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• US surrender in the Philippines... • Battle of Coral Sea ends... • Battle of the Wilderness continues... • DeSoto car... • Chunnel opens... • Duchess of Devonshire sold... • Pulitzer for Grapes of Wrath... • WPA... • Manhattan for $24... • Mathematician Weil is born... • Zeppelin fire disaster... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • First stored~program computer...
Did they spread AIDS?^  On a 06 May:

2012
Transit of Venus.

2004 Bulgarian woman nurses Kristiyana Valcheva, Nassya Nenova, Valentina Siropulo, Valya Chervenyashka, and Snezhana Dimitrova; and Palestinian physician Ashraf Gomaa; [in court in 2003 >] are sentenced to death by firing squad, in a Benghazi, Libya, court by a panel of five judges headed by Fadallah el-Sherif, for having infected 426 Libyan children with HIV-contaminated blood as part of an experiment to find a cure for AIDS. Twenty-three of the children reportedly have died of AIDS. The Bulgarian government says: "This trial cannot be called just, as not a single proof provided by the defense has been taken into account. The verdict is based solely on confessions made by some of the defendants under duress." The defendants reported being tortured by extensive use of electric shocks; being suspended by the arms; being blindfolded and threatened with being attacked by barking dogs; and beatings, including falaqa (beatings on the soles of the feet), and being beaten with electric cables, and repeatedly jumped on while strapped to their beds. Two of the women said they were raped. Dr. Luc Montagnier, the French co-discoverer of the AIDS virus, testified that poor hygiene at the Benghazi hospital is likely to have led to the contamination. He estimated that it happened in 1997, more than a year before the defendants (who were arrested in 1999) were hired to work in Libya. The European Union and such human rights organizations as Amnesty International have protested against the injustice.

2004 David Freidel, an anthropology professor at Southern Methodist University, who, with archaeologist Hector Escobedo of Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala, lead a team excavating the Waka' (modern El Peru) site in the largest (900 sq km) Guatemalan national park, Laguna del Tigre, announces that in February 2004 they discovered there the 3.5x1.2x2m tomb of a Mayan queen, with many artifacts.

LOOK price chart2003 Late the previous day, Looksmart Ltd (which runs an inferior search engine at http://www.looksmart.com/ useful only if you want to be targeted by advertising) makes an earnings announcement that does not succeed in concealing that they are lower than analysts' expectations. Consequently, its stock (LOOK) is downgraded by First Albany from Buy to Neutral. On the NASDAQ 23.5 million of the 102 million LOOK shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $3.48 to an intraday low of $2.00 and closing at $2.17. They had traded as low as $0.77 as recently as 07 October 2003 and as high as $69.63 ot 06 March 2000. [4~year price chart >]

2002 The regime of US usurper-president “Dubya” Bush writes to the UN Secretary-General to inform him that the USA does not intend to become a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and therefore “has no legal obligations arising from its signature on 31 December 2000”. During 2002, the Bush regime approaches several governments requesting that they enter into agreements that they would not surrender US nationals accused of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes to the new International Criminal Court. In some cases, the US usurper-government threatens to withdraw military assistance from countries that would not agree.
^ 2000 LoveLetter E-mail worm keeps anti-virus sites busy
      The Symantec AntiVirus Research center began receiving reports regarding this worm in the early morning of 04 May 2000 UT. This worm appears to originate from Manila, Phillipines. It has wide-spread distribution, infecting millions of computers.
      This worm sends itself to email addresses in the Microsoft Outlook address book and also spreads itself into Internet chatrooms via mIRC. This worm overwrites files on local and remote drives, including files with the extensions .vbs, .vbe, .js, .jse, .css, .wsh, .sct, .hta, .jpg, .jpeg, .mp3, and .mp2. The contents of these files will be replaced with the source code of the worm, thus destroying the original contents. The worm will also append the extension '.vbs' to each of these files. For example, the file image.jpg will become image.jpg.vbs. However, files with .mp2 and .mp3 extensions will merely be hidden from the user's view and not actually destroyed. It also tries to download a password-stealing Trojan horse program from a Web site (however that web site was soon removed by the provider). Symantec has identified eight variants of VBS.LoveLetter.A. This information is current as of 06 May 2000 at 07:30 (PST)
  1. VBS.LoveLetter.A
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.A(1)
    ATTACHMENT: LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.TXT.vbs
    SUBJECT LINE: ILOVEYOU
    MESSAGE BODY: kindly check the attached LOVELETTER coming from me.

  2. VBS.LoveLetter.B (also known as Lithuania)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.B(1)
    ATTACHMENT: same as A
    SUBJECT LINE: Susitikim shi vakara kavos puodukui...
    MESSAGE BODY: same as A

  3. VBS.LoveLetter.C (also known as Very Funny)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.C(1)
    ATTACHMENT: Very Funny.vbs
    SUBJECT LINE: fwd: Joke
    MESSAGE BODY: empty

  4. VBS.LoveLetter.D (also known as BugFix)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.A(1)
    ATTACHMENT: same as A
    SUBJECT LINE: same as A
    MESSAGE BODY: same as A
    MISC. NOTES: registry entry: WIN — BUGSFIX.exe instead of WIN-BUGSFIX.exe

  5. VBS.LoveLetter.E (also known as Mother's Day)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.Variant.E
    ATTACHMENT: mothersday.vbs
    SUBJECT LINE: Mothers Day Order Confirmation
    MESSAGE BODY: We have proceeded to charge your credit card for the amount of $326.92 for the mothers day diamond special. We have attached a detailed invoice to this email. Please print out the attachment and keep it in a safe place.Thanks Again and Have a Happy Mothers Day! mothersday@subdimension.com
    MISC. NOTES: mothersday.HTM sent in IRC, and comment: rem hackers.com, and start up page to hackes.com, l0pht.com, or 2600.com

  6. VBS.LoveLetter.F (also known as Virus Warning)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.Variant.F
    ATTACHMENT: virus_warning.jpg.vbs
    SUBJECT LINE: Dangerous Virus Warning
    MESSAGE BODY: There is a dangerous virus circulating. Please click attached picture to view it and learn to avoid it.
    MISC. NOTES: Urgent_virus_warning.htm

  7. VBS.LoveLetter.G (also known as Virus ALERT!!!)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.Variant or VBS.LoveLetter.G
    ATTACHMENT: protect.vbs
    SUBJECT LINE: Virus ALERT!!!
    MESSAGE BODY: a long message regarding VBS.LoveLetter.A
    MISC. NOTES: FROM support@symantec.com. This variant also overwrites files with .bat and .com extensions.

  8. VBS.LoveLetter.H (also known as No Comments)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.A
    ATTACHMENT: same as A
    SUBJECT LINE: same as A
    MESSAGE BODY: same a A
    MISC. NOTES: the comment lines at the beginning of the worm code have been removed.

  9. VBS.LoveLetter.I (also known as Important! Read carefully!!)
    Norton AntiVirus detects as: VBS.LoveLetter.Variant
    ATTACHMENT: Important.TXT.vbs
    SUBJECT LINE: Important! Read carefully!!
    MESSAGE BODY: Check the attached IMPORTANT coming from me!
    MISC. NOTES: new comment line at the beginning: by: BrainStorm / @ElectronicSouls. It also copies the files ESKernel32.vbs and ES32DLL.vbs, and MIRC script comments referring to BrainStorm and ElectronicSouls and sends IMPORTANT.HTM to the chat room.
    Also known as: Lovebug, I-Worm.LoveLetter, VBS/LoveLetter.A, VBS/LoveLet-A
    Category: Worm    Infection length: 10,307 bytes    Virus definitions: May 4, 2000    Threat assessment:

