• Israeli teens stoned to death... • Battle of Palo Alto... • V~E Day... • Amerindians surrrender at Wounded Knee... • Mining North Vietnamese harbors... • Siege of Orléans broken... • Gauguin dies... • Flaubert dies... • Flying fox endangered... • Paramount Pictures formed... • Nixon defends Cambodia invasion... • Lee first at Spotsylvania... • Countess Cathleen opens... • Louis XVI provoque opposition... • Lavoisier guillotiné... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Conspiration des Égaux... • Ford resigns at Ford Foundation... • Conscription Act... • Excedrin poisoner convicted... • Soviets to boycott L.A. Olympics... • Center for the deaf...
an 08 May:
2003 Edison Schools (EDSN) says that its management “may” offer to buy the company. On the NASDAQ 11 million of the 53 million EDSN shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $1.27 to an intraday high of $2.14 and close at $2.00. The had traded as low as $0.14 as recently as 10 October 2002 and as high as $21.05 on 07 January 2002, and $36.00 on 22 January 2001. [3~year price chart >] Edison Schools Inc. is the US's largest private operator of public and charter schools and has not made a profit since it was founded in 1992,
2'507'606 dead in Congo civil war, Aug 1998 Apr 2001.`
A protracted and violent conflict has raged in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo since August 1998, involving numerous rebel groups and at least seven neighboring nations. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) has been providing assistance to those affected by war in DRC for five years. Between February 1999 and April 2001, the IRC has conducted 11 mortality surveys in the five eastern provinces of DRC, and one survey in the rebel-held area of Kasai Orientale Province. Interviews with over 2800 households have been conducted. These samples, which represent 1.3 million people in seven different areas, indicate that:
Flying Fox desperately endangered !
A decision by an Australian state government to list a bat as a threatened species is being fought by the state's A$150 million (US$77 million) a year stone fruit industry.
The New South Wales (NSW) state government plans to list the Gray Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), a type of bat, as vulnerable under threatened species laws. This species of flying fox had lost 30% of its population in the past decade. But the NSW Farmers body claims that a proliferation of bats was damaging crops and that the move to list the flying fox as threatened species would make it almost impossible to protect orchards, in a statement issued today. NSW Farmers said protection of the bats could cost orchardists up to A$10 million per year. A biased survey of growers found 85% alleging crop damage from flying foxes. Farmers said alternatives to culling were not always available, with netting costing A$24,000-A$54,000 per hectare, a significant cost and not suitable for all terrain. Stone fruits, such as peaches and apricots, have a large hard seed (stone) in the center.
Citizen alert March 8, 2000: Hello, America and Canada ITS TIME FOR INTERNATIONAL HELP PLEASE HELP to stop the slaughter of grey headed flying foxes. Reasons: they are claimed to be doing some damage to exotic plants in the gardens and the apathy and intolerance of stupid humans,lack of education and Australian media's not letting the truth get in the way of a good story.
How many flying foxes are left? Only 8000. Flying Foxes are nomadic, killing them will solve nothing The grey headed flying fox is about to be listed in the National Threatened Species list, they must act fast and we must act faster to stop the slaughter. Scientific counts have proven a population decline of 30% in 10 years. They will trap them on fly-out, those they miss they will dart.
An animal about to be a threatened species in Queensland State NSW should also be in Victoria State and also Nationally. The Victorian Government is acting on knee jerk hysteria. Can you create some kind of international outcry from your country?
The flying fox brain closely resembles the primate brain (See Are Flying Foxes Really Primates?) . Flying foxes pollinate trees. They are remarkable creatures. They must be saved!
| 2001: 68 inmates escape from Colombia's mountain prison
of Caloto after the rebel Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC)
blow open the front gates with dynamite. Some of the escapees, mainly petty
thieves facing short sentences, after visiting their friends and family,
would return by 22:00 on 11 May to take advantage of a Colombian amnesty
law that forgives prison breaks if fugitives return voluntarily within 72
1995 ETA (Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna) secuestra en Fuenterrabía (Guipúzcoa) al empresario de transportes José María Aldaya, de 53 años, por negarse a pagar el impuesto revolucionario.
