• Butcher of Lyon on trial... • Pompidou acts on student riots... • Bloody Hamburger Hill... • Fort Eben~Emael pris par les Boches... • Constantinople remplace Rome... • British Prime Minister assassinated... • Israel kills 16~year~old... • Delco and GM... • Spy Philby dies... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Poisoned poisener exhumed... • Faulkner's Go Down, Moses... • Western writer Sandoz is born... • Computer beats human chess champ... • WordPerfect purchase approved... • More US troops to Vietnam... • The Pullman Car strike... • Allies attack the Gustav Line... • US troops land in Aleutians... • Minnesota becomes 32nd US state...
an 11 May:
2007 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] canonizes Frei Antônio de Sant'Ana Galvão OFM (born Antônio Corrêa Galvão de França) [1739– 23 Dec 1822], the first Brazilian-born to be declared a saint. He entered the Franciscan novitiate on 15 April 1760 and made his vows on 16 April 1761. He was ordained a priest on 11 July 1762. On 02 February 1774 he founded in São Paulo a convent of Recolhidas (now known as Mosteiro da Luz), and in 1811 he fouded a second one in Sorocaba, the Recolhimento de Santa Clara..He performed miraculous cures by having sick people swallow a rolled-up piece of paper on which was written a prayer to the Blessed Virgin. —(070508)
2003 Elections in Iceland to the 63-seat parliament. The ruling coalition's majority is maintained, but reduced from 43 to 34: 12 for the Progressive Party and 22 for the conservative Independence Party of prime minister David Oddsson, 55, who will thus be able to extend his 12-year tenure. The Social Alliance gets 20 seats, the Left Green 5, and the Liberal 4.
2003 A referendum, started the previous day, ends in Lithuania with 91% of the votes approving the country's joirning the European Union.
2001 This daguerreotype of Charles Dickens sells for nearly 40'000 pounds at auction at Christie's in London. It is about 8 x 10 cm, its size here too [>] . The recently discovered picture, the work of American photographers John Jabez and Edwin Mayall, is believed to date to the 1850s when Dickens wrote the classics A Tale of Two Cities, Bleak House, and Hard Times .
1998 India sets off three underground atomic blasts, its first nuclear tests in 24 years.
1997 Deep Blue
IBM's computer, "Deep Blue," with White, after a Caro-Kann opening, beats in world chess champion Gary Kasparov who, at the 19th move, resigns Game 6, the final game in the highly publicized play-off. Not only was this the first time a computer defeated a reigning human grandmaster, but it was also the first time Kasparov ever lost a multigame championship match to any opponent. (Kasparov had won on 03 May Game 1 — lost on 04 May Game 2 — drawn on 06 May Game 3 — drawn on 07 May Game 4 — drawn on 10 May Game 5)
This is a rematch, following a match which ended on 17 February 1996 in which Kasparov defeated Deep Blue, winning three games, losing one, and tying two.
1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Ng5 Ngf6 6.Bd3 e6 7.N1f3 h6 8.Nxe6 Qe7 9.O-O fxe6 10.Bg6+ Kd8 11.Bf4 b5 12.a4 Bb7 13.Re1 Nd5 14.Bg3 Kc8 15.axb5 cxb5 16.Qd3 Bc6 17.Bf5 exf5 18.Rxe7 Bxe7 19.c4 . Black resigns. [final position >]
| 1995 The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty is extended
indefinitely. I limits the spread of nuclear material for military purposes.
1994 El primer ministro italiano, Silvio Berlusconi, toma posesión de su cargo.
1994 Justice Department approves WordPerfect purchase.
The Justice Department approved Novell's plans to purchase WordPerfect Corporation on this day in 1994. Novell also bought Borland's spreadsheet business, in an attempt to create a suite of office applications to compete with Microsoft Office. Novell's ownership of WordPerfect lasted less than two years
1992 El general Fidel Ramos gana las elecciones presidenciales en Filipinas.
1991 Angola se convierte formalmente en un Estado con sistema multipartidista.
1991 US President Bush (Sr.) dispatches an amphibious task force with thousands of Marines and dozens of helicopters to help cyclone-ravaged Bangladesh with disaster relief efforts.
1988 Militares leales al presidente de Guatemala, Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo, abortan un intento golpista militar, apoyado por civiles de extrema derecha.
1987 Butcher of Lyon goes
After four years of legal delays, the trial of Klaus Barbie, the former Nazi Gestapo chief accused of committing crimes against humanity in German-occupied France, begins in Lyons.
