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Events, deaths, births, of 12 MAY
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” MAY 12    wikipedia
• Kampuchea seizes Mayaguez... • Lindbergh baby found dead... • Germany invades France... • Bloody battle at Spotsylvania... • Painter~poet Rossetti is born... • There was a limerick writer... • Unsafe at any speed... • Berlin blockade lifted... • Prodigy sold... • Amazon sold... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Hitler's envoy shot dead... • to move MOVE... • Blackmun to Supreme Court... • George VI crowned king... • Radio patented... • Mine strike... • Mexican war: 1st battle... • Israeli copters kill 2 Palestinians... • Difference Engine needs money... • Fur trader heads West... • A Shau Valley battle... • US VP visits Vietnam...
^  On a 12 May:
+ ZOOM IN +
2006 Isabelle Carlsen and Abbigail Carlsen [photo >], omphalopagus conjoined twins born on 29 November 2005, are surgically separated at the Mayo clinic. Their parents are Amy Burrows Carlsen, 26 (daughter of Linda and Bill Burrows), and Jesse Carlsen, 29, of 3630 18th Street S., Fargo, North Dakota, 58104-6598 (phone 701.235-8529 _ e-mail).
     _ other photos: .smiling
_ .held by dad, mom at his side; out-of-doors
_ .held by maternal grandpa, grandma at his side; indoors —(080513)

2004 Under secrecy, the US Defense Department shows to members of Congress 1800 photos of abuse of prisoners by US troops at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, similar to the photos that have become public over the previous week. The photos include some of dogs snarling at prisoners, of women being forced at gunpoint to expose their breasts, of hooded prisoners being forced to masturbate, and of forced homosexual acts.
2004 The US military in Afghanistan starts an investigation into the allegations of Afghan police colonel Sayed Nabi Siddiqui who said that he had been repeatedly beaten, stripped naked and threatened with dogs for nearly 40 days in 2003 at several US-run bases in Afghanistan.

2003 Paul Bremer, 61, a US former diplomat and anti-terrorism adviser, arrives in Baghdad, Iraq, were he replaces retired general Jay Garner as head of the US occupation government.

1998 The attorney general of Texas says that he might drop his months of investigation into Microsoft's business practices (which Texas technology companies in Texas claim would hurt them)

