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Events, deaths, births, of 14 MAY
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• State of Israel proclaimed... • Henri IV assassiné... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Battle of Resaca... • Warsaw Pact... • A bridge too late... . • Tennyson's Poems... • WordStar merger... • Sega suit settled... • PointCast IPO... • Nixon responds to Communist Vietnamese... • South Vietnamese 2nd highest casualties of war... • Taming the trusts... • US and UK plan bombing Germany...
Goats-R-Us^  On a 14 May:
2162:: 6m37s annular eclipse of the sun peaking at 07:47 UT best visible at 42º20'S 72º40'E in the south Indian Ocean near Amsterdam Island..
2124:: 3m34s total eclipse of the sun peaking at 01:55 UT best visible on Sakhalin Island at 50º20'N 143º10'E.

2003 As a fire prevention measure, to clear the grass from a swamgy area a couple of kilometers from its runways (difficult of access for machinery and workers), San Francisco Airport has Goats-R-Us start on a two-week contract. Border collies and a shepherd accompany the goats. The business is owned by Egon Oyarzun and his wife, Terri Holleman, who are helped by their young son [photo >], and employ shepherds, recruited from South America, and support personnel.

2003 In Argentina, faced with the certainty of losing the 18 May run-off presidential election, former (1989-1999) President Carlos Menem, 72, withdraws (he is below 30% in the opinion polls). Thus Nestor Kirchner, who got 22% of the vote in the first round, will become the new president.

