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Events, deaths, births, of 09 MAY
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• West Germany joins NATO... • Abolitionist John Brown is born... • Union victory at Snake Creek... • US provoked to war against Mexico... • Peter Pan's author is born... • Reuther dies... • Buffalo Bill's Wild West show... • Crown jewels stolen... • Göring captured... • Hostage Moro murdered... • Nixon impeachment proceedings... • Byrd flies over North Pole?... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • 121 die crushed at soccer game...
TFR price chart^  On a 09 May:
2002 Tefron Ltd. manufactures boutique-quality everyday intimate apparel sold throughout the world by such name-brand marketers as Victoria's Secret and Warnaco/Calvin Klein. Its stock (TFR) of apparel and accessories company Tefron Ltd (TFR) rises from its previous day's close of $1.45 to an intraday high of $3.44 and closes at $3.15. It had traded as high as $27 on 27 April 1998, less than a year after it went public. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Maryland Governor Parris Glendening imposes a moratorium on executions in Maryland until the state completes a study of whether there is racial bias in the use of the death penalty. Only one other US state that has capital punishment, Illinois, has imposed a similar moratorium, declared by its Governor George Ryan in 2000.
2002 Municipal elections in Bahrain, its first elections after almost 30 years of autocratic emirate, and first elections in which women can vote and be candidates.
2000 Former four-term Louisiana Governor Edwin Edwards is convicted of extortion schemes to manipulate the licensing of riverboat casinos. (In January 2001, Edwards would be sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $250'000.)
^ 1997 Former POW becomes US ambassador to Communist Vietnam.
      Twenty-two years and ten days after the fall of Saigon, former Florida Representative Douglas "Pete" Peterson became the first ambassador to Vietnam since Graham Martin was airlifted out of the country by helicopter in late April 1975.
      Peterson himself served as a US air force captain during the Vietnam War, and was held as a prisoner of war for six-and-a-half-years after his bomber was shot down near Hanoi in 1966. Thirty-one years later, Peterson returned to Hanoi on a different mission, presenting his credentials to Communist authorities in the Vietnamese capital on 09 May 1997.
      Normalization with America's old enemy began in early 1994, when US President Bill Clinton announced the lifting of the nineteen-year-old trade embargo against Vietnam, explaining that the Vietnamese government was cooperating in the US government's efforts to locate the 2238 Americans still listed as missing in action.
      However, although the embargo was lifted, high tariffs remained on Vietnamese exports pending the country's qualification as a "most-favored-nation," a US trade status designation that Vietnam might earn after broadening its program of free market reforms. In July of 1995, in light of continued Vietnamese cooperation in accounting for the US servicemen still listed as missing (POW/MIAs), the Clinton administration established diplomatic relations with Vietnam.
      In May 1996, President Bill Clinton terminated the combat zone designation for Vietnam and later in the year nominated Democratic Congressman Pete Peterson as the first US ambassador to Vietnam. Confirmed by Congress in the next year, Ambassador Peterson began his mission to Vietnam on 09 May 1997.
1996 In video testimony to a courtroom in Little Rock, Arkansas, President Clinton insists that he had nothing to do with a $300'000 loan at the heart of the criminal case against his former Whitewater partners.
1996 TVs to Surf the Web
      Zenith announces that by the end of the year it will sell televisions that can surf the Web. Several other companies had announced similar plans, some for set-top boxes that would let ordinary televisions surf the Web, and others that let personal computers receive television signals.
1994 South Africa's newly elected parliament chooses Nelson Mandela to be the country's first Black president.
1994 Kinshasa is placed under quarantine after an outbreak of the Ebola virus.
1994 James Clark introduces Mosaic
      James Clark, founder of Silicon Graphics, Inc., announces he will start a new company called Mosaic Communications Corporation. (The company would later change its name to Netscape Communications.) Clark teamed up with Marc Andreessen and six other programmers to create Mosaic, one of the earliest Web browsers, at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. When Netscape went public in December 1995, it broke records for the most successful opening day of stock trading in history. Unfortunately, the company later found itself in a fierce and expensive battle with Microsoft, which ultimately led to its sale to AOL in late 1998.
^ 1994 Gates is sued for TV reporter's arrest
      Television journalist Scott Rensberger, a 33-year-old reporter for a Seattle television station, filed a suit against Bill Gates and others for Rensberger's arrest and imprisonment on New Year's Day in Hawaii. (Rensberger had been arrested in a public park on Lanai for trespassing at Bill Gates' wedding on the island.) In April 1995, the suit was settled for an undisclosed amount of money. Gates and David Murdock, the CEO of Dole Food and owner of most of Lanai, where the wedding took place, both sent letters of apology to Rensberger. Another Microsoft executive and Murdock donated more than $120'000 to a charity of Rensberger's choice.
1990 Son anunciadas reformas radicales en Albania.
1989 Journalist petition Chinese govt for freedom of press.
1985 En Moscú, desfile militar conmemorativo del cuarenta aniversario de la victoria sobre Alemania, en el que se ven, por primera vez en público, los cohetes SS-21.
1984 Marcelino Oreja Aguirre, ex Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores español, es elegido Secretario General del Consejo de Europa.
1983 John Paul II announced the reversal of the Catholic Church's 1633 condemnation of Galileo Galilei, the scientist who first espoused the Copernican (i.e., heliocentric) view of our solar system.
1979 En España, el Rey Juan Carlos I preside la apertura de la primera legislatura constitucional.
^ 1977 Saving Social Security
     President Jimmy Carter proposes a tax hike aimed at bolstering Social Security's "fiscal integrity." Along with bumping the tax rate up from 7to 7.5%, the president's proposal also called for federal funds to be shifted to Social Security if unemployment ever left the retirement program impotent. The latter point aroused considerable debate and prompted legislators to perform a heady round of revisions to the tax bill. In the winter of 1977, Congress gave the green light to the overhauled version of the president's legislation.
     Just a few months after taking the oath of office, Carter had set about healing America's various ills. One of the areas in dire need of attention was Social Security, America's program for paying out retirement benefits, which was increasingly threatened by the slumping economy and the ever-swelling unemployment rolls.
1975 El gobierno español reconoce el derecho de huelga.
1974 El primer ministro de Canadá, Pierre Trudeau, es derrocado por una moción de censura.
^ 1974 US House votes to initiate impeachment proceedings
      The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee opens impeachment hearings against President Richard Nixon, voting to impeach him on three counts on 30 July. The impeachment was the result of the scandal involving the bungled burglary of the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C., on 23 June 1972. Eventually, it was learned that there was a criminal cover-up that went all the way to the White House. Nixon, facing the impeachment proceedings, resigned the presidency on 08 August 1974.
      Nixon's resignation had a major impact on the situation in Vietnam. Nixon had convinced South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to consent to the provisions of the Paris Peace Accords by personally promising (on more than 30 occasions) that the United States would re-enter the conflict if the North Vietnamese violated the peace agreement. However, when Nixon resigned, his successor, Gerald R. Ford, was not able to keep Nixon's promises. Ford could not, despite Thieu's desperate pleas for help, get Congress to appropriate significant funds to help the South Vietnamese. Having lost its sole source of aid and support, South Vietnam fell to the North Vietnamese in April 1975.
1972 El presidente de EE.UU., Richard Milhous Nixon, ordena el bloqueo y minado de los puertos de Vietnam del Norte.
1970 Between 75'000 and 100'000 young persons, mostly from college campuses, demonstrate peacefully in Washington DC, at the rear of a barricaded White House, for US withdrawal from Vietnam. Afterwards, a few hundreds spread through surrounding streets, causing limited damage. Police attack the most threatening crowds with tear gas.
1969 Reporter breaks the news of secret bombing in Cambodia
      William Beecher, military correspondent for the New York Times, publishes a front page dispatch from Washington, "Raids in Cambodia by US Unprotested," which accurately described the first of the secret B-52 bombing raids in Cambodia. Within hours, Henry Kissinger, presidential assistant for national security affairs, contacted J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, asking him to find the governmental sources of Beecher's article. During the next two years, Alexander Haig, a key Kissinger assistant, transmitted the names of National Security Council staff members and reporters who were to have their telephones wiretapped by the FBI.