1994 Se celebran las primeras elecciones legislativas y presidenciales en Panamá tras el derrocamiento de Noriega en 1989. Ernesto Pérez Balladares gana la presidencia con el 33% de los votos
1994 Con motivo del gran jubileo del año 2000, Juan Pablo II propone a todos los cardenales que la Iglesia Católica pida perdón al mundo por los errores cometidos en sus 20 siglos de existencia. .
1991 CIA Director William H. Webster announces his retirement; he would eventually be succeeded by Robert Gates.
1988 François Mitterrand es reelegido presidente de Francia.
1959 El pintor español Joan Miró gana el premio Guggenheim. REPRODUCTIONS OF ART BY MIRO ONLINE: Aidez l'Espagne (1937 Dans la lutte actuelle, je vois du côté fasciste les forces périmées, de l'autre côté le peuple dont les immenses ressources créatrices donneront à l'Espagne un élan qui étonnera le monde. Miró)
1958 VP Nixon is shoved, stoned, booed and spat upon by protesters in Peru
1958 US President Eisenhower orders National Guard out of Central HS, Little Rock
1957 El presidente estadounidense, Dwight Eisenhower, acepta la propuesta soviética de crear una zona parcialmente desmilitarizada en Europa.
1951 Dacron men's suits introduced.
1941 Grecia proclama la República.
1936 León Cortés Castro, nuevo presidente de Costa Rica.
1933 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi inicia una huelga de hambre de 3 semanas, en protesta por la represión de los parias por los ingleses.
1929 Jan Mayen island, 500 km NNE of Iceland, incorporated into Norway
1926 first flight over North Pole (Bennett and Byrd)
1919 first transatlantic flight take-off by a navy seaplane
1916 Gran Guerra: violentos ataques alemanes en ambas márgenes del Mosa.
1910 El socialista español Pablo Iglesias, diputado a Cortes.
1895 China cedes Taiwan to Japan under Treaty of Shimonoseki.
1895 George B. Selden files application for patenting the automobile, though he has not yet built one. US patent 549'160 is granted to him in 1895, when he uses it to contest the Daimler-Benz claim to the invention of the automobile.
1894 Rafael Iglesias Castro toma posesión del cargo de presidente de Costa Rica.
1864 Atlanta Campaign: Severe fighting near Dalton.
1862 Valley Campaign: Federals repulsed at Battle of McDowell, Virginia
1858 John Brown holds antislavery convention
1804 Cae el Consulado, instaurado en Francia en la Revolución Francesa, y se implanta el Imperio bajo el control de Napoleón.
1796 Babeuf ourdit un complot contre le Directoire
A general meeting of Babouvist, Jacobin, and military insurrectionary committees plans the raising of a force of 17'000 men to overthrow the Directory and to institute a return to the Constitution of 1793, which the committee members consider the document most legitimately sanctioned by popular deliberation. But on 10 May the conspirators would be arrested after an informant reveals their plans to the government. The trial would take place between 20 February and 26 May 1797. All conspirators would be acquitted except Babeuf and his companion, Augustin Alexandre Darthé (born in St Pol in 1769), both of whom would be guillotined on 27 May 1797, in Vendôme.
[< Babeuf, engraving by an unknown artist, 18th century]
François-Noël Gracchus Babeuf was born on 23 November 1760 in Saint-Quentin. He was an early political journalist and agitator in Revolutionary France whose tactical strategies provided a model for left-wing movements of the 19th century and who was called Gracchus for the resemblance of his proposed agrarian reforms to those of the 2nd-century-BC Roman statesman of that name.
The son of a fermier général, Babeuf worked in the 1780s as a land surveyor, maintaining records of dues owed and paid by the peasants to the local seigneuries. His increasing distaste for these feudal agricultural duties led him to begin an active career as a political journalist (1788–92). In 1789 he was appointed to help prepare for the States General the cahier of Roye (in Picardy), a list of grievances containing demands for the abolition of feudal rights. In 1790 he was arrested and briefly imprisoned in Paris.