2001 Parliamentary and local elections in the Philippines. President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was sworn in on 20 January 2001 as successor to Joseph Estrada (now in prison awaiting a corruption trial) needs a strong showing in the elections for 13 of the Senate's 24 seats, the entire House of Representatives and 17'600 municipal and provincial posts, as she faces unrest from the supporters of Estrada, seen as favoring the poor.
2001 US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush says: “For every fatal shooting, there are roughly three nonfatal shootings. Folks, this is unacceptable in America, We're going to do something about it.” He doesn't say what (deny federal assistance to schools unless they make ability to kill with one bullet a requirement for graduation?).
^ 2001 Israeli writes that Israel causes hate of Israel.
     On the 53rd anniversary of the state of Israel, on the Op-Ed page of Ha'Aretz, Danny Rubinstein writes in part:
      Each week sees Israeli attacks designed to eliminate leading Palestinian activists, and each week Israel shells or fires missiles at homes, offices and the military headquarters of various Palestinian groups and PA agencies. In addition, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) now regularly enters territories under PA jurisdiction to destroy homes and military positions and to uproot trees.
      According to Palestinian figures, Israel had destroyed by last weekend some 800 homes occupied by some 1300 people. Nearly 3000 structures have been seriously damaged in bombing attacks. Nearly 11'000 dunams (more than 1000 hectares) of farmland, primarily plantations, have been demolished. In addition, 480 Palestinians — most of them unarmed civilians — have been killed and 15'000 wounded. Of those wounded, 1500 will be permanently disabled. That figure includes 400 people who have been blinded. Palestinian figures on Israeli casualties are 80 killed and 868 wounded.
      The chief result of the Israeli campaign of attrition, so far, has been the precise opposite of what Israel sought: The campaign has produced greater hatred and has generated demands for revenge among the Palestinians.
      Both sides stop focusing their attention on arriving at an equitable settlement or achieving at least some material gain, and instead become obsessed with inflicting damage and pain on the other side
2000 Ethiopia hold the first true multi-party elections in its 3000-year history
2000 Tens of thousands of mothers rallied in Washington to demand strict control of handguns.
1998 PointCast files for IPO
      PointCast files with the SEC for an initial public offering. Although the company's "push" technology, which brought information to the user's screen without the need for active Web browsing, gained tremendous media attention in 1997, the buzz had cooled by the time of the IPO filing. The reality of push didn't live up to the hype-it worked better over corporate networks than over dial-up connections used by most consumers, and even on corporate networks, it clogged bandwidth. A backlash against "push" drove several smaller players out of the game, but PointCast held on as a leader in the field.
1997 Biologists from The Peregrine Fund release four California Condors on top of the 300-meter Vermilion Cliffs, north of the Grand Canyon, in Arizona.
1996 A jury in Pontiac, Mich., acquitted Dr. Jack Kevorkian of assisted-suicide charges, his third legal victory in two years.
^ 1993 WordStar announces merger
      Softkey Software and WordStar International announced a merger on this day in 1993: The companies hoped that joining forces would help them hold their ground against larger software companies. The WordStar word processor, released in 1979, was one of the first word processors available for the personal computer, and the product became an immediate hit, selling nearly a million copies within five years. Unfortunately, WordStar was slow to convert to the PC-DOS operating system, introduced by IBM in 1981. As a result, the product lost its dominant position in the word processor market. In 1994, WordStar and Softkey merged with Spinnaker Software.
1992 Sega suit settled
      Sega Enterprises says it agreed to pay $43 million to settle a patent suit brought by inventor Jan Coyle. Coyle had invented a way to use audio signals to display background color in video games, and he sued the company for allegedly infringing on his patent. Coyle had also settled suits with two other video game makers, Atari and Nintendo.
1991 President Bush announced his selection of Robert M. Gates to head the Central Intelligence Agency.
1990 Dow Jones avg hits a record 2821.53
1980 President Carter inaugurated the Department of Health and Human Services.
1974 The Rev. F. Donald Coggan, 64, is named the 10first Archbishop of Canterbury by Queen Elizabeth II, succeeding former Archbishop Michael Ramsey.
^ 1973 Skylab is launched
      America’s first space station is successfully launched into an orbit around the earth. Eleven days later, US astronauts Charles Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Paul Weitz rendezvoused with Skylab, repairing a jammed solar panel and conducting scientific experiments during their twenty-eight-day stay on the space station. The first manned Skylab mission came two years after the Soviet Union launched Salynut 1, the world’s first space station, into orbit around the earth. However, unlike the ill-fated Salynut, which was plagued with problems, the American space station was a great success, safely housing three separate three-man crews for extended periods of time and exceeding pre-mission plans for scientific study. Originally the spent third stage of a Saturn 5 Moon rocket, the cylinder space station was 36 meters high, weighed seventy-seven tons, and carried the most varied assortment of experimental equipment ever assembled in a single spacecraft to that date.
      The crews of Skylab spent more than seven hundred hours observing the sun and brought home more than 175'000 solar pictures. They also provided important information about the biological effects of living in space for prolonged periods of time. Five years after the last Skylab mission, the space station’s orbit began to deteriorate faster than expected, owing to unexpectedly high sunspot activity, and on July 11, 1979, the parts of the space station that did not burn up in the atmosphere came crashing down on Australia and into the Indian Ocean. No one was injured.
1973 Gold hits record $102.50 an ounce in London
1970 Harry A Blackmun appointed to the Supreme Court
1970 South Vietnamese sustain second highest casualties of war.
      Allied military officials announce that 863 South Vietnamese were killed from 03 May to 09 May. This was the second highest weekly death toll of the war to date for the South Vietnamese forces. These numbers reflected the changing nature of the war as US forces continued to withdraw and the burden of the fighting was shifted to the South Vietnamese as part of Nixon's "Vietnamization" of the war effort.
^ 1969 President Nixon responds to National Liberation Front proposal.
      In his first full-length report to the American people concerning the Vietnam War, President Nixon responds to the 10-point plan offered by the National Liberation Front at the 16th plenary session of the Paris talks on May 8. The NLF's 10-point program for an "overall solution" to the war included an unconditional withdrawal of United States and Allied troops from Vietnam; the establishment of a coalition government and the holding of free elections; the demand that the South Vietnamese settle their own affairs "without foreign interference"; and the eventual reunification of North and South Vietnam.
      In his speech, Nixon responded to the Communist plan by proposing a phased, mutual withdrawal of major portions of US Allied and North Vietnamese forces from South Vietnam over a 12-month period. The remaining non-South Vietnamese forces would withdraw to enclaves and abide by a cease-fire until withdrawals were completed. Nixon also insisted that North Vietnamese forces withdraw from Cambodia and Laos at the same time and offered internationally supervised elections for South Vietnam. Nixon's offer of a "simultaneous start on withdrawal" represented a revision of the last formal proposal offered by the Johnson administration in October 1966 — known as the "Manila formula" — in which the United States stated that the withdrawal of US forces would be completed within six months after the North Vietnamese left South Vietnam. The communists' proposal and Nixon's counteroffer were diametrically in opposition to each other and neither side gave in, so nothing meaningful came from this particular round of diplomatic exchanges.
1968 Los estudiantes franceses ocupan la Sorbona y la declaran comuna libre; los de Nanterre la declaran facultad libre.
1961 Bus with first group of Freedom Riders bombed and burned in Alabama
1955 The Warsaw Pact is signed by the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania. — Se crea el Pacto de Varsovia, tratado de amistad, cooperación y asistencia mutua entre la Unión Soviética, Albania, Alemania Oriental, Bulgaria, Checoslovaquia, Hungría, Polonia y Rumanía.
1954 At The Hague UNESCO adopts the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. It would entered in force on 07 August 1956.
1950 Victoria de la oposición demócrata en las elecciones de Turquía.
1949 Truman signs bill establishing a rocket test range at Cape Canaveral
1948 After nineteen centuries of enforced exile, the Jewish people regain their homeland when the State of Israel is formally proclaimed in Tel Aviv, with David Ben-Gurion as prime minister. On this same date, the US becomes the first nation to recognize the newly-refounded state of Israel.
^ 1948 The state of Israel is proclaimed.
      In Tel Aviv, Jewish Agency Chairman David Ben-Gurion proclaims the State of Israel, establishing the first Jewish state in 2000 years. In an afternoon ceremony at the Tel Aviv Art Museum, Ben-Gurion says "We hereby proclaim the establishment of the Jewish state in Palestine, to be called Israel," prompting applause and tears from the crowd gathered at the museum. Ben-Gurion became Israel's first premier. In the distance, the rumble of guns could be heard from fighting that broke out between Jews and Arabs immediately following the British army withdrawal earlier that day. Egypt launched an air assault against Israel that evening. Despite a blackout in Tel Aviv — and the expected Arab invasion — Jews joyously celebrated the birth of their new nation, especially after word was received that the United States had recognized the Jewish state. At midnight, the State of Israel officially came into being upon termination of the British mandate in Palestine.
      Modern Israel has its origins in the Zionism movement, established in the late 19th century by Jews in the Russian Empire who called for the establishment of a territorial Jewish state after enduring persecution. In 1896, Jewish-Austrian journalist Theodor Herzl published an influential political pamphlet called The Jewish State, which argued that the establishment of a Jewish state was the only way of protecting Jews from anti-Semitism. Herzl became the leader of Zionism, convening the first Zionist Congress in Switzerland in 1897. Ottoman-controlled Palestine, the original home of the Jews, was chosen as the most desirable location for a Jewish state, and Herzl unsuccessfully petitioned the Ottoman government for a charter. After the failed Russian Revolution of 1905, growing numbers of Eastern European and Russian Jews began to immigrate to Palestine, joining the few thousand Jews who had arrived earlier. The Jewish settlers insisted on the use of Hebrew as their spoken language. With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, Britain took over Palestine. In 1917, Britain issued the "Balfour Declaration," which declared its intent to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Although protested by the Arab states, the Balfour Declaration was included in the British mandate over Palestine, which was authorized by the League of Nations in 1922. Because of Arab opposition to the establishment of any Jewish state in Palestine, British rule continued throughout the 1920s and '30s.
      Beginning in 1929, Arabs and Jews openly fought in Palestine, and Britain attempted to limit Jewish immigration as a means of appeasing the Arabs. As a result of the Holocaust in Europe, many Jews illegally entered Palestine during World War II. Radical Jewish groups employed terrorism against British forces in Palestine, which they thought had betrayed the Zionist cause. At the end of World War II, in 1945, the United States took up the Zionist cause. Britain, unable to find a practical solution, referred the problem to the United Nations, which in November 1947 voted to partition Palestine. The Jews were to possess more than half of Palestine, although they made up less than half of Palestine's population. The Palestinian Arabs, aided by volunteers from other countries, fought the Zionist forces, but by 14 May 1948, the Jews had secured full control of their UN-allocated share of Palestine and also some Arab territory.