Swede claims to have found worm's originator
     Swedish computer expert Fredrik Bjoerck, who helped the FBI track down the Melissa e-mail virus in 1999, said Friday 000505 evening: "I can say on good grounds that I have probably found the creator of the virus Loveletter."
      Bjoerck, a postgraduate student at Stockholm University's computer and information technology institute, said he started searching for the creator on Thursday 000504 [when it first was detected] "The creator's name is Michael and he is a German exchange student studying in Australia. He has exposed himself by leaving tracks in Usenet newsgroups. The virus was activated from the Philippines but it's not certain that Michael was there in person."
2000 Jack Mazzan, after 20 years on death row for the murder of a judge's son, is released on bail, three months after the Nevada Supreme Court reversed his conviction.
1999 La Real Academia de la Lengua Española aprueba la nueva edición revisada de la Ortografía, consensuada por las Academias de los países hispanohablantes.
1997 Se crea en La Haya la Organización para la Prohibición de las Armas Químicas.
^ 1997 GTE to buy Internet pioneer BBN
      GTE announces it will buy Internet pioneer BBN. The company, also known as Bolt, Beranek and Newman, had been a major force in building and operating the original ARPA network, which eventually became the Internet. Founded in 1948 as an acoustics consulting firm, BBN hired Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider [11 Mar 1915 – 26 Jun 1990] in 1957 for his expertise in both acoustics and the emerging field of human-machine interaction. The company encouraged Licklider's interest in computers and soon diversified into computer science. Licklider left the company in 1962 to join the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), where he made computers and technology a high priority. In 1968, when an ARPA proposal to build a computer network was approved, BBN won the contract and subsequently designed and built the hardware for the early network.
1994 Chunnel opens
      During a ceremony presided over by England's Queen Elizabeth II [21 Apr 1926~] and French President Francois Mitterand [26 Oct 1916 – 08 Jan 1996], a rail tunnel under the English Channel, connecting Britain and the European mainland for the first time since the Ice Age, is officially opened. The channel tunnel, or "Chunnel," connects Folkestone, England, with Calais, France, nearly forty kilometers away.
      Napoleon's engineer, Albert Mathieu, planned the first tunnel under the English Channel in 1802, envisioning an underground passage with ventilation chimneys that would stretch above the waves. In 1880, the first real attempt was made by Colonel Beaumont, who bore 2000 meters into the earth before abandoning the project. Other efforts followed in the twentieth century, but none on the scale of the current tunnels begun in 1987.
      At a cost of over thirteen million dollars, more than seventeen million tons of earth were moved to build the two rail tunnels — one for northbound and one for southbound traffic — and one service tunnel. On 01 December 1990, engineers and workers digging from France and Britain met and shook hands under the Channel, and on 06 May 1994, the Chunnel was officially opened.
^ 1992 Gorbachev looks back on Cold War
      In an event steeped in symbolism, former Soviet ruler Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev [02 Mar 1931~] reviews the Cold War in a speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri-the site of Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech 46 years before. Gorbachev mixed praise for the end of the Cold War with some pointed criticisms of US. policy. In 1946, Winston Churchill, former prime minister of Britain, spoke at Westminster College and issued what many historians have come to consider the opening volley of the Cold War. Declaring that an "iron curtain" had fallen across Eastern Europe, Churchill challenged both Great Britain and the United States to contain Soviet aggression. Forty-six years later, the Soviet Union had collapsed and Mikhail Gorbachev, who had resigned as president of the Soviet Union in December 1991, stood on the very same campus and reflected on the Cold War. Gorbachev declared that the end of the Cold War was the "shattering of the vicious circle into which we had driven ourselves" and a "victory for common sense, reason, democracy, and common human values." In addressing the issue of who began the Cold War, Gorbachev admitted that the Soviet Union had made some serious mistakes, but also suggested that the United States and Great Britain shouldered part of the blame. He decried the resulting nuclear arms race, though he made clear that he believed the United States had been the "initiator" of this folly. With the Cold War over, he cautioned the United States to realize the "intellectual, and consequently political error, of interpreting victory in the cold war narrowly as a victory for oneself." Gorbachev's speech, and particularly the location at which he delivered it, offered a fitting closure to the Cold War, and demonstrated that scholarly debate about those years would continue though the animosity had come to an end.
1988 Declarada constitucional la Ley de Amnistía Militar por la Suprema Corte de Justicia de Uruguay.
1986 The Rev. Donald E. Pelotte, 41, is ordained in Gallup, New Mexico — the first American Indian to be made a Roman Catholic bishop in the US.
1984 León Febres Cordero gana las elecciones presidenciales en Ecuador.
1981 Grave tensión en la frontera entre Honduras y Nicaragua a causa de choques armados registrados entre sandinistas y guerrilleros nicaragüenses.
^ 1984 Canonization of 103 martyrs of Korea:
  1. Laurent-Marie-Joseph-Marius Imbert [23 Mar 1796 – 21 Sep 1839], bishop born in Marignane, France; ordained a priest of Missions Étrangères de Paris on 18 December 1819; on 14 May 1837. In 1822 and 1823 he was a missionary in Tonkin, French Indochina. Then he spent twelve years in Szechuan province, China, where he founded a seminary in Moupin. On 14 May 1837 he was consecrated bishop as Vicar Apostolic of Korea (appointed on 26 April 1836). Later that year he crossed secretly from Manchuria to Korea, which was undergoing persecution of Catholics. On 10 August 1839, Bishop Imbert, who was secretly going about his missionary work, was betrayed. Knowing that he would be arrested and killed, he celebrated Mass and surrendered himself. He was taken to Seoul where he was tortured to reveal the whereabouts of foreign missionaries. Believing that his converts (who were being tortured to reveal the whereabouts of the missionaries) would be spared if all foreign missionaries gave themselves up, he wrote to Fathers Chastan (#2) and Maubant (#3): “le bon pasteur donne sa vie pour ses brebis” and asking them to surrender themselves. They did and the three of them were imprisoned together. They were taken before an interrogator and tortured for three days to get them to reveal the names and whereabouts of their converts. They didn't and were beheaded at Saenamteo, Korea.
  2. Jacques-Honoré Chastan [– 21 Sep 1839], priest of Missions Étrangères de Paris who arrived in Korea in 1837.
  3. Pierre-Philibert Maubant [– 21 Sep 1839], the first priest of Missions Étrangères de Paris who succeeded in entering Korea, crossing the northern frontier by way of Eui-tjyou in January 1836.
  4. Siméon-François Berneux [14 May 1814 – 08 Mar 1866], bishop born in Château-du-Loir, France; ordained a priest of Missions Étrangères de Paris on 20 May 1837; on 27 December 1854 consecrated bishop as Vicar Apostolic of Korea (appointed on 05 August 1854).
  5. Just de Bretenières [–08 Mar 1866] (priest)
  6. Bernard Louis Beaulieu [–08 Mar 1866] (priest)
  7. Pierre Henri Dorie [–08 Mar 1866] (priest)
  8. Antoine-Marie-Nicolas Daveluy [16 Mar 1818 – 30 Mar 1866], bishop born in Amiens, France; ordained a priest of Missions Étrangères de Paris on 18 December 1841; on 25 March 1857 consecrated bishop (by bishop Berneux) as Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of Korea (appointed on 13 November 1855); succeeded as Vicar Apostolic at the death of bishop Berneux.
  9. Martin Luke Huin [–30 Mar 1866] (priest)
  10. Peter Aumaître [–30 Mar 1866] (priest)
  11. Andrew Kim Taegon [21 Aug 1821 – 16 Sep 1846], first Korean priest. He studied at a seminary in Macau and was ordained a priest in Shanghai six years later. He returned to Korea in 1845. He was tortured and beheaded.
  12. Anthony Kim Son-u, convert, father of Father Kim (#6)
  13. Joseph Chang Chugi (priest)
  14. Paul Chong Hasang [–22 Sep 1839], son of Cecilia Yu (#22) and Yak Jong Church (not canonized) who was martyred in 1801 in the persecution of Shin-Yu, which killed all the clergy in the country ; brother of Jung Hye (#23). Paul, a layman, reunited the scattered Christians, and encouraged them to live their faith. He wrote the Sang-Je-Sang-Su which explained to the Korean government why the Church was not a threat. He went to China nine times, working as a servant to the Korean diplomatic corps. He got the bishop of Beijing to send more priests to Korea. He pleaded directly to Rome for help, and on 09 September 1831, Pope Gregory X proclaimed the validity of the Korean Catholic diocese. When the clergy began to return, Paul entered the seminary. But he died in the Gi Hye persecution of 1839 before he could be ordained.
  15. Cecilia Yu Sosa, mother of Paul Chong Hasang (#21) and of Jung Hye (#23).
  16. Jung Hye, sister of Paul Chong Hasang (#21).
  17. Andrew-Chong Kwagyong (catechist)
  18. Damien Nam Myong-hyog (catechist)
  19. Ignatius Kim Chejun (catechist)
  20. John Baptist Chong Chang-un (catechist)
  21. John Baptist Yi Kwangnyol (catechist)
  22. Lawrence Han Ihyong (catechist)
  23. Joseph Peter Han Wonso (catechist)
  24. Mark Chong Uibae, 72, the oldest, (catechist)
  25. Paul Hong Yongju (catechist)
  26. Peter Ch'oe Ch'ang-hub (catechist)
  27. Peter Ch'oe Hyong (catechist)
  28. Peter Nam Kyongmun (catechist)
  29. Peter Son Sonji (catechist)
  30. Peter Yu Chongyul (catechist)
  31. Stephen Min Kukka (catechist)
  32. John Yi Yunil (catechist)
  33. Augustine Pak Chong-won
  34. Augustine Yi Chin-gil
  35. Augustine Yi Kwang-hon
  36. Bartholomew Chong Munho
  37. Charles Cho Shin-ch'ol
  38. Charles Hyon Songmun
  39. Francis Ch'oe Hyong-hwan
  40. John Baptist Nam Chong-sam
  41. John Pak
  42. John Yi Munu
  43. Joseph Chang Songjib
  44. Joseph Cho Yunho
  45. Joseph Im Ch'ibaeg
  46. Luke Hwang Soktu
  47. Paul Ho
  48. Peter Cho Kwaso, who said: “Even supposing that one’s own father committed a crime, still one cannot disown him as no longer being one’s father. How then can I say that I do not know the heavenly Lord Father who is so good?”.
  49. Peter Chong Wonji
  50. Peter Hong Pyongju
  51. Peter Kwon Tugin
