which occurred on a 19 May:
Vitor Negrete [13 Nov 1967–], Brazilian amateur alpinist,
climbing alone on 18 May 2006, becomes the first Brazilian to reach the
summit of Mount Everest without supplementary oxygen, but then, during his
descent, suffers from oxygen deprivation, is rescued by his Sherpa guide,
but dies at Camp 3. On 15 May 2006, one of his teammates, David Sharp, of
the UK, had died, also from lack of oxygen, on his way up in a solo attempt
at the summit. Negrete had reached the summit of Everest on 02 June 2005,
with supplementary oxygen. He had also climbed to the summit of Aconcagua
five times; he was the first Brazilian to reach that summit from its south
face. Negrete was also a prominent Adventure racer since 2001. Among many
other adventures, he had crossed the Amazon Rainforest and traveled from
São Paulo state to the southern part of South America - Tierra del Fuego
- Patagonia on a bicycle. As a UNICAMP researcher in Food Engineering, he
helped to introduce pre-industrialized food to poor communities in the Vale
do Ribeira, south of São Paulo.. —(070514)
Ewing, 22, stabbed by Ronald Dixon, 34, of Heaton, England, as
she was making a home visit at an apartment in Newcastle upon Tyne on behalf
of the charitable organization Mental
Health Matters. — (060520)
2005 Ali Hamid Alwan al-Dulaimy,
31, an engineer and senior Iraqi Oil Ministry official, shot by three men
at 08:00 (04:00 UT) outside his home in the Kazimiyah district of Baghdad,
as he walked to his car to go to Baghdad University, where he was studying.
2005 Policeman Omar Majeed Shakir al-Dosh and his father,
shot in Samarra, Iraq.
2005 Ahmed Shawan, 23, Palestinian,
in Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, from wounds sustained the previous day from
missiles fired from helicopters, which killed another Hamas member.
2005 Some 40 persons of the 100 or so aboard a boat which
sinks in the Meghna River estuary during a severe storm in the Bhola district
2004 Walid Abu Kamar, 11; Mubarak Al Hashash,
11; Mahmoud Mansour, 13; Ahmad Abu Said, 14; Rageb Barhoum, 18; Mohamed
Abu Sha'ar, 20; Ala'a Sheikh Id, 20; Fuad Al-Saka, 31; and 2 more Palestinians,
part of a peaceful anti-Israeli demonstration in the Rafah refugee camp,
Gaza Strip, which is fired upon at 13:45 (10:45 UT) by Israeli missiles
from helicopters and a barrage of shells from tank cannons, which the Israelis
call “warning shots”. 62 Palestinians are wounded.
Five Palestinians, including a boy of 13, in the Israeli attack
on the Tel Sultan district of Rafah, Gaza Strip, which started early the
previous day and which the Israelis say is crucial and will continue “for
as long as necessary”, despite the “regrettable” killing
2004 Amal Rikad and her daughters Kholood Rikad,
2, and Anoud Rikad, 1; Fatima Madhi and her sons Raad Madhi, 2, and Ra'ed
Madhi, 1; Mohammed Rikad, his wife Morifa Rikad, and their children Saad
Rikad, 10, Faisal Rikad, 7, Anoud Rikad, 6, Fasila Rikad, 5, Kholood Rikad,
4, and Inad Rikad, 3; and some 30 other Iraquis of the Bou Fahad
tribe, mostly children and women, who had attended a wedding party in Mogr
el-Deeb, a village in the desert some 25 km from the Syrian border, by a
US helicopter attack from 02:45 until sunrise, against what the US thought
was, and, against all evidence, keeps insisting was a safehouse for fighters
infiltrating from Syria from where there had been hostile gunfire (but there
was none, not even the firing into the air as a traditional way of celebrating).
The first bomb hit the huge goat-hair tent where the men were sleeping,
so the survivors among them fled to their homes. The attack continued against
an adjacent one-story house where women and children were, which explains
why most of the victims were women and children. This seems similar to the
01 July 2002 US killing of 48 villagers, and the wounding of 117, at a wedding
in the Dehrawud district of Uruzgan province, Afghanistan, where the stupid
celebratory firing into the air was really hostile firing at US forces which
justified the attack, the US immediately claimed, and repeated after a so-called
investigation. — Wikipedia
Ayyanna Goud, 45, suicide by swallowing pesticide, in Mehboobnagar,
Andhra Pradesh, India. A peasant farmer, he had dug four bore wells in as
many years, but all of them ran dry. He was in debt of over two lakh rupees.
“The pesticides used failed on the crops, the seeds turned out to
be spurious, and the interest on the loan was increasing. The seeds did
not germinate and there was no crop. All the money and labor that we put
in went waste,” explains Venkatesh Goud, Ayyanna's son. Some 3000
peasants in the drought-ridden Andhra Pradesh state had commited suicide
during the past 9 years when the TDP was in power. Electoral promises were
made and India's elections concluded on 10 May 2004 put in power the United
Progressive Alliance in the national government and the Congress Party in
the state. But the peasants despair of getting any relief and Goud's suicide
would be followed by hundreds more.
2003 Three Israelis:
Hassan Ben Ismail Tawatha, 41; Avi Zrihan, 36; and security guard
Kiril Shremko, 23; and Palestinian woman suicide bomber
Hiba Da'arma, 19 [photo >], (name first given
as Heba Dawarme) in the afternoon, at the entrance to the Emakim Mall in
Afula, Israel, after Shremko's metal detector beeping apparently deterred
the terrorist from entering the mall. Some 70 persons are wounded. [chronology
of all previous al-Aqsa intifada suicide bombings]
Shadi Nabaheen, 19, Palestinian suicide bomber riding a bicycle
near Kfar Darom, Gaza Strip. No one else is hurt, except three Israeli soldiers
lightly wounded, next to whose jeep Nabaheen detonated his explosives.