      On 14 May, Britain withdraws with the expiration of its mandate, and the State of Israel was proclaimed. The next day, forces from Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq invaded. The Israelis, though less well equipped, managed to fight off the Arabs and then seize key territory, such as Galilee, the Palestinian coast, and a strip of territory connecting the coastal region to the western section of Jerusalem. In 1949, UN-brokered cease-fires left the State of Israel in permanent control of this conquered territory. The departure of hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs from Israel during the war left the country with a substantial Jewish majority. During the third Arab-Israeli conflict — the Six-Day War of 1967 — Israel again greatly increased its borders, capturing from Jordan, Egypt, and Syria the Old City of Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights. In 1979, Israel and Egypt signed an historic peace agreement in which Israel returned the Sinai in exchange for Egyptian recognition and peace. Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) signed a major peace accord in 1993, which envisioned the gradual implementation of Palestinian self-government in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The Israeli-Palestinian peace process moved slowly, however, and in 2000 major fighting between Israelis and Palestinians resumed in Israel and the occupied territories.
1943 US and UK plan overwhelming bombing of Germany.
      United.States and Great Britain chiefs of staff, meeting in Washington, D.C., approve and plot out Operation Pointblank, a joint bombing offensive to be mounted from British airbases. Operation Pointblank's aim was grandiose and comprehensive: "The progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military and economic system, and the undermining of the morale of the German people." It was also intended to set up "final combined operations on the continent." In other words, it was intended to set the stage for one fatal blow that would bring Germany to its knees. The immediate targets of Operation Pointblank were to be submarine construction yards and bases, aircraft factories, ball bearing factories, rubber and tire factories, oil production and storage plants, and military transport-vehicle factories and stores.
      Ironically, the very day planning for Pointblank began in Washington, the Germans shot down 74 British four-engine bombers as the Brits struck a munitions factory near Pilsen. Joseph Goebbels, writing in his diary, recorded that the biggest setback about the British raid on the factory was that the drafting room was destroyed.
^ 1940 A bridge too late
      Dans la matinée, sur la ligne Louvain-Namur, les alliés sont soumis à une violente pression ennemie. A leur gauche, l'armée belge est sur le point d'être débordée par le nord. La 3è DCR arrive à une quinzaine de km des points névralgiques, retardée par les fuyards, civils ou militaires. Son chef, le général Brocard, veut intervenir tout de suite, mais le ravitaillement ne suit pas, et l'attaque n'est pas déclenchée. Les chars sont alors répartis sur un front de 20 km, et ne serviront pas à leur véritable emploi, l'assaut.
      Bien tard, le haut commandement se décide à détruire le pont par où affluent les Allemands. 170 bombardiers français et britanniques y sont employés mais la Flak et la chasse dressent un rideau de feu. Quand la nuit tombe, 85 avions alliés ont été abattus, et le pont n'est pas détruit. Dans la soirée, Huntziger ramène vers le sud son aile gauche, laissant la droite accrochée à la Ligne Maginot. Quelques heures après, Corap donne l'ordre à son armée de se replier sur Rocroi. Mais une Panzerdivision lui coupe la retraite : le lendemain, la IXè armée aura cessé d'exister.
1940 Les Allemands percent le front français à Sedan — Bombardement de Rotterdam (plus de 1000 morts) — Les Français arrêtent momentanément l'avancée allemande (2 jours)
1940 II Guerra Mundial. Aviones alemanes bombardean Rotterdam. Mueren más de 900 personas y 78.000 quedan sin hogar.
1939 Comienza el racionamiento en España, que duró hasta junio de 1952.
1935 Plebiscite in the Philippines ratifies independence agreement
1908 first passenger flight in an airplane
1907 Se descubre una conjura militar contra el zar Nicolás II de Rusia y son arrestadas 28 personas.
1904 First Olympiad in US
      The Third Olympiad of the modern era, and the first Olympic Games to be held in the United States, opened in St. Louis, Missouri. The 1904 games were actually initially awarded to Chicago, Illinois, but were later given to St. Louis to be staged in connection with the St. Louis World Exposition. Like the First Olympiad, held in Athens in 1896, and the Second Olympiad, held in Paris in 1900, poor organization and the absence of worldwide representation hampered the St. Louis Games. There were few entrants other than Americans in the various events offered, and, expectedly, US athletes won a majority of the competitions and the unofficial team championship. In the field events, the Americans made a near-perfect sweep, winning everything but lifting the bar and throwing the fifty-six-pound weight. Four years later, the first truly successful Olympic Games were held in London, England, and since then, with increasing popularity, the games have been held in various cities around the globe.
1896 Lowest US temperature in May recorded (-23ºC — Climax, Colo)
^ 1884 Taming the trusts
      During the late nineteenth century, some of America's corporate leaders, including Andrew Carnegie, went on a rampage, gobbling up the competition-and the vast majority of profits-in their respective fields. While the rise of monopolistic corporations, or "trusts," made fiscal sense for business leaders like Carnegie, it raised the hackles of Americans who had placed their faith in a more even, and carefully monitored, playing field. Not only did trusts arouse considerable protest, but they also gave birth to a reform-minded political movement. And, on this day in 1884, forces from that movement, in the guise of the freshly formed Anti-Monopoly Party, held their first convention to nominate a candidate for the White House. The Anti-Monopoly Party tabbed as their presidential nominee General Benjamin Butler, a staunch unionist who had switched allegiances from the Northern Democrats to the Radical Republicans before joining the Anti-Monopolists. Though Butler failed to capture the Oval Office and the Anti-Monopoly Party ultimately foundered, the call for legislation aimed at reigning in the trusts did not go unheeded: in 1890, the Federal Government enacted the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the landmark bill designed to tame the trusts.
1867 Maximiliano I de México capitula con su ejército en Querétaro, tras retirarle su apoyo Napoleón III.
^ 1864 The Battle of Resaca, Georgia, begins
      Union and Confederate troops clash at Resaca, Georgia. This was one of the first engagements in a summer-long campaign by Union General William T. Sherman to capture the Confederate city of Atlanta. The spring of 1864 saw a determined effort by the Union to win the war through major offensives in both the eastern and western theaters. In the east, Union General Ulysses S. Grant took on Confederate General Robert E. Lee, while Sherman applied pressure on the Army of the Tennessee, under General Joseph Johnston, in the west. The Atlanta campaign was dictated by the hilly terrain of northern Georgia. Sherman would try to outflank Johnston on one side, but Johnston would move to block him. Sherman tried the other side, and Johnston blocked again. Johnston was losing ground, but he was stalling Sherman's advance, and fanning the discontent in the North as the election of 1864 loomed. On May 9, part of Sherman's army under James McPherson captured Snake Creek Gap. McPherson did not push further, however, because he ran into Confederates fortified at nearby Resaca. The Union army would not assault Resaca until May 14, triggering two days of combat. On the first day, the Federal troops gained important ground but failed to break the Confederate lines. The second day also saw no result. But because the Confederates maintained their position and thwarted the Union offense, the Battle of Resaca was considered a tactical victory for the South. In the days after the battle, Sherman sent McPherson's men on another swing around Johnston's left flank. When these troops crossed the Oostanaula River south of Johnston's army, he had to withdraw further south. The armies inched closer to Atlanta.
1864 Battle of Spotsylvania, Virginia continues
1863 Engagement at Jackson, Mississippi
1811 Paraguay gains independence from Spain (Natl Day)
^ 1804 Lewis and Clark Expedition departs
      One year after the United States doubled its territory with the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark Expedition left St. Louis, Missouri, on a mission to explore the Northwest from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Even before the US government concluded purchase negotiations with France, US President Thomas Jefferson [13 Apr 1743 – 04 Jul 1826] commissioned Meriwether Lewis [18 Aug 1774 – 11 Oct 1809], his private secretary, and William Clark [01 Aug 1770 – 01 Sep 1838], an Army captain, to lead an expedition into what is now the US Northwest. On 14 May 1804, the so-called "Corps of Discovery," featuring twenty-eight men and one woman, an Shoshone Amerindian named Sacagawea [1786 – 20 Dec 1812], left St. Louis for the US interior.
      The expedition traveled up the Missouri River in six canoes and two longboats, and wintered in Dakota before crossing into Montana where they first saw the Rocky Mountains. On the other side of the Continental Divide, they were met by Sacajawea’s tribe, the Shoshone Indians, who sold them horses for their journey down through the Bitterroot Mountains. After passing through the dangerous rapids of the Clearwater and Snake rivers in canoes, the explorers reached the calm of the Columbia River, which led them to the sea.
      On 08 November 1805, the expedition reached the Pacific Ocean, the first European explorers to do so by an overland route from the East. After pausing there for winter, the explorers began their long journey back to St. Louis. On 23 September 1806, after two-and-a-half years, the expedition returned to the city, bringing back a wealth of information about the largely unexplored region, as well as valuable US claims to Oregon Territory. Future president Theodore Roosevelt [27 Oct 1858 – 06 Jan 1919] later wrote that the Lewis and Clark Expedition "opened the door into the heart of the Far West."
^ 1796 Jenner Administers First Smallpox Inoculation
      Edward Jenner [17 May 1749 – 26 Jan 1823], an English country doctor from Glousestershire, administered the world’s first vaccination for smallpox, a disease that had killed millions of people over the centuries. While still a medical student, Jenner noticed that milkmaids who had contracted a disease called cowpox, which caused blistering on cow’s udders, did not catch smallpox. Unlike smallpox, which caused severed skin eruptions and dangerous fevers in humans, cowpox led to few ill symptoms in these women.
      On 14 May 1796, Jenner took fluid from a cowpox blister and scratched it into the skin of the boy he uses as a guinea pig, James Phipps, 8. A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox, even when he came into close contact with children suffering from the disease.
      Doctors all over Europe soon adopted Jenner’s innovative technique, leading to a drastic decline in new sufferers of the devastating disease. In the nineteenth and twentieth century, scientists developed new vaccines to fight smallpox, and by 1970, international vaccination programs, such as those undertaken by the World Health Organization, had eliminated the disease worldwide.
      Un médecin de campagne anglais, Edward Jenner (47 ans), pratique sur un enfant la première vaccination au monde. Il inocule à James Philipp (8 ans) le pus d'une femme atteinte de la vaccine. Cette maladie bénigne était courante chez les valets de ferme qui trayaient les vaches. Or, ces valets avaient la réputation d'être épargnés par la variole, une maladie mortelle responsable en ces temps-là de dizaines de milliers de morts par an rien qu'en Europe. L'enfant James Philipp attrappe la vaccine mais en guérit très vite. Trois mois plus tard, Edward Jenner lui inocule la variole. L'enfant n'en ressent aucun effet. C'est la preuve que la vaccine l'a immunisé contre la variole! Des médecins avaient déjà eu dans les années précédentes l'idée d'inoculer à un patient une affection bénigne pour le préserver d'une maladie plus grave. Edward Jenner, ayant validé cette idée de manière empirique, décide de la diffuser sans tarder dans le public. Il publie à ses frais un ouvrage où il jette les bases de l'immunologie, appelant le facteur de la vaccine «virus» (d'un mot latin qui signifie poison). Quittant son village natal de Berkeley, dans le Gloucestershire, Edward Jenner se rend à Londres où il vaccine gratuitement des centaines de sujets. Bientôt ruiné, il revient exercer la médecine à Berkeley où il finit honorablement sa vie. Entretemps, la vaccination se répand très vite en Europe, contribuant au recul des épidémies. Louis Pasteur découvrira les fondements théoriques de la vaccination et en améliorera notablement la pratique.
1783 Robespierre plaide à Saint-Omer le procès du paratonnerre, que le conseil municipal, croyant qu'il attirerait la foudre, avait sommé un citoyen de retirer de son toit.
1737 Felipe V de España crea el Consejo del Almirantazgo y nombra secretario del mismo al marqués de la Ensenada.
1643 Louis XIV, 4, becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.
click for full image1607 In Virginia, on the first Sunday after the arrival of the Jamestown Expedition, Anglican priest Robert Hunt, 39, holds the first Anglican service in the New World. Chaplain of the expedition to Jamestown, Hunt is also the first Anglican priest to come to America.
1589 Actuación valerosa de María Pita durante el asalto de los ingleses a La Coruña.
1509 Battle of Agnadello, French beat Venitians in Northern Italy
1504 Miguel Ángel finaliza su escultura David.— [< click on image for full photo and large detail]
1415 El antipapa Juan XXIII es suspendido en sus funciones.
1264 Baron's War fought in England.
0642 El papa Teodoro I alcanza el solio pontificio.
TO THE TOP
< 13 May 15 May >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 14 May:

+ ZOOM IN +2006 Annmarie Campbell, 23, of Paris, Tennessee [photo >], killed in the afternoon by an alligator after becoming separated from three friend with whom she was snorkeling in water 1 meter deep in Juniper Run near Sweetwater Springs in the Ocala National Forest, Florida. The friends search for her and find her corpse in the jaws of the alligator. — (080513)

2005 Some 200 of some 6000 Uzbek refugees fleeing from the previous day's Andijan Massacre, fired upon by Uzbek troops in the Pakhtabad district near the Kyrgyz border. —(080512)

2005 Samiullah Khan and Haitham al-Yemeni, an al-Qaida terrorist, by a missile from a CIA-operated unmanned Predator aerial drone, in the evening in the Toorikhel suburb of Mirali, North Waziristan province, Pakistan.

Rotem AdamAlexei Hayat2004 Israeli soldiers Rotem Adam, 21 [< photo], from Rishon Letzion; and Alexei Hayat, 21 [photo >], from Be'er Sheva, who were among the occupiers of the home of an elderly Palestinian woman in the Brazil refugee camp in Rafah, Gaza Strip, and are shot by al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades fighters, one of the Israelis when he opens the door to the woman on her return from buying food in the afternoon.
2004:: 28 al-Mahdi Army militiamen, killed attacking the British occupiers in Amarah, Iraq.
2004 Edward C. Barnhill, 50, of Shreveport, Louisiana; command sergeant major, US Army Reserve, dies in Baghdad, Iraq. of noncombat-related injuries. He was assigned to the 431st Civil Affairs Battalion, Army Reserve in North Little Rock, Arkansas.
2004 Brud J. Cronkrite, 22, of Spring Valley, California; sergeant, US Army, dies of injuries suffered the previous day when a rocket-propelled grenade struck a building near him during a security patrol in Karbala, Iraq. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 37th Armor, 1st Armored Division in Friedberg, Germany.
2004 K. M. Rahmatullah, shooting himself at his home in Anantapur, Andra Pradesh state, India, after learning that he, of the Telugu Desam Party, has been defeated in his attempt at election to the state legislature by D. Narayan Reddy, of the Congress Party, which had an unexpected victory overall in the parliamentary elections throughout India, which ended on 10 May 2004

2003 Juan José Morales, 24 (Nuevo León);
José Antonio Villaseñor León
, 31, and his son Marco Antonio Villaseñor Acuña, 5 (Mexico City);
Mateo Salgado Pérez
[or Mateo Salgado López];
Elisendo Cabañas González
, 27 (Tulcingo del Valle, Puebla);
Ricardo González Mata
, 24, and Óscar González Guerrero, 18, (Plan de Iguala, San Luís Potosí);
Juan Carlos Castillo Loredo
, 20, and Edgar Gabriel Hernández Zúñiga, (17, Cárdenas, San Luis Potosí);
José Luis Ramírez Bravo
, 21 (Ajuchitlán del Progreso, Guerrero);
Serafín Rivera Gámez
, 34, Roberto Rivera Gámez, 24, and Héctor Ramírez Robles, 34, (Pozos, Juventino Rosas, Guanajuato);
Catarino Gonzalez Merino
(Tampache, Tamahuipa, Veracruz);
Chelve Benitez Jaramillo
, 20, and his cousin Rogelio Dominguez Benitez, 17, (Guayabillo, Amatepec, estado de México);
all the above from Mexico (locality and state in parenthesis) and:
Augusto Stanley Vargas, 31 (Dominican Republic);
José Felicito Figueroa Gutierrrez (Honduras);
Jorge Mauricio Torres Herrera, 15 (El Salvador);
dehydrated, crushed, among some 100 undocumented immigrants — from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras— being smuggled into the US, crowded in a locked truck trailer abandoned at 01:00 at a truck stop near Victoria, Texas, which police opens at 02:00. Some 30 survivors manage to flee, 49 are arrested, 7 taken to hospitals, of which one dies later in the day, and another on 16 May 2003 (both included above). Morales worked in Houston but had been to the state of Nuevo León, Mexico, to visit his mother. The driver of the truck, Tyrone Williams, 32, is later arrested and says that, on 13 May, he agreed, for $2500, to haul from the border town of Harlingen 16 immigrants. Instead more than 100 men, women and children from Mexico and Central America were loaded into the hot and unventilated trailer. — (060208)