As chief of Nazi Germany's secret police in the city during World War II, Barbie sent thousands of French Jews and French Resistance members to their deaths in concentration camps, while torturing, abusing, or executing many others. After the Allied liberation, he fled to Germany where under an assumed identity he joined other ex-Nazi officials in the formation of an underground anti-Communist organization.
In 1947, the US Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) broke up the organization and arrested its senior members, although Barbie remained at large until the CIC offered him money and protection in exchange for his cooperation in countering Soviet espionage efforts. Barbie worked as a US agent in Germany for two years, and in 1949 was smuggled to Bolivia, where he assumed the name of "Klaus Altmann" and continued his work as a US agent. In addition to his work for the Americans, he increasingly performed services for Bolivia's various military regimes, especially that of Hugo "El Petiso" Banzer, who came to power in 1971 and became one of the country's most oppressive leaders. Barbie performed a similar type of work for Banzer as he had for the Nazis, torturing and interrogating political opponents, and dispatching many of these political prisoners to special internment camps where many were executed or died from mistreatment.
It was at this time that Nazi hunters Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie's whereabouts, but Banzer refused to extradite him to France. In the early 1980s, a liberal regime came to power in Bolivia and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid to the destitute nation. On 19 January 1983 Barbie was arrested, and, on 07 February, he arrived in France.
Legal wrangling, especially between the groups representing his Jewish and French Resistance victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on 11 May 1987, the "Butcher of Lyons," as he was known in France, went on trial for charges of 177 crimes against humanity. In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers an Asian, an African, and an Arab who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crimes against humanity as Barbie or any other Nazi. However, Barbie’s lawyers were more interested in putting France and Israel on trial than in actually proving their client’s innocence, and on 04 July 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes against humanity, Klaus Barbie was sentenced to spend the remainder of his life in prison. Being a civilized nation, France does not have the death penalty..
Klaus Barbie, the former Nazi Gestapo chief of German-occupied Lyon, France, goes on trial in Lyon more than four decades after the end of World War II. He was charged with 177 crimes against humanity. As chief of Nazi Germany's secret police in Lyon, Barbie sent 7500 French Jews and French Resistance partisans to concentration camps, and executed some 4000 others. Among other atrocities, Barbie personally tortured and executed many of his prisoners. In 1943, he captured Jean Moulin, the leader of the French Resistance, and had him slowly beaten to death. In 1944, Barbie rounded up 44 young Jewish children and their seven teachers hiding in a boarding house in Izieu and deported them to the Auschwitz extermination camp. Of the 51, only one teacher survived. In August 1944, as the Germans prepared to retreat from Lyon, he organized one last deportation train that took hundreds of people to the death camps. Barbie returned to Germany, and at the end of the war burned off his SS identification tattoo and assumed a new identity. With former SS officers, he engaged in underground anti-Communist activity and in June 1947 surrendered himself to the US Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) after the US agents offered him money and protection in exchange for his intelligence services. Barbie worked as a US agent in Germany for two years, and the US shielded him from French prosecutors trying to track him down. In 1949, Barbie and his family were smuggled by the Americans to South America. Assuming the name of Klaus Altmann, Barbie settled in Bolivia and continued his work as a US agent. He became a successful businessman and advised the military regimes of Bolivia.
In 1971, the oppressive dictator Hugo Bánzer came to power, and Barbie helped him set up brutal internment camps for his many political opponents. During his 32 years in Bolivia, Barbie also served as an officer in the Bolivian secret police, participated in drug-running schemes, and founded a rightist death squad. He regularly traveled to Europe, and even visited France, where he had been tried in absentia in 1952 and 1954 for his war crimes and sentenced to death. In 1972, the Nazi hunters Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie's whereabouts in Bolivia, but Bánzer refused to extradite him to France.
In the early 1980s, a liberal Bolivian regime came to power and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid. On 19 January 1983, Barbie was arrested, and on 07 February he arrived in France. The statute of limitations had expired on his in-absentia convictions from the 1950s; he would have to be tried again. The US government formally apologized to France for its conduct in the Barbie case later that year. Legal wrangling, especially between the groups representing his victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on 11 May 1987, the "Butcher of Lyon," as he was known in France, went on trial for his crimes against humanity. In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers an Asian, an African, and an Arab who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crimes against humanity as Barbie or any other Nazi. Barbie's lawyers seemed more intent on putting France and Israel on trial than in proving their client's innocence, and on 04 July 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes, the 73-year-old Barbie was sentenced to spend the rest of his life in prison, France's severest punishment. He died of cancer in a prison hospital in 1991.
| 1983 Violentos enfrentamientos en Santiago de Chile
entre manifestantes y la policía en la jornada nacional de protesta contra
la dictadura de Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte: dos muertos
y nueve heridos.