2003 Ziad Nasser, 13, Palestinian, shot by Israeli troops
fighting Palestinian gunmen in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2002 Walter Lord, 84, of Parkinson's disease, narrative
historian. Born on 08 October 1917, Lord wrote books about the Titanic's
sinking (A Night to Remember, 1955, and The Night Lives On,
1986), the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Day of Infamy, 1957),
the years 1900~1915 (The Good Years, 1960), the WW II evacuation
of Dunkirk (The Miracle of Dunkirk, 1982), the Battle of Midway
(Incredible Victory, 1967), the WW II coast watchers in the Solomons
(Lonely Vigil, 1977), the siege of the Alamo (A Time to Stand,
1961), the 1814 Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812 (The Dawn's
Early Light, 1972), James Meredith first Black student at the University
of Mississippi (The Past That Would Not Die, 1968), also Peary
and the Pole (1961), and edited in 1954 The Fremantle Diary
(of a British officer and Confederate sympathizer who toured the South for
three months in 1863.
2002 Three Israelis and a suicide bomber,
disguised in an Israeli army uniform, in a produce market in Netanya, Israel,
at about 16:20. 58 persons are injured.
2002 More than 600
persons throughout much of India, since early in the month, by
pre-monsoon desert winds, the hottest in years. On 10 May the temperature
reached 51ºC in the state of Andhra Pradesh, where most of the deaths
2002 Sergeant Gene Arden Vance, in an ambush
by al Qaeda suspects in Paktika province, Afghanistan. He is the 15th US
serviceman killed in Afghanistan since the US attacked al-Qaeda and the
Taliban in 2001. In this campaign, the US military has been very successful
in limiting its own deaths, while seeming indifferent to the deaths of thousands
of allied Afghan fighters and innocent civilians, not to mention the enemy.
2001 Fawaz Al Damej, 35, Palestinian policeman manning
a checkpoint near Jenin, shot from a passing car my Israeli Special forces.
This brings the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 469 Palestinians and 84 Israelis.
2001 Tayser Awad Al Arear, 30, Palestinian farmer shot
in the chest by Israeli soldiers while he was working his land in the Gaza
Strip near the Karni crossing with Israel.
2001 Hammam Saleem
Abdulhaq, 20, Palestinian from Deir Estaya, shot in the head by
an Israeli soldier, at the southern entrance of Nablus, where Abdulhaq was
participating with 700 others in a protest after the funerals for 11 Palestinians
killed in a F-16 air strike the previous day.
2001 Juan Gutierrez,
24, shot by police when he refused to stop scalping his 3-year-old daughter's
head with a steak knife, in Angleton, Texas. Separated from the mother,
he had come to visit for the child's birthday. The child is hospitalized
and would recover.
Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, born on 28 July
1929, wife first of US President John F. Kennedy [29
May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963], and then of super-wealthy Aristotle
Onassis [20 Jan 1906 – 15 Mar 1975].
Jacqueline was the elder of two daughters of Janet Lee and John “Black
Jack” Bouvier III, a stock speculator. As a child she developed the
interests she would still relish as an adult: horseback riding, writing,
and painting. In 1942, after her parents had divorced and her mother
married Hugh D. Auchincloss, Jr., a wealthy lawyer, Jacqueline divided
her time between the family's Merrywood estate in Virginia and Hammersmith
Farm in Newport, Rhode Island.
From age 15 she attended boarding school;
she enrolled at Vassar College in 1947. During her junior year abroad,
while studying at the Sorbonne, she polished her French and solidified
her affinity for French culture and style, which she sometimes associated
with her adored father. She graduated from George Washington University
in 1951 and took a job as a reporter-photographer at the Washington
In 1951 Jacqueline met John F. Kennedy,
a popular congressman from Massachusetts. On 12 September 1953, they
wed in St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church in Newport, Rhode Island.
The early years of their marriage included considerable disappointment
and sadness. John underwent spinal surgery, and she suffered a miscarriage
and delivered a stillborn daughter. Their luck appeared to change
with the birth of a healthy daughter, Caroline Bouvier Kennedy [27
Nov 1957~]. John Kennedy was elected president in 1960, just weeks
before Jacqueline gave birth to a son, John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr.
[25 Nov 1960 – 16 Jul 1999]
The youngest first lady in nearly 80
years, Jacqueline left a distinct mark on the job. During the 1960
election campaign she hired Letitia Baldrige, who was both politically
savvy and astute on matters of etiquette, to assist her as social
secretary. Through Baldrige, Jacqueline announced that she intended
to make the White House a showcase for the US's most talented and
accomplished individuals, and she invited musicians, actors, and intellectuals,
including Nobel Prize winners, to the executive mansion.
Her most enduring contribution was
her work to restore the White House to its original elegance and to
protect its holdings. She established the White House Historical Association,
which was charged with educating the public and raising funds, and
she wrote the foreword to the association's first edition of The
White House: An Historic Guide (1962). To catalog the mansion's
holdings, Jacqueline hired a curator from the Smithsonian Institution,
a job that eventually became permanent. Congress, acting with the
first lady's support, passed a law to encourage donations of valuable
art and furniture and made White House furnishings of “artistic or
historic importance” the “inalienable property” of the nation, so
that residents could not dispose of them at will. After extensive
refurbishing, Jacqueline led a nationally televised tour of the White
House in February 1962.
