, the United States backed the overthrow of Sihanouk’s regime by the more malleable General Lon Nol, setting the stage for the ascendancy of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.
         The Khmer Rouge then waged guerrilla warfare against Lon Nol, and the 1970 US invasion and bombing campaign against Cambodia only served to swell its numbers and gain sympathy for the cause. The civil war ended in April 1975 when Khmer Rouge forces took Phnom Penh.
    Sowing the Killing Fields
    The next day, the Khmer Rouge marched all the capital’s 2 million inhabitants into the countryside at gunpoint, to work and die in barbaric labor camps. “Year Zero,” as the Khmer Rouge called it, had begun. In order to build a new future, they destroyed every link with the past.
         Pol Pot’s forces emptied cites, burned books, demolished homes, desecrated temples and demolished virtually every symbol of Western technology, from automobiles to medical equipment. Property and money were abolished, thousands of professionals were executed and everyone else became slave laborers. Only radios were left untouched, in order to communicate the will of Pol Pot’s Communist Party, “Angka Loeu” (Organization on High).
         In 1976, Pol Pot, as he then began to call himself, was named prime minister, and his nationwide utopian revolution began in earnest.
         Pol Pot transformed Cambodia into a vast slave labor camp, where family life was extinguished and children were taught to inform on their parents. Schools were closed, except for those devoted to political indoctrination, with everyone expected to work in the fields or factories from age 5. Cambodians were expected to work 16 hours a day, and those who couldn’t meet production quotas or complained were killed on the spot.
         Untold numbers of “undesirables,” such as physicians, people who spoke French or even those who wore eyeglasses, were put to death—and their children were buried alive. Tens of thousands more died from disease, malnutrition and overwork.
    Deadly legacy of a madman
    While Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge were busy turning Cambodia into a cemetery, traditional enmity between Cambodians and Vietnamese flared, and fighting broke out in 1978. A year later, the intervention of Vietnamese forces drove the Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot back into the jungles of the mountainous southwest to lead the Khmer Rouge forces against the new Hanoi-supported government in Phnom Penh, which refused to consider peace negotiations as long as he remained at the head of the party.. He was sentenced to death in absentia on charges of genocide.
         Although ostensibly removed from the military and political leadership of the Khmer Rouge in 1985, he apparently remained a guiding force in the organization, which continued its guerrilla campaign into the 1990s, though with diminishing intensity. By 1997 the Khmer Rouge were in deep decline, their ranks riddled by desertions and factionalism, and that year Pol Pot was forcibly ousted from the organization's leadership and placed under house arrest by his colleagues. Pol Pot died of natural causes on 15 April 1998 while held under arrest by his former comrades.
         Although it’s impossible to say exactly how many Cambodians were shot, strangled, beheaded, starved or tortured to death during Pol Pot’s reign, estimates range from 1 million to 4 million men, women and children. And many who survived were brainwashed, beaten and overworked into a state of semi-lifelessness.
         While Pol Pot can’t compare with Hitler or Stalin or Mao in terms of numbers of people killed, the Khmer Rouge regime was the deadliest of the 20th century as to the percentage of the population that was massacred. It probably killed some 2 million Cambodians from April 1975 through December 1978 out of a population of about 7 million, which is an annual rate of 8% of this population murdered.
    1925 Malcolm Little, Omaha NB, grew up to be a black nationalist, civil rights activist, leader of Black Muslims under the name Malcolm X, and was assassinated.
    1919 Georgiy Dmitrievich Suvorov, Russian mathematician who died on 12 October 1984.
    1906 The Federated Boys' Clubs, forerunner of the Boys' Clubs of America, were organized.