Following his release he returned to Picardy and founded a journal, Le Correspondant Picard. He advocated a program of radical agrarian reforms, including the abolition of feudal dues and the redistribution of land. During this period he served as an administrator in the Montdidier district of the Somme, but in February 1793 he returned to Paris, where, during the Reign of Terror of Maximilien Robespierre's radical-democratic régime, he was again arrested and imprisoned. After his release following Robespierre's fall in July 1794, he founded a new journal, Le Journal de la liberté de la presse (shortly thereafter renamed Le Tribun du peuple), in which he at first defended the Thermidorians and attacked the Jacobins. When he began to attack the Thermidorians, he was arrested (12 February 1795) and imprisoned at Arras.
During this brief imprisonment, Babeuf continued to formulate his egalitarian doctrines, advocating an equal distribution of land and income, and after his release he began a career as a professional revolutionary. He quickly rose to a position of leadership in the Society of the Pantheon, which sought political and economic equality in defiance of the new French Constitution. After the society was dissolved in 1796, he founded a “secret directory of public safety” to plan an insurrection.
BABEUF François Noël, (dit Gracchus) révolutionnaire français né à Saint Quentin en 1760, qui fonda le journal Le Tribun du Peuple où il exposa ses théories communistes, et qui, en tant que chef de la conspiration des Egaux, sera condamné à mort par le tribunal de Vendôme le 26 mai 1797
Il conspira contre le Directoire dans la "conjuration des Egaux", et, le 27 mai 1797, fut exécuté. Sa doctrine (balbouvisme) est proche du communisme par la collectivisation des terre qu'elle préconise Babeauf François Noël, révolutionnaire français (Saint Quentin le 23 novembre1760 - guillotiné à Paris le 25 mai 1797. Alors qu'il était administrateur du district de Montdidier, il écrivit sur le problème de la répartition des terres et la loi agraire. Venu à Paris (1793), il fonda le journal Le Tribun du Peuple où il exposa ses théories communistes (influencées par le Code de la Nature de Morelly) visant à l'établissement de la société des Egaux. Rallié aux positions de Robespierre* (1795), il tenta en 1796 avec ses adeptes et amis (parmi lesquels Buonarroti, Darthé et Maréchal) de renverser le Directoire (conspiration des Egaux dénoncée a Carnot). La doctrine Baboutière eut nombreux adeptes (néo-babouvisme : Dézamy, Lahautière Laponneraye)
Son père, Claude Babeuf est né le 2 février 1712 à Monchy Lagache, canton de Ham, arrondissement de Péronne (Somme), et décédé dans la seconde moitié de 1781. Il eut 13 enfants (9 morts en bas âge), dont 2 filles, Jean Baptiste était. l’aîné
François-Noël (Camille au début de la Révolution) Babeuf, dit Gracchus Babeuf, né le 23 novembre 1760 à St Quentin (Aisne), épouse le 13 novembre 1781 [divergence] à Daméry, Marie-Anne Victorine Langlet, âgée de 26 ans, fille d’un quincaillier d’Amiens, femme de chambre depuis 7 ans à son mariage chez Mme de Bracquemont.
Son père né a Monchy Lagache, occupait un emploi aux Fermes du Roi et sa mère qui avait près de 30 ans de moins venait de Cerisy près de Corbie. En 1779, il entre chez Me. Hulin, notaire feudiste à Flixecourt où dès la fin de sa troisième année il recevait 3 livres de salaire. Son père mourrait un an plus tard, laissant sa mère et enfants dans la misère. Le 13/11/1782 [divergence], Babeuf épousa Marie Anne Victoire Langlet, originaire d'Amiens. En 1783 il travaille chez un arpentier. En 1784, il s'installe à Roye comme commissaire terrier (pouvant s'assimiler à un receveur de rentes) Il fut autodidacte et porta intérêt aux problèmes juridiques, historiques et sociaux. Il a travaillé à un cadastre perpétuel faisant un bilan de toutes propriétés et fiefs permettant une juste répartition de l'impôt. Son ouvrage paru en Septembre 1782 fut un échec total. Il fut un des principaux acteur de la Révolution en Picardie.