1981 El político español José María de Areilza y Martínez Rodas, elegido por mayoría absoluta presidente de la Asamblea Parlamentaria Europea.
1978 Fuerzas del Ejército se enfrentan a miles de manifestantes chiítas que piden el derrocamiento del sha en el mercado de Teherán.
1973 Charges against Daniel Ellsberg for his role in the Pentagon Papers case are dismissed by Judge William M. Byrne, who cites government misconduct.
1950 Los ministros de Exteriores de seis países europeos occidentales aprueban el plan de Robert Schuman sobre el carbón y el acero de Alemania y Francia, primer paso hacia un mercado común europeo.
1950 Fundación del Partido Demócrata Cristiano Alemán, presidido por Konrad Adenauer.
1949 By a vote of 37-12, Israel becomes 59th member of UN
1949 Siam renames itself Thailand.
1947 Laos accepts constitution for parliamentary democracy
1946 the first CARE packages arrived in Europe, at Le Havre, France.
1940 Bermuda-bound passengers on the SS President Roosevelt watch the opening ceremonies of the New York World's Fair on the first ship-to-shore television broadcast.
| 1929 first regularly scheduled TV broadcasts (3 nights
1928 Primeras emisiones regulares de Televisión en Nueva York.
1926 Airship Norge leaves Spitsbergen for first air crossing of Arctic Ocean. Roald Engebrecht Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth y Umberto Nobile consiguen sobrevolar el polo Norte con el dirigible Norge.
1925 Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Region constituted in RSFSR
1924 La izquierda vence en las elecciones legislativas de Francia a los partidos que apoyaban el Gobierno de Raymond Poincaré.
1917 Primera Guerra Mundial. Se estrella con su aeroplano el as de la aviación francesa De Rosse, destacado por su bravura y pericia.
1911 Revolución en México. Firma de la paz entre los revolucionarios y el presidente Porfirio Díaz, al que sustituye León de la Barra.
1909 China y Rusia firman una convención que regula la administración de los ferrocarriles de Manchuria.
1898 Guerra de Cuba. La flota estadounidense bombardea la ciudad de Cárdenas, pero fracasa en su intento de desembarco.
1896 Erwin Rousby presenta el Animatógrafo (antecedente del cinematógrafo), aparato que muestra el visionado colectivo de las imágenes en movimiento que se proyectan sobre una pantalla.
1865 Confederate sailors blow up CSS Virginia to keep it from falling into Union hands.
1864 Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart is mortally wounded as Yellow Tavern (or Spotsylvania Courthouse) battle in Virginia continues.
1864 Battle of Yellow Tavern, Virginia on Sheridan's Richmond Raid.
1862 Confederates scuttle CSS Virginia off Norfolk, Virginia.
1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi (04 Jul 1807 02 Jun 1882) and his Thousand land in Marsala, Sicily, to start the conquest of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Sicily and Naples), in the cause of Italian unification.
1819 Una flota española sale hacia El Callao para tratar de sofocar el movimiento de independencia que surgía en las colonias de América.
1689 Battle of Bantry Bay, French and English naval battle
1682 The General Court of Massachusetts repeals two laws which had been passed two years earlier: one forbade the keeping of Christmas, and the second mandated capital punishment for Quakers who returned to the colony after being banished.
1647 Peter Stuyvesant arrives in New Amsterdam to become governor.
1544 Sale de Sanlúcar de Barrameda la expedición de Francisco de Orellana, la primera que exploró el Amazonas.
1421 Jews are expelled from Styria, Austria
2006 Some 100 persons, in fighting started in the evening of 07 May 2006 between the militias Islamic Court Union and Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counterterrorism, in Mogadishu, Somalia, mostly in the Sii-Sii neighborhood. Some 200 persons have been wounded. The Alliance accuses the Islamic Court Union of sheltering foreign Al-Qaida leaders, while the Islamic Court Union accuses the Alliance of being pawns of the United States. — (060511)
2005 Kandasamy Jayasurendran, 21, a Tamil civilian, shot while working in a barber shop in Mutur, near Trincomalee (capital of the would-be independent state Tamil Eelam), Sri Lanka. Jayasurendran was a sympathizer of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). — (060511)
2005 At least 32 persons, including a suicide bomber outside an army recruitment center in Hawija, Iraq, where some 150 applicants were waiting in line. 34 persons are wounded.
