• US Mexican war... • Axis surrenders North Africa... • Blood, toil, tears, and sweat... • UAW president on Chrysler board... • Jamestown founded... • Queen of Scots defeated... • Children burned alive by police... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Falun Gong founder is born... • Birth of Sullivan of Gilbert and Sullivan... • Grant moves on Jackson, Mississippi... • Spotsylvania butchery ends... • US VP attacked in Caracas... • Pope shot... • Edison sues Biograph... • Daphne Du Maurier is born... • Mac System 7.0... • Barnes & Noble Web site... • Digital sues Intel... • Heavy fighting in Vietnam... • Vietnam peace talks enter 4th year... • K~Mart's comeback...
a 13 May:
2003 The previous evening Avanex Corporation (AVNX) announced that it will acquire the fiber optics network components businesses of Alcatel (ALA) and of Corning. AVNX is On the NASDAQ 23 million of the 69 million AVNX shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $1.19 to an intraday high of $3.30 and close at $2.95. They had traded as low as $0.63 as recently as 22 October 2002 and as high as $261.00 on 06 March 2000, after starting trading at $172.00 on 31 January 2000. [3~year price chart >]
2003 The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York opens an exhibition of paintings and drawings by Kasimir Severinovich Malevich [26 Feb 1878 – 15 May 1935], Ukrainian avant-garde Cubist artist. — more with an image.
2002 In Baltimore, shortly before 18:00 (22:00 UT), Father Maurice J. Blackwell [26 Feb 46~], a Black, is standing next to his 2000 Toyota in front of his home in the 700 block of Reservoir Street, talking with Anthony Workman [15 Oct 1953~], when Dontee D. Stokes [09 Feb 76~], a Black, stops his own car and talks briefly to Blackwell (who does not answer), then fires 3 shots from a .357 caliber Smith & Wesson handgun, hitting Blackwell once in the left hand and twice in the left hip. When the police arrive, Blacxwell tells them who shot him. Workman and another witness, Timothy McLaurin Jr. [05 May 1974~], pick out Stokes from six photos shown to them by the police. At about 23:45 (03:45 UT on 14 May) Stokes turns himself in to the police and confesses. He says “I don't know what came over me”, because Blackwell refused to talk to him. On 09 August 1993 Stokes had claimed to police that Blackwell had improperly touched and fondled him from 1989 to 1992 while he attended Bible study classes at St. Edward Roman Catholic Church, to which Blackwell had been assigned since 1979. But the police and the archdiocese had dismissed this as not credible. In 1998 Blackwell was removed as pastor of St. Edward, after he admitted to an improper relationship with another minor. On 16 December 2002, a jury would acquit Stokes of attempted murder, reckless endangerment, and assault, and only convict him of three minor gun charges, for which he would be sentenced to 8 months in prison. On 07 May 2003, a grand jury would indict Blackwell on four charges of sex abuse of a child, on 17 February 2005, Blackwell would be convicted. —(080515)
2001 Parliamentary elections in Italy, won by the center-right coalition of corruption-suspect billionaire Silvio Berlusconi (14th richest person in the world) [< photo], who will be able to form a government again, after several years out of power.
2001 Elections to the 75-seat Basque regional parliament in Spain, a success for Basque nationalists.
^ 1998 K-Mart's comeback
May 13, 1998 was a good day for Kmart: after suffering through a dismal, and potentially fatal, spate during the early 1990s, the stalwart retailer announced that its first-quarter profits for the year had skyrocketed by 236 percent to $47 million. These heady numbers were seemingly another sign of Kmart's resurgence, and sparked a round of guardedly optimistic comments from the company's brass. Company Chief Executive Floyd Hall noted that, "(W)ith our eight consecutive quarters of increased earnings per share, we continue to feel good about the turnaround momentum at Kmart." Hall attributed Kmart's comeback to a number of factors, including a tighter inventory, sound company finances and "strong increases" in apparel and consumables. Retail industry analysts also pointed to broader social and fiscal trends-namely, America's booming economy and the public's subsequent willingness to loosen its collective purse strings. Indeed, Kmart was but one of a number of retailers racking up profits during the extended bull run of the late 1990s.