^ 1997 Barnes and Noble sues Amazon
      One day before launching its own online bookstore, Barnes and Noble sued Amazon.com, challenging Amazon's claim to be the "world's largest bookstore." Barnes and Noble claimed to stock far more books than Amazon.com. The suit also argued that Amazon "wasn't a bookstore at all" but rather a book broker.
^ 1996 IBM and Sears sell Prodigy
      IBM and Sears sign a deal to sell Prodigy to an investment group called International Wireless.
      The two companies cofounded the online company in 1984 and invested more than $1 billion in the venture. The buyout was welcomed by Prodigy's management, who received an ownership stake in the company.
1986 Fred Markham (US), unpaced and unaided by wind, is first to pedal 105 km/h on a level course, Big Sand Flat, California.
^ 1985 Preparing to move MOVE
      In Philadelphia, the police begins evacuating people from their Osage Avenue homes in order to prepare for an operation against MOVE, a radical cult group that had assembled a large arsenal. By the end of the confrontation, 11 people were dead and 61 homes had been burned down.
      The roots of the 1985 incident date back to 1978 when a confrontation between MOVE and the police left Officer James Ramp dead. Several innocent MOVE members were convicted of murder, enraging other members. Leader John Africa began a counterattack on Christmas Eve, 1983. At the MOVE headquarters at 6221 Osage Avenue, members set up several loudspeakers and began shouting profanities at their neighbors. Even more ominously, MOVE began assembling a cache of weapons and building bunkers in their row house.
     Everything comes to a head in May 1985 when Mayor W. Wilson Goode orders police to raid the MOVE headquarters. Authorities soon realize that there is very little they could do to remove MOVE members from their entrenched position.
      At about 17:30 on 13 May, a small bomb is dropped on the roof of the building in an attempt to destroy the bunker. This proved disastrous, as the roof was covered with tar and gas, and a blistering fire broke out. It took the fire department an hour to begin extinguishing the fire. By this time, it was raging out of control. In the ensuing chaos, six adults and five children inside the MOVE home were killed. By the time the fire had been contained, nearly an entire block of homes in Philadelphia had burned down. Much like the Waco, Texas, raid of the Branch Davidians eight years later, the authorities came under heavy criticism for their harsh handling of the confrontation.
1984 S Afr prisoner Nelson Mandela sees his wife for first time in 22 years
1982 In Fatima Portugal, a Spanish priest with a bayonet is stopped prior to his attempt to attack Pope John Paul II
1980 first nonstop crossing of US via balloon.
^ 1975 US ship Mayaguez is seized by Khmer Rouge.
      The US freighter Mayaguez is captured by communist government forces in Cambodia, setting off an international incident. The US response to the affair indicated that the wounds of the Vietnam War still ran deep. On 12 May 1975, the US freighter Mayaguez and its 39-man crew was captured by gunboats of the Cambodian navy. Cambodia had fallen to communist insurgents, the Khmer Rouge, in April 1973. The Cambodian authorities imprisoned the US crew, pending an investigation of the ship and why it had sailed into waters claimed by Cambodia.
      The response of the United States government was quick. President Gerald Ford called the Cambodian seizure of the Mayaguez an "act of piracy" and promised swift action to rescue the captured US sailors. In part, Ford's aggressive attitude to the incident was a by-product of the US failure in Vietnam. In January 1973, US forces had withdrawn from South Vietnam, ending years of a bloody and inconclusive attempt to forestall communist rule of that nation. In the time since the US withdrawal, a number of conservative politicians and intellectuals in the United States had begun to question the US's "credibility" in the international field, suggesting that the country's loss of will in Vietnam now encouraged enemies around the world to challenge the US with seeming impunity. The Cambodian seizure of the Mayaguez appeared to be just such a challenge. On 14 May, President Ford ordered the bombing of the Cambodian port where the gunboats had come from and sent Marines to attack the island of Koh Tang, where the prisoners were being held. Unfortunately, the military action was probably unnecessary. The Cambodian government was already in the process of releasing the crew of the Mayaguez and the ship. Forty-one US persons died, most of them in an accidental explosion during the attack. Most people in the US, however, cheered the action as evidence that the United States was once again willing to use military might to slap down potential enemies.
1971 A Shau Valley battle begins.
      The first major battle of Operation Lam Son 720 takes place as North Vietnamese forces hit the same South Vietnamese 500~man marine battalion twice in one day. Each time, the Communists were pushed back after heavy fighting. Earlier, the South Vietnamese reportedly destroyed a North Vietnamese base camp and arms production facility in the A Shau Valley. On 19 May, in a six-hour battle, South Vietnamese troops engaged the communists. Three Allied helicopters and a reconnaissance plane were downed by enemy ground fire. The fighting, air strikes, and artillery fire continued in the A Shau Valley through 23 May; the South Vietnamese claimed the capture of more communist bunker networks and the destruction of large amounts of supplies and ammunition.
^ 1970 Blackmun is confirmed to US Supreme Court
      The Senate confirmed President Richard M. Nixon’s nomination of Federal Circuit Judge Harry A. Blackmun to the US Supreme Court. Blackmun, born in Nashville, Illinois, in 1908, was regarded as a staunch conservative when he joined the nation’s highest court as an associative justice in 1970. Widely praised for his scholarly and carefully drafted opinions, Blackmun was initially allied with other Republican appointees on the court, but all that changed in 1973 when the Roe vs. Wade decision, legalizing abortion, was authored by Blackmun and thus made him one of the most vilified Supreme Court members in US history.
      During the 1980s, Blackmun became a champion of separation between church and state, and often cast liberal votes in cases pitting individual liberties against governmental authority. By the time he retired in 1994, he was considered the high court’s most liberal justice, although he often claimed that the court’s politics had changed more than his own. He died in 1999 at the age of ninety.
1967 H Rap Brown replaces Stokely Carmichael as chairman of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
1965 Israel and West Germany exchange letters beginning diplomatic relations
1961 Botvinnik wins world chess championship for 3rd time
1961 US Vice President visits South Vietnam.
      Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon during his tour of Asian countries. Calling Diem the "Churchill of Asia," he encouraged the South Vietnamese president to view himself as indispensable to the United States and promised additional military aid to assist his government in fighting the communists. On his return home, Johnson echoed domino theorists, saying that the loss of Vietnam would compel the United States to fight "on the beaches of Waikiki" and eventually on "our own shores." With the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, Johnson became president and inherited a deteriorating situation in South Vietnam. Over time, he escalated the war, ultimately committing more than 500'000 US soldiers to Vietnam.
1956 East Pakistan struck by cyclone and tidal waves.
^ 1949 Berlin blockade is lifted,
 defeated by the Berlin Airlift. In June of 1948, the USS.R. imposed blockades on routes to Berlin through Soviet occupation zones in East Germany, due it said, to Allied intransigence on the future of the country. Although land and water routes were blocked, the Soviets could not risk shooting down planes, and a massive airlift of coal, food, and supplies was undertaken by the West. Flights were made around the clock, and at the height of the Berlin Airlift, planes were landing in the city every three minutes.
     The Soviet Union lifts its 11-month blockade against West Berlin. The blockade had been broken by a massive US-British airlift of vital supplies to West Berlin's two million citizens. At the end of World War II, Germany was divided into four sectors administered by the four major Allied powers: the USSR, the United States, Britain, and France. Berlin, the German capital, was likewise divided into four sectors, even though it was located deep within the Soviet sector of eastern Germany. The future of Germany and Berlin was a major sticking point in postwar treaty talks, especially after the United States, Britain, and France sought to unite their occupation zones into a single economic zone. In March 1948, the Soviet Union quit the Allied Control Council governing occupied Germany over this issue.
      In May, the three Western powers agreed to the imminent formation of West Germany, a nation that would exist entirely independent of Soviet-occupied eastern Germany. The three western sectors of Berlin were united as West Berlin, which was to be under the administration of West Germany. On 20 June, as a major step toward the establishment of a West German government, the Western powers introduced a new Deutsche mark in West Germany and West Berlin. The Soviets condemned this move as an attack on the East German currency and on June 24 began a blockade of all rail, road, and water communications between Berlin and the West. The four-power administration of Berlin had ceased with the unification of West Berlin, the Soviets said, and the Western powers no longer had a right to be there. With West Berlin's food, fuel, and other necessities cut off, the Soviets reasoned, it would soon have to submit to Communist control.
      Great Britain and the United States responded by initiating the largest airlift in history, flying 278'288 relief missions to the city during the next 14 months, resulting in the delivery of 2'326'406 tons of supplies. As the Soviets had cut off power to West Berlin, coal accounted for over two-thirds of the material delivered. In the opposite direction, return flights transported West Berlin's industrial exports to the West. Flights were made around the clock, and at the height of the Berlin airlift, in April 1949, planes were landing in the city every minute. Tensions were high during the airlift, and three groups of US strategic bombers were sent as reinforcements to Britain while the Soviet army presence in eastern Germany increased dramatically. The Soviets made no major effort to disrupt the airlift. As a countermeasure against the Soviet blockade, the Western powers also launched a trade embargo against eastern Germany and other Soviet bloc countries. On 12 May 1949, the Soviets abandoned the blockade, and the first British and US convoys drove though 180 km of Soviet-occupied Germany to reach West Berlin. On 23 May, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was formally established. On 07 October, the German Democratic Republic, a Communist state, was proclaimed in East Germany. The Berlin airlift continued until 30 September, in an effort to build up a year's supply of essential goods for West Berlin in the event of another Soviet blockade. Another blockade did not occur, but Cold War tensions over Berlin remained high, culminating in the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961.
1943 Axis forces in North Africa surrender
1940 Germany invades France       ^top^
      Two days after the German Wehrmacht stormed into Belgium, Holland, and the Netherlands, the Nazi invasion of France begins. In a lightning strike, German forces simply out-flank the northwest corners of the Maginot Line, an impregnable defense of France's border with Germany, which did not extend to the France's borders with Luxembourg or Bellgium.
      Within a week, Dutch and Belgian resistance had ended, making the Allied defense of France untenable. On 26 May, with German tanks racing across Western Europe, the British initiated Operation Dynamo — the total evacuation of Allied forces from the beach at Dunkirk. The ten-day evacuation, during which 340'000 British, French, and Belgian troops were brought to the safety of the British isle, was constantly harassed by attacks from the German air force. All British citizens in possession of sea-worthy vessels were asked to lend their ships to the effort, and all but 40'000 of the Allied soldiers who massed at Dunkirk escaped capture.
      With Western Europe abandoned by its defenders, the German army swept through the rest of France, and on 14 June, Paris fell to the Nazis. Eight days later, France, now under Philippe Pétain, signed an armistice with the Nazis at Compiègne, and Germany occupied half the country and annnexed Alsace-Lorraine, leaving the other half in the hands of their puppet French rulers. In July, Pétain established his regime at Vichy, in unoccupied France.
      The Vichy government under Pétain and later Pierre Laval collaborated with the Nazis, and French citizens suffered on both sides of the divided nation. On 06 June 1944, liberation of France began with the successful Allied landed at Normandy.
1938 In Holland, the four-day convention at Utrecht ended, at which the Provisional Constitution for the World Council of Churches was adopted.
1937 George VI crowned       ^top^
      At London’s Westminster Abbey, George VI [14 Dec 1895 – 06 Feb 1952] and his consort, Lady Elizabeth [04 Aug 1900 – 30 Mar 2002], are crowned king and queen of the United Kingdom during a coronation ceremony dating back over a millennium.
      George, who studied at Dartmouth Naval College and served during World War I, ascended to the throne after his elder brother, King Edward VIII [23 Jun 1894 – 28 May 1972], abdicated on 11 December 1936. Edward, the first English monarch to voluntarily relinquish the throne, agreed to give up his title in the face of widespread criticism of his desire to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson [19 Jun 1896 – 24 Apr 1986], a US divorcee.