2005 At least 33 persons including a suicide car bomber in Tikrit, Iraq, among a crowd of mainly Shi'ite migrant laborers from southern Iraq who had gathered to look for work, in a small market near a police station in Tikrit, Iraq. Some 80 persons are wounded.
2005 At least 3 civilians and a suicide car bomber near a police station, which he was prevented from reaching, in the southern Baghdad suburb of Dora.
2005 Two policemen in a patrol, a civilian, and a suicide car bomber in the Mansour district of Baghdad killed.
2005 Three soldiers in an Iraqi army patrol fired upon in western Baghdad, Iraq
2005 The victims and a suicide car bomber targeting a US patrol in Baghdad, Iraq.
2005 At least 6 persons, by a terrorist bomb in an abandoned car on a busy street in Srinagar, Indian-occupied Kashmir. Some 40 persons are wounded.
2004 Yusuf Hijazi, 18, Palestinian man, in the afternoon, by a missile fired by an Israeli helicopter at the parked car in which he was, in the al-Shujaiyah district of Gaza City, near an area of intense fighting between Israeli and Palestinian troops. 5 Palestinians are injured.
2004 Israeli soldiers Adaron Amar, 20, of Eilat; Eitan Neuman, of Jerusalem; Aviad Deri, of Moshav Matta; Kobi Mizrahi, of Jerusalem; Ofer Jerbi, 20, of Moshav Ben Zakai; and Yaakov Marviza, from Kibbutz Hama'apil; all six from the Givati Brigade's engineering company, participating in a large-scale attack on the al-Zaitoun neighborhood of Gaza City, when a Hamas bomb explodes at 06:15 under their armored personnel carrier and detonates the explosives it was carrying, intended for demolishing Palestinian weapons workshops. Exsultant Palestinians seize debris of the APC and body parts of the dead soldiers.
2004 Ammar Jirjawi Nasser, 31, commander of Hamas's fighters in Zeitoun; Fadi Nassir, 18, of Hamas; Muhammad Faraj Adas, 21, of Islamic Jihad; Ahmed Swirkhi, of Islamic Jihad; Yusuf al-Hejazi, 18, a bystander; Hamdi Muhassan 15; and Rami Jaffar, 15; in an Israeli attack on Gaza City started in the morning by troops backed by tanks and helicopters. Nassir was killed while attempting to plant an explosive device targeting military vehicles. Jirjawi belonged to the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades. Some 60 Palestinians are wounded.
2004 Kyle A. Brinlee, 21, of Pryor, Oklahoma; specialist, Army National Guard, killed when his convoy vehicle strikes an improvised explosive device in Al Asad, Iraq. He was assigned to Detachment 1, Company B, 120th Combat Engineer Battalion, Army National Guard in Pryor, Oklahoma.
2003 Zion David, 53, Israeli from Givat Ze'ev, as his car overturns when he wounded in the head, shot from ambush, as he was driving to work, 500 meters north of enclave settlement Ofra, West Bank.
2002 Joseph Bonanno, of heart failure, in Tucson. Born in Sicily on 18 January 1905, Bonanno was the boss of the Bonanno Mafia family in New York from 1931 to 1968, and was never indicted during that time, though after retiring he served prison terms for obstrucion of justice and for civil contempt of court. Together with Sergio Lalli he wrote his autobiography A Man of Honor (1983).
2001 Kifah Zorob: Jewish settlers near Khan Younis unleashed their dogs on the Palestinian boy Kifah Zorob when he was returning home from school. The fierce dogs attacked Kifah and caused him very serious injuries. Kifah's father decided to defy the siege and to take his son to hospital, the Israeli occupation soldiers prevented the father from taking his son to hospital and forced him to turn back, the school boy Kifah died of his wound after a full night of pain and agony.
1999 Angélico Melotto Mazzardo, born on 20 March 1911 in Sarego, Italy, he entered the Franciscan order (OFM) and on 19 July 1939 he was ordained a priest. He served as a missionary in China, from where he had to leave when the Communists took over. He was sent to Guatemala, where he was appointed on 27 June 1959 and ordained bishop on 19 July 1959, the first bishop of the diocese of Sololá, where he served until his retirement on 05 April 1986, being succeeded by Eduardo Ernesto Fuentes Duarte [20 Aug 1941 – 20 Jul 1997] who was the coadjutor since 18 October 1982..