  52. Peter Ryau [1826 – 31 Dec 1839]. He turned himself in as required by the persecution law. He was tortured to the point that his arms and legs were shredded. To demonstrate the cruelty of the judges, his pulled off some of his torn flesh and threw it at the feet of the judges. They sent him back to prison to be strangled.
  53. Peter Yi Hoyong
  54. Peter Yi Myongs
  55. Peter Yu Tae-Chol, 13, the youngest
  56. Protasius Chong Kurbo
  57. Thomas Son Chason
  58. Sebastian Nam
  59. Agnes Kim Hyoju [–26 Sep 1839] and her sister
  60. Columba Kim Hyo-im [1813 – 26 Sep 1839]. They were tortured by being pierced with red-hot awls. Stripped naked they were placed in a cell with male prisoners, who respected them. They were beheaded in Seoul.
  61. Alex U Seyong
  62. Agatha Chon Kyonghyob (nun)
  63. Agatha Kim
  64. Agatha Kwon Chini
  65. Agatha Yi Kannan
  66. Agatha Yi Kyong-i
  67. Agatha Yi Sosa
  68. Agatha Yi , 17. When she and her younger brother were falsely told that their parents had betrayed the faith, she said: “Since the Lord of Heaven is the Father of all mankind and the Lord of all creation, how can you ask me to betray him? Even in this world anyone who betrays his own father or mother will not be forgiven. All the more may I never betray him who is the Father of us all”. Hearing this, six other adult Christians freely delivered themselves to the magistrate to be martyred. They and Agatha's parents are among the 103 canonized today.
  69. Anne Kim
  70. Anne Pak A-gi
  71. Barbara Ch'oe Yong-i
  72. Barbara Cho Chung-i
  73. Barbara Han Agi
  74. Barbara Kim
  75. Barbara Ko Suni
  76. Barbara Kwon Hui
  77. Barbara Yi Chong-hui
  78. Barbara Yi
  79. Benedicta Hyon Kyongnyon
  80. Catherine Chong Ch'oryom
  81. Catherine Yi
  82. Elisabeth Chong Chong-hye (virgin)
  83. Juliet Kim (virgin)
  84. Lucia Kim
  85. Lucia Park Huisun
  86. Magdalena Ho Kye-im
  87. Magdalene Cho
  88. Magdalene Han Yong-i
  89. Magdalene Kim Obi
  90. Magdalene Pak Pongson (widow)
  91. Magdalene Son Sobyog
  92. Magdalene Yi Yong-hui
  93. Magdalene Yi Yongdog
  94. Maria Park K'unagi
  95. Maria Won Kwi-im (virgin)
  96. Maria Yi Indog
  97. Maria Yi Yonhui
  98. Martha Kim
  99. Perpetua Hong Kumju (widow)
  100. Rosa Kim (widow)
  101. Susanna U Surim
  102. Teresa Kim Imi
  103. Teresa Yi Mae-im
     Pope John Paul II performed the ceremony in Seoul. [his homily]
—(070920)
1972 South Vietnamese defenders hold on to An Loc
      The remnants of South Vietnam's 5th Division at An Loc continue to receive daily artillery battering from the communist forces surrounding the city as reinforcements fight their way from the south up Highway 13. The South Vietnamese had been under heavy attack since the North Vietnamese had launched their Nguyen Hue Offensive on 30 March 1972. The communists had mounted a massive invasion of South Vietnam with 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, more than 120'000 troops and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles.
      The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to An Loc in the south, were Quang Tri in the north, and Kontum in the Central Highlands. In Binh Long Province, the North Vietnamese forces had crossed into South Vietnam from Cambodia on 05 April 1972 to strike first at Loc Ninh. After taking Loc Ninh, the North Vietnamese forces then quickly encircled An Loc, the capital of Binh Long Province, which was only 100 km from Saigon.
      The North Vietnamese held An Loc under siege for almost three months while they made repeated attempts to take the city, bombarding it around the clock. The defenders suffered heavy casualties, including 2300 dead or missing, but with the aid of US. advisers and American airpower, they managed to hold out against vastly superior odds until the siege was lifted on 18 June 1972. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and they retook Quang Tri in September.
      With the Communist invasion blunted, President Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, which he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces.
^ 1970 Protests against killings of anti-Vietnam-War students.
      Hundreds of colleges and universities across the nation shut down as thousands of students join a nationwide campus protest. Governor Ronald Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004] closed down the entire California university and college system until 11 May, which affected more than 280'000 students on 28 campuses. Elsewhere, faculty and administrators joined students in active dissent and 536 campuses were shut down completely, 51 for the rest of the academic year. A National Student Association spokesman reported students from more than 300 campuses were boycotting classes. The protests were a reaction to the 04 May 1970 shooting of four students at Kent State University by National Guardsmen during a campus demonstration about the decision by President Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] to send US. and South Vietnamese troops into Cambodia. Four days later, a student rally at Jackson State College in Mississippi resulted in the death of two students and 12 wounded when police opened fire on a women's dormitory.
1968 En l'absence de Pompidou, en voyage officiel en Iran, les confrontations entre étudiants et police à Paris ne font que s'aggraver. La veille 05 May quatre manifestants ont été condamnés à 2 mois de prison ferme. Le 06 May il y a des manifestations contre les condamnations (20'000 étudiants), des bagarres (600 blessés).
1965 La OEA aprueba el envío de una fuerza interamericana a la República Dominicana.
1965 Se lanza al espacio el "Early Bird", primer satélite de comunicaciones con fines comerciales.
1962 Guillermo León Valencia es elegido presidente de Colombia.
1960 Pres Eisenhower signs Civil Rights Act of 1960.
1960 Cumplida su condena, es expulsado de México el español Ramón Mercader, asesino de Trotski.
1959 Pablo Picasso [25 Oct 188108 Apr 1973] se convierte en el artista que más dinero cobra en vida por una obra, al venderse un cuadro en Londres por $154'000. — LINKS
^ 1942 The Battle of the Coral Sea ends
      This is the fourth and last day of the first modern naval engagement in history, called the Battle of the Coral Sea. On 03 May 1942 a Japanese invasion force had succeeded in occupying Tulagi of the Solomon Islands in an expansion of Japan's defensive perimeter. The United States, having broken Japan's secret war code and forewarned of an impending invasion of Tulagi and Port Moresby, attempted to intercept the Japanese armada.
      Four days of battles between Japanese and US aircraft carriers resulted in 70 Japanese and 66 US warplanes destroyed. This confrontation, called the Battle of the Coral Sea, marked the first air-naval battle in history, as none of the carriers fired at each other, allowing the planes taking off from their decks to do the battling. Among the casualties was the US carrier Lexington; "the Blue Ghost" (so-called because it was not camouflaged like other carriers) suffered such extensive aerial damage that it had to be sunk by its own crew. Two hundred sixteen Lexington crewmen died as a result of the Japanese aerial bombardment.
      Although Japan would go on to occupy all of the Solomon Islands, its victory was a Pyrrhic one: the cost in experienced pilots and aircraft carriers was so great that Japan had to cancel its expedition to Port Moresby, Papua, as well as other South Pacific targets.
^ 1942 US surrenders to Japan in the Philippines.
     Lieut. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright [23 Aug 1883 – 02 Sep 1953] surrenders Corregidor Island, the last Allied stronghold in the Philippines, to Japanese Lieut. Gen. Homma Masaharu.
      The small (5-sq-km) island in Manila Bay, part of the province of Cavite, has long been considered a natural fortress. The Spanish fortified it in the 18th century, when it was used as a registration (corregidor) site for ships entering the bay. After the Spanish-American War, the island became a US. military station, and an elaborate system of tunnels and emplacements was constructed.
      When Japan invaded the Philippines in 1941 December, Gen. Douglas MacArthur chose Bataan province and, just south of it, Corregidor Island as his major defense positions.      In early April 1942, General Wainwright, in command of the Phillippines' surviving defenders, began evacuating as many troops as possible to Corregidor. On 09 April, 12'000 American and 63'000 Filipino troops were trapped on Luzon as Bataan fell, and Corregidor became the last outpost of organized resistance in the islands. Lacking air or naval support, Corregidor's 15'000 American and Filipino defenders kept up a desperate resistance against massive assaults by Japan's combined armed forces.
      Constant artillery shelling and aerial bombardment attacks had eaten away at the American and Filipino defenders. Although still managing to sink many Japanese barges as they approached the northern shores of the island, the Allied troops could hold the invader off no longer. General Wainwright, only recently promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and commander of the US. armed forces in the Philippines, offered to surrender Corregidor to Japanese General Homma, but Homma wanted the complete, unconditional capitulation of all American forces throughout the Philippines. Wainwright had little choice given the odds against him and the poor physical condition of his troops (he had already lost 800 men). He surrendered at midnight. All 11'500 surviving Allied troops were evacuated to a prison stockade in Manila. General Wainwright remained a POW until 1945.
     However, just three months after the surrender, US. forces under General Douglas MacArthur launched their great Pacific counteroffensive. On 20 October 1944, after advancing island by island, US. forces waded ashore onto the island of Leyte, and the liberation of the Philippines began. On 16 February 1945, US. paratroopers descended on Corregidor, and ten days later, liberation of the fortified island was complete. As a sort of consolation for the massive defeat Wainwright suffered, he was present on the USS Missouri for the formal Japanese surrender ceremony on 02 September 1945. He would also be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor by President Harry Truman. Wainwright died in 1953 — exactly eight years to the day of the Japanese surrender ceremony.
1941 Soviet dictator Josef Stalin , dismisses Vyacheslav M. Molotov as premier, and assumes the title himself.
^ 1939 John Steinbeck wins a Pulitzer for The Grapes of Wrath
      The novel traces the fictional Joad family of Oklahoma as they lose their family farm and move to California in search of a better life. They encounter only more difficulties and a downward slide into poverty. The book combines simple, plain-spoken language and compelling plot with rich description. One of Steinbeck's most effective works of social commentary, the novel also won the National Book Award.