      In 1939, George became the first British monarch to visit the US and Canada, and during World War II, he worked to keep up British morale by visiting bombed areas, inspecting war plants, and touring combat zones. In addition, George and Elizabeth, and their two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, remained in bomb-damaged Buckingham Palace during the war, and made a number of important morale-boosting radio broadcasts, for which George overcame a speech impediment.
      After the war, the royal family made a state visit and tour of South Africa, but a planned tour of Australia and New Zealand had to be postponed indefinitely when the king fell ill in 1949. Despite his illness, George continued to perform state duties until his death in 1952. He was succeeded by his first-born, who was crowned Queen Elizabeth II on 02 June 1953.
1932 Lindbergh baby found dead       ^top^
      Charles Augustus Lindbergh III [22 Jun 1930 – 02 Mar 1932], the son of author Anne Morrow Lindbergh [22 Jun 1906 – 07 Feb 2001] and Charles A. Lindbergh [04 Feb 1902 – 26 Aug 1974], who had made the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight in 1927, is found dead in the woods near the Lindbergh home.
      On 01 March 1932, the baby had been kidnapped from the nursery of his parents’ home in Hopewell, New Jersey. A ransom note found on the scene of the crime demanded $50'000 in payment for the return of Charles, Jr. Three days later, after Lindbergh involved the authorities against the kidnapper’s advice, the ransom was increased to $70'000. Dr. John F. Condon, sympathetic to Lindbergh, volunteered to intercede in the payment of the ransom, and on 02 April, at New Jersey’s St. Raymond’s Cemetery, he handed over the $70'000 as Lindbergh waited nearby in a car.
      However, the Lindbergh baby was not returned. On 12 May 1932, the body of the kidnapped baby is accidentally found, partly buried, and badly decomposed, about 7 km southeast of the Lindbergh home, 15 m from the highway, near Mount Rose, New Jersey, in Mercer County. The discovery is made by William Allen, an assistant on a truck driven by Orville Wilson. The head was crushed, there was a hole in the skull and some of the body members were missing. The body was positively identified and cremated at Trenton, New Jersey, on 13 May 1932. The Coroner's examination showed that the child had been dead for about two months and that death was caused by a blow on the head.
      Following the tragic discovery, the Lindbergh kidnapping case, already a highly publicized story, became a sensational media event as authorities launched an extensive manhunt for the guilty party, using the recorded serial numbers of the ransom money as a guide. Public outrage over the Lindbergh kidnapping led to the passing of the "Lindbergh Law" by Congress, which made the crime of kidnapping a federal offense punishable by the death penalty.
      On 19 September 1934, $14'000 of the ransom money was found in the Bronx, New York, apartment of Richard Bruno Hauptmann [26 Nov 1899 – 03 Apr 1936], a German carpenter. During the subsequent criminal trial, Hauptmann maintained his innocence, claiming that a business partner, Isador Fisch, gave him the money before returning to Germany, where he died in March 1934. On 13 February 1935, Hauptmann was convicted and, on 03 April 1936, after a series of appeals, he was executed by electrocution.
      In the years after the kidnapping, a number of people began to question Hauptmann's guilt and the quality of the criminal investigation; however, much of this criticism may have been motivated by opposition to Lindbergh following the public revelations of his Nazi sympathies.
1908 Nathan Stubblefield patents radio       ^top^
     Nathan Stubblefield obtains a patent for wireless voice transmission. Stubblefield had demonstrated his invention in 1902 in Fairmont Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when his voice was transmitted more than a mile via radio waves. However, Stubblefield was secretive about his invention and did not encourage its promotion abroad.
1902 Call for nationwide mine strike in the US.       ^top^
      By the dawn of the twentieth century, trouble was clearly brewing in the nation's coal mines. Indeed, miners had long toiled in foul conditions for paltry pay; moreover, managers often forced workers to rent space in company houses and to purchase items at company-owned stores. Duly fed up with these conditions, miners across the country held a number of strikes during the later years of the nineteenth century. The mine companies, now largely run by the US's imperious rail barons, steadfastly ignored their workers' pleas.
      The situation came to something of a boil on this day in 1902, as union chief John Mitchell raised the call for a nationwide strike; 140'000 members of the United Mine Workers heeded his charge. The ensuing strike dragged on for five months, as mine owners, firmly anticipating that the Federal government would rush to their side, smugly refused to acknowledge the coal union, or to enter negotiations.
      Meanwhile, coal prices skyrocketed, fraying the public's collective nerves and inciting calls for the government to negotiate a settlement. Though the Constitution didn't sanction intervention by the White House, President Teddy Roosevelt grew impatient and stepped in to speed up the negotiations. The mine owners rebuffed these efforts, prompting the president to threaten to hand control of the mines to the Army.
      Roosevelt's gambit proved effective and the mine owners finally sat down for a serious round of negotiations. By October of 1902, the strikers had returned to work and a newly formed Commission of Arbitration had kicked off a probe into the conditions at the nation's mines. That following spring, the Commission handed down its findings, which included recommendations of pay hikes and reduced hours for workers, and that mine owners recognize the coal union.
1898 Louisiana adopts new constitution with "grandfather clause" designed to eliminate black voters
1891 The Presbytery of New York voted to put the Rev. Dr. Charles A. Briggs, the new professor of biblical theology at Union Theological Seminary, on trial for heresy.
1885 Battle of Batoche, French Canadians rebel against Canada
1881 Treaty of Bardo, Tunis becomes a French protectorate
1870 Manitoba becomes a province of Canada
1865 Skirmish at Palmito Ranch, Texas — the last engagement of the Civil War — begins
1864 Union forces advance on the Drewry's Bluff line crossing Proctors Creek
1864 Battle of Spotsylvania, Virginia continues with the fight for the Bloody Angle
1864 Butler attacks Drewry's Bluff on James River
1863 Engagement at Raymond, Mississippi
1846 First battle of the Mexican-US War.       ^top^
      One day before the US declares war, General Zachary Taylor [24 Nov 1784 – 09 Jul 1850] leads US troops to victory against an attacking larger Mexican force at the Battle of Palo Alto.
      The Mexican-US War began with a dispute over the US government’s 1845 annexation of Texas, which had won independence from Mexico in 1836. In January of 1846, President James K. Polk, a strong advocate of westward expansion, ordered General Zachary Taylor to occupy disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers.
      On 09 May 1846 word reached Washington that a US patrol had been ambushed by Mexican forces north of the Rio Grande, and on 13 May 1846, not yet aware of the battle of Palo Alto, Congress granted President James K. Polk’s request for a declaration of war, appropriated ten million dollars for the war effort, and authorized the president to call for 50'000 volunteers.
      On 09 March 1847, US forces under General Winfield Scott invaded Mexico 5 km south of Vera Cruz. Encountering little resistance from the Mexicans massed in the fortified city of Vera Cruz, by nightfall the last of Scott’s 10'000 men had come ashore without the loss of a single life. By 29 March, with very few US casualties, Scott’s forces had taken Vera Cruz and its massive fortress, San Juan de Ulua.
      On 09 April, Scott began a devastating march to Mexico City, ending on 14 September, when triumphant US forces entered the Mexican capital and raised the US flag over the Hall of Montezuma.
      On 02 February 1848, representatives from the US and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, formally ending the Mexican War, recognizing Texas as part of the United States, and extending the boundaries of the United States west to the Pacific Ocean.
1832 Fur trader William Sublette heads west       ^top^
      The fur trader William Sublette leads a pack train out of Independence, Missouri, heading west for a disastrous rendezvous at Pierre's Hole, Idaho. William Sublette was the eldest of five brothers who were all associated with the fur trade. Sometime between 1816 and 1817, his parents moved their large family west from Kentucky to the frontier country of Missouri Territory. His father ran a tavern in present-day St. Charles, but he died in 1823 when Sublette was 24 years old. The following year, Sublette joined William Ashley's second fur-trading expedition up the Missouri River. Sublette quickly learned that fur trading was a dangerous occupation. Arikara Indians attacked Ashley's party of traders and killed several men, wounded others, and stole many of their supplies. Luckily, Sublette managed to escape injury.
      The next autumn, he returned to the area under the leadership of the famous mountain man Jedediah Smith. Hoping to avoid Indian attacks by breaking away from the usual river routes, Smith led his small party overland on horseback into the northern Rocky Mountains, where they blazed important new trails and rediscovered the famous South Pass. By 1826, Sublette was an experienced mountain man and one of the few men with intimate knowledge of the northern Rockies. He and several other mountain men purchased Ashley's fur trading company and helped perfect the "rendezvous," a system in which independent trappers gathered at a designated spot each summer to trade their furs in exchange for money and supplies. After four years, Sublette sold his interest in the business to the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, but he continued to be the major source of supplies purchased by trappers at the rendezvous.
      On this day in 1832, Sublette leaves for a rendezvous scheduled to occur that summer at Pierre's Hole, a valley in the Grand Teton Mountains. Sublette arrived at the rendezvous point in June and he successfully traded his supplies for furs and enjoyed a reunion with his brother Milton. As the rendezvous broke up on July 17, Sublette's brother left, leading a party of trappers toward the Snake River. They had gone seven miles when they encountered a band of Gros Ventres Indians. Foolishly, one of the trappers shot a Gros Ventres chief, and a battle erupted. Alerted by a messenger, Sublette and about 200 other trappers soon arrived and joined the battle. Recognizing that the trappers outnumbered the Gros Ventres by about seven to one, Sublette decided the mountain men should attack. The Gros Ventres, however, were well entrenched and were tenacious fighters. By nightfall, they had killed 32 of the trappers and lost 26 of their own men. Sublette was wounded, though not seriously, and during the night, he and the other surviving trappers retreated. When they returned the next day, the Gros Ventres were gone. Sublette continued to work in the risky fur trade for a few more years, but he abandoned the mountains permanently by 1836. He moved to St. Louis and became a businessman, gentleman farmer, and eventually a minor Missouri politician. Sublette contracted tuberculosis in 1845 and died in a Pittsburgh Hotel while traveling to Cape May, New Jersey, to recuperate.
1829 Funds sought for Babbage's Difference Engine       ^top^
      Mathematician Charles Babbage [26 Dec 1791 – 18 Oct 1871] devoted more than ten years and most of his personal fortune to building an automatic calculating machine he called the "Difference Engine." Although the project gained government support and much publicity, the machine proved extremely costly to build.
      On 12 May 1829, a group of Babbage's friends meet to find a way to help him. Together, they approach the Duke of Wellington, who agrees to give Babbage more funding. The Duke also lobbied the government for additional support. Unfortunately, after spending £17'000 of government funds and nearly the same amount from his own pocket, Babbage ran out of money and was never able to build the machine.
      In 1854, a Swedish engineer finally succeeded in constructing a Difference Engine based on Babbage's theories.
1789 Society of Saint Tammany is formed by Revolutionary War soldiers. It later becomes an infamous group of NYC political bosses
1780 Charleston, SC falls to the British (Revolutionary War)
0254 Saint Stephen I begins his reign as the 23rd pope. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," it was Stephen who instituted the rule that clerics should wear special clothes at their ministrations.
1820, the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale, was born in Florence, Italy. In 1870, Manitoba entered Confederation as a Canadian province. In 1932, the body of the kidnapped son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was found in a wooded area of Hopewell, N.J. In 1937, Britain's King George VI was crowned at Westminster Abbey. In 1943, during World War II, Axis forces in North Africa surrendered. In 1949, the Soviet Union announced an end to the Berlin Blockade. In 1965, West Germany and Israel exchanged letters establishing diplomatic relations. In 1970, the Senate voted unanimously to confirm Harry A. Blackmun as a Supreme Court justice. In 1975, the White House announced the new Cambodian government had seized a US merchant ship, the Mayaguez, in international waters. In 1978, the Commerce Department said hurricanes would no longer be given only female names. In 1982, in Fatima, Portugal, security guards overpowered a Spanish priest armed with a bayonet who was trying to reach Pope John Paul II.
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< 11 May 13 May >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 12 May:

2008 At least 70'000 victims of earthquake of magnitude 7.9, with epicenter 10km deep at 31º06' N, 103º16' E, at 14:28 (06:28 UT) 90 km WNW of Chengdu, in eastern Sichuan, China; and 1545 km SW of Beijing, and of at least 24 aftershocks with nearby epicenters, all 10km deep, of magnitude 6.0 at 06:43 UT and of irregularly decreasing magnitudes between 5.8 and 4.4 from 6:54 UT to 23:55 UT. Many more are injured or have their homes destroyed. —(080805)

2006 Judy W. Cooper, 43, whose arms are bitten off by an alligator in the East Lake Woodlands area of Florida while she was taking drugs. —(060515)

2006 Some 200 persons in explosion and fire at a pipeline at Ilado beach village, on the outskirts of Lagos, Nigeria. Most of the victims are fuel thieves. —(060514)

2005 At least 13 persons including a suicide car bomber, at a market in the mainly Shi'ite New Baghdad sector of Baghdad, Iraq. 56 persons are injured.

2005 Iyad Imad Mahdi, a brigadier-general in the Iraqi army, shot on his way to his job in the defense ministry in Baghdad.

2005 Colonel Fadhil Muhammed Mobarak, shot on his way to his job in the interior ministry in Baghdad, where he was the head of the police control section.

explosion aftermath
2004 Israelis Sgt-Maj. Aiman Gadir, 24, from Bir el-Makhsur in Galilee; Lior Vishinski, 20, from Ramat Gan; Elad Cohen, 20, from Jerusalem; Sgt. Za'ur Smelev, 19, from Ofakim; and Lt. Aviv Hakanis, 23, from Ashdod; after Islamic Jihad causes at 18:00 (15:00 UT) an explosion that hits their armored personnel carrier and detonates the explosives with which it was loaded, traveling on the Philadelphi Route along the Egyptian border near Rafah, Gaza Strip, while participating in a search for weapons smuggling tunnels. 10 innocent bystanders and, lightly, 3 Israeli soldiers are injured.

2003 Jason Bentley, 35; Clifford J. Lawson, 45; and 32 other persons in terrorist explosions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, at 23:28 and within minutes thereof: three suicide car bombs in eastern suburbs at three guarded walled residential compounds (Al-Hamra, Eshbiliya, and that of the US defense contractor company Vinnell) where reside many non-Saudis. The compounds include Abdullah al-Blaidh's in the Gharnata district, one in the Ishbaliya district, and one in the Cordoba district. Among the dead are at 8 from the US (7 of them, including Bentley and Lawson, were Vinnell employees), 7 Saudis, 2 Jordanians, 2 Filipinos, 1 Lebanese, 1 Swiss, 1 Australian, 9 others are the attackers. 194 are injured, including at least 40 US persons. [one of the wrecked buildings, seen the next morning >] In the early hours of 13 May there is a smaller terrorist explosion near the headquarters of the Saudi Maintenance Company (aka Siyanco), jointly owned by Frank E. Basil Inc., of Washington, and local Saudi partners. Of those sought by Saudi police for having participated in the attack conspiracy, the mastermind, Ali Abd al-Rahman al-Faqasi al-Ghamdi, surrenders on 26 June 2003 at the home of Deputy Interior Minister Prince Mohammed bin Nayaf; and the next most wanted conspirator, Turki Nasser al-Dandani, is killed on 03 July 2003, together with three accomplices, in a 5-hour gun battle with police who had come to arrest them, in Suweir.