Augustin Alexandre Darthé ( Saint-Pol 1769 Vendôme 1797) administrateur du Pas de Calais, puis accusateur public, ce jeune révolutionnaire admirateur de Robespierre échappa à l’échafaud après thermidor, il se lia avec Babeuf, prit part à la conjuration de égaux et fut guillotiné avec lui le 27 mai 1797.
Philippe Buonarroti, révolutionnaire français d'origine italienne, né à Pise en 1761, décédé à Paris en 1837. Il fut avec Babeuf, un des chefs de la Conspiration des Égaux contre le Directoire. Emprisonné, puis libéré sous Napoléon, il s'installa à Genéve puis à Bruxelles, travaillant à organiser les forces révolutionnaire françaises, il y publia La Conjuration pour l'Egalité, dite de Babeuf en 1828.
Pierre Sylvain Maréchal, écrivain français né à Paris le 15 août 1750, décédé à Montrouge le 18 janvier 1803. Il participa à la conspiration de Egaux contre le Directoire. Auteur inspiré par la vogue des idylles (Bergerie, 1770), il exprima dans ses œuvres des positions athées. L'opinion d'un homme Manifeste des Égaux etc.
1702 Holanda declara la guerra a España y a Francia por la sucesión en España.
1701 Felipe V jura las Cortes de Castilla y es proclamado Rey de España en la madrileña iglesia de San Jerónimo del Real.
1686 Isaac Newton fecha en este día el prefacio de su obra Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Matematica.
1627 Sebastián Caboto descubre el río Paraná.
1583 (28 April Julian) Doomsday does not occur. It had been predicted by Richard Harvey and other British astrologers, as resulting from the alignment of Jupiter and Saturn.
1541 Hernando de Soto descubre el Río Mississippi. Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi River
1521 La Dieta de Worms condena las predicaciones y escritos de Lutero.
1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion-Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI
1350 Tratado de Bretigny, que pone fin al primer período de la llamada Guerra de los Cien Años, entre Francia e Inglaterra.
2006 Father Richard Michael Thomas, S.J. [01 Mar 1928–] [<<< photo]. Born in Seffner, Florida, he completed his high school education at the Jesuit High School in Tampa. He entered the Jesuit novitiate at St. Charles College in Grand Coteau, Louisiana, on 14 August 1945. He graduated in 1952 from Spring Hill College, Mobile, Alabama, with a B.A. in English. He taught at the Jesuit High School in Dallas, Texas, from 1952 to 1955. He then went on to study theology at St. Mary’s, Kansas in preparation for the priesthood. He was ordained on 13 June 1958. He completed his advanced degree in Theology at Alma College in Los Gatos, and then worked at Jesuit High School in New Orleans. In 1964 he was appointed Executive Director of Our Lady’s Youth Center in El Paso, Texas. Under his leadership, the Center grew to include ministries to the poor just across the border in different areas of Juarez, Mexico, including food banks, medical and dental clinics, prison and mental hospital ministries, and schools. Volunteers from both sides of the border run the various ministries. In 1975 Fr. Thomas founded the Lord's Ranch at 230 High Valley Road, Vado, NM 88072 (phone 505.233-2090). Over the years the Ranch has provided recreation and rehabilitation to needy youth, housed hundreds of visitors from all over the world, run retreats for young and old, and is home to KJES (King Jesus Eternal Savior) International Shortwave Radio Station which broadcasts to every continent. A weekly Wednesday night prayer meeting started by Fr. Thomas expanded to incude catechism classes for children, individual counseling, and times for the sacrament of Reconciliation. –(070508)
2006 Michael McIlveen, 15, Catholic [photo >], from having been beaten with a baseball bat the previous day at 00:30 (23:30 UT on 06 May) in Ballymena, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, by Protestants Christopher Kerr, 19, Aaron Wallace, 18, and a 15-year-old and two 17-year-olds. —(060511)
2006 Mohammad Zubair, a terrorist of the Bangladesh-based Harkat-ul-Jihad Islami, in a gunfight in the late evening with army and police who seek to arrest him in village Haran Chowgal, border district of Kupwara, in the north of Indian-occupied Kashmir, where Zubair, a resident of Bhagpat in Uttar Pradesh, had come to hide immediately after the 07 March 2006 explosions at the Sankatmochan temple and the Cantonment Railway station in Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) (formerly Benares) that killed 15 persons and injured some 60, of which he was the main organizer. (060509)
2005 Laura Hobbs, 8, and Krystal Tobias, 9, beaten and stabbed in the late afternoon, in Beulah Park, Zion, Illinois, where they had gone on Laura's bicycle, with Krystal standing on pegs over the rear wheel. On 10 May 2005, Laura's father, Jerry Branton Hobbs III, 34, is charged with the murders. Apparently he had gone looking for the girls when Laura was late coming home, and he got into a murderous rage. He had been released from prison on 12 April 2005 after serving two years for probation violation following an assault conviction. He and Sheila Hollabaugh (not married) have two other children besides Laura: Jerry Hobbs, 10, and Jeremy Hobbs, 6. Sheila Hollabaugh also has a 13-year-old daughter.