1997 Digital sues Intel
Digital Equipment Corporation files a sweeping lawsuit against Intel, claiming that Intel's Pentium chip was based on patented technology stolen from Digital. The suit requests that Intel stop producing the Pentium line and pay monetary damages to Digital. This action surprises the industry, and some observers feel that it is an act of desperation on the part of a struggling company that has suffered a decline in its once-dominant position in recent years. Digital and Intel ended up settling the suit for an estimated $1.5 billion later in the year. The settlement made Digital an attractive acquisition target, and Compaq purchased the company in January 1998.
1997 Barnes & Noble site launched
Barnes & Noble join the race for online book sales by launching its online superstore just one day after suing rival Amazon.com. The lawsuit challenged Amazon's claim to be the world's largest bookstore. Barnes and Noble claimed to offer some 400'000 titles online.
1991 South African Black activist Winnie Mandela and two co-defendants were convicted of abducting four young black men and keeping them at her Soweto home. (After an appeal, Mrs. Mandela was ordered to pay a fine.)
1981 Pope John Paul
II is shot
Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] is shot and wounded at St. Peter's Square in Rome, Italy. Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca, 23, an escaped fugitive already convicted of a previous murder, fired several shots at the religious leader, two of which wounded nearby tourists. Agca was immediately captured. Agca's confession to Italian authorities was a desperate attempt to appear out of his mind. He claimed that he had planned to go to England to kill the king but couldn't because it turned out there was only a queen and "Turks don't shoot women." He also claimed to have Palestinian connections, although the PLO quickly denied any involvement. Detectives believed that his confession had been coached in order to throw investigators offtrack.
When his trial began on 20 July 1981, Agca tried an unlikely legal gambit: He maintained that Italy did not have the right to prosecute him since the crime occurred at the Vatican. Although he threatened to go on a hunger strike if his trial wasn't shifted to a Vatican court, his request was denied and he was found guilty two days later. He was sentenced to life in prison.
Many people argued that the very unusual and short trial must have been an effort to cover up evidence of a conspiracy. In fact, Italian authorities had their own suspicions but did not want to disclose them in a highly publicized trial. Instead, they conducted a relatively quiet investigation into the connection between Agca and Bulgaria's KGB-connected intelligence agency.
The motive behind an alleged Soviet-inspired assassination must be viewed in the context of the Cold War in 1981. Pope John Paul II was Polish-born and openly supportive of the democratic movement in that country. His visit to Poland in 1979 worried the Kremlin, which saw its hold on Eastern Europe in danger. Although the exact extent of the conspiracy remains unknown today, Agca reportedly met with Bulgarian spies Sergei Antonov, Zhelio Vassilev, Todor Aivazov, and Bekir Celenk in Rome about assassinating Lech Walesa, the Polish labor union leader. However, this plan was abandoned when Agca was offered $1.25 million to kill the pope.
Following a long convalescence, John Paul II resumed his world travels. He also forgave Agca and visited him in prison.
Near the start of his weekly general audience in Rome's St. Peter's Square, Pope John Paul II is shot and seriously wounded while passing through the square in an open car. The assailant, 23-year-old escaped Turkish murderer Mehmet Ali Agca, fired four shots, one of which hit the pontiff in the abdomen, narrowly missing vital organs, and another that hit the pope's left hand. A third bullet struck 60-year-old American Ann Odre in the chest, seriously wounding her, and the fourth hit 21-year-old Jamaican Rose Hill in the arm. Agca's weapon was knocked out of his hand by bystanders, and he was detained until his arrest by police. The pope was rushed by ambulance to Rome's Gemelli Hospital, where he underwent more than five hours of surgery and was listed in critical but stable condition.
John Paul II, the spiritual leader of almost 600 million Roman Catholics around the world, was invested in 1978 as the first Polish pope and the first non-Italian pope in 456 years. Fluent in seven modern languages and Latin, he was known as an avid traveler who had little fear of going out in public. Four days after being shot, he offered forgiveness to his would-be assassin from his hospital bed. The pontiff spent three weeks in the hospital before being released fully recovered from his wounds.