2003 Some 20 persons, including a woman suicide bomber, at 15:00 on the outskirts of village Snamenskoye, Russian-occupied Chechnya, as 10'000 persons are gathered for “The Prophet” Muhammad's Birthday.
2003 Teresa Fumarola of Italy, born on 02 December 1889.
2003 Anna Peskey of South Dakota, born on 05 August 1891.
2001 Five Palestinian policemen, aged 17 to 29, manning a roadside checkpoint near Beituniya, West Bank, killed by Israeli gunfire.
^ 2000 Keizo Obuchi, born on 25 June 1937, Prime Minister of Japan (July 1998 — April 2000), while in a coma consequence of a 02 April 2000 stroke.
     Obuchi died at 08:07 UT (16:07 local time), in Tokyo's Juntendo Hospital, where he had been hospitalized in a coma since April. Obuchi was survived by his wife, a son, and two daughters.
      Obuchi became Japan's prime minister in July 1998 to widespread expectations that his humble manner meant he lacked the nerve to handle the country's deepening economic problems. He soon proved his critics wrong.
      Before falling ill in April, Obuchi had established a solid record as premier: He put Japan on a massive public spending plan to pull it out of recession and pushed controversial legislation through Parliament. Obuchi suffered a stroke and was hospitalized on 02 April 2000. He later lapsed into a coma and was put on artificial respiration. Days later, Parliament elected Yoshiro Mori as his successor.      
      While Obuchi's policies were bold, the results were mixed. He helped set the Japanese economy on the path to recovery, but his successors will pay the price: all the spending has given the country an enormous fiscal deficit. Over the past six months, support for his government has been dropping. But most seem to agree that one thing is undeniable: he proved he was up to the job. At the pinnacle of his popularity, last summer, analysts had only praise for his first year in office. "In the economy, foreign policy, and getting legislation approved, I think Obuchi deserves pretty high marks,"
      It was easy to underestimate Obuchi. While other top politicians had grabbed headlines, Obuchi toiled behind the scenes and by the book, working his way up the Liberal Democratic Party ranks. Obuchi had the charisma of "cold pizza,"
      . Obuchi was the son of a national lawmaker from Gunma Prefecture north of Tokyo. He graduated from Tokyo's prestigious Waseda University. Obuchi won election to Japan's powerful lower house of Parliament in 1963 at the age of 26 — inheriting, in common Japanese fashion, the seat held previously by his father. He's been elected to the seat ever since. Obuchi first served as a Cabinet official in 1979, when he was selected to jointly head the Management and Coordination Agency and Okinawa Development Agency.
      In 1993, he became the Liberal Democrats' secretary-general, one of three key party posts, under Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu. A year later, Obuchi took control of the biggest of several rival factions in the Liberal Democratic Party, succeeding former Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita. He became foreign minister in 1997 - a post considered a stepping stone to the premiership.
      Comments on learning of Obuchi's death:
      his successor Yoshiro Mori: "He dealt decisively with important measures affecting this nation's economic revival as well as its internal and foreign policies,"
      French President Jacques Chirac: "[he was] a man who embarked on a daring program of reforms that made Japan a top nation to face the great challenges of this century."

      Obuchi never described himself as a big shot, at least in public. He once reportedly compared himself to a "noodle shop between two skyscrapers," referring to two of his protégés, former prime ministers Yasuhiro Nakasone and the late Takeo Fukuda. That humble image was often cited as a key to his success. Instead of the hard-driving style that is often frowned upon in Japan, Obuchi favored low-key consensus-building.
      In addition to his economic policies, he also used his skills to push a number of tough packages through Parliament, including passage of controversial US-Japan defense guidelines that boost Tokyo's regional security role.
      In foreign policy, Obuchi is widely credited with furthering Japan's warming relations with Russia. The two countries have long-standing territorial disputes that have prevented them from signing a peace treaty since World War II. He also moved toward closer ties with South Korea, China and North Korea.
      He cobbled together an unwieldy three-party ruling coalition. That latest coup, however, backfired. Polls indicated rising disapproval ratings, with voters citing unease with the growing clout of the coalition. The coalition broke up over just before Obuchi fell ill, but the LDP still held enough seats in Parliament to guarantee its grip on power.
1995 Christian Boehmer Anfinsen Bioquímico nacido el 26 marzo 1916 en Monessen, Pennsylvania. Cursó estudios en la Swarthmore y Harvard. Posteriormente trabajó en el Instituto Nacional sobre artritis y enfermedades del metabolismo de Bethesda, en Maryland. Realizó diversos descubrimientos relacionados con la forma y actividad de las enzimas. Sus trabajos sobre la ribonucleasa le valieron el premio Nobel de Química en 1972, que compartió con Moore y Stein.
1994 Ramón de Garciasol, poeta español.
1991 Jiang Qing, se ahorca, viuda de Mao Zedong, de 77 años, en su residencia de las afueras de Pekín, donde cumplía cadena perpetua por su instigación de la revolución cultural.
1988 Willem Drees, 101, PM of Netherland (1948-58)
1988 Ernesto Giménez Caballero, escritor español.
1980 Josip Broz “Tito”, presidente de Yugoslavia
1975 Some 40 US servicemen as the US raids the Cambodian island of Koh Tang and recaptures the American merchant ship Mayaguez. All 40 crew members were being released safely by Cambodia.
1974 All six members of Symbionese Liberation Army, in shoot-out.
1969 Roberto Cortázar Toledo, historiador colombiano.
1969 Waclaw Sierpinski, Warsaw mathematician born on 14 March 1882. His most important work is in the area of set theory, point set topology and number theory. In set theory he made important contributions to the axiom of choice and to the continuum hypothesis. He studied the Sierpinski curve, a closed path which contains every interior point of a square, and is obtained as the limit of a process whose first steps are illustrated below. The length of the curve is infinity, while the area enclosed by it is 5/12 that of the square. Author of 50 books, including The theory of irrational numbers (1910), Outline of Set Theory (1912), The theory of numbers (1912); and of 724 papers.