2003:: 68 persons as a suicide-bomb Kamaz truck destroys the two-story building of the Russian occupiers' Federal Security Service in Znamenskoye, Chechnya, and damages other buildings. Some 120 persons are injured, four of whom would die the next day.

2003 Kumekichi Tani, Japanese man born on 20 April 1891.
Mrs. McGuckin2001 Michael McGuckin, from malnutrition and dehydration (according to coroner)       ^top^
     McGuckin and his family had been happy and relatively prosperous until their sawmill business went bankrupt in the 1980s. Then, in the 1990s, Michael McGuckin, who had worked at a lumber mill, was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The family withdrew from the community, rejecting neighbors' offers of help. Mrs. JoAnn McGuckin struggled to care for her children and invalid husband, whose illness she blamed on chemicals sprayed on area roads. She grew increasingly paranoid about the government and refused to seek state aid, local relief workers say. The family home, near Garfield Bay, Idaho, was sold at auction in 2000 to satisfy unpaid back taxes, but the McGuckins were allowed to stay.
    [ JoAnn McGuckin is shown in this Bonner County Sheriff's booking photo taken 30 May 2001, in Sandpoint, Idaho >].
     Mr. McGuckin would be buried on 25 May and that day the family would receive some 100 kg of donated food.
    The oldest McGuckin child, Erina, 19, had left the family home after a dispute with her parents. She went to the authorities to complain of the conditions at the McGuckin home. Based on that, the police arrested Mrs. McGucking on 29 May on a warrant charging felony injury of a child and held her on held on $100'000 bail.
     Then sheriff's deputies went to the house to take the six children: Kathryn, 16; Benjamin, 15; Mary, 13; James, 11; Frederick, 9; and Jane, 8. But Benjamin yelled "Get the guns!" and set loose more than two dozen dogs. The deputies decided to wait the children out, hoping that they would run out of food. The children were believed to be well-armed and proficient with guns.
     On 01 June Benjamin went to a neighbor and the neighbor drove him to the authorities, who hoped to use him to convince the other children to surrender. On 02 June the five children relented in their five-day impasse with authorities Saturday, leaving their isolated home after negotiators promised to help the family stay together.
2001 Ala'a Jaloudi, and Mu'atasam Sabbagh, Palestinians, by Israeli rockets from helicopters, fired at a car parked near the Palestinian Authority security headquarters in Jenin, northern West Bank. Jaloudi was a police officer and Sabaa was a member of Fatah.
      The helicopter rockets were aimed at a car used by Fatah operatives in Jenin, which was parked near a PA security building. Apparently the missiles were fired at the car's owner, a PA intelligence official, who managed to escape alive. Mu'atassam Sabbagh, the head of Fatah's youth division, and Allmal Jaludi, a Palestinian policeman, were killed. Some 15 people were hurt, two seriously.
      The first missile slammed into the ground near the parked car — Sabbagh and three Fatah comrades were in the vehicle at the time. As the men tried to flee the vehicle, a second missile was fired at them, but hit a private residence instead. Pinned down by leg wounds, Sabbagh was unable to flee and was killed by a third missile. His corpse was pulverized.
     Jaludi was injured by shrapnel and died at a Jenin hospital.
      Many of those injured were children on their way home after school.
      The car's owner is Abad al Kareem Kawis, a Jenin-based PA security man. He managed to escape along with two other passengers in the car.
      Crying for vengeance, some 10'000 mourners attend the double funeral in Jenin, a few hours after the gunship attack.
     The Israeli tactics seem to do nothing but aggravate the Palestinians' hatred and will to fight.
McKnight2000 Gregory L. Julious, 20, murdered by Gregory McKnight, 23.
     Julious was a student at Kenyon College (Gambier, Ohio, 40º22'35"N 82º23'42"W). His burned and dismembered remains would be found in December 2000 on McKnight's property near Ray (39º12'13"N 82º41'01"W), Vinton County, Ohio , more than 160 km (by road, 133 km along a great circle) south of Gambier.
     On 09 December 2000 a Vinton County deputy had gone to serve McKnight court papers relating to charges of burglary of a neighbor's firearms (for which McKnight was sentenced, on 11 May 2001, to 8 years in prison [photo >]). The deputy noticed, next to a trailer on the property, the car of Emily Murray, another Kenyon College student, who was a waitress at the Pirate's Cove restaurant in Gambier, and was missing since leaving the restaurant on 03 November at 03:00, almost at the same time as McKnight, who worked in the restaurant's kitchen.
      Her body is then found, wrapped in a rug in the trailer, with one gunshot in the head.
      McKnight, a New York native, was convicted as a juvenile in 1992 for robbing and killing in 1991 a Columbus man, Marion Gilbert. McKnight was released from the Ohio Department of Youth Services when he turned 21.
      McKnight is scheduled to go on trial for the murders of both students on 23 September 2002. But, on 08 August 2002, Vinton County Common Pleas Judge Jeffrey Simmons rules that prosecutors may not seek the death penalty because the county cannot afford the cost of a public defender and defense investigators (at least $75'000) out of its $2.7 million general fund budget. Vinton County, where the trial is to be held, is Ohio's most sparsely populated county (12'800), and its unemployment rate is usually double the state average. [Geographical coordinates from Bali Online]
2000: 22 persons by explosions at a fireworks warehouse in the Netherlands; nearly 1000 are injured.1987 Effie Samuel, who was born on 25 November 1876.
1981 Dzung Ngoc Tu, 25, raped and strangled by Michael B. Ross [26 July 1959 – 13 May 2005]. Both were students at Cornell University. By 13 June 1984 Ross would have strangled 7 more young women. He would be convicted and be executed.
1979 Annette Faron, who was born on 15 February 1869.
1970: 6 Blacks (5 killed by cops) in race riots in Augusta, Georgia.
1970 Henri Léopold Hayden, French artist born on 25 December 1883. — link to an image
^ 1969 Unsafe-at-any-speed Corvair
      Chevrolet announces that it will discontinue production of the Corvair. The Corvair, which had come under heavy attack in Ralph Nader's 1965 Unsafe At Any Speed, never achieved great success, thanks mostly to its reputation for poor safety. Nader called the Corvair "one of the nastiest-handling cars ever built." The front-wheel drive model was accused of flipping over in moderately severe accident conditions.
      In the end, over five hundred individual court cases dealing with the Corvair were filed against General Motors. GM never lost one of these cases, although it did settle out of court in a number of them. Debate continues over whether or not the Corvair was actually an unsafe car. Some contend that the front-wheel drive and the heavy horsepower of the car were too much for some drivers to handle.
      Whatever the case, the public's attitude toward the Big Three car executives changed dramatically during the course of the debate over Nader's book. The insidious tactics used by GM to silence Nader may have been more damaging to the company's reputation than the poor handling of the Corvair. In the end, the debate killed the sale of the Corvair, and its discontinuation followed a 200 percent decrease in the model's sales between 1965 and 1969.
^ 1941 Axel von Blomberg, Hitler's envoy to Iraq, shot dead on arrival
      Adolf Hitler sends two bombers to Iraq to support Rashid Ali al-Gailani in his revolt against Britain, which is trying to enforce a previously agreed upon Anglo-Iraqi alliance.
      At the start of World War II, Iraqi Prime Minister General Nuri as-Said had severed ties with Germany and signed a cooperation pact with Great Britain.
      In April 1941, the Said government was overthrown by Ali, an anti-British general, who proceeded to cut off the British oil pipeline to the Mediterranean. Britain fought back by landing a brigade on the Persian Gulf, successfully fending off 9000 Iraqi soldiers. Ali retaliated by sealing off the British airbase at Habbaniya.
      Hitler, elated at the grief the British enemy was enduring in the Middle East, began sending arms, via Syria, as well as military experts, to aid Ali in his revolt. On 12 May, Hitler sends to Iraq, along with the two bombers, air force major Axel von Blomberg, to act as a liaison between Iraq and Germany. Blomberg arrives in the middle of an air battle between Iraqi and British fighters and is shot dead by a stray British bullet.
      By the end of the month, Iraq had surrendered, and Britain re-established the terms of the original 1930 cooperation pact. A pro-British government formed, with a cabinet led by former Prime Minister Said. Iraq went on to become a valuable resource for British and US forces in the region and in January 1942 became the first independent Muslim state to declare war on the Axis powers.
Pilsudski--^ 1935 Józef Klemens Pilsudski, Polish revolutionary and statesman, born on 05 December 1867. He was the first chief of state (1918–1922) of the newly independent Poland established in November 1918.
      Pilsudski was the second son of an impoverished Polish nobleman. His mother, née Maria Billewicz, inspired him with hatred for the Russian imperial regime, which was treating the Poles with great harshness after their insurrection of 1863. On leaving the secondary school in Wilno (modern Vilnius), Pilsudski studied medicine at Kharkov in 1885 but was suspended as politically suspect in 1886. Returning to Wilno, he consorted with young socialists and tried to read Karl Marx's Das Kapital, but its abstract argument proved uncongenial. Pilsudski was arrested in March 1887 on a false charge of plotting the assassination of the tsar Alexander III and was banished to eastern Siberia for five years.
      Pilsudski returned in 1892, determined to organize an insurrection and to work for the reestablishment of Poland's independence. He joined the newly founded Polish Socialist Party (PPS), of which he soon became a leader. He started a clandestine newspaper, Robotnik (“The Worker”), in Wilno. In July 1899 he married, in a Protestant church, the beautiful Maria Juszkiewicz, the divorced wife of a Polish civil engineer, and moved to Lódz, where he continued to edit and print his paper.
      In February 1900 he was incarcerated by the Russians in the Warsaw citadel. He feigned insanity so successfully that he was transferred to a military hospital in Saint-Petersburg, from which he escaped in May 1901. He took refuge in Kraków in Austrian Poland, but in April 1902 he was back in Russian Poland looking after the party organization.
      When the Russo-Japanese War broke out in February 1904, Pilsudski went to Tokyo to solicit Japanese assistance for an insurrection in Poland. He had been preceded by Roman Dmowski,his rival in the patriotic movement, who had told the Japanese that Pilsudski's plan was impracticable. The two Polish leaders agreed to disagree. Pilsudski returned clandestinely to Russian Poland to help direct the revolutionary movement that was spreading throughout theempire. After the Russian revolution was put down late in 1905, a split occurred within the PPS: the left wing, which proposed to delete from the party's program the stipulation that its main aim was an independent Poland, broke with Pilsudski's group, which insisted on that stipulation.