2004 Michael M. Salzman, of pneumonia, in El Paso TX. Born on 19 June 1944, he was a music teacher and then vice president of Kurland-Salzman Music store in El Paso. His sister Ina is married to Irwin Kurland.
2004 Philip D. Brown, 21, of El Paso; specialist, US Army National Guard. Brown dies in Balad, Iraq, of injuries suffered in the detonation of an improvised explosive device west of Samarra. He was assigned to Company B, 141st Engineer Combat Battalion, Army National Guard in Jamestown ND.
2004 Isela Rubalcava [< photo], born on 11 May 1978, of El Paso TX; specialist, US Army, killed in a mortar attack in Mosul, Iraq. She was assigned as a supply technician to the 296th Combat Support Battalion, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division (Stryker Brigade Combat Team) at Fort Lewis, Washington state.
2004 Chase R. Whitham, 21, of Harrisburg, Oregon; specialist, Army. Whitham was electrocuted May 8 in a swimming pool in Mosul, Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division at Ft. Lewis, Washington state.
2004 James J. Holmes, 28, of East Grand Forks, Minnesota; specialist, US Army National Guard, dies in a US military hospital in Landstuhl, Germany, of injuries suffered on 03 May 2004 when an improvised explosive device detonated near his military vehicle in Iraq. He was assigned to C Company, 141st Engineer Combat Battalion, Army National Guard in Hettinger ND.
2003:: 32 persons on a double-decker tourist bus from Germany, which is dragged 150 meters, torn in half, and set on fire, by the Budapest to Nagykanizsa passenger train, at 08:30 (06:35 a.m. UT), at a crossing near Siofok on the shores of Lake Balaton, Hungary's leading tourist area. The 6 survivors from the bus, which include the driver and the tour guide, are seriously injured. No one is injured on the train, except the engineer, who is critically injured. The passengers of the bus, German tour operator company Ursel-Reisen, came mainly from Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. [photo: wreckage of the bus >]
2003 Iyad Beik, 30, at 11:30 (08:30 UT) as Israeli helicopters fire three missiles at his car in the Jabalya refugee camp just north of Gaza City. 3 bystanders are injured. Beik was former assistant to the commander of the Hamas military wing, and was responsible for securing and hiding terrorists.
2003 British Pvt. Andrew Kelly, 18, in a shooting accident at the base of the 3rd Battalion of the Parachute Regiment, in Basra, Iraq.
1960 John Henry Constantine Whitehead, of a heart attack, English mathematician born on 11 November 1904. He was a topologist and differential geometer who is best remembered for his work on homotopy equivalence.
1959 Renato Caccioppoli, by shooting himself, Napolitan mathematician born on 20 January 1904. He introduced Caccioppoli sets.
1953 Benjamin Fedorovich Kagan, Russian mathematician born on 10 March 1869.
1951 Gilbert Ames Bliss, Illinois mathematician born on 09 May 1876. Bliss's main work was on the calculus of variations, on which he wrote a major book, Lectures on the Calculus of Variations (1946). As a consequence of Bliss's results a substantial simplification of the transformation theories of Clebsch [19 Jan 1833 – 07 Nov 1872] and Weierstrass [31 Oct 1815 – 19 Feb 1897] was achieved. Bliss also studied singularities of real transformations in the plane. He was the author of Mathematics for Exterior Ballistics (1944).