1948 June Devaney, 3, murdered by being swung head first into a wall, causing multiple skull fractures. She had been kidnapped that same evening from Queen's Park Hospital in Blackburn, England, where she was recovering from pneumonia, and then raped. Peter Griffiths would be arrested for this crime on 11 August and executed on 19 November 1948. He said he was drunk.
^ 1940 Emma Goldman, born on 27 June 1869 in Lithuania, dies in Canada. She was an international anarchist active in the United States from about 1890 to 1917.
      Goldman grew up in her native Lithuania, in Königsberg, East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia), and in Saint-Petersburg. Her formal education was limited, but she read widely and in Saint-Petersburg associated with a radical student circle. In 1885 she immigrated to the United States and settled in Rochester, New York. There, and later in New Haven, Connecticut, she worked in clothing factories and came into contact with socialist and anarchist groups among her fellow workers. Moving to New York City in 1889, Goldman formed a close association with Alexander Berkman, who was imprisoned in 1892 for attempting to assassinate Henry Clay Frick [19 Dec 1849 – 02 Dec 1901] during the Homestead steel strike. The following year she herself was jailed in New York City for inciting a riot when a group of unemployed workers reacted to a fiery speech she had delivered.
      In 1895, upon her release, Goldman embarked on lecture tours of Europe and the United States. Leon Czolgosz [1873 – 29 Oct 1901], the assassin of President William McKinley [29 Jan 1843 – 14 Sep 1901], claimed to have been inspired by her, although there was no direct connection between them, and by that time she had repudiated her earlier tolerance of violence as an acceptable means of achieving social ends. In 1906 Berkman was freed, and he and Goldman resumed their joint activities. In that year she founded Mother Earth, a periodical that she edited until its suppression in 1917. Her naturalization as a US citizen was revoked by a legal stratagem in 1908. Two years later she published Anarchism and Other Essays.
      Goldman spoke often and widely, not only on anarchism and social problems but also on the contemporary dramatic works of Henrik Ibsen [20 Mar 1828 – 23 May 1906], August Strindberg [22 Jan 1849 – 14 May 1912], George Bernard Shaw [26 Jul 1856 – 02 Nov 1950], and others. She was instrumental in introducing the US audience to many European playwrights, and her lectures on their work were published in 1914 as The Social Significance of the Modern Drama. She also lectured on “free love,” by which she meant an uncoerced attachment between two persons for whom conventions of law and church were irrelevant, and she was jailed briefly in 1916 for speaking out on birth control.
      When World War I broke out in Europe, Goldman opposed US involvement, and later she agitated against military conscription. In July 1917 she was sentenced to two years in prison for these activities. By the time of her release in September 1919, the United States was caught up in hysteria over a largely imaginary network of Communist operatives. Goldman, “Red Emma” as she was called, was declared a subversive alien by US Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer [04 May 1872 – 11 May 1936] and in December 1917, along with Berkman and 247 others, was deported to the Soviet Union. Her stay there was brief. Two years after leaving, she recounted her experiences in My Disillusionment in Russia (1923). She remained active, living at various times in Sweden, Germany, England, France, and elsewhere, continuing to lecture and writing her autobiography, Living My Life (1931). She worked for the antifascist cause in the Spanish Civil War (17 Jul 1936 – 01 Apr 1939).
^ 1912 August Strindberg, Stockholm Swedish playwright, novelist, and short-story writer, born on 22 January 1849. He combined psychology and Naturalism in a new kind of European drama that evolved into Expressionist drama. His chief works include Fadren (1887), Fröken Julie (1888), Creditors (1888), Ett Drömspel (1902), and The Ghost Sonata (1907).
     Strindberg's father, Carl Oskar Strindberg, was a bankrupt aristocrat who worked as a steamship agent, and his mother was a former waitress. His childhood was marred by emotional insecurity, poverty, his grandmother's religious fanaticism, and neglect, as he relates in his remarkable autobiography Tjänstekvinnans son (1887; The Son of a Servant). He studied intermittently at the University of Uppsala, preparing in turn for the ministry and a career in medicine but never earning a degree. To earn his living, he worked as a free-lance journalist in Stockholm, as well as at other jobs that he almost invariably lost. Meanwhile he struggled to complete his first important work, the historical drama Mäster Olof (published in 1872), on the theme of the Swedish Reformation, influenced by Shakespeare and by Brand of Henrik Ibsen [20 Mar 1828 – 23 May 1906]. The Royal Theater's rejection of Mäster Olof deepened his pessimism and sharpened his contempt for official institutions and traditions. For several years he continued revising the play, later recognized as the first modern Swedish drama, thus delaying his development as a dramatist of contemporary problems.
      In 1874 he became a librarian at the Royal Library, and in 1875 he met the Finno-Swedish Siri von Essen, then the unhappy wife of an officer of the guards; two years later they married. Their intense but ultimately disastrous relationship ended in divorce in 1891, when Strindberg, to his great grief, lost the custody of their four children. At first, however, marriage stimulated his writing, and in 1879 he published his first novel, The Red Room, a satirical account of abuses and frauds in Stockholm society: this was something new in Swedish fiction and made its author nationally famous.
      He also wrote more plays, of which Lucky Peter's Travels (1881) contains the most biting social criticism. In 1883, the year after he published Det nya riket (“The New Kingdom”), a withering satire on contemporary Sweden, Strindberg left Stockholm with his family and for six years moved restlessly about the Continent. Although he was then approaching a state of complete mental breakdown, he produced a great number of plays, novels, and stories. The publication in 1884 of the first volume of his collected stories, Married, led to a prosecution for blasphemy. He was acquitted, but the case affected his mind, and he imagined himself persecuted, even by Siri.
      He returned to drama with new intensity, and the conflict between the sexes inspired some of the outstanding works written at this time, such as The Father, Fröken Julie, and The Creditors. All of these were written in total revolt against contemporary social conventions. In these bold and concentrated works, he combined the techniques of dramatic Naturalism, including unaffected dialogue, stark rather than luxurious scenery, and the use of stage props as symbols, with his own conception of psychology, thereby inaugurating a new movement in European drama. The People of Hemsö, a vigorous novel about the Stockholm skerries (rocky islands), always one of Strindberg's happiest sources of inspiration, was also produced during this intensively creative phase.
      The years after his return to Sweden in 1889 were lonely and unhappy. Even though revered as a famous writer who had become the voice of modern Sweden, he was by now an alcoholic unable to find steady employment. In 1892 he went abroad again, to Berlin. His second marriage, to a young Austrian journalist, Frida Uhl, followed in 1893; they finally parted in Paris in 1895.
      A period of literary sterility, emotional and physical stress, and considerable mental instability culminated in a kind of religious conversion, the crisis that he described in Inferno. During these years Strindberg devoted considerable time to experiments in alchemy and to the study of theosophy.
      His new faith, colored by mysticism, re-created him as a writer. The immediate result was a drama in three parts, To Damascus, in which he depicts himself as “the Stranger,” a wanderer seeking spiritual peace and finding it with another character, “the Lady,” who resembles both Siri and Frida.
      By this time Strindberg had again returned to Sweden, settling first in Lund and then, in 1899, in Stockholm, where he lived until his death. The summers he often spent among his beloved skerries. His view that life is ruled by the “Powers,” punitive but righteous, was reflected in a series of historical plays that he began in 1889. Of these, Gustav Vasa is the best, masterly in its firmness of construction, characterization, and its vigorous dialogue. In 1901 he married the young Norwegian actress Harriet Bosse; in 1904 they parted, and again Strindberg lost the child, his fifth.
      Yet his last marriage, this “spring in winter,” as he called it, inspired, among other works, the plays The Dance of Death and Ett Drömspel (A Dream Play), as well as the charming autobiography Ensam (“Alone”) and some lyrical poems. Renewed bitterness after his parting from his last wife provoked the grotesquely satirical novel Svarta Fanor (1907; “Black Banners”), which attacked the vicesand follies of Stockholm's literary coteries, as Strindberg saw them. Kammarspel (“Chamber Plays”), written for the little Intima Theatre, which Strindberg ran for a time with a young producer, August Falck, embody further developments of his dramatic technique: of these, The Ghost Sonata is the most fantastic, anticipating much in later European drama. His last play, The Great Highway, a symbolic presentation of his own life, appeared in 1909.
     To the end, Strindberg debated current social and political ideas (returning to the radical views of his youth) in polemical articles, while his philosophy was expounded in the aphoristic Zones of the Spirit (1907–1912). He was ignored in death, as in life, by the Swedish Academy but mourned by his countrymen as their greatest writer. On Swedish life and letters he has exercised a lasting influence and is admired for his originality, his extraordinary vitality, and his powerful imagination, which enabled him to transform autobiographic material into dramatic dialogue of exceptional brilliance.
      The pregnant, colloquial style of Strindberg's early novels and, especially, of his short stories, brought about a long-overdue regeneration of Swedish prose style, and The Son of a Servant gave perhaps the strongest impulse to the publication of discreditable self-revelations since the Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. His greatest influence, however, was exerted in the theater, through his critical writings (such as the introduction to Fröken Julie), his plays, and the production devices that their staging dictated. The continuous, brutal action and the extreme realism of the dialogue of Fröken Julie and other plays written between 1887 and 1893 reached the ne plus ultra of naturalistic drama.
      With the later phantasmagoric plays, such as Till Damaskus, A Dream Play, and The Ghost Sonata, Strindberg led that section of the revolt against stage realism that issued in the Expressionist drama, which was developed mainly in Germany after 1912 and which influenced such modern playwrights as SeanO'Casey, Elmer Rice, Eugene O'Neill, Luigi Pirandello, and Pär Lagerkvist.

STRINDBERG ONLINE:
English translations:
Historical Miniatures
In Midsummer Days, and Other Tales
Lucky Pehr: A Drama in Five Acts
Married
Master Olof
Creditors; Pariah
Comrades; Facing Death; Pariah; Easter
The Father; Countess Julie; The Outlaw; the Stronger
There are Crimes and Crimes: A Comedy
1909 Giovanni Vailati, Italian mathematician born on 24 April 1863.
1905 Russian naval Ensign Verner Kursel, Lieutenants Nikolay Bogdanov and Pyotr Vyrubov, and the first of another 5042 Russian and 699 Japanese sailors killed this day and the next at the Battle of Tsushima.
1893 Ernst Eduard Kummer, Prussian mathematician born on 29 January 1810. His main achievement was the extension of results about the integers to other integral domains by introducing the concept of an ideal.
1891 Johan Conrad Greive, Dutch painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 02 April 1837.
1887 Johann Georg Rosenhain, Königsberg mathematician born on 10 June 1816.
1864 Pedro Santana, militar y político dominicano.
1797 Giovanni Francesco Fagnano dei Toschi, Sinigaglia, Papal States, Catholic priest and mathematician born on 31 January 1715, son of mathematician gonfaloniere Giulio Fagnano [06 Dec 1682 – 26 Sep 1766].
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
1794 (25 floréal an II):