1968 Violentos enfrentamientos entre policías, obreros y estudiantes en París, con 367 heridos graves y 720 leves.
1965 Luna 5 launched (USSR) first attempt to soft land on Moon. (fails)
1962 A laser beam is successfully bounced off the Moon for the first time.
^ 1960 The US FDA approves contraceptive pill
      The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the world's first commercially produced birth-control pill — Enovid-10, made by the G.D. Searle Company of Chicago, Illinois.
      Development of "the pill," as it became popularly known, was initially commissioned by birth-control pioneer Margaret Sanger and funded by heiress Katherine McCormick. Sanger, who opened the first birth-control clinic in the United States in 1916, hoped to encourage the development of a more practical and effective alternative to contraceptives currently in use.
      In the early 1950s, Gregory Pincus, a biochemist at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, and John Rock, a gynecologist at Harvard Medical School, began work on the birth-control pill. Clinical tests of the pill, which used synthetic progesterone and estrogen to repress ovulation in women, were initiated in 1954. On 09 May 1960, the FDA approved the pill, granting greater reproductive freedom to American women.
1958 Insurrección en Líbano contra el presidente, Camille Chamoun.
^ 1955 West Germany joins NATO
      Ten years after the Nazis were defeated in World War II, the German Federal Republic joins the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a mutual defense group aimed at containing Soviet expansion in Europe. This action marked the final step of West Germany's integration into the Western European defense system. Germany had been a divided nation since 1945. The Americans, British, and French held zones of occupation in Western Germany and West Berlin; the Soviets controlled Eastern Germany and East Berlin.
      Although publicly both the US and the USSR proclaimed a desire for a reunited and independent Germany, it quickly became apparent that each of these Cold War opponents would only accept a reunified Germany that served their own nation's specific interests. In 1949, the US, UK, and France combined their zones of occupation in West Germany to establish a new nation, the Federal Republic of Germany. The Soviets responded by setting up the German Democratic Republic in East Germany.
      On 05 May 1955, the US, French, and British forces formally ended their military occupation of West Germany, which became an independent country. Four days later, West Germany is made a member of NATO. For US policymakers, this was an essential step in the defense of Western Europe. Despite the reluctance of some European nations, such as France, to see a rearmed Germany — even as an ally — the United States believed that remilitarizing West Germany was absolutely vital in terms of setting up a defensive perimeter to contain any possible Soviet attempts at expansion.
      The Soviet response was immediate. On 14 May 1955, the Soviet Union established the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance between Russia and its Eastern European satellites-including East Germany. The entrance of West Germany into NATO was the final step in integrating that nation into the defense system of Western Europe. It was also the final nail in the coffin as far as any possibility of a reunited Germany in the near future. For the next 35 years, East and West Germany came to symbolize the animosities of the Cold War. In 1990, Germany was finally reunified; the new German state remained a member of NATO.
1950 Journée de l'Europe
      Robert Schuman, ministre français des affaires étrangères, reprenant un projet élaboré par Jean Monnet, propose la création d'une autorité commune supervisant les productions française et allemande de charbon et d'acier, ouverte aux autres pays intéressés, comme première étape d'un «rassemblement des nations européennes».
     Cette déclaration est considérée comme l'acte fondateur de la future Union européenne. Elle a été choisie par le Conseil européen de Milan, en 1985, pour devenir la journée symbole de l'Europe et se célèbre chaque année à cette date comme "Journée de l'Europe".
1946 King Victor Emmanuel III [11 Nov 1869 – 28 Dec 1947] of Italy abdicates in favor of his son Umberto, in the vain hope of influencing a coming plebiscite, which turned out to chose to replace the monarchy by a republic, so that both went into exile. — El rey de Italia, Víctor Manuel III, abdica la corona en su hijo, el Príncipe del Piamonte, quien se proclamó a sí mismo como rey con el nombre de Humberto II.
1945 The Soviet Union declares victory in World War II. Henceforth the day is celebrated every year as Victory Day, in the Soviet Union and afterwards in Russia.
1945 Czechoslovakia is liberated from Nazi occupation (National Day)
^ 1945 Herman Göring is captured by the US Seventh Army
     The commander in chief of the Luftwaffe, president of the Reichstag, head of the Gestapo, prime minister of Prussia, and Hitler's designated successor is taken prisoner by the US Seventh Army in Bavaria. Göring [12 Jan 1893 – 15 Oct 1946] was an early member of the Nazi Party and was wounded in the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. That wound would have long-term effects; Göring became increasingly addicted to painkillers. Not long after Hitler's accession to power, Göring was instrumental in creating concentration camps for political enemies. Ostentatious and self-indulgent, he changed his uniform five times a day and was notorious for flaunting his decorations, jewelry, and stolen artwork. It was Göring who ordered the purging of German Jews from the economy following the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, initiating an "Aryanization" policy that confiscated Jewish property and businesses.
      Göring's failure to win the Battle of Britain and prevent the Allied bombing of Germany led to his loss of stature within the Party, aggravated by the low esteem with which he was always held by fellow officers because of his egocentrism and position as Hitler's right-hand man. As the war progressed, he dropped into depressions and battled drug addiction. When Göring fell into US hands after Germany's surrender, he had in his possession a rich stash of pills. He was tried at Nuremberg and charged with various crimes against humanity. Despite a vigorous attempt at self acquittal, he was found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, but before he could be executed, he committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide tablet he had hidden from his guards.
1944 Country singer Jimmie Davis becomes governor of Louisiana
1941 The German submarine U-110 is captured at sea by Britain's Royal navy.
1941 Ataque aéreo inglés contra Hamburgo.
1940 II Guerra Mundial: tropas británicas ocupan Islandia y las islas Feroe.
1940 Dimite Chamberlain, primer ministro británico.
1940 Hitler autoriza la eutanasia en Alemania.
1940 Le président Lebrun refuse la démission de Paul Reynaud
1936 Italy takes Addis Abba, annexing Abyssinia (Ethiopia) — El rey de Italia, Víctor Manuel III, es proclamado emperador de Etiopía por el Consejo Fascista, y el mariscal Badoglio virrey de dicho país.
1936 El dirigible alemán Hindenburg realiza el vuelo Francfort-Nueva York
1927 Australian Parliament first convenes in new capital, Canberra — La ciudad de Canberra es elegida sede del gobierno de Australia. .
^ 1926 Byrd flies over the North Pole? or not?
      According to their claims, polar explorer Richard Evelyn Byrd and co-pilot Floyd Bennett flew over the North Pole on this day in the Josephine Ford, a triple-engine Fokker monoplane. It would have been the first time an aircraft flew over the top of the world. The pair had taken off from Spitsbergen, Norway, and they reportedly covered the 2486-km trip to the pole and back in fifteen hours and thirty minutes (average 160 km/h). For the achievement, both men were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
      However, in later decades, an analysis of Byrd's diary seemed to suggest that he may have turned back 240 km short of his goal. If so, Italian adventurer Umberto Nobile, American Lincoln Ellsworth, and Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen (who was in 1911 the first person to reach the South Pole by land) would receive the credit for their airship flight over the North Pole on 12 May 1926, three days after Fletcher and Byrd's flight.
      Regardless, Byrd's place in polar exploration is firmly set; in 1929, he established a US base in Antarctica and late in the same year, accompanied by aviator Bernt Balchen, he made the undisputed first aircraft flight over the South Pole.
1915 German and French fight the Battle of Artois.
1914 President Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924] proclaims Mother's Day
1913 The 17th amendment to the US Constitution, providing for the election of US senators by popular vote rather than selection by state legislatures, is ratified.
^ 1887 Buffalo Bill's Wild West show opens
      Buffalo Bill's Wild West show opens in London, giving Queen Victoria and her subjects their first look at real cowboys and Indians. A well-known scout for the army and a buffalo hunter for the railroads (which earned him his nickname), Cody had gained national prominence 15 years earlier thanks to a fanciful novel written by Edward Zane Carroll Judson. Writing under the pen name Ned Buntline, Judson made Cody the hero of his highly sensationalized dime novel The Scouts of the Plains; or, Red Deviltry As It Is. In 1872, Judson also convinced Cody to travel to Chicago to star in a stage version of the book. Cody broke with Judson after a year, but he enjoyed the life of a performer and stayed on the stage for 11 seasons.