During her short time in the White
House, Jacqueline became one of the most popular first ladies. During
her travels with the president to Europe (1961) and Central and South
America (1962) she won wide praise for her beauty, fashion sense,
and facility with languages. Alluding to his wife's immense popularity
during their tour of France in 1961, President Kennedy jokingly reintroduced
himself to reporters as the “the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy
to Paris.” Parents named their daughters after Jacqueline, and women
copied her bouffant hair style, pillbox hat, and flat-heeled pumps.
In November 1963 Jacqueline agreed
to make one of her infrequent political appearances and accompanied
her husband to Texas. She had just returned from a vacation in Greece
following the death of her newborn son, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy [07
Aug 1963 – 09 Aug 1963]. As the president's motorcade moved
through Dallas, he was assassinated as she sat beside him; 99 minutes
later she stood beside Lyndon Johnson in her blood-stained suit as
he took the oath of office, an unprecedented appearance by a widowed
first lady. On her return to the capital, Jacqueline oversaw the planning
of her husband's funeral, using many of the details of the funeral
of Abraham Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865] a century earlier.
Her quiet dignity (and the sight of her two young children standing
beside her during the ceremony) brought an outpouring of admiration
from people in the US and all over the world.
Jacqueline moved to an apartment in
New York City, which remained her principal residence for the rest
of her life. In October 1968 she married the Greek shipping magnate
Aristotle Onassis, but she continued to spend considerable time in
New York, where her children attended school. Although the bulk of
his estate went to his daughter after his death in 1975, she inherited
a sum variously estimated at $20 million to $26 million.
Returning to her old interest, Jacqueline
worked as a consulting editor at Viking Press and later as an associate
and senior editor at Doubleday. She also maintained her interest in
the arts and in landmark preservation. Although her name was linked
romantically with different men, her constant companion during the
last 12 years of her life was Maurice Tempelsman, a Belgian-born diamond
Soon after she was diagnosed with non-Hodgkins
lymphoma in 1994, she died in her New York City apartment. She was
buried in Arlington National Cemetery beside John F. Kennedy and the
two children who had predeceased them. After her one surviving son,
John F. Kennedy, Jr., was killed in a plane accident, many books and
articles assessed the recurring role of tragedy in the Kennedy story.
But it had been a story of luck and glamour as well, and the name
she applied to her first husband's short administration, “Camelot,”
seemed to capture much of her essence as well.
1954 Max Oppenheimer “MOpp”, Austrian painter and printmaker
born on 01 July 1885. MORE
ON MOPP AT ART 4 MAY with
links to images.
Ogden Nash, humorous poet, TV panelist (Masquerade
Born on 19 August 1902,
Nash studied for a year at Harvard University (1920–1921), then held
a variety of jobs, advertising, teaching, editing, bond selling, before
the success of his poetry enabled him to work full-time at it. He
sold his first verse (1930) to The New Yorker, on whose editorial
staff he was employed for a time. With the publication of his first
collection, Hard Lines (1931), he began a 40-year career
during which he produced 20 volumes of verse with such titles as The
Bad Parents' Garden of Verse (1936), I'm a Stranger Here
Myself (1938), and Everyone but Thee and Me (1962).
Making his home in Baltimore, he also did considerable lecturing on
tours throughout the United States. He wrote the lyrics for the musicals
One Touch of Venus (1943) and Two's Company (1952),
as well as several children's books.
His rhymes are jarringly off or disconcertingly exact, and his ragged
stanzas vary from lines of one word to lines that meander the length
of a paragraph, often interrupted by inapposite digressions. He said
that he learned his prosody from the unintentional blunders of the
slipshod poet Julia
Ann Davis Moore [01 Dec 1847 – 05 Jun 1920], The
Sweet Singer of Michigan.
NASH ONLINE: Selected
Go hang yourself, you old M.D,!
You shall not sneer at me.
Pick up your hat and stethoscope,
Go wash your mouth with laundry soap;
I contemplate a joy exquisite
In not paying you for your visit.
I did not call you to be told
My malady is a common cold.
|By pounding brow and swollen lip;
By fever's hot and scaly grip;
By those two red redundant eyes
That weep like woeful April skies;
By racking snuffle, snort, and sniff;
By handkerchief after handkerchief;
This cold you wave away as naught
Is the damnedest cold man ever caught!
Give ear, you scientific fossil!
Here is the genuine Cold Colossal;
The Cold of which researchers dream,
The Perfect Cold, the Cold Supreme.
This honored system humbly holds
The Super-cold to end all colds;
The Cold Crusading for Democracy;
The Führer of the Streptococcracy
|Bacilli swarm within my portals
Such as were ne'er conceived by mortals,
But bred by scientists wise and hoary
In some Olympic laboratory;
Bacteria as large as mice,
With feet of fire and heads of ice
Who never interrupt for slumber
Their stamping elephantine rumba.
A common cold, gadzooks, forsooth!
Ah, yes. And Lincoln was jostled by Booth;
Don Juan was a budding gallant,
And Shakespeare's plays show signs of talent;
The Arctic winter is fairly coolish,
And your diagnosis is fairly foolish.
Oh what a derision history holds
For the man who belittled the Cold of Colds!
Larmor, Irish mathematical physicist born on 11 July 1857.
He worked on electricity, dynamics and thermodynamics.
Verena Bütler [28 May 1848–]
of Switzerland, founder of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Mary Help
of Christians. She was canonized
on 12 October 2008 by Pope Benedict
XVI [16 Apr 1927~] —(081011)
1935 Thomas Edward
Lawrence of Arabia.
T.E. Lawrence, also known as Lawrence of Arabia, dies in England from
injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash.