The motives of Mehmet Ali Agca in attempting to kill the head of the Roman Catholic Church are unclear. In the 1970s, Agca joined a right-wing Turkish terrorist group known as the Gray Wolves. The group is held responsible for the assassination of hundreds of public officials, labor organizers, journalists, and left-wing activists as part of their mission to cleanse Turkey of leftist influence. In recent years, it has been revealed that the Gray Wolves had close ties with far-right politicians, intelligence officers, and police commanders. In February 1979, Abdi Ipekci, a liberal newspaper editor, was murdered near his home in Istanbul. Mehmet Ali Agca was arrested and charged with the crime. While awaiting his trial, Agca escaped from a military prison in November 1979. In his cell, he left behind a letter that concerned John Paul II's planned trip to Turkey. The letter read: "Western imperialists who are afraid of Turkey's unity of political, military, and economic power with the brotherly Islamic countries are sending the Crusader Commander John Paul under the mask of a religions leader. If this ill-timed and meaningless visit is not called off, I will definitely shoot the pope. This is the only reason that I escaped from prison." Because of this threat, security was tightened during the pope's Turkish visit, and there was no assassination attempt. A Turkish court convicted Agca of murder in absentia, and he remained at large.
On 09 May 1981, Agca took a plane from Majorca to Milan and entered Italy under an assumed name. He took a room in a hotel near the Vatican and on 13 May walked into St. Peter's Square and shot the pope with a 9mm Browning automatic. A handwritten note was found in his pocket that read: "I am killing the pope as a protest against the imperialism of the Soviet Union and the United States and against the genocide that is being carried out in Salvador and Afghanistan." He pleaded guilty, saying he acted alone, and in July 1981 was sentenced to life in prison. In 1982, Agca announced that his assassination attempt was actually part of a conspiracy involving the Bulgarian intelligence services, which was known to act on behalf of the KGB. Pope John Paul II was a fervent anti-communist who supported the Solidarity trade union in his native Poland, which seemed to make him an appropriate target for the communists. In 1983, despite these developments, the pope met with Mehmet in prison and offered him forgiveness. Further interrogations of Agca led to the arrest of three Bulgarians and three Turks, who went on trial in 1985. As the trial opened, the case against the Bulgarian and Turkish defendants collapsed when Agca, the state's key witness, described himself as Jesus Christ and predicted the imminent end of the world. He explained that the Bulgarian scenario was concocted by Western intelligence officials, and that God had in fact led him to shoot John Paul II. The attack, he explained, was "tied to the Third Secret of the Madonna of Fatima."
The secrets of Fatima were three messages that Catholic tradition says the Virgin Mary imparted to three Portuguese shepherd children in an apparition in 1917. The first message allegedly predicted World War II, the second the rise (and fall) of the Soviet Union, and the third was still a Vatican secret in 1985. In 1986, the Bulgarian and Turkish defendants were acquitted for lack of evidence. In the late 1990s, Pope John Paul II expressed his hope that the Italian government would pardon Mehmet in 2000. The pontiff had made 2000 a holy "Jubilee" year, of which forgiveness was to be a cornerstone. On 13 May 2000, the 19th anniversary of the attempt on his life, the pope visited Fatima, Portugal. The same day, the Third Secret of Fatima was announced by Vatican Secretary of State Angelo Sodano. Sodano described the secret as a "prophetic vision" in which "a bishop clothed in white...falls to the ground, apparently dead, under a burst of gunfire." The Vatican interpreted this as a prediction of the attempt on John Paul II's life. Mehmet Ali Agca, who had guessed the alleged Fatima-assassination connection in 1985, was pardoned by Italian President Carolo Ciampi on 14 June 2000. Extradited to Turkey, he began serving the eight years remaining on the sentence for his 1979 murder of the Turkish newspaper editor.
1980 UAW president on Chrysler
Douglas A. Fraser, president of the UAW, is named to the Chrysler Corporation Board of Directors, becoming the first union representative ever to sit on the board of a major US corporation.
Born in 1916 in Glasgow, Scotland, to a Socialist father, Fraser was brought up to the tune of organized labor. He dropped out of high school and began work at a Dodge plant as a metal polisher. Fraser soon moved to the DeSoto plant in Detroit, where he began his career in labor activism. Rising through the ranks of his local UAW chapter, Fraser eventually caught the eye of powerful UAW figure Walter Reuther. Reuther's similar immigrant and Socialist background meant that the two men shared ideas in common. Fraser worked as Reuther's administrative assistant through the groundbreaking years of the 1950s, during which the UAW solidified policies on retirement pensions and medical care for its members. Like Reuther, Fraser believed that to achieve its goals the UAW needed to be willing to make reasonable compromises.