      In 1883, Cody staged an outdoor extravaganza called the "Wild West, Rocky Mountain, and Prairie Exhibition" for a Fourth of July celebration in North Platte, Nebraska. When the show was a success, Cody realized he could evoke the mythic West more effectively if he abandoned cramped theater stages for large outdoor exhibitions. The result was "Buffalo Bill's Wild West," a circus-like pageant celebrating life in the West. During the next four years, Cody performed his show all around the nation to appreciative crowds often numbering 20'000 persons. Audiences loved Cody's reenactments of frontier events: an attack on a Deadwood stage, a Pony Express relay race, and most exciting of all, the spectacle of Custer's Last Stand at the Little Big Horn. Even more popular were the displays of western outdoor skills like rope tricks, bulldogging, and amazing feats of marksmanship. Cody made a star of Annie Oakley, an attractive young Ohio woman who earned her nickname "Little Sure Shot" by shooting a cigar out of an assistant's mouth.
     Many people were convinced that Cody's spectacle was an authentic depiction of the Wild West. Cody encouraged the impression by bringing audiences "genuine characters" — real Amerindian performers Cody had recruited from several tribes. Even the famous Sitting Bull toured with the show for one season. Enthralled by the site of "genuine" Indians, few audience members questioned whether these men wearing immense feathered headdresses and riding artfully painted horses accurately represented tribal life on the Great Plains.
      Having effectively defined the popular image of the West for many in the US, Cody took his show across the Atlantic to show Europeans. He staged his first international performance at the Earls Court show ground in London on this day in 1887 to a wildly appreciative audience. Queen Victoria herself attended two command showings. After London, Cody and his performers amazed audiences throughout Europe and then became a truly international success. One bronco rider, who stayed with the show until 1907, traveled around the world more than three times and recalled giving a performance in Outer Mongolia.
      Though Cody's Wild West show waned in popularity in the 20th century — in part because of competition from thousands of local rodeos that borrowed his idea — Cody remained on the road with the show for 30 years. When the show finally collapsed from financial pressures in 1913, Cody continued to perform in other similar shows until two months before his death in 1917. More than 18'000 attended the great showman's funeral, and the romantic power of his vision still draws thousands of visitors a year to his gravesite on Lookout Mountain above Denver.
^ 1864 Union troops take Snake Creek Gap, Georgia
      Union troops secure a crucial pass during the Atlanta campaign. In the spring and summer of 1864, Union General William T. Sherman and Confederate General Joseph Johnston conducted a slow and methodical campaign to seize control of Atlanta. Pushing southeast from Chattanooga toward Atlanta, Sherman continually tried to flank Johnston, but Johnston countered each move.
      On 03 May, 1864, two of Sherman's corps moved against Confederate defenses at Dalton, while another Yankee force under James McPherson swung wide to the south and west of Dalton in an attempt to approach Johnston from the rear. It was along this path that McPherson captured Snake Creek Gap, a crucial opening in a long elevation called Rocky Face Ridge. On one hand, seizure of the strategic pass was a brilliant Union victory. Rocky Face Ridge was a key geographic feature for Johnston and his army. It was a barrier against Sherman's army that could neutralize the superior numbers of Federal troops. When the Yankees captured the gap, Johnston had to pull his men much further south where the terrain did not offer such advantages.
      But securing Snake Creek Gap was also a missed opportunity for the Union. McPherson had a chance to cut directly into the Confederate rear but encountered what he judged to be strong Rebel defenses at Resaca. Union troops reached the Western and Atlantic Railroad, Johnston's supply line, but they did not have adequate numbers to hold the railroad, and did not have enough time to cut the line. McPherson halted his advance on Resaca and fell back to the mouth of Snake Creek Gap, causing Sherman to complain for years later that McPherson was timid and had lost the chance to route the Confederates. The campaign would eventually be successful, but the failure to secure or destroy the Confederate supply line prolonged the campaign, possibly by months.
1864 Engagement at Swift Creek, Virginia.
1864 Union failure at Snake Creek Gap, Georgia.
1864 Battle of Spotsylvania, Virginia continues.
1862 Confederates evacuate Norfolk, Virginia.
1862 Bombardment of Pensacola, Florida.
^ 1846 Mexican ambush sparks the Mexican-US War.
      Word reaches Washington that an American patrol had been ambushed by Mexican forces north of the Rio Grande. This leads four days later to the US Congress granting President James K. Polk’s request for a declaration of war.
      The Mexican-American War began with a dispute over the US government’s 1845 annexation of Texas, which had won independence from Mexico in 1836. In January of 1846, President James K. Polk, a strong advocate of westward expansion, ordered General Zachary Taylor to occupy disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers.
      On 12 May 1846, Mexican troops attacked the forces of General Taylor, who went on to win the Battle of Palo Alto
      On 13 May 1846, Congress, yet unaware of that battle, approved a declaration of war, appropriating ten million dollars for the war effort and authorizing the president to call for 50'000 volunteers.
      On 09 March 1847, US forces under General Winfield Scott invaded Mexico 5 km south of Vera Cruz. Encountering little resistance from the Mexicans massed in the fortified city of Vera Cruz, by nightfall the last of Scott’s 10'000 men had come ashore without the loss of a single life. By 29 March, with very few US casualties, Scott’s forces had taken Vera Cruz and its massive fortress, San Juan de Ulua.
      On 09 April, Scott began a devastating march to Mexico City, ending on 14 September, when triumphant US forces entered the Mexican capital and raised the American flag over the Hall of Montezuma.
      On 02 February 1848, representatives from the US and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, formally ending the Mexican War, recognizing Texas as part of the United States, and extending the boundaries of the United States west to the Pacific Ocean.
1841 El general Baldomero Espartero es proclamado Regente de España.
1814 Se publica en Francia la Declaración de Saint-Ouen, en la que se exponen las bases de la Constitución que Luis XVIII otorga a los franceses al recuperar el trono tras la caída de Napoleón.
1769 Les Corses se soumettent à la France.
1754 A cartoon in Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette shows a snake cut into sections, each part representing an American colony; the caption reads, ''Join or die.''
1697 Se inician las negociaciones de la Paz de Ryswick, tratado que pone fin a la guerra sostenida entre Francia y la liga de Augsburgo (el emperador austriaco, el duque de Baviera, el elector del Palatinado, los príncipes de Renania y Franconia y los reinos de España y Suecia).
^ 1671 Captain Blood steals Crown Jewels
      In London, Thomas Blood, an Irish adventurer born in 1618, who called himself Colonel Blood, but is better known as "Captain Blood" (the fictional character, Peter Blood, of the 1922 novel Chivalry by Rafael Sabatini [29 April 1875 – 13 Feb 1950]) was captured attempting to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
      Blood, a Parliamentarian during the English Civil War and an officer in Cromwell's army, was deprived of his estate in Ireland with the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660. In 1663, he put himself at the head of a plot to seize Dublin Castle from supporters of King Charles II, but the plot was discovered and his accomplices executed. In 1671, he hatched a bizarre plan to steal the new Crown Jewels, refashioned by Charles II as most of the original jewels were melted down after Charles I's execution in 1649.
      On 09 May 1671, Blood, disguised as a priest, managed to convince the Jewel House keeper to hand over his pistols. Blood's three accomplices then emerged from the shadows, and together they forced there way into the Jewel House. However, they were caught in the act when the keeper's son showed up unexpectedly, and an alarm went out to the Tower guard. One man shoved the Royal Orb down his breeches while Blood flattened the Crown with a mallet and tried to run off with it.
      The Tower guards apprehended and arrested all four of the perpetrators. Blood refused to talk to anyone but the King. For some reason (it is supposed that Blood may have been at one time his secret agent) Charles, instead of punishing him, he restored his estates in Ireland and made him a member of his court with an annual pension of 500 pounds. Captain Blood became a colorful celebrity all across the kingdom, and after he died on 24 August 1680, his body had to be exhumed in order to persuade the public that he was actually dead.
1619 In Holland, the six month long Synod of Dort ended. Confirming the authority of the Heidelberg Catechism, the decisions of the Synod led to some 200 Arminian clergy being afterward deprived of their offices.
1502 Christopher Columbus leaves Cadiz, Spain, on his fourth and final trip to the New World.
< 08 May 10 May >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 09 May:

2006 Yovy Suarez Jimenez, 28, woman, killed by an alligator in the evening at State Road 84 and 114th Avenue in Sunrise, Broward county, Florida, as she was jogging alone on a bicycle path along a canal. The alligator bites her in the leg and in the back, bites off and swallows her two arms, then drags her corpse into the water, where it is found the next day. Searching for the alligator, the county's alligator exterminator, Kevin Garvey, 43, traps three in the canal, and, on 13 May 2006, finds her two arms in the stomach of the third one. It is 3 meters long, weighs 200 kg, and is blind in the left eye. — (060514)

2005 David M. Gleason, 53, and David Sandweiss, 49, in two cars stopped at a red traffic light on a cross-street in Liberty, Missouri, into which, at 08:25 (13:25 UT), crashes school bus #80 which was taking kindergartners through fifth-graders to Ridgeview Elementary School; it had suddenly veered to the right on the main street. Two persons in the struck cars are critically injured. 23 of the 38 children on the bus are injured. School buses are not equipped with safety belts. — Telephone directory listings: David Gleason: (816) 781-5700 - , Liberty, MO 64068 _ David Sandweiss: (816) 781-5727 - 213 Camelot Dr, Liberty, MO 64068. — Gleason was a lawyer, whose offices he called (since 1992) Northland Legal Services (816-455-4200; 2900 N.E. 60th, Suite 209, Gladstone MO 64119-2091) — Dave Sandweiss was a 1974 graduate of Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri; he founded, in 1985, Sandweiss Advertising (816-741-0060; 104 Main St., Parkville, MO), which specializes in the placement and creation of broadcast advertising, and operates in more than l5 US states.
Kadyrov2004 From 14 to 32 persons (depending on which report is to be believed) including Akhmad Kadyrov [photo >], puppet president of Russian-occupied Chechnya; 2 of his body guards; Khusein Isayev, chairman of the puppet state council; Eli Isayev, puppet finance minister; journalist Adman Khasaev; Adlan Khasanov, 33, a Grozinform and Reuters journalist; and a girl, 8; by artillery shell bomb (probably detonated by a timer) under the VIP bleachers of the Dynamo stadium in Grozny, at 10:35 during Victory Day celebrations. Then panicked soldiers fire stupidly and wildly. Some 80 persons are injured, including (critically in the legs one of which has to be amputated), puppet-master colonel-general Valery Petrovich Baranov, commander of the Russian occupation forces. Kadyrov was born on 23 August 1951, in Kazakhstan, where most of the Chechen population had been exiled by the Soviet government starting on 23 February 1944. He was an independentist commander during the Chechen war of independence started by the Russians invading on 11 December 1994 and ended when the defeated Russian forces withdrew in 1996. But during the ensuing period of Chechnya's de-facto independence Kadyrov complained of the growing influence of the Wahhabi sect of Islam and he broke with Aslan Maskhadov, who had been legitimately elected Chechen president in 1997. In late 1999, Russia invaded again, and in 2000 the Kremlin appointed the traitor Kadyrov as their top puppet. He was “elected” president on 05 October 2003 in a rigged pretence of an election. His son Ramzan Kadyrov heads a KGB-style private puppet secret police of some 4000. Puppet prime minister Sergey Abramov becomes the acting president of Russian-occupied Chechnya (until an election no later than 09 Sep 2004) and immediately goes to Moscow to take orders from Russian autocratic president Putin, a former KGB agent.
2004 Seven persons, including 3 policemen, by explosion in a market in central Baghdad, Iraq, just after a US convoy had passed. Some 15 persons are wounded.
2003 Norman E. Wallace, 30, a Black MBA student, shot at 20:10 by Biswanath Halder, 52, who had just entered the Peter B. Lewis Building at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, and continues on a wild shooting rampage through the building, wounding a man and a woman, until police wound and capture him at 23:00. He is a 1999 MBA graduate of Case Western and former employee who had filed a lawsuit against another Case Western employee for having "added and deleted things from a personal Web site". His lawsuit was dismissed, and he lost an appeal in April 2003.
2003:: 129 of the police officials and relatives crowded into a chartered Ilyushin-76 cargo plane, sucked out at 10'000 m altitude, when the rear door opens, near Mbuji-Mayi, Congo ex-Zaire, 45 minutes into a Kinshasa to Lumumbashi flight. The pilot manages to return to Kinshasa with the survivors.
2002 Yu Qin Zheng, 35, and her son Andy Zheng, 8, stabbed in their Philadelphia apartment in the evening by enraged Chang Qi, 46, who had come to collect a debt from Mr. Zheng who was not there. Mindy Zheng, 12, was injured and would have been killed had not her brother Andy tried to pull away Qi who then killed the boy, while Mindy broke away and called 911.
2002:: 41 persons by a remote control mine which explodes at about 09:45 in Kaspiisk, Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea, at the passage of a Victory Day parade of a military band surrounded by children and World War Two veterans. Among the dead (which include those who died later of injuries) are 17 children and 18 servicemen (including 3 lieutenant colonels and 1 major). Some 30 children and 130 adults are injured. Without actual evidence, Russian authorities instantly blame “terrorists” from nearby Chechnya.
^ 2001 At least 126 crushed in stampede at soccer game.
     In Ghana, at Accra Stadium, a stampede begins when police fired tear gas at fans who were throwing bottles and chairs, creating a panic as spectators rush to escape. Accra Hearts of Oak was leading 2-1 against Asante Kotoko with five minutes left when Asante supporters began hurling the objects onto the field. Most of the victims were crushed to death. 53 injured were treated at one hospical.
      This was the fourth soccer disaster in Africa in a month. On 11 April, 43 people were killed at a stadium in Johannesburg, South Africa. Another stampede on 29 April killed eight people in Lubumbashi, Congo. And on 06 May, fighting broke out among fans at a soccer match in Ivory Coast, killing one person and injuring 39.
1995 Hide Ohira, who did not try to hide the fact that he was born on 15 September 1880. He dies on the very day that Mary Electa Bidwell celebrates her 114th birthday (her last).
1990  Dalmiro de la Valgoma, abogado, escritor, historiador y académico español.
1987: 183 personas al estrellarse un avión de la compañía polaca LOT tras despegar del aeropuerto de Varsovia.
1986 Anxel Fole, escritor gallego.
1980: 35 motorists, as a Liberian freighter rams the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay in Florida, causing a 430-meter section to collapse.
^ 1978 Aldo Moro, murdered while held as hostage.
     As prime minister, Aldo Moro was considered the most capable politician in Italy after World War II. Ironically, after allowing Communist participation in the government, Moro was kidnaped by Red Brigade terrorists who demanded the release of Communist prisoners. The Italian government refused to bargain with them.
      The body of former Italian prime minister Aldo Moro is found, riddled by bullets, in the back of a car in the center of Rome. He was kidnapped by Red Brigade terrorists on March 16 after a bloody shoot-out near his suburban home. The Italian government refused to negotiate with the extreme left-wing group, which, after numerous threats, executed Moro on 09 May. He was a five-time prime minister of Italy and considered a front-runner for the presidency of Italy in elections due in December.
      Aldo Moro, born on 23 Sep 1916, became a professor of law at the University of Bari, He published several books on legal subjects and served also as president of the Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana (1939–1942) and the Movimento Laureati Cattolici (1945–1946). After World War II, he was elected deputy to the Constituent Assembly and to the legislature. He held a succession of cabinet posts, including under secretary of foreign affairs (Dec 1947 – May 1948), minister of justice (1955–1957), and minister of public instruction (1957–1959). Moro took office as secretary of the Christian Democrats during a crisis that threatened to split the party (March 1959). Although he was the leader of the Dorothean, or centrist, group of the Christian Democrats, he favored forming a coalition with the Socialists and helped bring about the resignation of the conservative Christian Democrat prime minister Fernando Tambroni (July 1960).