      Like The Grapes of Wrath, much of Steinbeck's work dealt with his native state of California. He was born and raised in the Salinas Valley, where his father was a county official and his mother a former schoolteacher. Steinbeck was a good student and president of his senior class in high school. He attended Stanford intermittently between 1920 and 1925, then moved to New York City, where he worked as a manual laborer and a journalist while writing stories and novels.
      His first two novels were not successful. He married and moved to Pacific Grove in 1930, where his father gave him a house and a small income while he continued to write. His third novel, Tortilla Flat (1935), was a critical and financial success, as were his subsequent novels In Dubious Battle (1935) and Of Mice and Men (1937), both of which offered social commentaries on injustices of various types. His work after World War II, including Cannery Row and The Pearl, continued to offer social criticism but became more sentimental. Steinbeck tried his hand at movie scripts in the 1940s, writing such successful films as Forgotten Village (1941) and Viva Zapata (1952). He also took up the serious study of marine biology and published a nonfiction book, The Sea of Cortez, in 1941. His book Travels with Charlie describes his trek across the US. in a camper truck with his poodle, Charlie, and his encounters with a fragmented America. Steinbeck won the Nobel Prize in 1962 and died in New York in 1968.
^ 1935 WPA puts unemployed back to work
      The Works Progress Administration (WPA), throws open its doors and begins the monumental task of sending scores of unemployed Americans back to work.
      Perhaps the key program developed during the New Deal, President Franklin Roosevelt's "alphabet soup" of government agencies aimed at alleviating the damage wrought by the Great Depression, the WPA handed Americans decent-paying jobs on a myriad of public works projects. But, WPA jobs were hardly sinecures; workers employed via the agency constructed a head-spinning array of public structures, including parks, playgrounds, schools and post-offices. And, through its creatively inclined arms (the Federal Art Project and Federal Theater Project), the WPA set painters, actors, musicians and writers to work on public arts projects that depicted the lives of the US's workers.
      All told, the WPA (which was renamed the Works Projects Administration in 1939) was responsible for employing 8.5 million Americans during its eight-year tenure. Despite these considerable fruits, the WPA was an expensive program — the agency spent roughly $11 billion during its lifetime — which prompted attacks from more penurious voices in the nation. By the summer of 1943, World War II had almost entirely usurped the efforts of America's work force, and the WPA was permanently closed.
^ 1928 Chrysler introduces the DeSoto
as the corporation's new brand. The DeSoto Six is Chrysler's answer to the market demand for a car that fit between its large cars and its popular four-cylinder models. Marketed in the moderate price class, the DeSoto offers features that no car within comparable price range had ever offered, such as improved insulation, a reinforced frame, and chrome alloy steel transmission gears.
      Introduced not long after Chrysler purchased Dodge, the DeSoto label sold eighty thousand cars its first year, forcing Chrysler to increase its production facilities. In the fall of 1936, after having moved between various Chrysler plants, DeSoto moved to a production facility of its own on the west side of Detroit. The new state-of-the-art facility became one of Detroit's showcases for automobile production and one of the city's most heavily visited tourist sites.
      The interest in the DeSoto plant was partially a response to the company's innovative 1934 release, the DeSoto Airflow. The Airflow created a new standard for weight distribution in the automotive industry, reducing vibration to a frequency that, for the first time, was comfortable for passengers. Engineers moved the DeSoto's engine forward over the front axle and increased the gauge of the front springs. Moving the engine forward allowed the designers to move the back seat in front of the rear axle, thereby reducing the shock inflicted on passengers sitting there. The Airflow was also equipped with smaller wheels that used larger tires, and a unibody design that made the car safer and stronger.
1927   The first US coast-to-coast radio news broadcast of tape-recorded news is made by Herbert Morrison, describing the explosion of the Hindenburg in New Jersey. The recording is flown to New York and broadcast on NBC.
1919 El presidente costarricense, Federico Tinoco, es depuesto y tropas estadounidenses desembarcan en defensa de los intereses de EEUU.
1916 The captain of the battleship New Hampshire, off the coast of Virginia, calls naval commanders in Washington, D.C.. The call is made as part of a test to determine whether the radiotelephone presents a feasible communications option during wartime.
1895 José Martí es nombrado jefe supremo de la revolución en la lucha por la independencia de Cuba.
1890 Mormon Church renounces polygamy.
^ click for full portrait1876 The Duchess of Devonshire is sold for 10'000 guineas
     Thomas Gainsborough's 1783 painting, Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, is auctioned in London, England, nearly 100 years after it disappeared into obscurity. The portrait of Georgiana Spencer, an ancestor of Princess Diana, sold for 10'000 guineas, the highest price ever paid for a work of art up until this time. [< click on image for full portrait]
      Public interest in Gainsborough's masterpiece peaked a few weeks later when it was stolen from the Thomas Agnew and Sons art gallery. Adam Worth, whom Scotland Yard later called the "Napoleon of Crime," and upon whom Sir Arthur Conan Doyle eventually based Sherlock Holmes' arch nemesis Dr. Moriarty, stole the artwork in order to come up with the bail to release his brother from jail. However, his brother was freed without his help, so Worth decided to keep the painting, even in the face of serious consequences.
      Adam Worth was perhaps the 19th century's most masterful criminal. Born in Germany but raised in the United States, Worth joined the Union Army in the Civil War. He then successfully faked his own death in order to escape his duty. He spent the rest of the war hopping from one regiment to another, collecting money to join and then immediately deserting.
      After the war, he made his way to New York, where he joined a gang of pickpockets. A conviction for robbery resulted in a three-year sentence at Sing Sing Prison. However, Worth escaped after only a few weeks and vowed to be more careful in the future. Using the alias Henry Raymond, Worth took up a lucrative career robbing banks before moving his criminal exploits to Europe. With perfectly planned heists and a consistent forgery operation, Worth avoided all violent encounters and established himself in respectable society.
      Yet the theft of the Duchess of Devonshire led to his eventual downfall. His co-conspirators, Joe Elliot and Junka Phillips, were angered by the fact that they weren't financially rewarded for stealing the valuable painting. When Worth refused to divulge its whereabouts, Elliot and Phillips went to the police and Worth was sent to prison, albeit on other charges.
      Following his release four years later in 1897, Worth returned to America. After a change of heart, he began negotiations with the Pinkerton Detective Agency for the ransom of the painting. The Duchess of Devonshire was finally returned to England in 1901 where J. P. Morgan, Wall Street's biggest financier, promptly made the journey to obtain the painting for himself. He is said to have paid as much as $150'000 for it. Worth, who had received relatively little for his ransom, died a year later, penniless.
1862 Battle of Williamsburg, Virginia concludes
1861 Arkansas becomes 9th state to secede from US
1861 Tennessee secedes from the Union.
1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi (04 Jul 1807 – 02 Jun 1882) and his Thousand sail from near Genoa, Piedmont, on the way to conquer Sicily and Naples, in the cause of Italian unification.
1830 Se deshace la Gran Colombia, al proclamar el general José Antonio Páez un gobierno aparte para Venezuela, ratificado por el Congreso Constituyente, que nombra presidente a Páez.
1816 En una asamblea celebrada en la Villa del Norte, hoy población de Santa Ana, Isla de Margarita, Simón Bolívar es proclamado Jefe Supremo de la República y sus Ejércitos.
1794 Haiti, under Toussaint L'Ouverture, revolts against France
1753 French King Louis XV observes transit of Mercury at Mendon Castle
1703 Guerra de Sucesión: El rey de Portugal se declara opuesto a la causa de Felipe V de España.
^ 1626 Manhattan Island bought for $24
      According to legend, Manhattan, a twenty-eight-square mile island along the Hudson River, was purchased by Dutch settler Peter Minuit from the local Native people for merchandise valued at twenty-four dollars.
      In 1624, the Dutch colony of New Netherland was founded, with the town of New Amsterdam on the lower tip of Manhattan established as its key settlement. Peter Minuit was subsequently sent by the Dutch West India Company to take charge of its holdings in America, and in 1626, he formally purchased Manhattan from the local tribe from which it derives it name.
      The Manhattans, Indians of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock, did not understand European customs of property and contract and it was not long before they came into armed conflict with the rapidly expanding Dutch settlement at New Amsterdam. Beginning in 1640, a protracted war was fought between the colonists and the Manhattans, ending five years later with the tribe practically exterminated.
      In 1664, without resistance, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to a British naval force under Colonel Richard Nicolls, ending the Netherlands' colonial role in the New World. With the departure of the Dutch, the name of the promising settlement was changed to New York, in honor of the duke of York.
1571 El Adelantado de Filipinas, Don Miguel López de Legazpi, conquista Manila tras someter al rajalí Lacandola y a los principales jefes isleños.
1527 Forty thousand mercenaries, hired by Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, sack the city of Rome, destroying two-thirds of the houses. They butcher clergy and laity alike, and force Clement VII to flee, disguised as a gardener. It is the end of the golden age of the Renaissance.
1497 Se emite la real cédula por la que se declara libre de impuestos el comercio de las Indias Americanas.
1432 Flemish artist Jan van Eyck, 61, finishes the Adoration of the Lamb altarpiece for St. John's Church in Ghent, Belgium. — MORE AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 06 May:

2006 Three workers, when a wooden and metal supporting frame collapses at a high rise hotel-condo construction project in Bal Harbour, Florida. They fall from the 27th-floor level, where they were pouring the concrete roof to the 26th floor and a one-meter layer of fast-drying concrete falls on top of them. — (060507)
2006 Wing Commander John Coxen [1959–]; Navy Lieutenant Commander Darren Chapman, 40; Flight Lieutenant Sarah Mulvihill, 32; Navy Lieutenant David Ian Dobson, 27; and Marine Paul M. Collins, 21; who are all those aboard a British military Lynx helicopter shot down by a rocket in Basra, Iraq. — (060508)
2004:: 41 Mehdi Army militiamen, killed in fighting across the Euphrates River from Najaf, Iraq, in fighting against US forces, who do not report their own casualties. The Mehdi is anti-US Islamic cleric Moqtada al-Sadr's private militia.
2001 Muhammad Abayat, 48, by an Israeli tank shell. Abayat was a member of the Tanzim militia, linked to the Fatah movement of Arafat. A few kilometers south of Jerusalem, Palestinian gunmen had opened fire on Israeli border policemen guarding a highway that links Jerusalem to Jewish settlements in the West Bank.. The Israeli army responded by sending tanks several hundred meters into Palestinian-controlled land, where they fired dozens of rounds at Palestinian gunmen taking cover in homes in Beit Jalla. At least 20 other Palestinians were hurt, including a 5-year-old boy seriously injured by shrapnel, and an 11-year-old girl hit in the eye. One Israeli soldier was lightly injured.
1996 Austin Bastable, a Canadian who has multiple sclerosis, commits suicide, with the assistance of Dr. Kevorkian. (Mr. Bastable is the 28th person that Kevorkian assisted to commit suicide.)
1987 William J. Casey, 73, director of CIA (1981-1987)
1983 Yudell Leo Luke, US mathematician born on 26 June 1918.
1963 Theodore von Kármán, Hungarian US aeronautical mathematician born on 11 May 1881.
1951 Elie Joseph Cartan, French, born on 09 April 1869, he was one of the most important mathematicians of the first half of the 20th century. He worked on continuous groups, Lie algebras, differential equations, and geometry, achieving a synthesis between these areas.
^ 1937: 36 persons in the Hindenburg Disaster
      The airship Hindenburg, the largest dirigible ever built and the pride of Nazi Germany, burst into flames upon touching its mooring mast in Lakehurst, New Jersey, killing 35 of the 97 people on board and a Navy crewman on the ground.
      Rigid airships, often known by the last name of their inventor, Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, were first developed by the Germans in the early twentieth century. The heavy steel-framed Zeppelins were far larger than the airships developed by the French decades before, but size was exchanged for safety as Zeppelins were vulnerable to explosion because they had to be lifted by highly flammable hydrogen gas, instead of non-flammable helium gas. Large enough to carry substantial numbers of passengers, one of the most famous rigid airships was the Graf Zeppelin, a dirigible that traveled around the world in 1929. In the 1930s, the Graf Zeppelin also pioneered the first transatlantic air service, leading to the construction of the Hindenburg, a larger passenger airship.
      On 03 May 1937, the Hindenburg left Frankfurt, Germany, for its first of ten scheduled journey's across the Atlantic to Lakehurst's Navy Air Base. On its maiden voyage, the Hindenburg, 245 meters long, carried thirty-six passengers and crew of sixty-one. While attempting to moor at Lakehurst, the airship suddenly burst into flames, probably after a static spark from the stormy atmosphere ignited not its hydrogen core (as commonly believed) but its flammable surface coating. Rapidly falling sixty meters to the ground, the hull of the airship incinerated within seconds. Fourteen passengers, twenty-one crewmen, and one member of the ground crew lost their lives, and most of the survivors suffered substantial injuries. Radio announcer Herb Morrison, who came to Lakehurst to record a routine voice-over for an NBC newsreel, immortalized the Hindenberg disaster in a famous on-the-scene description in which he emotionally declared "Oh, the humanity!" The recording of Morrison's commentary was immediately flown to New York, where it was aired as part of America's first coast-to-coast radio news broadcast. Lighter-than-air passenger travel rapidly fell out of favor after the Hindenberg disaster and no existing rigid airship survived World War II.
^ 1910 Edward VII, king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British dominions and emperor of India from 1901.
      He was born on 09 November 1841, the second child and eldest son of Queen Victoria [24 May 1819 – 22 Jan 1901] and the Prince Consort Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha [26 Aug 1819 – 14 Dec 1861]. He was made prince of Wales and earl of Chester by his mother when he was one month old. He attended the universities of both Oxford and Cambridge. His dalliance with an actress while serving with an Army unit in Ireland (June–September 1861) caused Victoria to hold him partly responsible for the death of the prince consort, who had indeed taken his son's brief liaison much to heart before succumbing to typhoid. Subsequently, Victoria excluded her heir from any real initiation into affairs of state. Not until he was more than 50 years old was he informed of Cabinet proceedings.
      On 10 March 1863, the prince of Wales married Alexandra [01 Dec 1844 – 20 Nov 1925], eldest daughter of Prince Christian (later King Christian IX) of Denmark. Five children of this union survived to maturity. George, duke of York, subsequently King George V [03 Jun 1865 – 20 Jan 1936], was the second son. Alexandra was preoccupied with her immediate family, but the prince moved in a considerably wider circle, both at home and on the Continent, becoming a familiar figure in the sporting world. He was particularly given to racing, yachting, and game-bird shooting. His social activities involved him in several scandals.
      He succeeded to the throne as Edward VII following Victoria's death, and was crowned on 09 August 1902. His reign did much to restore luster to a monarchy that had shone somewhat dimly during Victoria's long seclusion as a widow. In 1902 he resumed his tours of Europe. His geniality and felicitously worded addresses (in French) during a state visit to Paris in 1903 helped pave the way, by winning popularity among French citizens of all ranks, for the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 1904. Relations with his nephew the German emperor William II [27 Jan 1859 – 04 Jun 1941] were not always easy, either officially or personally. Although incapable of prolonged mental exertion, Edward was fortunate in his judgment of men. His support for the great military reforms of the secretary of state for war, Richard Burdon (later Viscount) Haldane [30 Jul 1856 – 19 Aug 1928], and for the First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher [25 Jan 1841 – 10 Jul 1920] in his naval reforms did much to avert British unpreparedness when World War I started.
1904 Franz Seraph von Lenbach, German artist born on 13 December 1836. — MORE ON VON LENBACH AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
1903 José Jiménez y Aranda, Spanish painter born on 07 February 1837. — more
1882 Lord Cavendish assassinated at Dublin, Ireland
^ 1864 Rebs and Yanks continue massacring each other at the Wilderness
      Union and Confederate troops continue their desperate struggle in the Wilderness, which was the opening battle in the biggest campaign of the war. General Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union forces, had joined George Meade's Army of the Potomac to encounter Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in the tangled Wilderness forest near Chancellorsville, the site of Lee's brilliant victory the year before. The fighting was intense, and raging fires that consumed the dead and wounded magnified the horror of battle. But little was gained in the confused attacks by either side. On 06 May, the second day of battle in the Wilderness, Grant sought to break the stalemate by sending Winfield Hancock's corps against the Confederate right flank at the southern end of the battle line. The Federals were on the verge of breaking through the troops of James Longstreet when they stumbled in the dense undergrowth. Lee entered the fray to rally the Confederate troops, but his devoted solders urged him away from the action.
      Later in the morning, Longstreet's men attacked Hancock's forces and seemed poised to turn the Union flank. But, like the Union troops earlier, they became disoriented as they drove Hancock's troops back. In the confusion, Longstreet was wounded by his own men, just six kilometers from the spot where Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men the year before. The Confederate attack halted when Hancock's men found refuge behind hastily constructed breastworks.
      In the evening, Lee attacked the Union flank at the northern end of the battlefield and nearly turned the Federal line. Grant's men, however, held their ground, leaving the exhausted armies in nearly the same positions as when the battle began.
      In two days, the Union lost 17'000 men to the Confederates' 11'000. This was nearly one-fifth of each army. Unfortunately, the worst was yet to come. Grant pulled his men out of the Wilderness on May 7, but, unlike the commanders before him in the eastern theater, he did not go back. He moved further south towards Spotsylvania Court House and closer to Richmond. At Spotsylvania, the armies staged some of the fiercest fighting of the war.
1856 William Hamilton, Scottish methaphysician and mathematical logician born on 08 March 1788.
1849 Jacques Nicolas Paillot de Montabert, French artist born in December or on 06 October 1771.
1840 James Sillett (or Selleth), Belgian artist born in 1764.
1840 Francisco de Paula Santander, born on 02 April 1792, soldier and statesman who fought beside Simón Bolívar in the war for South American independence and who served as president of the newly formed New Granada (Colombia) from 01 April 1833 until 1837.