      Aware of the Russian Empire's structural weakness and foreseeing a European war, Pilsudski concluded that it was imperative to organize the nucleus of a future Polish army. In 1908 he formed a secret Union of Military Action—financed with a sum of money stolen from a Russianmail train by an armed band led by Pilsudski himself. In 1910, with the help of the Austrian military authorities, he was able to convert his secret union into a legal Union of Riflemen, actually a school for Polish officers. At a meeting of Polish sympathizers in Paris in 1914, he declared that war was imminent and that “the problem of the independence of Poland will be definitely solved only if Russia is beaten by Austria-Hungary and Germany, and Germanyvanquished by France, Great Britain and the United States; it is our duty to bring that about.”
      World War I justified Pilsudski's prediction. Until 1916 the three brigades of the Polish Legion, technically under Austro-Hungarian command, distinguished themselves against the Russians. On 05 November 1916, Germany and Austria-Hungary, short of manpower, proclaimed the independence of Poland, hoping that Polish divisions could be deployed on the Eastern Front so that German divisions could be moved to the west. Pilsudski, appointed head of the military department of the newly created Polish council of state, accepted the idea of a Polish army on condition that it be part of a sovereign Polish state. His position was unexpectedly reinforced by the Russian Revolution of March 1917. The German government, however, refused to bind itself as to Poland's future, demanding instead that the existing Polish units should swear “fidelity in arms with the German and Austrian forces.” Pilsudski, refusing to comply, was arrested in July 1917 and imprisoned in Magdeburg.
     Released after the German collapse in the west, Pilsudski arrived in Warsaw on Nov. 10, 1918, as a national hero. Four days later he was unanimously accepted as head of state and commander in chief of the Polish army. From that moment he ceased to be the man of a party, though his main support came from the left and from the centre; the right saw its leader in Dmowski, who had been heading the Polish National Committee in Paris and was now appointed by Pilsudski to be Poland's first delegate at the peace conference.
      Pilsudski devoted himself to protecting Poland against the Russian Red Army,which was trying to fight its way into Germany in order to consolidate the revolution there. He led the Polish forces far to the east, occupying large areas that had belonged to Poland before the 18th-century partitions. He envisioned a federal state comprising Poles, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians, whereas Dmowski argued that these areas should simply be incorporated within a unitary Poland. In 1920 a counteroffensive by the Red Army forced the Poles to retreat westward almost to the suburbs of Warsaw, but Pilsudski, made marshal of Poland on 19 March 1920, conceived and directed a maneuver that in August brought victory to Poland.
      After the adoption of a democratic constitution and a new general election, Pilsudski transmitted his powers on 14 December 1922, to his friend Gabriel Narutowicz [17 Mar 1865 – 16 Dec 1922], the newly elected (by the Parliament on 11 Dec 1922) president of the republic, who two days later was assassinated by the painter Eligiusz Niewiadomski [01 Dec 1869 – 31 Jan 1923]. Stanislaw Wojciechowski [15 Mar 1869 – 09 Apr 1953], another of Pilsudski's old colleagues, was next elected president, the marshal agreeing to serve as chief of the general staff. When a right-wing government assumed power, Pilsudski resigned his post on 29 May 1923, and went into retirement at Sulejówek, near Warsaw, with his second wife, née Aleksandra Szczerbinska, and his two daughters.
      Pilsudski became disillusioned with the working of the parliamentary system, and on 12 May 1926, during a time of economic depression, he marched on Warsaw at the head of a few regiments. Wojciechowski and his government resigned two days later. The parliament elected Pilsudski president of the republic on 31 May 1926, but he refused the honor, and another of his old friends, Ignacy Moscicki [01 Dec 1867 – 02 Oct 1946], was elected instead. In the new government Pilsudski assumed the Ministry of Defense, which he held until his death. During the ensuing years he was the major influence behind the scenes in Poland, especially in the field of foreign policy.
      With few exceptions, Pilsudski's former socialist friends abandoned him and joined a center-left coalition, which in the summer of 1930 started a mass campaign to overthrow his “dictatorship.” Pilsudski's reaction was ruthless; to “cleanse” political life, he had 18 party leaders arrested and imprisoned in the fortress of Brzesc. Though all of them were subsequently released, and their political parties were not dissolved, the country was ruled by Pilsudski's men. The most prominent among them was Colonel Józef Beck [04 Oct 1894 – 06 Jun 1944], Pilsudski's former chef de cabinet, who became deputy foreign minister in December 1930 and foreign minister in November 1932.
      When Adolf Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945] came to power in Germany on 30 January 1933, Pilsudski sent to Paris a secret emissary, Count Jerzy Potocki, his former aide-de-camp, to find out whether France, Poland's ally from 1921, would operate in joint military action against Germany. Nazi Germany had been openly rearming in flagrant violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The French leadership answered in the negative, and consequently Pilsudski was compelled to accept Hitler's suggestion of a 10-year German-Polish nonaggression agreement (24 Jan 1934).
      To show that Poland's intentions were above suspicion, Beck was sent to Moscow in February, and the existing Soviet-Polish nonaggression treaty was prolonged to 31 December 1945. Later, Hitler repeatedly suggested a German-Polish alliance against the USSR, but Pilsudski took no notice of the proposal; he also declined to meet with Hitler. Pilsudski sought to gain time, believing that Poland should be ready to fight when the necessity arose. Such were the last instructions he gave to Beck. Shortly afterward, he died in Warsaw of cancer of the liver. He was buried in a crypt of the Wawel Cathedralin Kraków, among Polish kings.
      A romantic revolutionary, a great soldier without formal military training, a man of rare audacity and will power, as well as of great insight into European politics, Pilsudski was nevertheless poorly equipped to rule a modern state. He left Poland undeveloped economically and with an army that was ready to fight heroically but was doomed because of its composition and inadequate armament.
Pilsudski portrait (1928, 55x42cm; 1024x750pix, 119kb) and Józef Pilsudski na Kasztance (1928, 109x93cm; 911x750pix, 98kb), both by Wojciech Kossak [31 Dec 1856 – 29 Jul 1942]
1916 Sean MacDiarmada, 31, and James Connolly, 47, Irish patriots, Easter Rising leaders, executed by British firing squad.
1911 Constant Mayer, French artist born on 04 October 1832.
1897 Willem Roelofs I, Dutch painter born on 10 March 1822. — MORE ON ROELOFS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1864 Rebs and Yanks butcher each other at Spotsylvania.       ^top^
      Close-range firing and hand-to-hand combat at Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia, result in one of the most brutal battles of the Civil War. After the Battle of the Wilderness (05 May - 06 May), Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee raced respective Union and Confederate forces southward. Grant aimed his army some 20 km southeast of the Wilderness, toward the critical crossroads of Spotsylvania Court House. Sensing Grant's plan, Lee sent part of his army on a furious night march to secure the road junction before the Union soldiers got there. The Confederates soon constructed an 8-km long system of entrenchments in the shape of an inverted U. On 10 May, Grant began to attack Lee's position at Spotsylvania. After achieving a temporary breakthrough at the Rebel center, Grant was convinced that a weakness existed there, as the bend of the Confederate line dispersed their fire.
      At dawn on 12 May, Union General Winfield Scott Hancock's troops emerge from the fog and overrun the Rebel trenches, taking nearly 3000 prisoners and more than a dozen cannons. While the Yankees erupted in celebration, the Confederates counterattacked and began to drive the Federals back. The battle raged for over 20 hours along the center of the Confederate line — the top of the inverted U — which became known as the "Bloody Angle." Lee's men eventually constructed a second line of defense behind the original Rebel trenches, and fighting ceased just before dawn on 13 May.
      Around the Bloody Angle, the dead lay five deep, and bodies had to be moved from the trenches to make room for the living. The action around Spotsylvania shocked even the grizzled veterans of the two great armies. Said one officer, "I never expect to be fully believed when I tell what I saw of the horrors of Spotsylvania." And yet the battle was not done; the armies slugged it out for another week. In spite of his losses, Grant persisted, writing to General Henry Halleck in Washington, "I will fight it out on this line if it takes all summer."
1864 Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart, 31, mortally wounded at Yellow Tavern battle the previous day.
1856 Jacques Philippe Marie Binet, French mathematician and astronomer born on 02 February 1786. He worked on the foundations of matrix theory. In 1812 he discovered the familiar rule for matrix multiplication. Binet was a man of modest manner and a devout Catholic.
1833 Philippe-Auguste Hennequin, French painter born on 20 April 1762. — more
1829 Maximilien Joseph Wagenbaur, French artist born on 28 July 1774.
^ 1811 William Emerson, US clergyman, born on 06 May 1769. He was the father of Ralph Waldo Emerson [25 May 1803 – 27 Apr 1882].
      William Emerson graduated from Harvard in 1789, and after teaching for two years returned to Harvard as a student of divinity. He had been there but a few months when he began preaching. On 23 May 1792, he was appointed pastor of the Unitarian Church at Harvard. In 1799 he received a call from the 1st Church in Boston, and remained there until his death. Of his abilities as a pulpit orator, George Ticknor [01 Aug 1791 – 26 Jan 1871] wrote in 1849: “Mr. Emerson possessed a graceful and dignified style of speaking, which was by no means without its attraction, but he lacked the fervor that could rouse the masses, and the original resources that could command the few.”
      William Emerson founded the "Christian Monitor" society, whose publications were issued periodically for many years. In 1804 he undertook, in conjunction with several friends, a literary periodical, The Monthly Anthology and Boston Review, which was published until 1810, and enlisted some of the best talent in New England. It was the precursor of The North American Review.
      William Emerson's theological views were liberal, but he was always tolerant toward those who differed from him. In addition to numerous sermons, he published Oration Pronounced at Boston, 4 July 1802, Discourse before the Humane Society (1807), and Selection of Psalms and Hymns for use in Churches (1808). His History of the First Church in Boston, with two sermons appended, was published posthumously in 1812.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (23 floréal an II):