1936 Lorna Mary Swain, English mathematician and physicist born on 22 March 1891.
1936 Oswald Spengler, filósofo e historiador alemán.
1923 John Seymour Lucas, British painter born in 1849. MORE ON LUCAS AT ART 4 MAY with links to images and information on the brutalizing of Scots by the English after the 16 April 1746 battle of Culloden.
1916 Eamonn Ceannt, 34, Michael Mallin, Sean J. Heuston, and Cornelius Colbert, 27, Irish patriots, executed by British firing squad for their participation in the Easter Rising.
1880 Gustave Flaubert, French novelist.
Flaubert, was born on 12 December 1821, the son of the chief surgeon of the hospital in Rouen, France. Gustave Flaubert began writing stories in his teens. At the age of 16, he completed the manuscript of Mémoires d'un fou, which recounted his devastating passion for Elisa Schlésinger, 11 years his senior and the wife of a music publisher, whom he had met in 1836. Elisa provided the model for the character Marie Arnoux in the novel L'Education Sentimentale. Before receiving its definitive form this work was to be rewritten in two distinct intermediate versions: Novembre (1842) and L'Éducation sentimentale (1843-1845). It was expanded into a vast panorama of France under the July Monarchy, the period that preceded the coup d'état of 1851. In its final form, L'Éducation sentimentale appeared a few months before the outbreak of the Franco-German War of 1870
In 1839 Flaubert was writing Smarh, the first product of his bold ambition to give French literature its Faust. He resumed the task in 1846-49 (La tentation de Saint-Antoine), in 1856 (La tentation de Saint-Antoine), and in 1870, and finally published the book as La tentation de Saint-Antoine in 1874. The four versions show how the author's ideas changed in the course of time. The version of 1849, influenced by Spinoza's philosophy, is nihilistic in its conclusion. In the second version the writing is less diffuse, but the substance remains the same. The third version shows a respect for religious feeling that was not present in the earlier ones, since in the interval Flaubert had read Herbert Spencer and reconciled the Spencerian notion of the Unknown with his Spinozism. He had come to believe that science and religion, instead of conflicting, are rather the two poles of thought. The published version incorporated a catalog of errors in the field of the Unknown (just as Bouvard et Pécuchet was to contain a list of errors in the field of science).
In 1840, Flaubert went to Paris to study law but failed his exams. Three years later, he had a nervous breakdown. He retired to a small town outside Rouen to write. In 1846, he began a long, tempestuous affair with poet Louise Colet, 36, which ended bitterly in1855. Meanwhile, he traveled extensively with French writer Maxime du Camp, taking extended walking tours with him and journeying to Greece, Syria, and Egypt from 1849 to 1851 (Flaubert's journal entries of this were published posthumously as Par les champs et par les grèves).
When Flaubert returned from the journey, he began work on Madame Bovary, which took five years to write. The book was serialized in La Revue de Paris beginning on 1 October 1856 and published in installments until 15 December 1856. The novel, about the romantic illusions of a country doctor's wife and her adulterous liaisons, scandalized French traditionalists. Flaubert was brought to trial for obscenity in January-February 1857. He was acquitted (the same tribunal found the poet Charles Baudelaire guilty on the same charge six months later). Madame Bovary became a popular success. The book's realistic, serious portrayal of humble characters and situations was a milestone of French realism.
Eugéne Delamare was a country doctor in Normandy who died of grief after being deceived and ruined by his wife, Delphine (née Couturier). The story, in fact that of Madame Bovary, is not the only source of that novel. Another was the manuscript Mémoires de Mme Ludovica, an account of the adventures and misfortunes of Louise Pradier (née d'Arcet), the wife of the sculptor James Pradier, as dictated by herself. Apart from the suicide, it bears a strong resemblance to the story of Emma Bovary. Flaubert had continued to see Louise Pradier when the bourgeois were ostracizing her as a fallen woman, and she must have given him her strange document. But when asked him who served as model for his heroine, Flaubert replied, Madame Bovary is myself. As early as 1837 he had written Passion et vertu, a short and pointed story with a heroine, Mazza, resembling Emma Bovary. For Madame Bovary he took a commonplace story of adultery and made of it a book of profound humanity. Madame Bovary, with its unrelenting objectivity--the dispassionate recording of every trait or incident that could illuminate the psychology of the characters--marks the beginning of a new age in literature.