He was then a Royal Air Force mechanic living (since 1927) under the
assumed name T.E. Shaw. He had been a British archaeological scholar,
military strategist, and author. During World War I, Arab forces revolting
against the Turks adopted Lawrence, who had arrived as an archeologist,
as their strategic and inspirational leader. He was further immortalized
by his autobiography, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926),
and by an epic film.
known to the world as Lawrence of Arabia, dies as a retired Royal
Air Force mechanic living under an assumed name. The legendary war
hero, author, and archaeological scholar succumbed to injuries suffered
in a motorcycle accident six days before. Thomas Edward Lawrence was
born in Tremadoc, Wales, in 1888. In 1896, his family moved to Oxford.
Lawrence studied architecture and archaeology, for which he made a
trip to Ottoman (Turkish)-controlled Syria and Palestine in 1909.
In 1911, he won a fellowship to join an expedition excavating an ancient
Hittite settlement on the Euphrates River. He worked there for three
years and in his free time traveled and learned Arabic. In 1914, he
explored the Sinai, near the frontier of Ottoman-controlled Arabia
and British-controlled Egypt. The maps Lawrence and his associates
made had immediate strategic value upon the outbreak of war between
Britain and the Ottoman Empire in October 1914. Lawrence enlisted
in the war and because of his expertise in Arab affairs was assigned
to Cairo as an intelligence officer. He spent more than a year in
Egypt, processing intelligence information and in 1916 accompanied
a British diplomat to Arabia, where Hussein ibn Ali, the emir of Mecca,
had proclaimed a revolt against Turkish rule. Lawrence convinced his
superiors to aid Hussein's rebellion, and he was sent to join the
Arabian army of Hussein's son Faisal as a liaison officer. Under Lawrence's
guidance, the Arabians launched an effective guerrilla war against
the Turkish lines. He proved a gifted military strategist and was
greatly admired by the Bedouin people of Arabia. In July 1917, Arabian
forces captured Aqaba near the Sinai and joined the British march
Lawrence was promoted
to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In November, he was captured by
the Turks while reconnoitering behind enemy lines in Arab dress and
was tortured and sexually abused before escaping. He rejoined his
army, which slowly worked its way north to Damascus, which fell in
October 1918. Arabia was liberated, but Lawrence's hope that the peninsula
would be united as a single nation was dashed when Arabian factionalism
came to the fore after Damascus. Lawrence, exhausted and disillusioned,
left for England. Feeling that Britain had exacerbated the rivalries
between the Arabian groups, he appeared before King George V and politely
refused the medals offered to him. After the war, he lobbied hard
for independence for Arab countries and appeared at the Paris peace
conference in Arab robes.
became something of a legendary figure in his own lifetime, and in
1922 he gave up higher-paying appointments to enlist in the Royal
Air Force (RAF) under an assumed name, John Hume Ross. He had just
completed writing his monumental war memoir, The Seven Pillars of
Wisdom, and he hoped to escape his fame and acquire material for a
new book. Found out by the press, he was discharged, but in 1923 he
managed to enlist as a private in the Royal Tanks Corps under another
assumed name, T.E. Shaw, a reference to his friend, Irish writer George
Bernard Shaw. In 1925, Lawrence rejoined the RAF and two years later
legally changed his last name to Shaw.
In 1927, an abridged version of his memoir was published and generated
tremendous publicity, but the press was unable to locate Lawrence
(he was posted to a base in India). In 1929, he returned to England
and spent the next six years writing and working as an RAF mechanic.
In 1932, his English translation of Homer's Odyssey was published
under the name of T.E. Shaw. The Mint, a fictionalized account of
Royal Air Force recruit training, was not published until 1955 because
of its explicitness. In February 1935, Lawrence was discharged from
the RAF and returned to his simple cottage at Clouds Hill, Dorset.
On 13 May, he was critically injured while driving his motorcycle
through the Dorset countryside. He had swerved to avoid a boy on a
bicycle. On 19 May, he died at the hospital of his former RAF
camp. All of Britain mourned his passing.
Raphael Louis Rafiringa [03 Nov 1856–], Brother of Christian
Schools from Madagascar. On 19 May 2008 a Vatican decree recognized his
heroic virtues. —(080522)
1918 Ferdinand Hodler,
Nouveau painter, born on 14 March 1853. MORE
ON HODLER AT ART 4 MAY with
links to images.
1914 Cesare Augusto Detti, Italian
artist born on 28 December 1847.
1897 John Thomas Peele, British artist born on 11 April
Ewart Gladstone, British statesman, four-time prime
minister of Great Britain (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886, 1892–1894),
born on 29 December 1809.
Gladstone was of purely Scottish descent. His father, John, made himself
a merchant prince and was a member of Parliament (1818–1827).
Gladstone was sent to Eton, where he did not particularly distinguish
himself. At Christ Church, Oxford, in 1831 he secured first classes
in classics and mathematics.
He originally intended to take
orders in the Church of England, but his father dissuaded him. He
mistrusted parliamentary reform; his speech against it in May 1831
at the Oxford Union, of which he had been president, made a strong
impression. One of his Christ Church friends, the son of the Duke
of Newcastle, persuaded the Duke to support Gladstone as candidate
for Parliament for Newark in the general election of December 1832;
and the “Grand Old Man” of Liberalism thus began his parliamentary
career as a Tory member. His maiden speech on 03 June 1833, made a
decided mark. He held minor office in Sir Robert Peel's short government
of 1834–1835, first at the treasury, then as undersecretary
for the colonies.
In July 1839
he married Catherine, the daughter of Sir Stephen Glynne of Hawarden,
near Chester. A woman of lively wit, complete discretion, and exceptional
charm, she was utterly devoted to her husband, to whom she bore eight
children. This marriage gave him a secure base of personal happiness
for the rest of his life. It also established him in the aristocratic
governing class of the time.
early parliamentary performances were strongly Tory; but time after
time contact with the effects of Tory policy forced him to take a
more liberal view. His conversion from conservatism to liberalism
took place in prolonged stages, over a generation. Peel made Gladstone
vice president of the Board of Trade, and Gladstone's application
astonished even hardworking colleagues.