POQUAT Jacques Joseph, 38 ans, cabaretier, né et domicilié à Lyon (Rhône), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon.
THIBAUD François, (dit Bendessein), marchand mercier, domicilié à Peillac (Morbihan), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme séditieux.
VILARME Martin, ouvrier en soie, domicilié à Bager (Ain), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire de Grandville
GARNIER Sébastien, ex curé, domicilié à Germaincilliers, département de la Haute Marne, par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme réfractaire à la Loi.
CLASSES Pierre, 21 ans, né à Anvers, demeurant à Lille, lieutenant colonel du 2° bataillon belge, à Arras
LEMAIRE Aldegonde, 43 ans, née et demeurant à Béthune, à Arras
LABY Charles, 39 ans, né à Pont à Vendin, cordonnier, époux de Petit Henriette, guillotiné à Arras
Domiciliés dans le département des Côtes-du-Nord, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
LEROY Pierre, cordonnier, domicilié à Trégrom, comme contre-révolutionnaire
     ... domiciliés à Plouaret, canton de Lannion:
BARBES Jean, comme séditieux
GEFFROY François, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
LEGOFF Pierre, comme contre révolutionnaire
LEJEUNE Jean, comme complice de séditieux.
PITOT Yves, père, comme séditieux
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Cambray (Nord):
BISIAUX Marie Anne Joseph, domestique, comme ayant procuré des secours à l'ennemi.
BONNEFOND Marguerite, femme Beslaër, comme traître à la patrie.
DEBUT Reine Cécile, veuve Pristou, marchande, domicilié à Cambray, comme traître à la patrie, et ayant favorisé l'émigration de son fils.
MOREAU Louis, malquinier, comme traître à la patrie, et ayant discrédité les assignats.
COLLEAUX Maximilien, marchand de filets, comme convaincu d'espionnage.
LEDUC DE ST AUBERT Auguste, mulquinier, comme convaincu d'espionnage.
LAMAND Ferdinand, comme ayant porté une dépêche au duc d'Yorck.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
VOILLERAUT Joseph Didier, 62 ans, ex curé de Montargis, natif de Landres (Haute-Marne), domicilié à Montargis (Loiret), comme convaincu d'avoir, par des discours fanatiques, favorisé les complots liberticides du tyran Capet.
BOCQUENET Nicolas, François, 52 ans, né à Coiffy (Haute Marne), homme de loi, domicilié à Chaumont (Haute Marne), comme conspirateur.
LASTIE Hugues, ex comte, 74 ans, né à St Martin (Cantal), domicilié à Lescure, même département, comme conspirateur.
MANDAT A. Cl; Félicité, 26 ans, femme Thomasin, fille de Mandat officier au régiment des gardes françaises, ex noble née à Neuilly (Haute Marne), domiciliée à St Dizier, même département, comme conspiratrice.
DIACON Pierre, 50 ans, natif de Colombier, près de Neufchâtel en Suisse, de l'hôtel de la guerre à Versailles, inspecteur des armes à feu à l'Arsenal, domicilié à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
RACLET Pierre, 70 ans, natif de Dijon (Côte-d’Or), ex directeur de la régie générale, domicilié à Sommevoire (Haute Marne), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
THOMASSIN Alexandre, 44 ans, ex-noble, né et domicilié à St Dizie (Haute-Marne), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
DOUET Jean Claude, ex fermier général, âgé de 73 ans, né à Lyon (Rhône), domicilié à Paris, comme complice d'un complot contre le Peuple français, en mettant dans le tabac de l'eau et des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé des citoyens.
LEDET François, cordonnier, soumissionnaire et fournisseur de République, âgé de 28 ans, né à Ganvelle (Somme), domicilié à la Chapelle-Franciade (Seine), comme fournisseur infidèle.
1742 Joseph Privat de Molières, French mathematician and physicist born in 1677. Author of Leçons de mathématiques (1726), and Leçons de physique (4 volumes, 1734-1739).
^ 1700 (01 May Julian) John Dryden, English poet, dramatist, and literary critic who so dominated the literary scene of his day that it came to be known as the Age of Dryden. He was born on 19 Aug (09 Aug Julian) 1631.
      The son of a country gentleman, Dryden grew up in the country. When he was 11 years old theCivil War broke out. Both his father's and mother's families sided with Parliament against the king, but Dryden's own sympathies then are unknown.
      About 1644 Dryden was admitted to Westminster School, where he received a predominantly classical education under the celebrated Richard Busby. His easy and lifelong familiarity with classical literature begun at Westminster later resulted in idiomatic English translations.
      In 1650 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1654. What Dryden did between leaving the university in 1654 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 isnot known with certainty. In 1659 his contribution to a memorial volume for Oliver Cromwell marked him as a poet worth watching. His “heroic stanzas” were mature, considered, sonorous,and sprinkled with those classical and scientific allusions that characterized his later verse. This kind of public poetry was always one of the things Dryden did best.
      When in May 1660 Charles II was restored to the throne, Dryden joined the poets of the day in welcoming him, publishing in June Astraea Redux, a poem of more than 300 lines in rhymed couplets. For the coronation in 1661, he wrote To His Sacred Majesty. These two poems were designed to dignify and strengthen the monarchy and to invest the young monarch with an aura of majesty, permanence, and even divinity. Thereafter Dryden's literary productivity was remarkable and his touch almost invariably confident and sure. On 11 December 1663, he married Elizabeth Howard, the youngest daughter of Thomas Howard, 1st earl of Berkshire. In due course she bore him three sons.
      Dryden's longest poem to date, Annus Mirabilis (1667), was a celebration of two victories by the English fleet over the Dutch and the Londoners' survival of the Great Fire of 1666. In this work Dryden was once again gilding the royal image and reinforcing the concept of a loyal nation united under the best of kings. It was hardly surprising that when the poet laureate, Sir William Davenant, died in 1668, Dryden was appointed poet laureate in his place and two years later was appointed royal historiographer.
     Soon after his restoration to the throne in 1660, Charles II granted two patents for theatres, which had been closed by the Puritans in 1642. Dryden soon joined the little band of dramatists who were writing new plays for the revived English theatre. His first play, The Wild Gallant, a farcical comedy with some strokes of humour and a good deal of licentious dialogue,was produced in 1663. It was a comparative failure, but in January 1664 he had some share in the success of The Indian Queen, a heroic tragedy in rhymed couplets in which he had collaborated with Sir Robert Howard. Dryden was soon to successfully exploit this new and popular genre, with its conflicts between love and honour and its lovely heroines before whosecharms the blustering heroes sank down in awed submission. In the spring of 1665 Dryden had his own first outstanding success with The Indian Emperour, a play that was a sequel to The Indian Queen.
      In 1667 Dryden had another success with a tragicomedy, Secret Love, or the Maiden Queen, which appealed particularly to the king. The part of Florimel, a gay and witty maid of honor, was played to perfection by the king's latest mistress, Nell Gwynn. In Florimel's rattling exchanges with Celadon, the Restoration aptitude for witty repartee reached a new level of accomplishment. In 1667 Dryden also reworked for the stage Molière's comedy L'Étourdi (translated by William Cavendish, duke of Newcastle) under the title Sir Martin Mar-all.
      In 1668 Dryden published Of Dramatick Poesie, an Essay, a leisurely discussion between four contemporary writers of whom Dryden (as Neander) is one. This work is a defense of English drama against the champions of both ancient Classical drama and the Neoclassical French theatre; it is also an attempt to discover general principles of dramatic criticism. By deploying his disputants so as to break down the conventional oppositions of ancient and modern, Frenchand English, Elizabethan and Restoration, Dryden deepens and complicates the discussion. This is the first substantial piece of modern dramatic criticism; it is sensible, judicious, and exploratory and combines general principles and analysis in a gracefully informal style. Dryden's approach in this and all his best criticism is characteristically speculative and shows the influence of detached scientific inquiry.
      In 1668 Dryden agreed to write exclusively for Thomas Killigrew's company at the rate of three plays a year and became a shareholder entitled to one-tenth of the profits. Although Dryden averaged only a play a year, the contract apparently was mutually profitable. In June 1669 he gave the company Tyrannick Love, with its blustering and blaspheming hero Maximin. In December of the next year came the first part of The Conquest of Granada by the Spaniards, followed by the second part about a month later. All three plays were highly successful; and in the character Almanzor, the intrepid hero of The Conquest of Granada, the theme of love and honor reached its climax. But the vein had now been almost worked out, as seen in the 1671 production of that witty burlesque of heroic drama The Rehearsal, by George Villiers, 2nd duke of Buckingham, in which Dryden (Mr. Bayes) was the main satirical victim. The Rehearsal did not kill the heroic play, however; as late as November 1675, Dryden staged his last and most intelligent example of the genre, Aureng-Zebe. In this play he abandoned the use of rhymed couplets for that of blank verse.
      In writing those heroic plays, Dryden had been catering to an audience that was prepared to be stunned into admiration by drums and trumpets, rant and extravagance, stage battles, rich costumes, and exotic scenes. His abandonment of crowd-pleasing rant and bombast was symbolized in 1672 with his brilliant comedy Marriage à-la-Mode, in which the Restoration battle of the sexes was given a sophisticated and civilized expression that only Sir George Etherege and William Congreve at their best would equal. Equally fine in a different mode was his tragedy All for Love (1677), based on Antony and Cleopatra of Shakespeare and written in a flowing but controlled blank verse. Dryden had now entered what may be called his Neoclassical period, and, if his new tragedy was not without some echoes of the old extravagance, it was admirably constructed, with the action developing naturally from situation and character.
      By 1678 Dryden was at loggerheads with his fellow shareholders in the Killigrew company, which was in grave difficulties owing to mismanagement. Dryden offered his tragedy Oedipus, a collaboration with Nathaniel Lee, to a rival theatre company and ceased to be a Killigrew shareholder.
     Since the publication of Annus Mirabilis 12 years earlier, Dryden had given almost all his time to playwriting. If he had died in 1680, it is as a dramatist that he would be chiefly remembered. Now, in the short space of two years, he was to make his name as the greatest verse satirist that England had so far produced. In 1681 the king's difficulties, arising from political misgivings that his brother, James, the Roman Catholic duke of York, might succeed him, had come to a head. Led by the earl of Shaftesbury, the Whig Party leaders had used the Popish Plot to try to exclude James in favor of Charles's illegitimate Protestant son, the duke of Monmouth. But the king's shrewd maneuvers eventually turned public opinion against the Whigs, and Shaftesbury was imprisoned on a charge of high treason.
      As poet laureate in those critical months Dryden could not stand aside, and in November 1681he came to the support of the king with his Absalom and Achitophel, so drawing upon himself the wrath of the Whigs. Adopting as his framework the Old Testament story of King David (Charles II), his favorite son Absalom (Monmouth), and the false Achitophel (Shaftesbury), who persuaded Absalom to revolt against his father, Dryden gave a satirical version of the events of the past few years as seen from the point of view of the king and his Tory ministers and yet succeeded in maintaining the heroic tone suitable to the king and to the seriousness of the political situation. As anti-Whig propaganda, ridiculing their leaders in a succession of ludicrous satirical portraits, Dryden's poem is a masterpiece of confident denunciation; as pro-Tory propaganda it is equally remarkable for its serene and persuasive affirmation. When a London grand jury refused to indict Shaftesbury for treason, his fellow Whigs voted him a medal. In response Dryden published early in 1682 The Medall, a work full of unsparing invective against the Whigs, prefaced by a vigorous and plainspoken prose “Epistle to the Whigs.” In the same year, anonymously and apparently without Dryden's authority, there also appeared in print his famous extended lampoon, Mac Flecknoe, written about four years earlier. What triggered this devastating attack on the Whig playwright Thomas Shadwell has never been satisfactorily explained; all that can be said is that in Mac Flecknoe Shadwell's abilities as a literary artist and critic are ridiculed so ludicrously and with such good-humouredcontempt that his reputation has suffered ever since. The basis of the satire, which represents Shadwell as a literary dunce, is the disagreement between him and Dryden over the quality ofBen Jonson's wit. Dryden thinks Jonson deficient in this quality, while Shadwell regards the Elizabethan playwright with uncritical reverence. This hilarious comic lampoon was both the first English mock-heroic poem and the immediate ancestor of The Dunciad of Alexander Pope [21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744].
      In 1685, after the newly acceded king James II seemed to be moving to Catholic toleration, Dryden was received into the Roman Catholic church. In his longest poem, the beast fable The Hind and the Panther (1687), he argued the case for his adopted church against the Church of England and the sects. The abdication of James II in 1688 destroyed Dryden's political prospects, and he lost his laureateship to Shadwell. He turned to the theater again. The tragedy Don Sebastian (1689) failed, but Amphitryon (1690) succeeded, helped by the music of Henry Purcell. Dryden collaborated with Purcell in a dramatic opera, King Arthur (1691), which succeeded. His tragedyCleomenes was long refused a license because of what was thought to be the politically dangerous material in it, and with the failure of the tragicomedy Love Triumphant in 1694, Dryden stopped writing for the stage.
      In the 1680s and '90s Dryden supervised poetical miscellanies and translated the works of Juvenal and Persius for the publisher Jacob Tonson with success. In 1692 he published Eleonora, a long memorial poem commissioned for a handsome fee by the husband of the Countess of Abingdon. But his great late work was his translation of Virgil, contracted by Tonson in 1694 and published in 1697. Dryden was now the grand old man of English letters and was often seen at Will's Coffee-House chatting with younger writers. His last work for Tonson was Fables Ancient and Modern (1700), which were mainly verse adaptations from the works of Ovid, Geoffrey Chaucer, and Giovanni Boccaccio, introduced with a critical preface. He died in 1700 and was buried in Westminster Abbey between Chaucer and Abraham Cowley in the Poets' Corner.
      Besides being the greatest English poet of the later 17th century, Dryden wrote almost 30 tragedies, comedies, and dramatic operas. He also made a valuable contribution in his commentaries on poetry and drama, which are sufficiently extensive and original to entitle him to be considered, in the words of Dr. Samuel Johnson, as “the father of English criticism.”
      After Dryden's death his reputation remained high for the next 100 years, and even in the Romantic period the reaction against him was never so great as that against Alexander Pope. In the 20th century there was a notable revival of interest in his poems, plays, and criticism, and much scholarly work was done on them. In the late 20th century his reputation stood almost as high as at any time since his death.