After Madame Bovary, Flaubert immediately began work on Salammbô, a novel about ancient Carthage, based on the author's trip to Tunisia in 1860. In it he set his somber story of Hamilcar's daughter Salammbô, an entirely fictitious character, against the authentic historical background of the revolt of the mercenaries against Carthage in 240-237 BC. He transforms the dry record of Polybius into richly poetic prose.
A play, Le Château des curs, written in 1863, was not printed until 1880. Two plays, Le Sexe faible and Le Candidat (1904) had no success, though the latter was staged for four performances in March 1874.
Trois contes (published in 1877) contains the three short stories Un cur simple, a tale about the drab and simple life of a faithful servant; La Légende de Saint Julien l'Hospitalier; and Hérodias. This book, through the diversity of the stories' themes, shows Flaubert's talent in all its aspects and has often been held to be his masterpiece.
The heroes of Bouvard et Pécuchet are two clerks who receive a legacy and retire to the country together. Not knowing how to use their leisure, they busy themselves with one abortive experiment after another and plunge successively into scientific farming, archaeology, chemistry, and historiography, as well as taking an abandoned child into their care. Everything goes wrong because their futile book learning cannot compensate for their lack of judgment.
The profound meaning of Bouvard et Pécuchet is not a denial of the value of science, but of scientism--i.e., the practice of taking science out of its own domain, of confusing efficient and final causes, and of convincing oneself that one understands fundamentals when one has not even grasped the superficial phenomena.
Flaubert died suddenly of an apoplectic stroke. He left unfinished the second volume of Bouvard and Pécuchet. Tired of experimenting, they were to go back to the work of transcribing and copying that they had done as clerks: a selection of quotations, a sottisier, Flaubert's notes for which have been published.
In the last years of his life, Flaubert enjoyed the friendship of George Sand, Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, and younger novelists--Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, and, especially, Guy de Maupassant, who regarded himself as Flaubert's disciple.
Fils d'un chirurgien, Gustave Flaubert connut dès l'enfance la monotonie de la vie en province (à Rouen) et s'en souviendra lorsqu'il écrira Madame Bovary (1857) et Le Dictionnaire des idées reçues (1911). Il tenta de tromper son ennui en s'adonnant très tôt à la littérature. Lecteur assidu, il composa dès le lycée ses premiers textes, la plupart à dominante sombre et mélancolique. Mémoires d'un fou, écrit en 1838 et publié en 1900, à titre posthume, fut sa première tentative autobiographique.
Il commença sans enthousiasme ni assiduité de classiques études de droit à Paris mais, atteint d'une maladie nerveuse aux environs de l'année 1844, il dut les interrompre prématurément. Cette maladie, dont il devait souffrir jusqu'à la fin de son existence, lui permit de se consacrer exclusivement à la littérature.
Devenu un rentier précoce, il vécut dès lors retiré à Croisset, petite localité proche de Rouen où sa famille acheta une propriété. Il profita de son désœuvrement pour finir une première version de l'Éducation sentimentale. À partir de cette retraite littéraire, la légende a fait de Flaubert une sorte d'ermite ou de bénédictin de la littérature, connu pour sa grande culture, son incroyable capacité de travail et ses exigences esthétiques rigoureuses.
Il est vrai qu'il ne quitta plus Croisset et sa table d'écrivain que pour quelques voyages, en Orient d'abord avec son ami Maxime du Camp (1849-1851), puis en Algérie et en Tunisie (1858), mais il fit aussi de longs séjours à Paris où il fréquentait les milieux littéraires. Cet isolement relatif ne l'empêchait d'ailleurs pas d'être un ami fidèle, comme l'atteste la correspondance monumentale, émouvante et spirituelle, qu'il échangea avec ses amis et ses proches, notamment avec Louise Colet — qu'il rencontra en 1846 et qui fut sa maîtresse jusqu'en 1854 —, mais aussi avec George Sand, Théophile Gautier ou Maupassant. Cette correspondance est en outre riche de nombreuses informations biographiques qui permettent d'éclairer les œuvres.