    1898 Jean Marie Félix Canu, in Paris, to Félix and Marie née Laviéville; Jean would grow up to be a history and geography teacher in French lycées, starting in Alger in 1918; a French civilization lecturer at Bryn Mawr College, the University of Chicago, and Georgetown University 578441326, and author (Les anglais chez eux 1939, Les américains chez eux, Barbey d'Aurévilly 1945, Histoire des Etats-Unis 1941, Histoire de la Nation Américaine 1947, Les ordres religieux masculins, Les Seigneurs de Tourlaville 1976, Autour de l'Amérique, La Basse-Normandie 1937, Louis XIII et Richelieu 1944, Villes et Paysages d'Amérique 1937, Flaubert auteur dramatique 1946 ...). He died on 12 April 1989.
    1898 Simplon Tunnel opens from Brig, Switzerland to Iselle, Italy
    ^ 1890 Nguyen Sinh Cung, in Hoang Tru, French Indochina.
         He would be also known as Nguyen Tat Thanh, Nguyen Ai Quoc, and especially HO CHI MINH, growing up to be the founder of the Indochina Communist Party (1930) and its successor, the Viet-Minh (1941), and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 1945 to his death on September 2, 1969. As the leader of the Vietnamese nationalist movement for nearly three decades, Ho was one of the prime movers of the post-World War II anticolonial movement in Asia and one of the most influential communist leaders of the 20th century.
         Ho Chi Minh historical importance stems from the fact that, among 20th-century revolutionaries, he waged the longest and most costly battle against the colonial system of the great powers. One of its effects was to cause the grave crisis of the Vietnam War in the national life of the mightiest of capitalist countries, the United States. As a Marxist, Ho stands with the Yugoslav leader Tito as one of the progenitors of the "national Communism" that developed in the 1960s and (at least partially) with Communist China's Mao Zedong in emphasizing the role of the peasantry in the revolutionary struggle.
    1880 Maximilien “Max” Clarenbach, German artist who died in 1952. — links to an image.
    1857 Jean Paul Sinibaldi, French artist who died in January 1909.
    1839 Adolphe Alexandre Lesrel, French artist who died in 1929.
    1832 Edmond Bour, French mathematician who died on 09 March 1866.
    1812 Jacob Albrecht Michael Jacobs, Belgian artist who died on 09 Dec or 10 Dec 1879.
    1806 Pierre Justin Ouvrié, French artist who died on 23 October 1879, and who may or may not have been born on 19 January 1806 rather than 19 May.
    1803 Martinus Christian Wesseltoft Rorbye, Danish artist who died on 29 August 1848.
    1800 Sarah Miriam Peale, US painter specialized in Still Life, who died on 04 February 1885. — more with links to images.
    1755 Adriaen de Lelie, Dutch artist who died on 30 November 1820.
    1611 Innocent XI 240th pope (1676-1689)
    1593 Claude Vignon, French painter and engraver who died on 10 May 1670. — MORE ON VIGNON AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1593 Jacob Jordaens, Antwerp painter, tapestry designer, and draftsman who died on 18 October 1678. — MORE ON JORDAENS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
     
    Holidays Finland : Flag Day of the Army / Turkey : Youth and Sports Day / Vietnam : Ho Chi Minh's Birthday (1890) / Russia: Day of the Pioneer

    Religious Observances Christian : St Ives / Ang, Luth : St Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury / RC : St Peter Celestine, pope.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance.”
    “Too clever is dumb.” —
    Ogden Nash [19 Aug 1902 – 19 May 1971].
    ”Reflections on Ice-Breaking — Candy / Is Dandy / But liquor / Is quicker.” —
    Ogden Nash {Did he consider: “Candy is handy, but liquor is sicker”?}
    “There could be no honor in a sure success, but much might be wrested from a sure defeat.” — T.E. Lawrence, English soldier and author [15 August 1888 – 19 May 1935].
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    updated Saturday 11-Oct-2008 18:41 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.40 Thursday 22-May-2008 17:45 UT
    v.7.40 Monday 14-May-2007 18:53 UT
    v.6.41 Sunday 21-May-2006 3:15 UT
    v.5.42 Friday 20-May-2005 5:27 UT
    Saturday 12-Jun-2004 17:44 UT

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