      When Moro was invited to form his own government in December 1963, he assembled a cabinet that included some Socialists, who were participating in the government for the first time in 16 years. He resigned after a defeat on a budget issue (26 Jun 1964) but formed a new cabinet much like the old one (22 July 1964). After Amintore Fanfani's resignation in 1965, Moro temporarily became his own foreign minister, renewing Italian pledges to NATO and the United Nations.
     Italy's inflation and failing industrial growth prevented Moro from initiating many of the reforms he had envisaged, and this angered the Socialists, who effected his defeat in January 1966. He succeeded, however, in forming a new government on 23 February 1966. After the general elections in 1968, Moro, as is customary, resigned (05 Jun 1968). He was foreign minister (1970–1972). In November 1974 he became premier with a coalition government, the second party being the Republican, but this government fell on 07 January 1976. Moro was again premier, for the 5th and last time, from 12 February 1976 to 30 April 1976, remaining in office as head of a caretaker government until 09 July 1976. In October 1976 he became president of the Christian Democrats and remained a powerful influence in Italian politics even though he held no public office.
      On 11 March 1978, he helped end a government crisis when he worked out a parliamentary coalition between the Communist Party and the dominant Christian Democrats. Just five days later, Mr. Moro's car was attacked by a dozen armed Red Brigade terrorists. His five guards were killed, and Moro was abducted and taken to a secret location. On 18 March, the Red Brigade issued a communiqué claiming responsibility for the kidnapping and stating that Moro would undergo a “people's trial.”
      The Brigate Rosse were founded by Italian Renato Curcio, who in 1967 had set up at the University of Trento a leftist group to study the writings of the likes of Karl Marx [05 May 1818 – 14 March 1883], Mao Zedong [26 Dec 1893 – 09 Sep 1976], and Che Guevara [14 Jun 1928 – 10 Oct 1967]. In 1969 Curcio married a fellow radical, Margherita Cagol, and moved with her to Milan, where they attracted a group of followers. Proclaiming the existence of the Red Brigades in November 1970 through the firebombing of various factories and warehouses in Milan, the group began kidnapping the following year and in 1974 committed its first assassination; among its victims that year was the chief inspector of Turin's antiterrorist squad. Despite the arrest and imprisonment of hundreds of alleged terrorists throughout the country, including Curcio himself in 1976, the random assassinations continued.
     Besides kidnappings and assassinations, the Brigate Rosse also employed bombings and bank robberies as a means of promoting Marxist revolution in Italy. The Italian Communist Party, which supported democracy and participated in Parliament, condemned the terrorist Red Brigade, and the Red Brigade accused the Communist Party of being a pawn of the bourgeoisie. Renato Curcio and 12 other Red Brigade members were on trial in Turin when Moro was kidnapped, and legal proceedings were only briefly halted after his abduction. The Italian government declined to negotiate with the kidnappers, claiming that such an action would undermine the state and throw Italy into chaos. Some critics accused the Christian Democrats of yielding to pressure from the Communist Party, whose leaders were even more strongly opposed to a dialogue with the Red Brigade. Police and the army arrested hundreds of suspected terrorists and scoured the country looking for the “people's prison” where Moro was being held but failed to find any solid clues.
      On 19 March and 04 April, letters apparently freely written by Moro were delivered pleading with the government to negotiate. The government attempted secret talks, but, on 15 April, the Red Brigade rejected these negotiations and announced that Moro had been found guilty in the people's trial and sentenced to death. Threats to execute him led nowhere, and, on 24 April, the terrorists demanded the release of 13 Red Brigade members held in Turin in exchange for Moro's life. On 07 May, Moro send a farewell letter to his wife, saying, “They have told me that they are going to kill me in a little while, I kiss you for the last time.” Two days later, his body was found on Via Caetani, within 300 meters of the headquarters of the Christian Democrats and 200 meters from the Communist Party headquarters. According to a wish expressed by Moro during his abduction, no Italian politicians were invited to his funeral. During the next decade, many Red Brigade leaders and members were arrested, and the organization was greatly weakened.
^ 1970 Walter Philip Reuther, 62, president of the UAW since 1946, in an airplane crash.
     Born in Wheeling, West Virginia, to German immigrants, Reuther's socialist leanings were fostered by his father, Valentine. A master brewer, Valentine had left Germany to escape the repressive Lutheran authorities there, and to avoid what he viewed as the increasing militarization of his homeland. He imbued his three sons, Walter, Victor, and Roy, with the values of labor organization and social equality.
      Walter dropped out of high school to become an apprentice die maker at the Wheeling Steel Company. Before he could finish his training, he moved to Detroit during the heavy production years of the Model T and talked his way into a job as a die maker in a Ford factory. Reuther returned to high school while working at the Ford plant, and he maintained his interest in Socialism and organized labor.
      During the Depression, he and his brothers traveled to Germany to visit their relatives. The trip proved formative as the totalitarian conditions in Germany, and the bitter split between the National Socialists and the Left, disappointed the brothers terribly. They even briefly ran pamphlets for the Socialist underground there. They continued on to Russia, where Walter employed his skill as a die maker in Russian auto plants that had purchased Ford machinery. They remained in Gorki from 1933 to 1935. Reuther was greatly moved by the camaraderie of the autoworkers there. "To a Ford employee especially," he said, "[the social and cultural life] was absorbing."
      Reuther returned to Detroit and began his career as an activist and labor organizer. At first considered a radical and a communist, Reuther worked his way up the ranks of the UAW as the union became a more and more legitimate force. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal reached out to the leftist elements of the labor movement, and in response Reuther's left moved center to meet the Democratic Party.
      Reuther played vital roles in the formation of the UAW and in the merger of the AFL-CIO. He championed integrationist policies when few other labor organizers cared, "The UAW-CIO will tell any worker that refused to work with a colored worker that he could leave the plant because he did not belong there." During Reuther's benevolent reign atop the ranks of the UAW, autoworkers became members of the middle class, as measured by earnings, employment security, medical care, and retirement pensions.
1950 Esteban Terradas e Illa, ingeniero y físico español.
1949  Luis II, príncipe de Mónaco.
1947 Miguel Abadía y Méndez, escritor y político colombiano.
1945 Heinrich Himmler, político alemán Nazi, criminal de guerra y contra la humanidad.
1916 Thomas Kent, Irish patriot, executed by British firing squad for his participation in the Easter Rising.
1915  Javier Gozé, ilustrador español.
1889 William Hammer, Danish artist born on 31 July 1821.
1880 Johann Michael Wittmer, German artist born on 15 October 1802.
1851 Johann Heinrich Schilbach, German artist born in 1798.
1850 Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac, físico y químico francés.
1844 (Jo)hanne Hellesen, German artist born on 20 January 1801.
1805 Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller, poeta alemán.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (20 floréal an II):