He embarked on a major simplification of the tariff and became a more
thoroughgoing free trader than Peel. In 1843 he entered the Cabinet
as president of the Board of Trade. His Railway Act of 1844 set up
minimum requirements for railroad companies and provided for eventual
state purchase of railway lines. Gladstone also much improved working
conditions for London dock workers. Early in 1845, when the Cabinet
proposed to increase a state grant to the Irish Roman Catholic college
at Maynooth, Gladstone resigned—not because he did not approve
of the increase but because it went against views he had published
seven years before. Later in 1845 he rejoined the Cabinet as secretary
of state for the colonies, until the government fell in 1846. While
at the Colonial Office, he was led nearer to Liberalism by being forced
to consider the claims of English-speaking colonists to govern themselves.
The Glynne family estates were deeply
involved in the financial panic of 1847. For several years Gladstone
was concerned with extricating them. He began charitable work, which
was open to a great deal of misinterpretation; he often tried to persuade
prostitutes to enter a “rescue” home that he and his wife
maintained or in some other way to take up a different way of life.
Several of Gladstone's closest Oxford
friends were among the many Anglicans who converted to Roman Catholicism
under the impact of the Oxford Movement. Gladstone had moved to a
High Anglican position in Italy just after leaving Oxford. The suspicion
that he was Catholic was used against him by his adversaries, of whom
he had many in the University of Oxford, for which he was elected
MP in August 1847. He scandalized many of his new constituents at
once by voting for the admission of Jews to Parliament.
Gladstone made his first weighty speech on foreign affairs in June
1850, opposing foreign secretary Lord Palmerston in the celebrated
Don Pacifico debate over the rights of British nationals abroad. That
autumn he visited Naples, where he was appalled by the conditions
that he found in the prisons. In July 1851 he published two letters
to Lord Aberdeen describing the conditions, and appealing to all conservatives
to set an iniquity right. The Neapolitan prisoners were treated even
worse than before, and most conservatives, all over Europe, were deaf
to his appeal. But Palmerston circulated the letters to all the British
missions on the Continent, and they delighted every liberal who heard
For nine years after Peel's
death in 1850, Gladstone's political position was seldom comfortable.
As one of the most eminent of the dwindling band of Peelites, he was
mistrusted by the leaders of both parties and distrusted some of them,
particularly Palmerston and Disraeli, in his turn. He refused to join
Lord Derby's government in 1852. At the end of that year, a brilliant
attack on Disraeli's budget brought the government down and Gladstone
rose in public estimation. He then joined Aberdeen's coalition as
chancellor of the Exchequer. In his first budget speech he put forth
a bold and comprehensive plan for large reductions in duties, proposed
the eventual elimination of the income tax, and carried a scheme for
the extension of the legacy duty to real property.
His budget provided the backbone of the coalition's success in 1853,
a year in which he spent much time devising a scheme for a competitive
civil service system. He defended the Crimean War as necessary for
the defense of the public law of Europe; but its outbreak disrupted
his financial plans. Determined to pay for it as far as possible by
taxation, he doubled the income tax in 1854. When Aberdeen fell in
January 1855, Gladstone agreed to join Palmerston's Cabinet; but he
resigned three weeks later, with two other Peelites, rather than embarrass
his party by accepting a committee of inquiry into the conduct of
the Crimean War. He was, as a result, unpopular in the country; and
he made himself more unpopular still by speeches in Parliament in
the summer of 1855, in which he held that the war was no longer justified.
Gladstone helped to defeat Palmerston
in the Commons by a speech on China in March 1857. He twice refused
to join Derby's government in 1858, in spite of a generous letter
from Disraeli. In June 1859 Gladstone cast a vote for Derby's Conservative
government on a confidence motion and caused surprise by joining Palmerston's
Whig Cabinet as chancellor of the Exchequer a week later. His sole,
but overwhelming, reason for joining a statesman he neither liked
nor trusted was the critical state of the Italian question. The triumvirate
of Palmerston, Russell, and Gladstone did indeed help, over the next
18 months, to secure the unification of almost all Italy.
Gladstone was constantly at issue with his prime minister over defense
spending. By prolonged efforts, he managed to get the service estimates
down by 1866 to a lower figure than that for 1859. A further abolition
of import duties was achieved by his budget of 1860. His support of
an Anglo-French trade treaty doubled the value of trade. He proposed
the abolition of the duties on paper, which the House of Lords declined
to do. In 1861 Gladstone included the abolition with all the other
budget arrangements in a single finance bill that the Lords dared
not amend, a procedure that has been followed ever since. Another
useful step was the creation of the post office savings bank. These
measures brought him increased popularity with the leaders of working
class opinion, as did journeys around the main centers of industry.
In the general election of July 1865,
Gladstone was defeated at Oxford but secured a seat in South Lancashire.