It wasn't until 1977 that Fraser was elected president of the UAW. He inherited the title as the automotive industry suffered its greatest recession since the Depression. Fraser is credited with having led the UAW through the uncertain years of the globalization of the automotive industry. As it became evident that the Big Three could build their cars wherever they wanted, Fraser fought to make sure that the union stayed flexible in its negotiations with industry executives. His detractors sometimes accused Fraser of pandering, but those who knew him described him as a stern proponent of international labor causes. His flexibility owed to his desire to keep the union an open-minded and competitive organization. The New York Times described Fraser as "an extremely tough-minded unionist, like most who rise through the ferocious fighting that can characterize union politics."
In 1973, Fraser helped to solidify the industry's "thirty and out" policy. During his presidency, Fraser attempted to address the less tangible hardships facing autoworkers. Gone were the days of unfair hours and dangerous conditions, but the monotony that faced the average autoworker was still a cross to bear.
In 1982, Fraser enacted his most daring and visionary maneuver as UAW president. Faced with Chrysler's imminent collapse, Fraser negotiated away millions of dollars already guaranteed to his union in order to help save a company with valuable jobs. In return, Chrysler traded stock options to the union. The resurgence of Chrysler bore out Fraser's unpopular decision.
Respected by his adversaries, Fraser received the unprecedented accolade of being named to Chrysler's board. "His word is enough for us," one Chrysler executive explained. "He gets into plant problems like no other union leader I know." Conceding that his position on Chrysler's board was largely symbolic, Fraser nevertheless strove to bring the issues of the laborer into the boardroom. It is one thing to vote to close a plant on paper and quite another to vote after hearing in detail the hardship the decision will cause. Douglas Fraser was a proud and unselfish leader who must be remembered for maintaining his ideals, even after his prosperity made them unnecessary.
| 1978 Joie Chitwood drives a Chevette 9 km on just 2
1975 Hail stones as large as tennis balls hit Wernerville Tenn
1973 Tennis hustler Bobby Riggs beat Margaret Smith Court in a Mother's Day match in California
1940 Blood, toil, tears
On 10 May 1940, Winston Churchill [30 Nov 1874 – 24 Jan 1965] became Prime Minister, just as the Nazi blitzkrieg poured into neutral Netherlands and Belgium. When he met his Cabinet on 13 May he told them that "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat." He repeated that phrase later in the day when he moved in the House of Commons "that this House welcomes the formation of a Government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion." The response of Labour was heart-warming; the Conservative reaction was luke-warm. They still really wanted Neville Chamberlain. For the first time, the people had hope but Churchill commented to General Ismay: "Poor people, poor people. They trust me, and I can give them nothing but disaster for quite a long time." Here is the important part of Churchill's speech to Parliament
... it must be remembered that we are in the preliminary stage of one of the greatest battles in history, that we are in action at many other points in Norway and in Holland, that we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean, that the air battle is continuous and that many preparations ... have to be made here at home. In this crisis ... I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this government: "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat."
We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. Let that be realised; no survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and impulse of the ages, that mankind will move forward towards its goal. But I take up my task with buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. At this time I feel entitled to claim the aid of all, and I say, "come then, let us go forward together with our united strength."
With Europe having been freshly trodden under the Nazi boot, in Great Britain, on 06 May 1940, Winston Churchill came to the helm as the Prime Minister and Minister of Defence. On 13 May 1940, this newly emerged leader, gave his first speech to the British Parliament.
THE FULL SPEECH:
On Friday evening last I received from His Majesty the mission to form a new administration. It was the evident will of Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties.
I have already completed the most important part of this task.
A war cabinet has been formed of five members, representing, with the Labour, Opposition, and Liberals, the unity of the nation. It was necessary that this should be done in one single day on account of the extreme urgency and rigor of events. Other key positions were filled yesterday. I am submitting a further list to the king tonight. I hope to complete the appointment of principal ministers during tomorrow.
The appointment of other ministers usually takes a little longer. I trust when Parliament meets again this part of my task will be completed and that the administration will be complete in all respects. I considered it in the public interest to suggest to the Speaker that the House should be summoned today.
At the end of today's proceedings, the adjournment of the House will be proposed until May 21 with provision for earlier meeting if need be. Business for that will be notified to MPs at the earliest opportunity.
I now invite the House by a resolution to record its approval of the steps taken and declare its confidence in the new government.
In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and colleagues or former colleagues who are affected by the political reconstruction will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act.
I say to the House as I said to ministers who have joined this government, I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering.
You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage war by land, sea, and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.
You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word. It is victory. Victory at all costs Victory in spite of all terrors Victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.
Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move forward toward his goal.
I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men.
I feel entitled at this juncture, at this time, to claim the aid of all and to say, "Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength
Complete Speeches of Winston Churchill Contents:
| 1939 The S.S St. Louis sails from Hamburg at
20:00, full of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany, bound for Cuba (where
they would be turned back).
1934 Great dustbowl storm in US Midwest.
1925 In Tallahassee, Florida, the State legislature passed a bill requiring daily Bible readings in all public schools
1917 Near Fatima, Portugal, first apparition of the Virgin Mary to three shepherd children: Lúcia Santos, [28 Mar 1907 – 13 Feb 2005], Jacinta Marto [11 Mar 1910 – 20 Feb 1920], and Francisco Marto [11 Jun 1908 – 04 Apr 1919]. The other apparitions were on 13 June 1917, 13 July 1917, 19 August 1917, 13 September 1917, and that accompanied by the Miracle of the Sun on 13 October 1917. —(080517)
1888 DeWolf Hopper first recited "Casey at the Bat"
1874 Pope Pius IX encyclical "On the Greek-Ruthenian rite"
1865 Skirmish at Palmito Ranch, Texas the last engagement of the Civil War concludes.
1864 Struggle for the Bloody Angle at Spotsylvania, Virginia, concludes.
1864 Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Resaca [or 0515]
1828 US passes Tariff of Abominations
1795 (24 floréal an III) CAHEN Michel, marchand boucher, domicilié à Guinglane, département de la Moselle, est condamné à 15 années de fer, comme fabricateur et distributeur de faux assignats, et fausse monnoie, le 24 floréal an 3, .
1779 War of Bavarian Succession ends
1665 A statute is enacted in Rhode Island, offering freemanship with no specifically Christian requirements, thus effectively enfranchising Jews.
2008:: 63 persons by 7 bicycle bombs which explode at various locations in Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan, India, within 12 minutes about 19:30 (14:00 UT). Some 230 persons are injured. This is the work of Islamic terrorists. An unexploded 8th bomb is found. —(080515)
2007 Bishop Pierre François Marie Joseph Duprey [16 Nov 1922–], former secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. He belonged to the Missionaries of Africa, formerly known as the White Fathers. He was born in Croix, France. He entered the novitiate of the White Fathers in 1942 in Algiers and was ordained a priest on 01 February 1950. After receiving a doctorate from the Pontifical Oriental Institute in Rome, he studied Orthodox theology in Athens and Arabic in Beirut. From 1956 to 1963, he was professor of dogmatic theology and Church history in Jerusalem. In 1961, on the Island of Rhodes, Greece, he was one of the Catholic observers present at the first Pan-Orthodox Conference, which brought together 61 representatives from 12 self-governing Orthodox churches. In 1962, he was invited to participate as a theologian and interpreter to assist the delegation of Orthodox observers at the first session (11 Oct 1962 - 08 Dec 1962) of the Second Vatican Council (11 Oct 1962 - 08 Dec 1965) . Central role. In 1963 he was appointed undersecretary of the Secretariat for Christian Unity, established in 1960 by Blessed Pope John XXIII [25 Nov 1881 – 03 Jun 1963], led at that time by Cardinal Augustin Bea [28 May 1881 – 16 Nov 1968]. Monsignor Duprey played a central role in the preparation of the 1964 meeting between Paul VI [26 Sep 1897 – 06 Aug 1978] and Patriarch Athenagoras I [25 Mar 1886 – 07 July 1972] of Constantinople, and the cancellation of the reciprocal 1054 excommunications of the Great Schism between the Catholic and the Orthodox Churches. He was an important influence in the preparations for the opening of theological dialogue between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, announced during the 30 November 1979 visit of Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920– 02 Apr 2005] to Dimitrios I [1914 – 02 Oct 1991], ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople. Monsignor Duprey was appointed secretary for the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity on 25 April 1983. He was consecrated a bishop on 06 January 1990. He carried out his ministry as a bishop in that dicastery until his retirement for reasons of age on 16 March 1999. His successor in the post was Bishop Walter Kasper [05 Mar 1933~], future cardinal (21 Feb 2001) and current president of the council. —(070515)