BLANC Pierre (dit Pierragues), domicilié à Claviers, canton de Draguignan (Var), comme voleur, avec récidive, par le tribunal criminel du département du Var.
JOUAN François, couvreur tonnelier, domicilié à St Martin (Morbihan), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme séditieux.
SOREDE Jean, domicilié à Taillé (Pyrénées-Orientales), comme émigré, par le tribunal militaire du 1er arrondissement de l'armées des Pyrénées-Orientales.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
FOUGERET Jean, ex noble, receveur général des finances, 60 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
JOUDRIER Claude, perruquier, âgé de 36 ans, né et domicilié à Dijon (Côte-d'Or), comme complice d'une conspiration dans la maison d'arrêt de Dijon où il était détenu.
BEAULIEU Louis, Alexandre
, 36 ans, natif de Chartres, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de Mauny, aide major des ci-devant suisses de l'Artois.
REVIERS Jacques François Vincent, major de la garde suisse du 2ème frère du dernier tyran roi, 40 ans, né et domicilié à Douy (Eure et Loire), par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'émigration.
1701 Jacob de Heusch, Dutch artist born in 1657.
1682 Pieter Wouwerman, Dutch artist born on 03 September 1623.
1651 Cornelis de Vos, Flemish painter born in 1584. — MORE ON DE VOS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1586 Luis de Morales “el Divino”, Spanish Mannerist painter born in 1520 (1509?) — MORE ON MORALES AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
< 08 May 10 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 09 May:

Lilee and Christian Mathews  1998 Lilee Mathews, daughter of Christian Mathews. On her 7th birthday she would suffer a fractured right elbow when her school bus crashed, in Liberty, Missouri. [father and daughter 09 May 2005 >]

1955 Ato Meles Zenawi, presidente de Etiopía.

1954  Paloma Díaz Mas, profesora y escritora española.

1934 Alan Bennett, actor-writer.

1924  Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava, poeta, novelista y cantautor ruso.

1923 Carlos Bousoño, poeta y filólogo español.

1918 Mike Wallace, TV anchorman.

1916 William du Bois, US author and illustrator of children's books. He died on 05 February 1993.

^ 1907 Baldur von Schirach, German Nazi politician and head of the Nazi youth movement, who died on 08 August 1974.
      The son of a former German theater director and a US mother, Schirach studied at the University of Munich. He joined the National Socialist Party in 1925 and was elected to the Reichstag in 1932. He was appointed Reichsleiter (Reich leader) in June 1933 and entered the inner circle of Adolf Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945]. On 18 June 1933, Schirach was made Jugendführer des Deutsches Reich, a post he held until 1945, directing all Nazi youth organizations, including the Hitler Jugend. In August 1940 he was also appointed Gauleiter of Vienna.
      Taken prisoner in 1945, Schirach was indicted on 29 August 1945, by the International Military Tribunal to stand trial for war crimes. During the trials, he admitted (23 May 1946) that Hitler had given him the post of Gauleiter for the express purpose of driving the Jews and Czechoslovaks out of Vienna. He also acknowledged that he had taken part in plans to ship Vienna's Jews to eastern areas. Schirach was found guilty of crimes against humanity and was sentenced on 01 October 1946, to 20 years' imprisonment. He was released from Spandau fortress in 1966.
1898 Arend Heyting, Dutch mathematician who died on 09 July 1980. He is important in the development of intuitionistic logic and algebra.
1891 George Barker Jeffrey, English mathematician who died on 27 April 1957.
1883 José Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher and humanist (Revolt of the Masses) who died on 18 October 1955. — José Ortega y Gasset, escritor y filósofo español
^ 1882 Henry John Kaiser, US industrialist who died on 24 August 1967. He founded of more than 100 companies: Kaiser Aluminum, Kaiser Steel, Kaiser Cement and Gypsum, and others, that made dams, bridges, Liberty Ships, Jeeps; aviation products, magnesium; the Hawaii Kai residential neighborhood in Honolulu; etc.
      In 1913 Kaiser was working for a gravel and cement dealer in Washington when one of his clients, a Canadian road-building company,went out of business. He got a loan to take over the company's project and finished it with a profit. From 1914 to 1930, he built California dams, Mississippi River levees, and highways, including 300 km of road and 500 bridges in Cuba, while establishing sand and gravel plants to supply his own materials. Between 1931 and 1945, he helped organize combinations of construction companies to build the Hoover, Bonneville, and Grand Coulee dams, as well as other large projects. To supply the more than 6'000'000 barrels of cement needed for the Shasta Dam, he erected a cement plant in Permanente, Calif., and a 14-km conveyor belt across a mountain to the dam site in 1939.
      During World War II he ran seven shipyards that used assembly-line production to build ships in as little as four-and-one-half days. By the end of the war, his yards had produced 1490 ships for the US maritime commission. In 1941–1942, he built the only integrated steel mill on the west coast of the United States, to make steel for his shipyards. He established Kaiser Gypsum in 1944. He bought up aluminum plants from Alcoa to supply his Kaiser-Frazer automobile business; but, because of an industry slump, Kaiser stopped making cars in 1953. By then Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation had become profitable. From 1954 to 1960, he directed construction of the Hawaiian Village resort centre, which was sold in 1961 to the Hilton chain for more than $21'000'000.
      In 1942 Kaiser established the first health maintenance organization for his shipyard employees. A model for later federal programs, the Kaiser Foundation Medical Care Program built 19 hospitals providing preventive health care for more than 1'000'000 persons.
baby Mary BidwellMary Bidwell 19951883  José Ortega y Gasset, escritor y filósofo español.

1881 Mary Electa Bidwell, [< photos: as a baby, and in 1995 >]. She would die on 25 April 1996.
1881 Carrie Harrison, who would die on 23 December 1991.
1876 Gilbert Ames Bliss, Illinois mathematician who died on 08 May 1951.
1873 Howard Carter, Egyptologist who died on 02 March 1939. He found the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamun on 05 November 1922, first saw the inside on 26 November 1922, broke seals on 17 February 1923, opened the sarcophagus on 03 February 1926, opened the coffins on 10 October 1926, first examined the mummy on 11 November 1926, continued investigating at the site until 1929, and co-wrote (with Arthur C. Mace) the three-volume The Tomb of Tutankh Amen (1923-1933)
^ 1860 James Barrie, creator of Peter Pan, in Scotland
      Barrie attended the University of Edinburgh and worked as a reporter for the Nottingham Journal for two years after college. He moved to London in 1885 and became a freelance writer. His first collection of sketches, Auld Licht Idylls, was published in 1888 and became a success, followed by an account of his newspaper days, When a Man's Single. He published a collection of stories in 1889 and a bestselling novel, The Little Minister, in 1891, which was dramatized in 1897, and then Barrie shifted his focus from prose to drama, enjoying a series of successes. In 1904, he wrote Peter Pan. Although he wrote many other plays (The Admirable Crichton, What Every Woman Knows, Dear Brutus), few are still performed today, and none had the staying power of Peter Pan (alternatively titled Peter and Wendy). In 1913, he was made a baronet and in 1922 received the Order of Merit. He became president of the Society of Authors in 1928 and Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh in 1930. Barrie died in London on 19 June 1937.