When Palmerston died in October and Russell became prime minister,
Gladstone took over the leadership of the House of Commons, while
remaining at the Exchequer.
of the need for a further reform of Parliament, he introduced a bill
for the moderate extension of the franchise in March 1866, but it
foundered in June, and the whole government resigned. Next year Disraeli
introduced a stronger Reform Bill that gave a vote to most householders
in boroughs. Disraeli became prime minister early in 1868. Russell
had resigned from active politics, and Gladstone was the Liberal mentor
during the general election at the end of the year. Though Gladstone
lost his Lancashire seat, he was returned for Greenwich; and the Liberal
Party won handsomely in the country as a whole. His abilities had
made him its indispensable leader, and when Disraeli resigned Queen
Victoria called on him to form a government.
first Cabinet (1868–1874) was perhaps the most capable of the
century. Its prime minister tried to supervise the work of each department,
devoting his main efforts to Irish and foreign policy. The Irish Protestant
church was successfully disestablished in 1869, and a first attempt
to grapple with oppressive landlordism in Ireland was made unsuccessfully
in 1870; abroad, an attempt to promote disarmament in 1868 failed
when Bismarck refused to consider it. The Franco-German War took the
government completely by surprise, and the Cabinet would not allow
Gladstone to propose to Prussia the neutralization of Alsace and Lorraine.
The principal achievements of 1871 and 1872, a London declaration
by the great powers that they would not in future abrogate treaties
without the consent of all the signatories, and the settlement by
arbitration of the “Alabama” claim of the United States,
look well in retrospect but were thought pusillanimous at the time.
The most useful reforms at home were administrative, except for the
Education Act of 1870 and the Ballot Act of 1872. When an Irish University
Bill failed to pass the Commons in March 1873, Gladstone resigned
but was forced back into office by Disraeli's refusal to form a government.
In August he reshuffled his Cabinet and again took on the chancellorship
of the Exchequer himself. He dissolved Parliament in January 1874,
but his party was heavily defeated and his government resigned. Gladstone
gave up the party leadership (though he remained MP for Greenwich)
and retired to Hawarden to write pamphlets attacking papal infallibility
and articles on Homer.
of Disraeli's government to the brutality of Turkish reprisals against
risings in the Balkans, in 1875–1876, brought Gladstone back
to active politics. He published a pamphlet, “Bulgarian Horrors
and the Question of the East,” which demanded that the Turkish
irregulars should remove themselves from the peninsula. London society
and the London mob, the Queen, and the Whiggish elements in his own
party all opposed him. Only some radicals really supported him; yet
he triumphed. He gave up his Greenwich seat and stood for the Scottish
county of Midlothian. In two tremendous outbursts of oratory, in November
1879 and March 1880, Gladstone secured his own return to Parliament,
overthrew a government, and secured a large Liberal majority. The
Conservative government had to resign.
foolishly combined again for two and a half years the duties of prime
minister and chancellor of the Exchequer. His large apparent majority
in the Commons was unruly. Not until 1884 could he introduce a third
Reform Act that nearly doubled the electorate by giving votes to householders
in country districts. On the Eastern question, he and Granville, the
foreign secretary, managed by a brusque naval threat to compel Turkey
to cede Thessaly to Greece. Still graver troubles arose in Ireland.
The Irish Land Act of 1881, largely Gladstone's own work, in the long
run promoted the prosperity of the Irish peasant; but violent crime
continued. No alternatives to strong police powers were left, and
measures to restrict the freedom of Irish members to obstruct the
work of the Commons had to be taken.
1882 the Cabinet was compelled to authorize the occupation of Egypt.
Gladstone's settlement of the Egyptian debt question (1885) was honorable
to his belief in the concert of Europe but had the unintended effect
of tying British foreign policy to that of the Germans. When he allowed
Gen. C.G. Gordon to go to Khartoum in Sudan and then failed to rescue
him, his death cost Gladstone much popularity. Firm handling of a
dispute with Russia over the border of Afghanistan somewhat restored
his prestige; but when the government was defeated on the budget in
June 1885, he was glad to resign. He refused an offer of an earldom
from the Queen.
the full force of Irish nationalism. He had for years favored Irish
Home Rule in the form of a subordinate parliament in Dublin. In 1885
a combination of Irish with Conservative votes had defeated him in
June, and he waited silently to see what an Irish–Conservative
combination would produce. The general election of November–December1885
returned a Parliament in which the Liberal members exactly equaled
the total of Conservatives plus Irish. At this moment, Gladstone's
conversion to Home Rule was revealed, and most Conservatives therefore
turned against it. Lord Salisbury's government was defeated, and Gladstone
formed his third Cabinet in February 1886. His Home Rule Bill was
rejected in Parliament in June by a large secession of Whigs, and
in the country at a general election in July, and Gladstone resigned
He had kept his Midlothian
seat, unopposed, and carried with him into the new Parliament a personal
following 190 strong, supported by the National Liberal Federation,
the most powerful political machine in the country. He devoted the
next six years to an effort to convince the British electorate that
to grant Home Rule to the Irish nation would be an act of justice
and wisdom. He spoke at many meetings and cooperated with the Irish
leader Charles Stewart Parnell. But in 1890 he had a dangerous quarrel
with Parnell about the political consequences of the O'Shea divorce.
(Gladstone had not believed the rumors about Parnell's liaison, holding
that Parnell would never “imperil the future of Ireland for
an adulterous intrigue.”) He never sought to correct the stories
Parnell spread about him in Ireland. He sanctioned an extensive program
of Liberal reforms drawn up at Newcastle in 1891, because it was headed
by Home Rule, and on this platform the Liberals won a majority of
40 in the general election of 1892.
Gladstone formed his fourth Cabinet in August 1892. Its members were
held together only by awe of him. He piloted another Home Rule Bill
through 85 sittings of the Commons in 1893; the Lords rejected it
by the largest majority ever recorded there to that time, 419–41.
The Cabinet rejected Gladstone's proposal to dissolve.
He disagreed with his colleagues on a large increase in naval expenditure
and finally resigned, ostensibly because sight and hearing were failing,
on 03 March 1894. He was much mortified by the coolness of his last
official interview with the Queen, who by now so frankly detested
him that she could hardly conceal her feelings. He retired to Hawarden
and busied himself with an edition of the works of Bishop Joseph Butler
(3 vol., 1896). Humanitarian to the end, in his last great speech,
at Liverpool in September 1896, he denounced Turkish atrocities in
Armenia. After a painful illness, he died of cancer of the palate
1893 Franz Rheinhold, Austrian artist born
on 19 December 1816.