2005 Firmin Mahé, 30, smothered with a plastic bag over his head, in a light armored vehicle, by French soldiers of the 4e régiment de chasseurs alpins de Gap, conducting Opération Licorne in Côte d'Ivoire. Adjudant-chef Guy Raugel and brigadier-chef Johannes Schnier would be charged with voluntary homicide volontaire; the driver, brigadier Lianrifou Ben Youssouf, would be charged with complicity. Suspect of heading a gang of highway robbers, Mahé had been lightly wounded in the leg and captured in Dah, his home village where he was an electrician-plumber, and was being taken from a first-aid post in Bangolo to a hospital in Man. French soldiers had already arrested him in April 2005, accusing him of having killed 5 persons, wounded 9, and raped 4; they had turned him over to Ivorian authorities, who had freed him. General Henri Poncet, commander of Opération Licorne, would be suspended on 17 October 2005 for possibly ordering the murder and at least condoning a cover-up. — (051214)
2005 Said Shakirov and some 600 other demonstrators fired upon by troops, and 10 of the soldiers, in Andijan (or Andizhan), Uzbekistan. Hundreds of persons are wounded. The riots were provoked by the prosecution asking for long prison sentences in the trial, started in mid-February 2005, of 23 local businessmen. The authorities wanted to seize their businesses and arrested them from 23 June 2004 to August 2004 falsely accusing them of belonging to the allegedly extremist Islamist groups Akromiya and Hizb ut-Tahrir (or Hizb-ut-Takhrir), severely repressed by the dictatorial government of unreformed-former-Communist president Islam Karimov [30 Jan 1938~]. Just after midnight, some 60 persons seize weapons from a military base then, joined by many others, assault the prison, free the 23 and some 2000 other prisoners, then take over government buildings and demonstrate in the streets. At 17:30 (12:30 UT) troops in armored carriers enter the central square and fire on the crowd of some 3000 demonstrators. The government clamps down further on information media. The protests continue the next day and spread to Ilyichevsk, on the border with Kyrgyzstan, to which thousands seek to flee from the brutal repression; some 500 succeed despite the Uzbek border guards. The dictatorship has been permitting only a sanctioned form of religious practice, which requires that a sermon distributed by the grand mufti of Tashkent (appointed by the dictator} be read every Friday in every mosque in the country. Human Rights Watch says that the imprisoned men are not extremists, that they only want religious freedom for Islam and are victims of the dictatorship (allied to the Bush regime of the US), which has jailed, tortured, or killed more than 7000 for "crimes" that often are nothing more than praying, growing a beard, or criticizing the government of this Muslim nation of 2'500'000. Akrimiya was founded in 1996 by Akram Yuldashev, an Islamic dissident from Andijan sentenced in 1999 to 17 years in prison for allegedly urging the overthrow of Karimov in a pamphlet, a claim he denied.
2005 Michael B. Ross, born on 26 July 1959, by lethal injection, in Connecticut, having been convicted on 06 July 1987 of 4 of the murders of 8 women, to which he had confessed: Dzung Ngoc Tu, 25 (12 May 1981); Paula Perrera, 16 (01 Mar 1982); Tammy Williams, 17 (05 Jan 1982); Debra Smith Taylor, 23 (15 Jun 1982); Robin Stavinksy, 19 (Nov 1983); April Brunias, 14 (22 Apr 1984); Leslie Shelley, 14 (April 22, 1984); Wendy Baribeault, 17 (13 Jun 1984). It is the first execution in New England since 1960. It was delayed by appeals made against Ross's will.
2004 Twelve Palestinians killed by Israeli troops attacking the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
1996 More than 600 persons, by a tornado in Bangladesh.
1988 Chesney Henry “Chet” Baker Jr. [23 December 1929–], US drug-addicted jazz trumpeter falls to death out of a hotel window in Amsterdam, Netherlands. —(080512)
1962 Dr H Trendley Dean introduced fluoridation into water
1948 Kathleen Kennedy Cavendish, 28, in plane crash. She was born on 20 February 1920, almost 3 years after her brother John F.Kennedy who would be US president. She was the widow of William John Robert Cavendish, whom she had married during WW II in London on 06 May 1944, and who was killed fighting in Belgium, at age 26, on 10 September 1944.
1944 William Edward Hodgson Berwick, English algebraist born on 11 March 1888.
1930 Farmer killed by hail in Lubbock, Texas. Only known fatality due to hail in US.
1939 Stanislaw Leshniewski, Polish mathematician born on 30 March 1886.
1919 Eugen Otto Erwin Netto, German mathematician born on 30 June 1848.
1866 Nicolay Dmetrievich Brashman, Russian mathematician born on 14 June 1796. Chebyshev [16 May 1821 – 08 Dec 1894] and Somov [01 Jun 1815 – 26 Apr 1876] were among his students.