^ 1795 (17 floréal an III) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
JACOB Joseph, juif, marchand de Bijouteries et soieries, domicilié à Pirmassens (Moselle), par le tribunal criminel de la Seine, comme distributeur de faux assignats.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
FOUQUIER-TINVILLE Antoine Quentin, 48 ans né à Héronelle, département de l’Aisne, domicilié à Paris (Seine, ex procureur au Châtelet, accusateur public près le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspirateur, et notamment pour avoir fait périr une foule innombrable de français de tout âge et tout sexe, sous le prétexte de conspiration, pour avoir fait juger 60 à 80 individus en 4 heures, avoir fait encombrer des charrettes préparées dés le matin, de victimes dont les qualités n’étaient point désignées, et contre lesquelles les jugements signés en blanc ne contenaient aucunes dispositions; d’en avoir fait mettre hors des débats, d’avoir composé le jury de jurés à lui affidés &c.
     ... comme complices de Fouquier-Tinville:
LEROY Pierre Nicolas, (dit Dix-Août), ex juré au tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, 52 ans, né et domicilié à Coulommiers (Seine et Marne)
          ... domiciliés à Paris:
BENOIT Pierre Guillaume, 44 ans, né à Mouzon-sur-Meuse (Vosges), ci-devant commissaire du conseil exécutif, juré du tribunal révolutionnaire.
BOYENVAL Pierre Joseph, 26 ans, né à St Amand, ci-devant tailleur, et depuis lieutenant, d'infanterie légère.
CHATELET Claude Louis, 45 ans, né à Paris, y demeurant rue des Piques, ex juré au tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
DUPOMMIER François, 35 ans, né à St Pol ( Pas-de-Calais), ex président du tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, ex commissaire des administrations civiles de police et des tribunaux
FOUCAULT Etienne, 55 ans, ex juge du tribunal révolutionnaire, né à Burges-les-Bains
GARNIER-LAUNAY François Pierre, 61 ans, né à Paris, ex juge au tribunal révolutionnaire.
GIRARD Pierre François, 36 ans, né à Azan département du Jura, ex juré du tribunal révolutionnaire.
HERMAN Armand Martial Joseph, 36 ans, né à St Pol ( Pas-de-Calais), ex président du tribunal révolutionnaire, ex commissaire des administrations civile, polices et tribunaux, domicilié place des Piques.
LANNE Marie Emmanuel Joseph, 32 ans, né à St Paul ( Pas-de-Calais), ex adjoint à la commission des administrations civile, de police et tribunaux.
PRIEUX Jean Louis, 32 ans, né à Paris., ex juré au tribunal révolutionnaire.
RENAUDIN Léopold, 46 ans, né à St Remy (Vosges).
VERNEY Joseph, 28 ans, né à Crest-Vatant ( Mont-Blanc), porte clef de la maison d'arrêt du Luxembourg, puis ex concierge de celle de St Lazare à Paris.
VILLATTE Joachim, 26 ans, ex juré au tribunal révolutionnaire, né à Allun (Creuse).
^ 1794 (17 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
VEYANT Mathieu, boucher, domicilié à Cattenon (Moselle), par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme distributeur de faux assignats.
COURTI Joseph, fils, domicilié à St Genies (Pyrénées Orientales), comme émigré, par le tribunal militaire du premier arrondissement de l'armée des Pyrénées Orientales.
GILEDE Jean, domicilié à St Anatoli (Haute Garonne), par le tribunal militaire du 1er arrodissement de l'armée des Pyrénées-Orientales, comme émigré.
DUGAZ Marie Louis, officier, domicilié à Nancy (Meurthe), comme conspirateur par le tribunal criminel du département de la Meuse.
Domiciliés dans le département des Alpes-Maritimes, comme conspirateurs, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
GRECH Jean Paul, maçon, domicilié à Nice — RICORD Joseph, cultivateur, domicilié à Eza.
A Arras:
BEUVRY Pierre Joseph, 49 ans, né à Blangy au Bois, commissionnaire.
GOTTRAND Jean Baptiste, 36 ans, né à Brévillers, célibataire, commissionnaire.
GRIMBERT Marie Eugénie, 64 ans, née à Arras, célibataire, rentière.
GRIMBERT Marie Anne Joseph, 63 ans, née à Arras, célibataire.
DALLOT ou DOLLE Béatrice Joseph, 42 ans, née à Carlincourt les Pas, célibataire, commissonnaire, guillotinée.
DAMBRINE Adrien Philippe Augustin, 73 ans, né à Arras, célibataire, rentier, ex noble, guillotiné .
DONJON Marie Charlotte Cornille, 51 ans, née à Arras, célibataire, ex noble, guillotinée.
DONJON Marie Eulalie Philippine, 45 ans, née à Arras, célibataire, ex noble, guillotinée.
DUPUICH Théodore Augustin, 74 ans, né à Arras, négociant, guillotiné.
HAVART Pierre Ferdinand, 37 ans, né à Louche, district de Calais, commissaire, guillotiné.
LEDIEU Jean Baptiste, 49 ans, né à Biache, célibataire, cultivateur, guillotiné.
LEFEBVRE Théodore, 36 ans, né à Béthonsart, célibataire, marchand, guillotiné.
MOURIEZ ou HOURIEZ Honoré, 54 ans, célibataire, guillotiné.
Domiciliés dans le département du Morbihan, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
BRIEN Noël, ex vicaire, domicilié à St Serent, canton de Plœrnel ( Morbihan, comme réfractaire à la loi, le 17 floréal, an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
     ... domiciliés à St.Vincent, canton de Reche-des-Trois, comme receleurs de prêtres réfractaires:
BRIEN Jeanne — DENOUAL Marc, tisserand — GIQUEL Pierre, laboureur et maire.
Comme brigands de la Vendée:
BOULET Dominique, cercleur, domicilié à Vales, canton de Parthenay (Deux-Sèvres), par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
MONNIRE Pierre, meunier, domicilié à Bourgneuf (Mayenne), par la commission révolutionnaire de Mayenne.
Domiciliés à Pont-St-Martin, canton de Nantes (Loire Inférieure), par la commission militaire séante à Nantes:
          ... laboureurs, comme brigands de la Vendée:
BOUCHEAU Jean — LANDREAU Sébastien — NAUX François — ORRIEUX Martin
          ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
CORBINEAU Pierre — DONAUT Pierre — HOUSSAY Simon — LEBEAUPIN André — MOREAU Pierre
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
MAUBERT Jean Germain (dit Neuilly), ex fermier général, secrétaire de Capet, 64 ans, né à Paris (Seine, domicilié à Noisy (Seine et Marne, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'une conspiration contre le peuple, en mettant dans le tabac de l'eau et des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé des citoyens.
     ... domiciliés dans le département de la Côte-d'Or, comme complices d'une conspiration dans les maisons d'arrêt de Dijon où ils étaient détenus:
GUENOT Jean Baptiste, 46 ans, né à Autun, commis au bureau des cuirs, pour d'approvisionnement des armées, à Dôle, domicilié à St Jean-de-Losne.
JAUCOURT Alexandre, ex marquis, ci-devant guidon de la gendarmerie de France, ayant la commission de colonel, 51 ans, né à Cernoy ( Loiret), domicilié à Arcoucey.
SALLEZ Jean Baptiste, limonadier, 42 ans, natif de Mâcon, domicilié à Saulieu.
          ... domiciliés à Dijon:
DAMOIZEAU, femme de Charles Aimée, 67 ans, native de Bizeray (Côte-d'Or), ex noble.
TESTARD Jacques, procureur, 50 ans, natif de Saulieu (Côte-d'Or).
               ... et nés à Dijon:
BILLE François, 26 ans, perruquier, comme convaincu de manœuvres pratiquées dans la maison d'arrêt de Dijon, tendantes à la rétablissement de la convention nationale, et au rétablissement de la royauté.
CHAUSSIER Claude, 51 ans, marchand de bois.
GALLETON Joseph, perruquier, 36 ans.
GUELAUD Etienne, avoué au tribunal de la commune de Dijon, 60 ans.
JOLIVET Charles Joseph, ingénieur vétéran des ponts et chaussées, 67 ans, comme conspirateur, ayant distribué des gravures contre-révolutionnaires, dans la prison de Dijon où il était détenu.
LAMUGUIERE Denis, greffier de la ci-devant maîtrise des eaux et forêts de Dijon, 67 ans.
     ... domiciliés dans le département de la Moselle, comme conspirateurs convaincus d’avoir suspendu arbitrairement la vente des biens provenants des religieux ordonnée par les lois des 14 et 15 avril 1790:
BOLER Martin, 38 ans, natif de Rodemack, aubergiste, administrateur du département, juge du tribunal du district de Briey, y demeurant, ... en désobéissant au décret du 14 août, et en favorisant l'émigration.
BRIAND Jacques Louis, 34 ans, né à Paris, agent national près le district de Morhange, domicilié à Buchy, ... en favorisant l'émigration.
COURTOIS Alexandre Nicolas, 33 ans, administrateur du département de la Moselle, né et domicilié à Longuyon.
FLOSSE Jean Baptiste Nicolas, jeune, 36 ans, maître de postes, membre du directoire au département de la Moselle, né et domicilié à Boulay.
COLLIN François, administrateur du département de la Moselle, domicilié à Ars, même département, comme conspirateur le 17 floréal, le 3 nivôse an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
GEANT Jean Claude, administrateur du département de la Moselle, 41 ans, né et domicilié à Araville.
PIERRON Jacques J. Louis, juge du tribunal du district de Bruy, 32 ans, natif de Villers-la-Montagne (Moselle), domicilié à Bruy.
POULET Jacques, ex noble et procureur syndic du département de la Moselle, 56 ans, né et domicilié à Metz.
SEQUER Mathieu, homme de loi, membre du département de la Moselle, 65 ans, natif d'Ainanges (Moselle), domicilié à Brie.
WAGNER Michel, ex administrateur du département de la Moselle, 43 ans, né et domicilié à Sarre-Libre.
1793 METÉ Gilles, journalier, domicilié à Camonel (Morbihan), est comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1684 Heyman Dullaert, Duch aertist born on 06 February 1636. — [Hey man! He may not have been Brightaert, Sharpaert, or even Finaert, but these names bring up no more samples of aertwork on the Internet than does Dullaert, or Dumbaert for that matter]
1679 Nicolas Pierre Loir (or Loyr), French painter and engraver born in 1624. — more
1642 Frans Francken II, dies on his 61st birthday, Flemish painter. — MORE ON FRANCKEN AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1629 Otto van Veen, Flemish painter born in 1556. — MORE ON VAN VEEN AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1475 Dieric Bouts the Elder, Dutch painter born in 1412. — MORE ON BOUTS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1452 Bicci di Lorenzo, Italian artist born in 1373.
< 07 May 09 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 06 May:

1953 Anthony Charles Lynton “Tony” Blair, British Prime Minister (Labour Party) from 02 May 1997 to 27 June 2007. An Anglican, he married (on 29 March 1980) a Catholic, Cherie Booth [23 Sep 1954~], and, on 21 December 2007, he was received into the Catholic Church. —(071224)
^ 1949 EDSAC, the first stored-program computer
      EDSAC, the world's first practical stored-program computer, comes to life in Cambridge, England. EDSAC's predecessor, ENIAC, had to be wired especially for each type of problem it was given. Reprogramming ENIAC could take hours or days of pulling and replugging patch cords.
      Scientist John Von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton had suggested ways to implement memory and stored programs on ENIAC, and his principles were implemented in England by Maurice Wilkes of Cambridge University. The invention of the stored-program computer was a major step toward the modern computer age.
1915 Orson Welles Kenosha Wisc, actor (War of the Worlds, Citizen Kane, The Mercury Radio Theatre of the Air, The Long Hot Summer, A Man for All Seasons, MacBeth, Moby Dick, Casino Royale, Catch-22)
^ 1906 André Weil, mathematician.
     Weil is born in Paris, of Jewish parents. He would study at universities in Paris, Rome and Göttingen, receiving his D.Sc. from the University of Paris in 1928. He then taught at different universities for example the Aligarh Muslim University in India from 1930 to 1932, and the University of Strasbourg, France from 1933 until the outbreak of World War II.
André Weil     The war was a disaster for Weil who was a conscientious objector and so wished to avoid military service. He fled to Finland as soon as war was declared in an attempt to avoid becoming forced into the army, but it was not a simple matter to escape from the war in Europe at this time. He was sent from Finland back to France where he was put in prison. Weil was certainly in great danger at this time, partly because he was Jewish, partly because he had a sister, Simone Weil who was a mystic philosopher and a leading figure in the French Résistance. The dangers of his predicament made Weil decide that being in the army was a better bet and he was able to argue successfully for his release on the condition that he join the army.
      Having used the army as a reason to get out of prison, Weil had no intention of serving any longer than he possibly could. As soon as the chance to escape to the US came, he took it at once. In the US he went to Pennsylvania where he taught from 1941 at Haverford College and at Swarthmore College. In 1945 he accepted a position in Sao Paulo University, Brazil where he remained until 1947. In 1947 Weil returned to the United States and he was appointed to the faculty of the University of Chicago, a position he continued to hold until 1958. In 1948-49, John Canu and his father, a visiting professor at Chicago that year, were often guests of Weil. From 1958 Weil worked at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University. He retired in 1976, becoming Professor Emeritus at that time.
      Weil's research was in number theory, algebraic geometry and group theory. His work can be summarized thus: Beginning in the 1940s, Weil started the rapid advance of algebraic geometry and number theory by laying the foundations for abstract algebraic geometry and the modern theory of abelian varieties. His work on algebraic curves has influenced a wide variety of areas, including some outside mathematics, such as elementary particle physics and string theory. In fact Weil's work in this area was basic to work by mathematicians such as Yau who was awarded a Fields Medal in 1982 for work in three-dimensional algebraic geometry which has major applications to quantum field theory.
      Yau is not the only mathematician who received a Fields Medal for work which continued that begun by Weil. In 1978 Deligne was awarded a Fields Medal for solving the Weil Conjectures. Here is a description of Weil's fundamental contribution: One of Weil's major achievements was his proof of the Riemann hypothesis for the congruence zeta functions of algebraic function fields. In 1949 he raised certain conjectures about the congruence zeta function of algebraic varieties over finite fields. These Weil conjectures, as they came to be called, grew out of his deep insight into the topology of algebraic varieties and provided guiding principles for subsequent developments in the field. Weil's work on bringing together number theory and algebraic geometry was highly fruitful. The foundations of many topics studied in depth today were laid by Weil in this work, such as the foundations of the theory of modular forms, automorphic functions and automorphic representations.
      However, Weil's work was of major importance in a number of other new mathematical topics. He contributed substantially to topology, differential geometry and complex analytic geometry. It was not just to these areas that he contributed but, even more importantly, his work brought out fundamental relationships between the areas when he studied harmonic analysis on topological groups and characteristic classes. Also bringing these areas together was his work on the geometric theory of the theta function and Kähler geometry.
      Together with Dieudonné and others, Weil wrote under the name Nicolas Bourbaki, a project they began in the 1930s, in which they attempted to give a unified description of mathematics. The purpose was to reverse a trend which they disliked, namely that of a lack of rigour in mathematics. The influence of Bourbaki has been great over many years but it is now less important since it has basically succeeded in its aim of promoting rigour and abstraction.
      Weil's most famous books include Foundations of Algebraic Geometry (1946) and Elliptic Functions According to Eisenstein and Kronecker (1976).
      Weil received many honors for his outstanding mathematics. Among these has been honorary membership of the London Mathematical Society in 1959 and election to a Fellowship of the Royal Society of London in 1966. In addition he has been elected to the Academy of Sciences in Paris and to the National Academy of Sciences in the United States.
      Weil was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1950 at Harvard and again at the following International Congress in 1954. In 1979 Weil was awarded the Wolf Prize and, in the following year, the American Mathematical Society awarded him their Steele Prize. In 1994 he received the Kyoto Prize from the Inamori Foundation of Japan ... for outstanding achievement and creativity. The citation for the Kyoto Prize reads: The results achieved and problems raised by André Weil through his deep understanding of and sharp insight into mathematical sciences in general will continue to have immeasurable influence on the development of mathematical sciences, and to contribute greatly to the development of science, as well as the deepening and uplifting of the human spirit. Weil died on 06 August 1998.
Quotations by André Weil
Every mathematician worthy of the name has experienced ... the state of lucid exaltation in which one thought succeeds another as if miraculously... this feeling may last for hours at a time, even for days. Once you have experienced it, you are eager to repeat it but unable to do it at will, unless perhaps by dogged work... The Apprenticeship of a Mathematician.
God exists since mathematics is consistent, and the Devil exists since we cannot prove it.
Rigor is to the mathematician what morality is to men.
First rate mathematicians choose first rate people, but second rate mathematicians choose third rate people.
André Weil: A Prologue   /   André Weil (1906 — 1998)    /   André Weil and Algebraic Topology    /    André Weil as I Knew Him   /    The Apprenticeship of a Mathematician — -Autobiography of André Weil    //   Fermat's Last Theorem
1898 Francisco Bores López, Spanish painter who died in May 1972 — more with links to images.
1896 Zygmunt Menkes, Polish artist who died in 1986.
1893 Wilhelm Kohlhoff, German artist who died in 1971
1889 Eiffel Tower, completed for the Universal Exposition which opens in Paris.
1880 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, German Expressionist painter and sculptor who commited suicide on 15 June 1938 after destroying much of his artwork, despondent over the persecution by the Nazis. — MORE ON KIRCHNER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1875 William Daniel Leahy Iowa, 5 star adimiral/chief of staff (1949)
1872 Willem de Sitter, Dutch astronomer and mathematician who cooperated with Einstein and made advances in the theory of relativity. De Sitter died on 20 November 1934. [De Sitter was not the sitter in any painted portrait that I could discover.]
1870 Amedos Peter Giannini San Jose Calif, founded Bank of America
1861 Rabindranath Tagore (Nobel prize-winner: literature [1913]; Hindu poet, mystic, musical composer).
^ 1861 “Pandit” Motilal Nehru, eminent Indian lawyer and politician, who died on 06 February 1931. He was the father of Jahawarlal “Pandit” Nehru [14 Nov 1889 – 27 May 1964], first Prime Minister of India, from its 15 August 1947 independence to his death.
Motilal Nehru      The Nehru family was from Kashmir, but had settled in Delhi since the beginning of the eighteenth century. Motilal's grandfather, Lakshmi Narayan, became the first Vakil of the East India Company at the Mughal Court of Delhi. Motilal's father, Gangadhar, was a police officer in Delhi in 1857, when it was engulfed by the Mutiny. When the British troops shelled their way into the town, Gangadhar fled with his wife Jeorani and four children to Agra where he died four years later. Three months after his death Jeorani gave birth to a boy who was named Motilal. Motilal spent his childhood at Khetri in Rajasthan, where his elder brother Nandial became the Diwan. In 1870 Nandlal quit Khetri, qualified as a lawyer and began to practice law at Agra. When the High Court was transferred to Allahabad, he moved with it.
      Meanwhile Motilal passed the matriculation examination from Kanpur and joined the Muir Central College at Allahabad. Athletic, fond of outdoor sports, specially wrestling, brimming over with an insatiable curiosity and zest for life, he soon attracted the attention of Principal Harrison and his British colleagues, in the Muir Central College, who took a strong liking to this intelligent, lively and restless Kashmiri youth.