1864 Nathaniel Hawthorne,
US novelist and short story writer.
was born in Salem, Massachusetts on 04 July 1804. Although the infamous
Salem witch trials had taken place more than 100 years earlier, the
events still hung over the town and made a lasting impression on the
young Hawthorne. Witchcraft figured in several of his works, including
Young Goodman Brown (1835) and The House of the Seven
Gables (1851), in which a house is cursed by a wizard condemned
by the witch trials.
Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, Hawthorne returned to Salem,
where he began his career as a writer. He self-published his first
book, Fanshawe (1828), but tried to destroy all copies shortly
after publication. He later wrote several books of short stories,
including Twice Told Tales (1837). In 1841, he tried his
hand at communal living at the agricultural cooperative Brook Farm
but came away highly disillusioned by the experience, which he fictionalized
in his novel The Blithedale Romance (1852).
Hawthorne married Sophia Peabody in 1842, having at last earned enough
money from his writing to start a family. The two lived in a house
called the Old Manse, in Concord, Massachusetts, and socialized with
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Branson Alcott, father
of writer Louisa May Alcott. Plagued by financial difficulties as
his family grew, he took a job in 1845 at Salem's custom house, where
he worked for three years. After leaving the job, he spent several
months writing The Scarlet Letter, a story of adultery and
betrayal in the American colonies of Great Britain, published.on 16
March 1850. It made him famous. In 1853, Hawthorne's old college friend,
President Franklin Pierce, appointed him US consul to England, and
the family moved to England, where they lived for three years. Hawthorne
died in Plymouth, New Hampshire.
The Celestial Railroad
House of the Seven Gables
of the Province House
The Life of Franklin Pierce
from an Old Manse
Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys
Whole History of Grandfather's Chair
Old Home: A Series of English Sketches
from the American Note-Books
Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told Tales
The Snow-Image: A Childish Miracle
The Great Stone Face and Other Tales from the White Mountains
1863 Many Yanks and Rebs as Vicksburg siege begins.
Ulysses S. Grant attempts to take the Confederate stronghold at
Mississippi. After making a daring run past Confederate batteries,
Union naval forces join troops several kilometers down river. Working
together, they detain Confederate General Joseph
E. Johnston in Jackson, preventing him from assisting General
John C. Pemberton
assault fails to overwhelm the city, he settles
down to a six-week siege. Nineteen kilometers of Northern entrenchments
paralleled Confederate earthworks. At some points, soldiers held their
separate lines within shouting distance. By mid-June, nearly 80'000
Union troops were massed at the city on the Mississippi River bluffs.
With Union gunboats
on the river and enemy trenches surrounding the city, the citizens
and soldiers of Vicksburg were sealed off from supplies. In addition
to dwindling food stores, they weathered nearly constant bombardment
by land and naval forces. To escape the shells, Vicksburg residents
abandoned their homes for caves carved into the city's hills. Weeks
passed and starving denizens of "Prairie Dog Village," as Union
soldiers dubbed the maze of dugouts, still hoped for salvation at
the hands of General Johnston. Pemberton and his 30'000 men surrendered
on 04 July 1863.
Click on the image to see the painting FIRST AT VICKSBURG, a view
of the Confederate lines, at Vicksburg, Mississippi, on 19 May 1863,
bitterly resisting the assault of the Union 1st Battalion, 13th Infantry,
which loses 43% of its men, but, of the attacking force, is alone
to fight its color up the steep slope to the top. General Sherman
would call its performance “unequalled in the Army” and
authorize the 13th Infantry to inscribe First at Vicksburg
on its color. Nevertheless it took two more months of hard fighting
to capture Vicksburg and split the Confederacy.
1845 William John Huggins, British painter born in 1781,
specialized in Maritime
ON HUGGINS AT ART 4 MAY with
links to images.
free-state men, shot in Le Marais des
Cygnes massacre. ^top^
Kansas from 1854 to 1861 was the scene
of a bitter struggle to determine whether the territory should enter
the Union as a free or a slave state. The principle of popular sovereignty
embodied in the Kansas-Nebraska
Act of 1854, which created the territory, provided that this decision
should be made by a vote of the people. Consequently, free-state and
proslavery adherents became rivals for majority control, and strife
and bad feelings resulted.
Numerous instances of lawlessness occurred. Men were attacked, beaten,
and occasionally killed, often for no reason except their views on
slavery. In Linn and Bourbon Counties, on the eastern Kansas border,
raids were frequently carried on by opposing factions.
This situation continued through 1857 and 1858. On one occasion a
leader of the free-state group rode into Trading Post, which had become
a rendezvous for a proslavery gang, and so the story goes
cleaned out the headquarters by dumping several barrels of corn whiskey
into the road. Then he notified the proslavery people to leave the
territory. No one was hurt and no property was destroyed, except the
A leader of the proslavery
faction was Charles Hamilton, a native of Georgia who had come to
the border area in 1855 to help make Kansas Territory a slave state.
After Hamilton and his friends were forced to leave, he is reported
to have sent back word to other proslavery sympathizers "to come
out of the territory at once, as we are coming up there to kill snakes,
and will treat all we find there as snakes." Shortly thereafter
he kept his word.
On 19 May1858,
some thirty men under Hamilton's leadership crossed into Kansas. They
arrived at Trading Post in the morning and then set out on the road
back toward Missouri, capturing eleven free-state men along the way.