1826 Christian Kramp, Strasbourg physician, physicist, and mathematician born on 08 July 1760. He did not suffer much from writer's kramp; among his writings are several elementary treatises on pure mathematics.
He introduced the notation n! for factorials, and generalized them to the Real line. They were later further generalized to the Complex plane, by the gamma function, .
G(y+1) = yG(y)
G(0.5) = SQR(p)
G(1.5) = 0.5 SQR(p)
G(n + 0.5) / SQR(p) = (2n–1)! / [(n–1)! 2^(2n–1)]
If n is an integer then G(n+1) = n!
à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (24 floréal an II):
SAINT-PEZ Charles, ex-curé d’auculére, domicilié à Auculéne (Côtes du Nord), par la commission militaire de Port-Malo, comme réfractaire à la loi.
CARRAUT Benoit Joseph, 62 ans, né à Bouret, ancien militaire, époux de Caillet Thérèse, guillotiné à Arras
LEFEBVRE Jean Marie, 45 ans, né et demeurant à St Omer, fabricant d'huile, époux de Leclerq Catherine, guillotiné à Arras
Domiciliés à Cambray (Nord), par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray:
BRUNEAU Pierre François Joseph, avocat à Cambray, comme traître à la patrie, et ayant discrédité les assignats.
FONTAINE Pierre François Joseph, domestique, comme traître à la patrie, et ayant discrédité les assignats.
CHATELAIN Philippe, fabricant de toilette, comme convaincu d'espionnage
TESTARD Jacques, fabricant de toiles, comme convaincu d'espionnage.
POURÉ Noël Joseph, laboureur, comme ayant été nommé major par la Junte impériale.
Par le tribunal criminel du département de la Lozère:
VERDIER, ex-abbé de Chaudesaigues (Cantal).
... domiciliés dans le département de l'Aveyron, comme complices de séditieux:
PONS, fils, domicilié à Caylus. SALGUES, domicilié à Liocan. SOUTOULI, médecin de St Côme, domicilié à Liocan. VASSEUR, maçon, domicilié à St-Geniez.
... domiciliés dans le département de la Lozère:
BOUDET Vilaret, ex abbé, domicilié à Monastier, canton de Marvejols, comme complice des brigands de la Vendée.
BOISSONNAD (dit l'Etudiant), domicilié à Rieutort-d'Aubrac, canton de Marvejols,.comme séditieux.
JOUROUET, (dit le chevalier de Lasale de Montgézieu), cadet, domicilié à Mende, comme chef de séditieux.
... ... comme complices de séditieux:
BALEZ Jean Pierre, domicilié à St Léger-de-Peyre, canton de la Marvejols. PROUZET, cadet, praticien, domicilié à St Sauveur-des-Peyres.
ROUME Alexis, domicilié à St Sauveur. BONNAL maréchal ferrant et hôtelier, domicilié à St Launet-de-Muret, canton de Marvejols.
ASTRUC, cordonnier, domicilié à Marjevols. LIGIER Théodore, domicilié à Marvejols.
DELESTANG aîné, domicilié à Chirac. MELHAC Romain, domicilié à Chirac.
DELIANE, fils, ex abbé du Monastier, y demeurant. GIBELIN, ex noble, domicilié à Pin.
GISCARD Joseph (dit Loubesson), domicilié à Cheleu. JAROUSSE, maire de la commune de St Laurent-du-Muret y demeurant.
JARRIGION, ex curé de Rocoul-d'Aubrac y demeurant. JARRIGION, ex vicaire de St Chely, y demeurant.
LAPORTE Jean Marc, domicilié à Chante-Grenouille. LIBOUREL, ex abbé, domicilié à Pratriala.
MALZAC fils aîné, domicilié à Montignac. MESTRE, curé du Marchastel, domicilié à Marchastel.
QUINTIN, domestique, domicilié à Barjac. ROUEL, ex vicaire, domicilié à Nasbinals.
CHARBONNIER (dit Parisien), domicilié à Nasbinals. FOURNIER, ci-devant, prieur curé de Nasbinals, y demeurant.
FOURNIER, domicilié à Ste Lucie. ROZIER Pierre (dit Longrandail), domicilié à Malassagrie.