MITTGEN Nicolas, manœuvre, domicilié à Hunling (Moselle), comme distributeur de faux assignats, , par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
VINDRET Joseph, notaire, domicilié à Carouge (Mont-Blanc), comme distributeur de faux assignats, , par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Isère.
TRANCHANT François Dominique, ex bénéficier de la cathédrale de Cambrai (Nord), né le 4 août 1727, à Cambrai, y domicilié, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Cambray, comme convaincu d'avoir gardé des écrits royalistes et fanatique.
TRANCHANT Euphrosine, domiciliée à Cambray (Nord), par le tribunal révolutionnaire d'Arras, comme convaincue d'avoir brisé un scellé apposé chez elle sur des papiers suspects.
LEMAN Constant, 55 ans, né à Waterlot, célibataire, demeurant à St Venant, condamné à Arras
FREMAU Louis Joseph, 32 ans, célibataire, et demeurant à Garvin Epinoy, guillotiné à Arras
HARDUIN Victoire Thérèse, 56 ans, née et demeurant à Paris, épouse divorcée de Mazencourt Gabriel Auguste, guillotinée à Arras
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
MERCIER Louis, 78 ans, ex fermier général, né et domicilié à Paris département de la Seine, , par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'une conspiration contre le peuple, en mettant dans le tabac de l'eau et des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé des citoyens.
PREVOT Charles Adrien, ex fermier général, 67 ans, natif de Doules, département de la Somme, domicilié à Mont-Valérien (Seine), comme complice d’un complot contre le peuple français, notamment en mêlant au tabac de l’eau et des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé des citoyens qui en faisaient usage.
MORY-D'HELVANGE François Dominique, ex noble, ci-devant homme de lettres, 56 ans, né à Nancy (Meurthe), y demeurant, comme convaincu d'une conspiration contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple français.
MORY D'HELVANGE Léopold Remy François, pharmacien à l'hospice Lepelletier, 18 ans, né à Boudonville près Nancy (Meurthe), domicilié à Nancy, comme complice d'une conspiration contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple français.
PINTEAUX Benoît (dit Bournay), tisserant, âgé de 24 ans, né à Limoges (Haute Vienne), domicilié à Bernay (Eure), comme complice d'une conspiration contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple français.
ROUGANNE Claude, ex curé à Clermont-Ferrand, 70 ans, natif de Cural (Allier), domicilié au Mont-Valérien (Seine), comme convaincu d’avoir composé différants ouvrages tendants au rétablissement de la royauté.
SAGNY Pierre Agricol, Hussard au 6e régiment, 28 ans, né à Troly-aux-bois, prés de Soissons (Aisne), domicilié à Chauny, même département, comme complice d’une conspiration dans le département de l’Eure.
YEL Jacques, ex procureur au parlement de Paris, 47 ans, né à Darnouville (Cher), domicilié à Chaudry, même département, comme complice d’une conspiration dans le département du Cher.
1793:
BRUN Jean Claude (dit Petit Saillant), agriculteur, domicilié à Béage (Ardèche), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
TURBEL Jean Jacques, tisserand, ex caporal au ci-devant régiment de Beaune, domicilié à Erville (Seine Inférieure), comme émigré,par la commission militaire d'Arras.
TURCQ Louis, cordonnier et soldat au ci-devant régiment de Chartes infanterie, domicilié à Bergues-St-Vinox (Nord), comme émigré, par la commission militaire d'Arras.
1781 Franz Schüz (or Schütz), German artist born on 16 December 1751.
1761 Thomas Simpson, English mathematician born on 20 August 1710. He is best remembered for his work on interpolation and numerical methods of integration.
1666 Joost Corneliszoon Droogsloot (or Droochsloot), Dutch artist born in 1586.
^ 1643 Louis XIII “le Juste”, born on 27 September 1601, king of France from 1610 to 1643, who cooperated closely with his chief minister, the Cardinal de Richelieu, to make France a leading European power.
      The eldest son of King Henri IV [13 Dec 1553 – 14 May 1610] and Marie de Médicis [26 Apr 1673 – 03 Jul 1642], Louis succeeded to the throne upon the assassination of his father. The Queen Mother was regent until Louis came of age in 1614; but she continued to govern for three years thereafter. As part of her policy of allying France with Spain, she arranged the marriage (November 1615) between Louis and Anne of Austria [22 Sep 1601 – 20 Jan 1666], daughter of the Spanish king Felipe III [14 Apr 1578 – 31 Mar 1621]. By 1617 the King, resentful at being excluded from power, had taken as his favorite the ambitious Charles d'Albert de Luynes [05 Aug 1578 – 15 Dec 1621], who soon became the dominant figure in the government. Louis exiled his mother to Blois; and in 1619–1620 she raised two unsuccessful rebellions.Although Richelieu (not yet a cardinal), her principal adviser, reconciled her to Louis in August 1620, the relationship between the King and his mother remained one of thinly disguised hostility.
      At the time of Luynes' death Louis was faced with a Huguenot rebellion in southern France. He took to the field in the spring of 1622 and captured several Huguenot strongholds before concluding a truce with the insurgents in October. Meanwhile, in September Richelieu had become a cardinal. Louis still distrusted Richelieu for his past association with Marie de Médicis, but he began to rely on the Cardinal's political judgment. In 1624 he made Richelieu his principal minister.
      Although Louis had displayed courage on the battlefield, his mental instability and chronic ill health undermined his capacity for sustained concentration on affairs of state. Hence Richelieu quickly became the dominant influence in the government, seeking to consolidate royal authority in France and break the hegemony of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs. Immediately after the capture of the Huguenot rebel stronghold of La Rochelle on 28 October 1628, Richelieu convinced the King to lead an army into Italy (1629); but his campaign increased tensions between France and the Habsburgs, who were fighting the Protestant powers in the Thirty Years' War. Soon the pro-Spanish Catholic zealots led by Marie de Médicis began appealing to Louis to reject Richelieu's policy of supporting the Protestant states. During the dramatic episode culminating in the Journée des Dupes (12 November 1630), the Queen Mother demanded (on 10 Nov 1630) that Louis dismiss Richelieu. After some hesitation, the King decided to stand by his minister; Marie de Médicis and Gaston, duc d'Orléans [25 Apr 1608 – 02 Feb 1660], Louis's rebellious brother, withdrew into exile. Thereafter Louis adopted the Cardinal's merciless methods in dealing with dissident nobles.
      On 19 May 1635, France declared war on Spain; and by August 1636 Spanish forces were advancing on Paris. Richelieu recommended evacuation of the city; but Louis, in a surprisingdisplay of boldness, overruled him. The King rallied his troops and drove back the invaders. Late in 1638 he suffered a crisis of conscience over his alliances with the Protestant powers, but Richelieu managed to overcome his doubts. Meanwhile, Anne of Austria, who had long been treated with disdain by her husband, had given birth to their first child, the dauphin Louis, the future Louis XIV [05 Sep 1638 – 01 Sep 1715].
      In 1642, Louis's young favorite, the Marquis de Cinq-Mars [1620 – 12 Sep 1642], instigated the last major conspiracy of the reign by plotting with the Spanish court to overthrow Richelieu; revelation of Cinq-Mars's treason made Louis more dependent than ever on the Cardinal. By the time Richelieu [09 Sep 1585 – 04 Dec 1642] died, substantial victories had been won in the war against the Spaniards, and Louis was respected as one of the most powerful monarchs in Europe. The King succumbed to tuberculosis five months later. He was succeeded by his son Louis XIV.
1626 cavaliere Cristoforo Roncalli dalle Pomarancio, Italian painter and draftsman born in 1552.
^ 1610 Henri IV assassiné.
      Henri IV est assassiné à Paris, rue de la Ferronnerie, par Jean-François Ravaillac, né à Touvres en 1578, qui avait été valet de chambre, clerc, puis maître d'école. Déséquilibré, Ravaillac aurait agi pour le parti espagnol et autrichien qui craignait l'attaque des Pays-Bas. Sont compromis : le duc d'Epernon, ancien favori de Henri III (sa maîtresse. Charlotte du Tillet, connaissait Ravaillac et lui donnait de quoi vivre ; le duc espérait prendre le pouvoir sous la régence de Marie de Médicis, mais se brouilla avec elle), la Marquise de Verneuil (maîtresse délaissée de Henri IV) et Marie de Médicis, manœuvrée par le parti espagnol et le parti italien à la cour (la veille, elle avait été couronnée reine, ce qui lui assurait la régence). Les dossiers de cette affaire disparaitront dans un incendie en 1618.
      Le 27 mai, Ravaillac est déclaré coupable et condamné à mort. Le supplice eu lieu place de Grève: son bras, qui avait frappé le roi, fut plongé dans du soufre en feu; ses pectoraux furent arrachés par des tenailles: sur ses bras, cuisses et épaules, on déversa du plomb fondu, de l'huile et de la résine bouillantes; sur ses plaies on appliqua de la cire et du soufre brûlants; puis Ravaillac fut écartelé, la foule tirant sur les cordes pour aider les chevaux ; Ravaillac ne dénonçant pas ses complices, l'écartèlement reprit et la foule lui arracha les membres à l'aide d'épées, couteaux et bâtons ; puis les lambeaux du corps furent portés dans divers quartiers et brûlés.
     Le “bon roi Henri” a-t-il été populaire ? Henri IV a été populaire en Béarn et auprès des Béarnais émigrés à Paris qu'il a couvert de faveurs. Le peuple a reconnu sa bravoure, mais lui a reproché d'avoir acquis la paix au prix d'énormes concessions faites aux huguenots par l'édit de Nantes. Sa politique économique a passé pour brouillonne et la répartition capricieuse des bénéfices ecclésiastiques lui a valu de nombreux ennemis. Ses allures rustiques, son goût effréné pour les femmes et son humeur joviale ont choqué ses contemporains, habitués depuis Henri II à une stricte étiquette de cour. Son culte date de la fin du XVIIIe s. et du début du XIXe s. (sous la Restauration, on adopte pour hymne officiel le Vive Henri IV).
Grandes dates de Henri IV:
13 Dec 1553: naissance
1589-5-1 le parlement de Bordeaux est le 1er à reconnaître Henri IV comme roi
1589 15/27-9 Arques : Henri IV bat le duc de Mayenne.
1590-14-3 Ivry : Henri IV (qui a dit à ses 2000 cavaliers et 8000 fantassins : " Ralliez-vous à mon panache blanc ! ") bat le duc de Mayenne
1590 9-7 prend St-Denis
1590 été: les ultras que la Ligue a placés à la tête des 16 quartiers de la capitale imposent la terreur.
1591-3-1 Henri IV bloque Paris, déclenchant la famine. Journée des Farines: pour prendre Paris, Henri IV déguise ses soldats en paysans conduisant des chevaux et des chariots chargés de farine; malgré la faim régnant chez les assiégés, la ruse échoue, en dépit de l'appui militaire de l'électeur de Brandebourg [il est battu par Alexandre Farnèse, duc de Parme (Espagne) qui libère Rouen et met une garnison dans Paris]
1591 15-11 les Seize pendent 3 magistrats (dont Barnabé Brisson, 1er Pt du parlement de Paris) après un simulacre de jugement. Les cours souveraines (Parlement, Cour des aides, Chambre des comptes) se mettent en grève. Mayenne rentre à Paris, prend le contrôle de la Bastille, remet en selle le Parlement
4-12 ses troupes arrêtent une vingtaine d'extrémistes (4 sont pendus).
1592 intervention du duc de Savoie, qui est battu par Lesdiguière [François de Bonne (St-Bonnet 1-4-1543/Valence 28-9-1626), duc de Lesdiguière 1611, connétable 6-7-1622] en Dauphiné. Bataille d'Aumale : Henri IV contre le duc de Parme [reçoit un coup dans les reins (seule blessure sérieuse de toute sa vie)].
1592-96 révolte des croquants (paysans) [la ville de Crocq en Limousin (Creuse) en est le centre, ou ceux qui croquent les pauvres, ou croc (seule arme des paysans) les 1ers de Crocq ?], Limousin.
1593 états généraux de la Ligue à Paris (128 députés) : au nom de la règle de catholicité, ils remettent en cause la " loi salique ", mais prennent ombrage du ton d'autorité du légat pontifical et de l'ambassadeur espagnol (le duc de Feria), qui veulent faire offrir la couronne de France à Philippe II pour sa fille l'infante Isabelle
avril Henri IV demande aux 12 représentants des ligueurs de rencontrer ses 8 délégués à Suresnes
1593:-5-5 ils concluent que le seul obstacle à la reconnaissance du roi est sa religion
1593 17-5 Henri IV fait savoir par l'archevêque de Bourges qu'il est prêt à se convertir
1593 28-6 le Parlement vote l'arrêt du président Le Maistre (Henri IV, successeur légitime de Henri III, ne deviendra roi légitime que s'il se fait catholique), le Parlement exclut les femmes de la succession royale (mesure visant l'infante Isabelle, petite-fille de Henri II).
1593-25-7 Henri IV abjure à St-Denis entre les mains de Renaud de Beaune, archevêque de Bourges, et de 12 prélats
1593 31-7 trêve avec la Ligue.
1594-27-2 Henri IV sacré à Chartres (Reims est encore aux mains de la Ligue)
1594 22-3 Charles, comte de Cossé-Brissac [(vers 1550-1621), ligueur, 1594 gouverneur de Paris nommé par le duc de Mayenne, rend Paris à Henri IV contre 1 695 000 livres : fait duc (1612) par Louis XIII]
nov. le duc de Guise se rallie à Henri IV (lui, sa famille et ses gens reçoivent 629 600 écus)
1594 27-12 Henri IV blessé (coupure à la lèvre, dent cassée) par Jean Châtel (né 1575, ancien élève des jésuites)
1594 29-12 Châtel est écartelé ; les jésuites sont bannis du royaume.
1595-16-1 Henri IV déclare la guerre à Philippe II d'Espagne
1594 6-6 Fontaine-Française : Henri IV et Biron (900 cavaliers) battent Mayenne et l'Espagnol Velasco (2000 cavaliers, 10'000 fantassins)
1594 17-9 le pape Clément VIII absout Henri IV
1594 nov. Mayenne se soumet.
1596-31-1 traité de Folembray confirme soumission de Mayenne. Sully administre les Finances
1596 8-3 François de La Ramée est brûlé place de Grève (il s'était prétendu fils de Charles IX).
1597 soumission des derniers ligueurs.
1597 -11-3 les Espagnols prennent Amiens par surprise
1597 25-9 Henri IV la reprend.
1598-mars Henri IV en Bretagne: soumission de Philippe de Lorraine (1558-1602, beau-frère de Henri III), du duc de Mercœur, gouverneur de Bretagne, ligueur (il obtient 4'295'350 livres). [Les traités accordent des sommes importantes (en secret), des dons en espèces, des postes lucratifs et prestigieux aux ligueurs; La Chatre voulut la confirmation de la dignité de maréchal, le gouvernement de l'Orléanais pour lui, celui du Berry pour son fils ; d'Elbeuf obtint le gouvernement de Poitiers, Guise le gouvernement de Provence, etc. En 1592, le duc de Mayenne, chef des Guises, essaya d'obtenir 13 provinces et gouvernements pour ses partisans (demandés à titre héréditaire), exigeant que chaque gouverneur ait la liberté de nommer les édiles des villes, les magistrats, les archevêques, évêques et abbés ; les gouverneurs devraient disposer librement des garnisons, à l'entretien desquelles seraient affectés certains impôts directs, les taillons et les tailles des provinces.] Sully surintendant des Finances.
1598-30-4 édit de Nantes [(95 articles plus 56 articles particuliers) enregistré par les parlements de Paris le 25-2-1599, Grenoble 27-9, Dijon 19-1-1600, Toulouse 19-1, Bordeaux 7-2, Aix 11-8, Rennes 23-8, Rouen 5-8-1609] : le catholicisme est religion d'État, mais il reconnaît aux protestants la liberté de conscience et de culte dans les "églises de fiefs" dont le seigneur haut-justicier est protestant, dans 2 lieux par bailliage et dans les endroits où existait, en 1596-97, un culte public; 150 places de refuge (dont 66 gouvernées par des protestants) leur sont accordées pour 8 ans; les protestants seront jugés au civil et au criminel par des tribunaux composés pour moitié de protestants. 1598-2-5 paix de Vervins avec l'Espagne : retour au statu quo du traité du Cateau-Cambrésis (1559).
1599-mai Sully grand voyer.
1599-10-4 Gabrielle d'Estrées meurt ; liaison avec Henriette d'Entragues. Remise de 20 millions d'arriérés sur les tailles ; création de la maîtrise des digues, confiée au Hollandais Humphrey Bradley
1599 13-11 Sully, grand maître de l'artillerie
1599 17-12 mariage de Henri IV avec Marguerite de Valois annulé.
1600 Olivier de Serres (1539-1619) crée l'industrie de la soie (élevage du ver à soie)
juillet guerre de Savoie (voir encadré ci-dessus).
1599 -17-12 Henri IV épouse Marie de Médicis.
1602-avril/juillet complot de Biron (exécuté 31-7)
1602 16-9 traité de Soleure renouvelant alliance avec les cantons suisses.
1603-9-8 traité de Hampton Court avec Angleterre.
1603-3-9 rappel des jésuites.
1604-7/12-12 création de la paulette à l'instigation du financier Charles Paulet, secrétaire au Parlement: en payant chaque année une taxe égale au 1/60 de la valeur vénale de la charge, les détenteurs la rendent héréditaire.
1605-42 construction du canal de Briare.
1605 (à partir de) augmentation de la flotte.
1605-1-2 le Parlement condamne pour crime de lèse-majesté les comtes d'Auvergne et d'Entragues à la peine de mort, et la marquise de Verneuil à l'internement dans une abbaye.
1605-2-2 le roi gracie les condamnés : Auvergne restera enfermé à la Bastille, Entragues est assigné à résidence sur ses terres et la marquise de Verneuil est libérée.
1606 prise de possession du Canada
1606 mars expédition de Henri IV contre le duc de Bouillon révolté
1606 2-4 Bouillon capitule à Sedan.
1607 Béarn réuni à la France.
1608 Philippe Guillery exécuté à La Rochelle. Ses 2 frères, Mathurin et Guillaume, avec 500 hommes, pillent le Bas-Poitou.
1609 préparatifs pour la conquête des Pays-Bas et de la Rhénanie.
1610-16-1 paix de Lyon, le duc de Savoie cède Bresse, Bugey, Valromey, Gex
1610 13-5 couronnement et sacre de Marie de Médicis
Guerre franco-savoyarde (1600-01) Causes. Le duc de Savoie, Charles-Emmanuel Ier (Rivoli 12-1-1562/Savigliano 26-7-1630), contraint par la paix de Vervins à céder à la France le marquisat de Saluces et la Bresse, cherche à gagner du temps et conspire contre Henri IV avec le Mal de Biron. Forces en présence. 7000 Français commandés par Sully et Henri IV ; des garnisons savoyardes dans toutes les grandes places. 1600 résistance de Bourg-en-Bresse ; -16-11 Sully prend Montmélian ; -16-12 le fort Ste-Catherine (au sud de Genève). 1601-janv. tout le duché est occupé. -16-1 traité de Lyon : la France abandonne le marquisat de Saluces mais reçoit Bresse, Bugey, Valromey et pays de Gex.
Tentatives d'attentats précédentes : 1593-27-8 Pierre Barrière dit La Barre (exécuté 31-8 roué sur une croix et écartelé, poing brûlé, bras et jambes rompus) ; Ridicauwe (dominicain flamand). 1594-27-12 Jean Châtel, étudiant (exécuté 29-12) : le roi est blessé à la lèvre supérieure et a une dent cassée. 1595 2e tentative de Ridicauwe. 1596 Jean Guédon (exécuté 16-2). 1597 un tapissier de Paris. 1598 Pierre Ouin (chartreux). 1599 François Langlet (capucin anglais). 1600 Nicole Mignon. 1602 Julien Guédon (frère de Jean). Grands fiefs réunis à la couronne sous Henri IV : 1589 vicomté de Béarn, royaume de Navarre, comtés d'Armagnac, de Foix, d'Albret, de Bigorre, duché de Vendôme.
0649 Pope Theodore I
 