  • The Little White BirdThe Little White BirdMargaret Ogilvy Margaret Ogilvy Peter and Wendy = Peter PanPeter Pan in Kensington Gardens — co-author of libretto of Jane Annie (multimedia)
  • 1845 Carl Gustaf Laval, Swedish scientist, engineer and inventor who died on 02 February 1913. In 1878 he invented the centrifugal cream separator. Later he applied rotation to the manufacture of bottles. He built an impulse steam turbine in 1882 and then perfected it. In 1883 he patented a reaction turbine that could reach 42'000 RPM. In 1893 he built and operated a reversible marine turbine. With his continually improved turbines, by 1896 he was operating a power plant using an initial steam pressure of 10 tons per square centimeter. He invented and developed the divergent nozzle to shoot the steam at the turbine blades. Most later steam turbines used Laval inventions: the flexible shaft which eliminates wobbling, and the double helical gear.
    1844 Belle Boyd, US actress and Confederate spy during the Civil War. She died on 11 June 1900.
    1843 Anton Alexander von Werner, German painter and illustrator who died on 04 January 1915. — MORE ON VON WERNER AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1810 Joseph Banvard, author, in New York City. He was graduated at Newton theological institute in 1835, and has been pastor of Baptist Churches in Salem, Boston, and West Cambridge, Massachusetts, New York City, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Paterson, New Jersey, and Independence, Missouri. He was chosen president of the National theological institute and University at Washington, District of Columbia, but resigned. He has written Priscilla, a historical tale (1854); Novelties of the New World; The Romance of American History ; Tragic Scenes in the History of Maryland (1856) ; The American Statesman, a memoir of Daniel Webster (1853); Wisdom. Wit, and Whims of the Old Philosophers (1854); Plymouth and the Pilgrims ; many books for children on natural history, and a large number of Sunday-school question-books. His brother John, famous for painting a 370-meter panorama of the Mississippi, was born on 15 November 1815.
    ^ 1800 John Brown, violent abolitionist, would lead attack on Harper's Ferry in 1859.
         Brown, born in Connecticut in 1800, first became militant during the mid-1850s, when as a leader of the Free State forces in the territory of Kansas he fought pro-slavery settlers, contributing to the sharply divided territory's popular designation as "Bleeding Kansas." Achieving only moderate success against slavery on the Kansas frontier, Brown settled on a more ambitious plan in 1859.
          On 16 October 1859 , leading a group of 21 racially mixed followers, Brown set out to Harpers Ferry ( in present-day West Virginia), intending to seize the Federal arsenal of weapons and retreat to the Appalachian Mountains of Maryland and Virginia, where they would establish an abolitionist republic of liberated slaves and abolitionist whites. Their republic would form a guerilla army to fight slaveholders and ignite slave insurrections, and its population would grow exponentially with the influx of liberated and fugitive slaves. At Harpers Ferry, Brown's well-trained unit was initially successful, capturing key points in the town, but Brown's plans began to deteriorate after his raiders stopped a Baltimore-bound train, and then allowed it to pass through.
    click for large image      News of the raid spread quickly and militia companies from Maryland and Virginia arrived the next day, killing or capturing several raiders. On 18 October, US Marines commanded by Colonel Robert E. Lee and Lieutenant J. E. B. Stuart, both of whom were destined to become famous Confederate generals, recaptured the Federal arsenal, taking John Brown and several other raiders alive. On 02 November, Brown was sentenced to death by hanging, and on the day of his execution, ten months before the outbreak of the Civil War, he prophetically wrote, "The crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood."
          John Brown of Kansas was a militant abolitionist who attempted to use force to free the slaves in the South. On the night of 16 October 1859, Brown and a small band of followers seized the Federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. The weapons were to be used by his "army of emancipation." They took 60 hostages and held out against the local militia, but were then attacked by US Marines under the command of Col. Robert E. Lee (who would later command the Confederate Armies). Two of Brown's sons and ten others were killed in the fighting. Brown was wounded and taken prisoner. He was tried by the Commonwealth of Virginia and convicted of treason, murder and inciting slaves to rebellion. He was sentenced to death and hanged on 02 December 1859. In Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia), militant abolitionist John Brown is executed on charges of treason, murder, and insurrection.
    [click for reproduction of painting John Brown's Last Moments by Hovenden]
    1764 Johann Nepomuk Mayrhofer, Austrian artist who died in 1832.
    1746 Gaspard Monge, French mathematician who died on 28 July 1818. He is considered the father of differential geometry because of his work Application de l'analyse à la géométrie where he introduced the concept of lines of curvature of a surface in 3-space.
    1699 Gregorio Mayáns y Siscar, erudito español.
    1638 Gregorio Vásquez de Arce y Ceballos, pintor colombiano.
    Holiday Channel Island : Liberation Day / Poland, USSR : Victory Day [in World War II] / World : North Pole Flight Day (1926)
    Religious Observances Christian : St Joan / old RC, Ang : St Gregory Nazianzen, bishop of Constantinople / doctor of the Church. / Santos Hermás, Gregorio, Pacomio y Geroncio.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “Honni soit qui mal y pense.”
    “Honni soit qui mal panse.”
    “Honni soit qui au Mali pense.”
    “Honni soit le mal de panse.”
    “Honnie soie qui mal y pend.”
    “Honey soy key mall E pounce.”
    “Honni soit qui mal dépense.”
    “Haut Niçois Kim Ali: pense!”
    “Au nid soit qui, mâle, y pense.”
    “Honni soit qui mal y pend ce
    ‘Honni soit qui mal y pense’.”

    “When your work speaks for itself, don't interrupt.”
    — Henry J. Kaiser, US industrialist [09 May 1882 – 24 Aug 1967].

    “When you interrupt your work, don't speak for yourself.”
    updated Friday 08-May-2009 19:31 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.40 Wednesday 30-Apr-2008 19:16 UT
    v. 7.40 Tuesday 08-May-2007 23:42 UT
    v.6.41 Sunday 14-May-2006 14:31 UT
    v.5.44 Wednesday 11-May-2005 4:39 UT
    Wednesday 25-Aug-2004 12:42 UT

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