Dans la carrière de Flaubert, les échecs de librairie n'ont pas manqué, puisque ni L'Education Sentimentale, ni La tentation de Saint-Antoine, ni Le Candidat ne trouvèrent leur public. Flaubert eut cependant un succès de scandale avec Madame Bovary; Salammbô, son récit carthaginois, reçut également un bon accueil de la part du public mais fut systématiquement dénigré par la majorité des critiques, Sainte-Beuve en tête. Gustave Flaubert mourut à Croisset.
1785 Pietro Falca I Longhi, Italian painter born in 1702. MORE ON LONGHI AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1784 Only known human deaths by hailstones in US (Winnsborough SC)
1721 Johann Georg Stuhr, German artist born in 1640.
1693 Jan Verkolje I (or Verkolye), Dutch painter born on 09 February 1650. MORE ON VERKOLYE AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1671 Sébastien Bourdon, French painter born on 02 February 1616. MORE ON BOURDON AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1670 Jacob Weyer (or Weier), German artist born in 1620.
1063 Ramiro I, rey de Aragón.
0685 Saint Benedict II, Pope.
0615 Saint Boniface IV, Pope.
0535 John II, Pope.
1943 La FAO es creada en Hot Springs (EEUU) para combatir el hambre en el mundo.
1940 Peter Benchley , US author who died on 12 February 2006. Author of the novels Jaws (1974), The Deep (1976), The Island (1979), The Girl of the Sea of Cortez (1982), Q Clearance (1986), Rummies (1989), Beast (1991), White Shark (1994), Peter Benchley's Creature (1997); and of the non-fiction Ocean Planet: Writings and Images of the Sea 1994), Shark Trouble: True Stories About Sharks and the Sea 2001), Shark!: True Stories and Lessons from the Deep (2002). — (060217)
1899 Friedrich von Hayek, Austrian-born English economist; awarded Nobel Prize in 1974. He died on 23 March 1992.
1892 Kame Uei, Japanese woman who died on 30 January 2003.
1886 Coca-Cola syrup perfected by Atlanta pharmacist John Styth Pemberton.
1885 Thomas Costain, Canadian-born US historical novelist who died on 08 October 1965.
1884 Harry S. Truman, near Lamar, Missouri, "Give 'em Hell" 33rd US President (D) (1945-1953). He died on 26 December 1972.
1877 José María Salaverría, escritor español.
1876 Ludvig Peter Karsten, Norwegian artist who died in 1926. — more
1859 Johan Ludwig William Waldemar Jensen, Danish mathematician who died on 05 March 1925.
1834 Antonio Ermolao Paoletti, Italian artist who died on 13 December 1912.
1828 Jean-Henri Dunant, suizo fundador de la Cruz Roja Internacional, primer Premio Nobel de la Paz, en 1901. Murió el 30 octubre 1910. (He would eventually sign his name Henry Dunant).
1824 William Walker, adventurer, filibuster, president of Nicaragua (1856-1857). He was executed on 12 September 1860 by the authorities of Honduras, which he had tried to invade.
1816 The American Bible Society is organized in the Dutch Reformed Church on Garden Street in NY City. The non-profit society was instituted to promote wider circulation of the Scriptures by publishing Bibles without notes or comments.
1794 US Post Office established.
1786 Thomas Hancock, English inventor; helped start the British rubber industry. He died on 26 March 1865.
1753 Miguel Hidalgo, father of Mexican independence.
1744 (27 April Julian) Nikolay Ivanovich Novikov, Russian writer, philanthropist, social critic, and Freemason who died on 12 August (31 July Julian) 1818.
1737 Edward Gibbon, England, historian (Decline and Fall of Roman Empire). He died on 16 January 1794. GIBBON ONLINE: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire — Volume I , Volume II , Volume III , Volume IV , Volume V , Volume VI
1639 Giovanni-Battista Gaulli Il Baciccio, Italian artist who died on 02 April 1709. MORE ON GAULLI AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1503 Michele Tosini di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, Italian painter who died on 28 October 1577. MORE ON TOSINI AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.