DRYDEN ONLINE:
Absalom and Achitophel All for Love Discourses on Satire and on Epic PoetryMac FlecknoeThe Medal: A Satire Against Sedition Of Dramatic Poesie Palamon and Arcite
1682 Michelangelo Ricci, Roman mathematician, Papal government official, made a lay cardinal in 1681. He was born on 30 January 1619.
1615 Cornelis Floris de Vriendt III, Flemish artist born in 1516.
1310 Fifty-four Knights Templars, burned at the stake as heretics in France. Established during the Crusades to protect pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land, this wealthy military order came into increasing conflict the greedy French kings, until pope Clement V officially dissolved it in 1312 at the Council of Vienna.
< 11 May 13 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 12 May:

1937 George Carlin, US comedian who recorded the monologuue “Filthy Words” which resulted in the US Supreme Court ruling in FCC v. Pacifica Foundation 438 U.S. 726 (1978) that seven words “words that refer to excretory or sexual activities or organs” are taboo for broadcast. This is a web site suitable for all ages, so that, instead of those words, here is a list of seven that should get no one into trouble, unless grossly mispronounced: cop soccer, count, fact, mother factor, pass, shut, tots. The Supreme Court appended an unexpurgated transcript of the monologue, but here it is with the offending words safely replaced.
^ 1925 Lawrence Peter “Yogi” Berra, US baseball player, manager.
      Berra was a long time catcher for the N.Y. Yankees (1946-1963). But he is best known (by me at least) for his "Berraisms," such as:
You can observe a lot just by watching.
How can you think and hit at the same time?
When you arrive at a fork in the road, take it.
I don't want to make the wrong mistake.
It ain't over 'til it's over.
You can observe a lot just by watching.
How can you think and hit at the same time?
When you arrive at a fork in the road, take it.
It was dejà vu all over again.
We have deep depth.
It's tough to make predictions, especially about the future.
I didn't say the things I said.
If the fans don't come out to the ball park, you can't stop them.
If you don't know where you are going, you might wind up someplace else.
In theory there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is
You have to give 100% in the first half of the game. If that isn't enough, in the second half, you have to give what is left.
Always go to other people's funerals, otherwise they won't come to yours.
You better cut the pizza in four pieces because I'm not hungry enough to eat six.
I want to thank all those who made this night necessary.
I knew I was going to take the wrong train, so I left early.
You got to be very careful if you don't know where you're going, because you might not get there.
It's pretty far, but it doesn't seem like it.
It was impossible to get a conversation going, everybody was talking too much.
The only color I don't have is navy brown.
It gets late early out there.
If you ask me anything I don't know, I'm not going to answer.
I wish I had an answer to that because I'm getting tired of answering that question.
Foresight is always better, afterward.
Baseball is 90% mental, the other half is physical.
Most everybody knows me by my face.
Listen up, because I've got nothing to say and I'm only going to say it once.
(When asked to compare himself to Yogi, his son Dale responded: “Our similarities are different.”).
1907 Sidney N. Correll, founder and first General Director (1946-1971) of United World Mission, Inc. This evangelical missions organization is involved worldwide in evangelism, church planting and Christian education.
1902 Frank Yates, English mathematician who died on 17 June 1994.
1900 Wilhelm Steinitz Prague, chess champion (1866-1894)
1886 Albert Saverys (or Saverijs), Belgian artist who died on 29 April 1964.
1885 Mario Sironi, Italian artist who died in 1961. . MORE ON SIRONI AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1870 Emma Wilson, who would die on 12 October 1983.
1868 Harry (or Ary, Herman) Roseland, US artist who died in 1950.
1865 Alexis Vollon, French artist who died in 1945.
1865 Thomas Scott Fiske, US mathematician who died on 10 January 1944. He founded the American Mathematical Society in 1888.
1857 Oskar Bolza, German mathematician and psychologist of religion, who died on 05 July 1942. He worked on function theory, integral equations, and the calculus of variations. Author of Lectures on the Calculus of Variations (1908).
1857 Emilio Boggio, Venezuelan French artist who died in June 1920.
1854 Walter Dendy Sadler, British painter who died on 13 November 1923. MORE ON SADLER AT ART “4” NOV with links to images.
1851 Samuel Dickstein, Polish patriot and mathematician who died on 29 September 1939 in a Nazi German bombing of Warsaw.
1845 Pierre René Jean Baptiste Henri Brocard, French army officer, meteorologist, and mathematician who died on 16 January 1922. He is best remembered for his work on the triangle. The Brocard points of a triangle ABC are O, O' where OAB, OBC and OCA and the angles O'BA, O'CB and O'AC are equal. [Draw a circle tangent to AB at A passing through C; another tangent to BC at B passing through A; a third tangent to CA at C passing through B. They are concurrent at O.] Angle OAB is called the Brocard angle and satisfies cot OAB = cot A + cot B + cot C.
1842 Jules Massenet Montaud France, composer (Manon, Le Cid)
1835 Luc Raphaël Ponson, French artist who died on 31 January 1904.
1828 Dante Gabriel Rossetti, in London, poet and painter who died on 09 April 1882. — ROSSETTI ONLINE: The Rossetti Archive //— writings: Selected Works and Criticism.The Blessed DamozelThe House of Life Jenny Poems (first edition; 1870) (illustrated) — translator of Bürger's Lenore // MORE ON ROSSETTI AT ART “4” APR with links to images.
1826 Giovanni “Nino” Costa, Italian artist who died in 1903.
1820 Florence Nightingale Florence, Italy, (health activist, nurse: promoted the nursing profession, contributed to modern nursing procedures, founded Nightingale Training School for Nurses; author: Notes on Nursing; nurse in the Crimean War)
1812 Edward Lear, England, landscape painter, writer of nonsense verse, who died on 29 January 1888.— ILLUSTRATED WRITINGS BY LEAR ONLINE: A Book of NonsenseLaughable Lyrics: A Fourth Book of Nonsense Poems, Songs, Botany, Music, Etc.More Nonsense, Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, Etc. — Queery Leary Nonsense: A Lear Nonsense Book. — not illustrated: A Book of Nonsense —// — MORE ON LEAR AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
^ 1767 Manuel de Godoy Álvarez de Faria Ríos Sánchez Zarzosa, príncipe de la Paz y de Basano, duque de Alcudia y de Succa, Spanish royal favorite and twice prime minister, who died on 04 October 1851. His disastrous foreign policy contributed to a series of misfortunes and defeats that culminated in the abdication of King Charles IV [11 Nov 1728 – 20 Jan 1819] and the occupation of Spain by the armies of Napoléon Bonaparte [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821].
      Born into an old but poor noble family, Godoy followed his brother to Madrid in 1784 and, like him, entered the royal bodyguard. He attracted the attention of Maria Luisa of Parma, wife of the heir to the throne, and soon became her lover. When her husband ascended the throne in 1788 as Charles IV, the domineering Maria Luisa persuaded Charles to advance Godoy in rank and power, and by 1792 he became field marshal, first secretary of state, and duque de Alcudia. From then on Godoy's hold over the royal family, buttressed by his pliability, guile, and ingratiating nature, rarely, if ever, weakened.
      When Godoy was named prime minister on 15 November 1792, his first undertaking was to try to save the French king Louis XVI [23 Aug 1754 – 21 Jan 1793] from the guillotine. When that failed, war broke out between France and Spain (1793). Initial Spanish successes were followed by losses, and Godoy negotiated the Peace of Basel (1795), for which he was given the title Príncipe de la Paz by his grateful sovereign.
      To strengthen ties with France, Godoy negotiated an alliance against England in the Treaty of San Ildefonso (1796). War was soon declared, and Spain suffered a major naval defeat off Cape St. Vincent. France proved an unfaithful ally and showed little scruple in betraying Spanish interests. In 1798 Godoy was removed from office, under pressure from the French Directoire, though in temporary retirement he continued to enjoy royal favor and wield great influence. When Godoy was reinstated in 1801, the war with England still raged and Napoléon was dictator of France. Godoy yielded to French pressure and collaborated in an invasion of Portugal, England's ally, commanding Spanish forces in the three-week War of the Oranges (16 May 1801 – 06 Jun 1801), during which Godoy sent to Maria Luisa, together with the news of his taking the town of Olivenza (38°45'N 5°07'W), an orange tree branch with oranges. After Portuguese capitulation, Napoléon sacrificed Spanish interests in the Treaty of Amiens, signed with England on 27 March 1802. An opposition party then began to form against Godoy around the heir apparent, Ferdinand (later Ferdinand VII) [14 Oct 1784 – 29 Sep 1833], spurred by growing discontent over the conduct of national affairs.
      When war between France and England flared anew in 1803, Godoy managed to maintain neutrality until December 1804, when he guided Spain into joining France once again in declaring war on England. Ten months later Spanish naval power was utterly destroyed in the Battle of Trafalgar [21 Oct 1805]. Relations with Napoléon gradually improved, and in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807), in which Spain and France agreed to the partition of Portugal, Godoy was offered the kingdom of Algarve, in southern Portugal. Several months later, however, Spain learned that France planned to seize certain of its northern provinces. The court, seeking to establish a government in exile, attempted to flee the country, but at Aranjuez on 17 March 1808 a mob, loyal to Ferdinand, nearly killed Godoy and forced Charles IV to abdicate in his son's behalf. Godoy was then arrested by Ferdinand, and in May 1808 all three (Godoy, Ferdinand, and Charles) were enticed across the border into France, where they became prisoners of Napoléon. Godoy stayed with Charles in Rome until the former king's death. He then lived in obscurity in Paris on a modest French royal pension until 1847, when Isabella II [10 Oct 1830 – 09 Apr 1904] of Spain restored his titles and returned some of his confiscated estates. He remained in Paris, where he died.
Manuel Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, 'Prince of the Peace' (1801, 180x267cm; 820x1173pix, 126kb) portrait by Goya
Manuel Godoy, fundador del Instituto Pestalozzi (1806, 243x169cm; 800x548pix, 133kb) , portrait by Agustín Esteve y Marqués [12 May 1753 – 1830] On 04 November 1806 Godoy founded in Madrid the Instituto Militar Pestalozzi, according to the educational ideas of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi [12 Jan 1746 – 17 Feb 1827]. Many high officials had their sons educated there, one of whom was Francisco de Paula.
1745 Jens Juel, Danish painter who died on 27 December 1802. — MORE ON JUEL AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1737 Hendrik de Meyer II, Dutch painter who died in 1793. — link to an image
1662 (infant baptism) Jan Frans van Bloemen “Orizonte”, Flemish artist who died in 1749. MORE ON VAN BLOEMEN AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1630 Wilhelm Schubert van Ehrenberg (or Hardenberg), Flemish painter who died in 1676. — links to images.
1606 Joachim von Sandrart, German painter and engraver who died on 14 October 1688. MORE ON VON SANDRART AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
click for full portraih^ 1590 Cosimo II de' Medici, fourth grand duke of Tuscany (1609–1620), who closed down the Medici family's practice of banking and commerce, which it had pursued for four centuries. He died on 28 February 1621.
{click detail for full portrait attributed to Cristofano Allori [17 Oct 1577 – 01 Apr 1621 >}
      Cosimo II succeeded his father, Ferdinand I de' Medici [30 Jul 1549 – 07 Feb 1609], in 1609; and, guided by his mother, Christine of Lorraine, and by Belisario Vinta, he followed his father's example and sought to establish a balance between France and Spain. He used his influence to promote the Franco-Spanish negotiations of 1611–1612, which led to the marriages of 1615 between Louis XIII of France [27 Sep 1601 – 14 May 1643] and Anne of Austria and between the future Philip IV of Spain and Elizabeth of France. His fleet, under the admirals Jacopo Inghirami and Giulio di Montauto, checked the Turks in the Mediterranean; and his friendly relations with the Druze emir Fakhr ad-Din [1572-1635] secured commercial advantages in the Levant for Tuscans.
      It was Cosimo who appointed Galileo [15 Feb 1564 – 08 Jan 1642] “first professor of philosophy and mathematics” at Pisa and mathematician and philosopher of the grand duke of Tuscany in 1610, after Galileo discovered four satellites of Jupiter and named them the Sidera Medicea (“Medicean Stars”). Under Cosimo also the architect Matteo Nigetti worked on the funeral chapel of the Medici (according to designs by Cosimo I's brilliant natural son, the younger Giovanni, who also won fame as a soldier and as a diplomat); and the sculptor Pietro Tacca began his bronzes for the monument to Ferdinand I. Cosimo abandoned all banking and commerce on his own account, forhe considered it demeaning and distracting from the course of political governance.
A Young Man holding a coin and pointing to a fire (117x88cm; 915x674pix, 85kb) by Alessandro Allori [03 May 1535 – 22 Sep 1607], father of Cristofano Allori _ Possibly a portrait of Cosimo II de' Medici or of his father.

Holidays Abbotsbury Dorsetshire England : Garland Day / Finland : Snellman Day (1806) / Khmer Republic : Constitution Day (1972) / US : National Hospital Day (1921)

Religious Observances Bhuddist-Burma : Buddha's Birthday / RC : St Domitilla, martyr / RC : SS Nereus, Achilleus martyrs (opt) / RC : St Pancras, Roman martyr (opt)
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Thoughts for the day:
“No woman should imitate men; men are not worth it.”
“No man should imitate women; men are not capable of it.”
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