1996 All 110 on board an Atlanta-bound ValuJet DC-9 which catches fire shortly after takeoff from Miami and crashes into the Florida Everglades.
1982 Peter Weiss, escritor alemán de nacionalidad sueca.
1965 Some 17'000 in Bangladesh windstorm.
1927 José Victoriano González Juan Gris, Spanish Cubist painter and sculptor born on 23 March 1887 1927. MORE ON GRIS AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1923 Henry Martyn Robert, is adjourned sine die, US Army General born on 02 May 1837; author of Robert's Rules of Order, the standard for parliamentary procedure.
1916 Karl Schwarzschild, German mathematical physicist, born on 09 October 1873. He calculated the Schwarzchild radius below which, for a given mass of a star, the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light and therefore the star has become a black hole.
1881 Henri Fréderic Amiel, escritor suizo.
1871 John Frederick William Herschel, 79, cataloguer of southern hemisphere stars, mathematician, born on 07 March 1792.
1866 Franz Xaver Petter, Austrian painter specialized in Still Life, born on 22 October 1791. MORE ON PETTER AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1849 Francisco Ortega, poeta y político mexicano.
1829 Scott-Pierre-Nicolas Legrand de Lérant, French artist born on 29 March 1758.
1778 William Pitt el Viejo, político inglés.
1769 Carlo Francesco Rusca, Swiss artist born in 1696.
1664 Salomon de Bray, Dutch artist born in 1597. MORE ON DE BRAY AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1610 Matteo Ricci, mathematician
2000 The One-Billionth Indian: a girl selected by India's government to represent the population of India reaching one billion.
1960 French liner France launched
1933 Louis Farrakhan leader of the Black Islam Nation.
1933 Emmet Judge, in Brooklyn. He would become Franciscan Father Mychal Judge, a fire department chaplain, and die at the World Trade Center, New York, in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack.
1924 Evgeniy Borisovich Dynkin, Jewish Russian US mathematician.
1916 Camilo José Cela Trulock, escritor español.
1918 Richard Feynman, US physicist and mathematician who died on 15 February 1988. He worked on the Manhattan project to develop the nuclear fission bomb. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics with Julian Seymour Schwinger [12 Feb 1918 – 16 Jul 1994] and Sin-Itiro Tomonoga [31 Mar 1906 – 1979]. He was famous for his unusual life style, for his lectures on mathematics and physics, and for his books which include Quantum Electrodynamics (1961), The Theory of Fundamental Processes (1961), The Feynman Lectures on Physics (3 volumes, 1963-1965), The Character of Physical Law (1965), QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (1985).
1915 Herbert Philbrick, US counterintelligence agent for the F.B.I. who died on 16 August 1993.
1912 Sergey Nikolaevich Chernikov, Russian mathematician who died in 1987.
1904 Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí y Domenech, Spanish Surrealist painter and printmaker who died on 23 January 1989. MORE ON DALI AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1896 Antonio Marasco, Italian artist who died in 1975.
1896 Filippo de Pisis, Italian artist who died in 1956.
1889 Paul Nash, English Surrealist painter who died on 11 July 1946. MORE ON NASH AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1889 Frank Ahmann, who would die on 22 March 2000.
1887 Griffith Conrad Evans, US mathematician who died on 08 December 1973. Author of Functional equations and their applications (1918), The logarithmic potential (1927), Mathematical Introduction to economics (1930).
1881 Theodore von Kármán, Hungarian US aeronautical mathematician who died on 06 May 1963.
1868 Adolphe Weisz, French artist.
1862 Charles Warren Fairbanks, US politician; vice-president under Theodore Roosevelt (1905-1909). He died on 04 June 1918.
1824 Jean-Léon Gérôme, French painter and sculptor who died on 10 January 1904. MORE ON GÉRÔME AT ART 4 JAN with links to images.
1823 Alfred Stevens, Belgian painter who died on 24 August 1906. MORE ON STEVENS AT ART 4 AUG with links to images.
1815 Richard Ansdell, British painter who died on 20 April 1885. MORE ON ANSDELL AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1811 Chang Bunker and Eng Bunker, in Siam, conjoined twins who would die on 17 January 1874 in the US. — (060615)
1720 Baron Munchhausen, German teller of stories which became The Adventures of Baron Munchausen. He died on 22 February 1797.
1660 Johann-Rudolf Byss, Swiss artist who died on 11 December 1738.