TOIRON, ex-vicaire de Prinsuejols, domicilié à Prinsuejols. VIALA Jean, (dit Jeanon), domicilié à Chastelnouvel.
PAPAREL Pierre, père, fermier, domicilié à Chanac. Note: PAPAREL Pierre (dit chenac) [sans doute fils], domicilié à Chenac, , avait été comme contre-révolutionnaire le 14 juin 1793 .
BOUSCHET Marca, domicilié à Rieutor-de-Randon, canton de Mende.
... ... ... domiciliés à Mende:
BASTIDE BERGON, ex aumônier de la Beaume BONNAL Etienne, (dit Piarronnas) GERVAIS Louis, (dit Coucourel) SARRUT Projet, ex-abbé VALETTE, jeune fils.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
UBELESKY Jean Baptiste, visiteur des rôles, 65 ans, né à Longueville en caux, domicilié à Dieppe (Seine Inférieure), comme convaincu d’avoir entretenu des correspondance avec un parent émigré en Angleterre.
... comme conspirateurs:
JOUEN Gilles, maréchal des logis au régiment de Conti dragons, chef d'un détachement de dragons de la Manche, 42 ans, né à Bernay (Eure), domicilié à Pacy même département, comme conspirateur et fédéraliste.
LANLOUP Anne Joseph, 65 ans, ex noble médecin, né et domicilié à Lanloup (Côtes-du-Nord).
LOUBER Adrien, notaire public et procureur fiscal de Plusieurs ci-devant justices seigneuriales, officier municipal de Puyredon (Allier).
MAUGER Etienne, 40 ans, ex bénédictin, ex curé de Wize, professeur de physique en l'université de cette ville, membre de l'assemblée centrale des départements fédéralistes à Caen, né et domicilié à Rouen (Seine Inférieure).
ROLLET Jacques Amable Gilbert (dit Davaux), 68 ans, président au ci-devant présidial de la sénéchaussée de Rion, né et domicilié à Rion.
VILLAINE Adrienne Françoise, femme Rollet-Davaux, ex-noble, 59 ans, née et domicilié à Riom (Puy-de-Dôme).
|1695 Pierre Mignard I le Romain, French painter
born on 17 November 1612. MORE
ON MIGNARD AT ART 4 MAY with
links to images.
1625 Anton Mozart, German artist born in 1573.
1886 Carl Mense, German artist who died on 11 August 1965.
1884 Cyrus McCormick (inventor: the grain reaper machine for farming)
1882 Georges Braque, French Cubist and Fauvist painter, collagist, draftsman, printmaker, illustrator, and sculptor, who died on 31 August 1983. MORE ON BRAQUE AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1879 (1877?) Joseph Stella, Italian-born US painter and collagist who died on 05 November 1946. MORE ON STELLA AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1867 Sir Frank William Brangwyn, English painter and graphic artist who died on 11 June 1956. MORE ON BRANGWYN AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1857 Sir Ronald Ross England, pathologist (Nobel 1902)
1857 Delphin Enjolras, French artist who died in 1945.
1855 Ludwig Deutsch, Austrian French painter who died in 1935, specialized in Orientalism. . MORE ON DEUTSCH AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1853 Adolf Richard Hölzel, German painter who died on 17 May 1934
1813 Karl Girardet, Swiss painter and engraver who died in 1871. — link to an image.
1768 Willem-Bartel van der Kooi, Dutch artist who died on 14 July 1836. — more
1753 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot, French engineer, military officer, revolutionary and bonapartist politician, mathematician, who died on 02 Aug 1823, a fugitive in exile. He was the father of Sadi Carnot [01 Jun 1796 – 24 Aug 1832].
1750 Lorenzo Mascheroni, Lombard Catholic priest, mathematician, physicist, poet, who died on 14 July 1800. Author of Adnotationes ad calculum integrale Euleri (1790), Nuove ricerchi su l'equilibrio delle vòlte (1785), and Geometria del compasso (1797), in which he proved that all Euclidean constructions can be made with compasses alone, so a straight edge in not needed.
1730 Marquess of Rockingham (Whig), British PM (1765-66, 1782)
1717 Empress Maria Theresa Empress of Austria
1655 Innocent XIII 244th Roman Pope (1721-1724)
1597 Cornelis Schut I, Flemish artist who died on 29 April 1655. — more