< 13 May 15 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 14 May:

2001 Baby boy born to a woman aged 62, at Clinique des Lauriers, Fréjus, France. The newborn weighs 3 kg and is normal. The mother is suspected of having undergone fertility treatment, illegal in France (but legal in Italy and the UK).
^ 1955 The Warsaw Pact is formed
      The Soviet Union and seven of its European satellites sign a treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact, a mutual defense organization that put the Soviets in command of the armed forces of the member states. The Warsaw Pact, so named because the treaty was signed in Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as members. The treaty called on the member states to come to the defense of any member attacked by an outside force and it set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union. The introduction to the treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact indicated the reason for its existence. This revolved around "Western Germany, which is being remilitarized, and her inclusion in the North Atlantic bloc, which increases the danger of a new war and creates a threat to the national security of peace-loving states." This passage referred to the decision by the United States and the other members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on May 9, 1955 to make West Germany a member of NATO and allow that nation to remilitarize. The Soviets obviously saw this as a direct threat and responded with the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact remained intact until 1991. Albania was expelled in 1962 because, believing that Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev was deviating too much from strict Marxist orthodoxy, the country turned to communist China for aid and trade. In 1990, East Germany left the Pact and reunited with West Germany; the reunified Germany then became a member of NATO. The rise of non-communist governments in other eastern bloc nations, such as Poland and Czechoslovakia, throughout 1990 and 1991 marked an effective end of the power of the Warsaw Pact. In March 1991, the military alliance component of the pact was dissolved and in July 1991, the last meeting of the political consultative body took place.
1952 Fernando Checa Cremades, historiador, profesor y escritor español.
1946 Robert Jarvik inventor (Jarvik 7 artificial heart)
1944 George Lucas, film director, in Modesto, California. Lucas introduced unprecedented special effects technology in his 1979 hit movie Star Wars. Lucas' company, Industrial Light and Magic, continued to pioneer digital special effects and animation for film and commercials.
1942 The US Women's Auxiliary Army Corps is established.
1919 Heloise and her helpful hints [or 210415?]
1919 Paul Aïzpiri, French painter. — MORE ON AÏZPIRI AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1907 Vicente Enrique y Tarancón, cardenal y ex presidente de la Conferencia Episcopal Española. He was ordained a priest of the diocese of Tortosa on 01 November 1929. On 24 March 1946 he was consecrated a bishop to lead the diocese of Solsona. He was appointed archbishop of Oviedo on 12 April 1964 and then of Toledo on 30 January 1969. He was made a cardinal on 28 April 1969. On 03 December 1971 he was appointed archbishop of Madrid and he retired on 12 April 1983. He died on 28 November 1994.
1906 Hastings Kamuzu Banda gave this date as his official birthday, but he was born about 1898, in British Central Africa (later Nyasaland, now Malawi). He became a physician and practiced in London from 1945 to 1953 and in Ghana from 1953 to 1958, when he returned to Nyasaland and became the principal leader of the independence movement. He ruled Malawi from 1963 to 1994, combining totalitarian political controls with conservative economic policies. Widespread domestic protests and the withdrawal of Western financial aid forced Banda to legalize other political parties in 1993. He was voted out of office in the country's first multiparty presidential elections, held in 1994. Banda died on 25 November 1997.
1905 Antonio Berni, Argentine painter, sculptor and printmaker, who died on 13 October 1981.
1887 Andrew Michael Dasburg, French-born US painter, specialized in the US West, who died in 1979. — MORE ON DASBURG AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1875 José Santos Chocano, poeta y escritor peruano
1863 John Charles Fields, Ontario mathematician who died on 09 August 1932. He provided funds for an international medal for mathematical distinction: the mathematical equivalent of a Nobel prize. Fields Medals are awarded to no fewer than two and no more than four mathematicians under 40 years of age every four years (from 1950) at the International Congress of Mathematicians.
1862 Piotr Stolypine, futur Premier ministre de la Russie, à Dresde. Il tentera mais en vain de réformer le régime tsariste.
1862 Chronograph, patented by Adolphe Nicole of Switzerland.
1860 Bruno Andreas Liljefors, Swedish painter who died on 18 December 1939, specialized in Wildlife. — MORE ON LILJEFORS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1853 Condensed milk, for which Gail Borden applies for patent.
TennysonTennyson1842 Poems by Tennyson is published.       ^top^
      Alfred, Lord Tennyson, publishes a volume called Poems. While the 32-year-old poet had already published several other books of verse, Poems, which included works like Ulysses and Morte D'Arthur, was considered his best work to date. The book confirmed his growing stature as a poet after more than a decade of writing.
      Tennyson was born on 06 August 1809 into a chaotic and disrupted home. His father, the eldest son of a wealthy landowner, was disinherited in favor of his younger brother. Forced to enter the Church to support himself, the Rev. Dr. George Tennyson became a bitter alcoholic. However, he educated his sons in the classics, and Alfred Tennyson, the fourth of 12 children, went to Trinity College at Cambridge in 1827. The same year, he and his brother Charles published Poems by Two Brothers. At Cambridge, Tennyson befriended a circle of intellectual undergraduates who strongly encouraged his poetry. Chief among them was Arthur Hallam, who became Tennyson's closest friend and who later proposed to Tennyson's sister.
      In 1830, Tennyson published Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. The following year, his father died, and he was forced to leave Cambridge for financial reasons. Besieged by critical attacks and struggling with poverty, Tennyson remained dedicated to his work and published several more volumes.
      The sudden death of Tennyson's dear friend Arthur Hallam in 1833 inspired several important works throughout Tennyson's later life, including the masterful In Memoriam of 1842. The publication of Poems in 1842 boosted Tennyson's reputation, and in 1850 Queen Victoria named him poet laureate. At long last, Tennyson achieved financial stability and finally married his fiancee Emily Sellwood, whom he had loved since 1836.
      Tennyson's massive frame and booming voice, together with his taste for solitude, made him an imposing character. He craved solitude and bought an isolated home where he could write in peace. In 1859, he published the first four books of his epic Idylls of the King. Eight more volumes would follow. He continued writing and publishing poems until his death on 06 October 1892.
TENNYSON ONLINE: Selected WorksSelected WorksSelected Works
  • Enoch Arden, &c.  (1864) /   Enoch Arden, &c.
  • Idylls of the King (1859), a series of 12 connected poems broadly surveying the legend of King Arthur from his falling in love with Guinevere to the ultimate ruin of his kingdom. The poems concentrate on the introduction of evil to Camelot because of the adulterous love of Lancelot and Queen Guinevere, and on the consequent fading of the hope that had at first infused the Round Table fellowship.
  • The Lady of Shalott (1833)
  • The Princess: A Medley (1847) /   The Princess: A Medley a singular anti-feminist fantasia in one long poem.

    The Charge of the Light Brigade
  • I
    Half a league, half a league,
       Half a league onward,
    All in the valley of Death
       Rode the six hundred.
    ‘Forward, the Light Brigade!
    Charge for the guns!’ he said:
    Into the valley of Death
       Rode the six hundred.

    II.
    ‘Forward, the Light Brigade!’
    Was there a man dismay’d?
    Not tho’ the soldier knew
       Some one had blunder’d:
    Their’s not to make reply,
    Their’s not to reason why,
    Their’s but to do and die:
    Into the valley of Death
       Rode the six hundred.
    III
    Cannon to right of them,
    Cannon to left of them,
    Cannon in front of them
       Volley’d and thunder’d;
    Storm’d at with shot and shell,
    Boldly they rode and well,
    Into the jaws of Death,
    Into the mouth of Hell
       Rode the six hundred.

    IV.
    Flash’d all their sabres bare,
    Flash'd as they turn’d in air
    Sabring the gunners there,
    Charging an army, while
       All the world wonder’d:
    Plunged in the battery-smoke
    Right thro’ the line they broke;
    Cossack and Russian
    Reel’d from the sabre-stroke
       Shatter’d and sunder’d.
    Then they rode back, but not
       Not the six hundred.
    V
    Cannon to right of them,
    Cannon to left of them,
    Cannon behind them
       Volley’d and thunder’d;
    Storm’d at with shot and shell,
    While horse and hero fell,
    They that had fought so well
    Came thro’ the jaws of Death,
    Back from the mouth of Hell,
    All that was left of them,
       Left of six hundred.

    VI.
    When can their glory fade?
    O the wild charge they made!
       All the world wonder’d.
    Honour the charge they made!
    Honour the Light Brigade,
       Noble six hundred!
     
    1836 Wilhelm Steinitz, Austrian US world chess champion from his 1866 victory over Adolf Anderssen [06 Jul 1818 – 13 Mar 1879] to his 1894 defeat to Emanuel Lasker [24 Dec 1868 – 11 Jan 1941]. Steinitz died a pauper on 12 August 1900.
    1832 Rudolf Otto Sigismund Lipschitz, German mathematician who died on 07 October 1903. He is remembered for the "Lipschitz condition", an inequality that guarantees a unique solution to the differential equation y' = f (x, y).
    1771 Robert Owen England, factory owner/socialist.
    1727 (baptized) Thomas Gainsborough, English Rococo era and Romantic painter, draftsman, and printmaker, specialized in Portraits, who died on 02 August 1788. — MORE ON GAINSBOROUGH AT ART “4” MAY with links to many images.
    1686 Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, Germany, inventor (thermometer) (or 0524)
    1316 Charles IV, king of Bohemia (1346-1378), emperor (1355-1378)
     
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    Religious Observances Christian : St Matthias, apostle / RC : St Boniface, martyr / Santos Matías, Bonifacio, Poncio, Víctor y santas Justina, Justa y Enedina. / Saint Matthias: Après l'Ascension du Christ, Matthias fut choisi par les apôtres pour remplacer le traître Judas. Disciple de la première heure, Matthias va parcourir le monde comme les autres apôtres pour porter témoignage de la résurrection. Très populaire en Allemagne, il est le patron de la ville de Trèves.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Most campaign literature is an insult to intelligence. Sad that many never realize it.”
    “It is the dull man who is always sure, and the sure man who is always dull.”
    — Henry Louis Mencken, US author and journalist [12 Sep 1880 – 29 Jan 1956]. — {Was Mencken sure of that?}
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