None of these men was armed, and it was said that none had taken part
in the fighting. Most were former neighbors of Hamilton and had no
thought that he meant to do them serious harm. However, they were
hurried along and into a defile surrounded by the mounds that characterize
the area. There they were herded into line, and Hamilton's men formed
another line on the side of the ravine.
To his men in line, Hamilton gave the order to fire, sending off the
first shot himself. The victims fell. Then Hamilton dismounted his
firing squad to finish the job with pistols.
Five free-state men were killed; Hamilton and his gang departed swiftly
for Missouri. Only one of them paid the official penalty for the crime;
William Griffith of Bates County, Missouri, was arrested in the spring
of 1863 and hanged on 30 October. Hamilton returned to Georgia,
where he died in 1880.
excitement followed the massacre. The nation was horrified. Locally,
wrathful indignation accompanied feelings of shock. John Brown, arriving
at the scene toward the end of June, built a "fort" some
200 meters south of the ravine. It was reported to have been two stories
high, walled up with logs and with a flat roof. Water from a spring
ran through the house and into a pit at the southwest corner.
The land on which the fort was built
belonged to Eli Snider, a blacksmith. Later he sold it to Brown's
friend Charles C. Hadsall, who agreed to let Brown occupy it for military
purposes. Brown and his men withdrew at the end of the summer, leaving
the fort to Hadsall.
Maseres, English lawyer, government official, retrograde mathematician
born on 15 December 1731.
1814 Michel-Pierre-Hubert Descours
II, French artist born on 27 February 1741.
on 29 October 1740, biographer of Samuel Johnson [08 Sep 1709 – 13 Dec
1722 Jan-Karel-Donatus van Beecq, Dutch artist born in
à mort par la Révolution:
BELLEROSE Jean François,
cordonnier, domicilié à Paris, comme distributeur de faux assignats,
par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine.
Jacques, maître d'école, domicilié à Cherbourg (Manche),
par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme fabricateur de faux
Domiciliés dans le
département du Puy-de-Dôme, comme contre-révolutionnaires, par le
tribunal criminel dudit département:
Augustin, domestique, domicilié à Le Bourgnon DUBUISSON,
cuisinier, domicilié à Le Bourgnon
métayer, domicilié à Thiers PRADIER Guillaume, fils,
domicilié à Auzelle
domiciliés à Vollore, canton de Thiers:
Jean, métayer CHOUVEL François, laboureur
CHOUVEL Hugues DECOUZERE Jean Baptiste,
laboureur LAVEST Anet (dit Bigare), laboureur
POYEL Pierre (dit Chopine), domestique
à Augerolles, canton de Thiers:
Jean, (dit Bulhon) domestique CHAPUT Gilbert,
père, aubergiste DELAIRE Geneviève, veuve Chassonniére
MAURON (dit Laviollette)
1668 Philips Wouwerman (or Wouwermans) ], Haarlem,
Netherlands, painter and draftsman, baptized as an infant on 24 May 1619.
1647 Sebastiaen Vrancx, Flemish artist born in the period
1573-1578. — links
of York, in Tours, France, English abbot, scholar, mathematician,
born in 735. He wrote elementary texts on arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
Anne Boleyn, beheaded.
Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's
King Henry VIII, is beheaded after being convicted of adultery. [portrait >]
Henry VIII was not satisfied with two
wives: his six wives were, successively,
1. Catherine of Aragon (married at age 23 in 1509, gave birth on 18
February 1816 to the future queen Mary I, Henry left her in July 1531,
and got the Anglican Church started for it to annul his marriage,
which it did on 23 May 1533. She died on 07 January 1536 of natural
2. Anne Boleyn (married at age 26 on 25 January 1533, gave birth on
7 September 1533 to the future queen Elizabeth I, was beheaded on
19 May 1536 for adultery, almost certainly falsely alleged, while
Henry was guilty of same).
3. Jane Seymour (married at age 27 on 30 May 1536, gave birth on 12
October 1537 to Henry's successor, Edward VI, and died of natural
causes on 24 October 1537)),
4. Anne of Cleves, (married at age 24 on 06 January 1940, marriage
annulled by Anglican Church on 9 July 1540, she died on 16 July 1557
of natural causes)
5. Catherine Howard, (married on 09 July 1540, beheaded on 13 February
1542 for treason, namely her premarital affairs)
6. Catherine Parr. (married at age 31 on 12 July 1543, Henry died
28 January 1547, she remarried and died on 07 September 1548, shortly
after giving birth)
-- Henry VIII would have been beheaded if Parliament
had been even-handed and declared it treason for an unchaste king
to be married. Among his
numerous affairs were those with Joan Dobson (giving birth
to Etheireda Tudor) , Mary Berkeley (producing in 1525 Thomas Stukely
and in 1527 Sir John Perrot 1527), Elizabeth Blount (giving birth
in 1519 to Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond), and with Elizabeth Stafford.
others lost their heads to Henry VIII's multiple marriages, and to
the creation of the Church of England to attempt to legitimize them.
One of the most prominent victims was English
Catholic theologian Thomas More, beheaded on 06 July 1535 for refusing
to recognize Henry VIII as supreme head of the Church of England,
which had broken with the Roman Catholic Church so that Henry VIII
could get wife number 2 (which he ordered beheaded less than a year
after Thomas More, so as to make room for wife number 3).
Le 6 juillet 1535, Thomas More, Chancelier
de l’Angleterre, a été décapité à
l'âge de 57 ans pour son opposition au roi Henri VIII, désireux
de contrer l’autorité pontificale afin de casser le mariage avec Catherine
d’Aragon et de valider l’union avec Anne Boleyn.
on image for Portrait of Henry VIII by Holbein Jr.]