      Motilal decided to become a lawyer, topped the list of successful candidates in the Vakil's examination in 1883, set up as a lawyer at Kanpur, but three years later shifted to Allahabad where his brother Nandlal had a lucrative practice at the High Court. Unfortunately, Nandlal died in April 1887 at the age of forty-two, leaving behind five sons and two daughters. Young Motilal found himself, at the age of twenty-five, as the head of a large family, its sole bread-winner.
      In 1889 Motilal's wife Swarup Rani gave birth to a son, who was named Jawaharlal. Two daughters, Sarup (later Vijayalakshmi Pandit) and Krishna (later Krishna Hutheesing) were born in 1900 and 1907 respectively. In 1900 Motilal purchased a house at Allahabad, rebuilt it, and named it Anand Bhawan (the abode of happiness). His legal practice was meanwhile growing. A rise in his standard of living was paralleled by a progressive westernization, a process which was accelerated by his visits to Europe in 1899 and 1900. Thorough-going changes, from knives and forks at the dining table to European governesses and tutors for the children, ensued.
      In May 1905 Motilal again sailed for Europe, this time with his whole family. He returned in November of the same year after putting Jawaharlal to school at Harrow. From Harrow, Jawaharlal went to Cambridge where he took a Tripos in Natural Science before being called to the Bar in 1912.
      Motilal's early incursions into politics were reluctant, brief and sporadic. The list of 1400 delegates of the Allahabad Congress (1888) includes: "Pandit Motilal, Hindu, Brahmin, Vakil, High Court, N.W.P. (North-Western Provinces)." He attended some of the subsequent sessions of the Congress, but unlike his Allahabad contemporary Madan Mohan Malaviya, he was no more than a passive spectator. It was the tug-of-war between the Moderates and the Extremists in the aftermath of the Partition of Bengal which drew Motilal into the arena and, strangely enough, on the side of the Moderates. In 1907 he presided over a Provincial Conference of the Moderate politicians at Allahabad.
      In 1909 he was elected a member of the U.P. Council. He attended the Delhi Durbar in 1911 in honor of the visit of King George V and Queen Mary, became a member of the Allahabad Municipal Board and of the All India Congress Committee. He was elected President of the U.P. Congress. Nevertheless, it was not politics but domestic and professional pre-occupations which were the dominant interest of his life during this period. But from 1912 onwards when Jawaharlal returned from England, there were forces at work, both at home and in the country, which were to lead Motilal into the maelstrom of national politics.
      The First World War generated deep discontent in several sectors of Indian Society which found a focus in the Home Rule Movement. Motilal had been reluctant to join the Home Rule League, but the internment of Mrs. Besant in June 1917 brought him into the fray. He became the President of the Allahabad branch of the Home Rule League. Now began a perceptible shift in Motilal's politics. In August 1918 he parted company with his Moderate friends on the constitutional issue, and attended the Bombay Congress which demanded radical changes in the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. On 05 February 1919 he launched a new daily paper, The Independent, to counter the well-established local daily paper, The Leader, which was much too moderate for Motilal's taste in 1919.
      The emergence of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian political stage changed the course of Indian history; it also profoundly influenced the life of Motilal Nehru and his family. The Rowlatt Bills and the publication of the Satyagraha pledge in February 1919 deeply stirred Jawaharlal; he felt an irresistible call to follow the Mahatma. Motilal was not the man to be easily swept off his feet; his legal background predisposed him against any extra-constitutional agitation. It was clear to both father and son that they were at the crossroads. Neither was prepared to give in, but at Motilal's instance Gandhi intervened and counseled young Nehru to be patient.
      Shortly afterwards events marched to a tragic climax in the Punjab; the holocaust of Jallianwala Bagh was followed by Martial Law. Motilal did what he could to bring succor and solace to that unhappy province. He gave his time freely, at the cost of his own legal practice, to the defense of scores of helpless victims of Martial Law, who had been condemned to the gallows or sentenced to long terms of imprisonment.
      Elected to preside over the Amritsar Congress (December 1919), Motilal was in the center of the gathering storm which pulled down many familiar landmarks during the following year. He was the only front rank leader to lend his support to non-cooperation at the special Congress at Calcutta in September 1920. Motilal's fateful decision to cast in his lot with Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi [02 Oct 1869 – 30 Jan 1948] was no doubt influenced by the tragic chain of events in 1919. Apart from the compulsion of events, there was another vital factor without which he may not have made, in his sixtieth year, a clean break with his past and plunged into the unknown. This was the unshakeable resolve of his son to go the way of Satyagraha.
      Immediately after the Calcutta Congress Motilal resigned from the U.P. Council, abandoned his practice at the Bar, curtailed the vast retinue of servants in Anand Bbawan, changed his style of living, consigned cartloads of foreign finery to public bonfires and put on khadi.
      In December 1921 both father and son were arrested and sentenced to six months' imprisonment. In February 1922 came the anti-climax, when Gandhi first announced and then suddenly cancelled mass civil disobedience. In March the Mahatma himself was arrested, tried for sedition and sentenced to six years' imprisonment.
      When Motilal came out of prison in the summer of 1922, he found that the movement had declined, the Congress organization was distracted by internal squabbles, and the constructive program could not evoke the enthusiasm of the intelligentsia. Motilal felt that the time had come to revise the program of non-cooperation so as to permit entry into Legislative Councils. This revision was resisted by those who regarded themselves as the faithful followers of the Mahatma. A long and bitter controversy, which nearly split the Congress, ensued. However, Motilal and C. R. Das founded the Swarajya Party in January 1923, had their way, and contested the elections at the end of 1923. The Swarajya Party was the largest Party in the Central Legislative Assembly as well as in some of the Provincial Legislatures. From 1925 onwards it was recognized by the Congress as its political wing.
      For the next six years Motilal was the leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly. With his commanding personality, incisive intellect, great knowledge of law, brilliant advocacy, ready wit and combative spirit, he seemed to be cut out for a Parliamentary role. The Legislative Assembly, however, was no Parliament. It was a hybrid legislature elected on a narrow and communal franchise; it had a solid bloc of official, nominated, European and some Indian members who took their cue from the irremovable executive. At first Motilal was able to secure sufficient support from the Moderate and the Muslim legislators to outvote the Government. He ruled his own party with an iron hand, but found his task increasingly difficult from 1926 onwards when communal and personal squabbles divided and weakened the Swarajya Party.
      Towards the end of 1927, with the appointment of the Simon Commission, there came a political revival. The exclusion of Indians from the Commission united Indian parties in opposition to the Government. An All-Parties Conference was convened by Dr. Ansari, the Congress President, and a Committee, including Tej Bahadur Sapru and headed by Motital, was appointed to determine the principles of a constitution for free India. The report of the Committee - the Nehru Report as it came to be called - attempted a solution of the communal problem which unfortunately failed to receive the support of a vocal section of Muslim opinion led by the Aga Khan and Jinnah.
      The Nehru Report, representing as it did the highest common denominator among a number of heterogeneous Parties was based on the assumption that the new Indian Constitution would be based on Dominion Status. This was regarded as a climb-down by a radical wing in the Congress led by Subhash Bose and Motilal's own son who founded the "Independence for India League". The Calcutta Congress (December 1928) over which Motilal presided was the scene of a head-on clash between those who were prepared to accept Dominion Status and those who would have nothing short of complete independence. A split was averted by a via media proposed by Gandhi, according to which if Britain did not concede Dominion Status within a year, the Congress was to demand complete independence and to fight for it, if necessary, by launching civil disobedience.
      The way was thus opened for Gandhi's return to active politics and for the revival of Satyagraha. Motilal was at first more amused than impressed by Gandhi's plans for the breach of the salt laws, but as the movement caught on. It found him against the advice of his doctors in the center of the political arena. He was arrested and imprisoned; but his health gave way and he was released. But there could be no peace for him when most of his family was in prison and the whole of India was passing through a baptism of fire. In the last week of January 1931 Gandhi and the Congress Working Committee were released by the Government as a gesture in that chain of events which was to lead to the Gandhi-lrwin Pact. Motilal had the satisfaction of having his son and Gandhi beside him in his last days.
      Motilal had a rational, robust, secular and fearless outlook on life. A brilliant lawyer, an eloquent speaker, a great parliamentarian, and a greater organizer, Motilal was one of the most notable and attractive figures of Indian nationalism in the Gandhi era.
1857 Frank Bramley, British artist who died on 09 August 1915. — MORE ON BRAMLEY AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1856 Sigmund Freud, cigar smoker, father of psychiatry
1856 Robert Edward Peary arctic explorer (North Pole-1909) discoverer of the North Pole, Greenland, and the Melville meteorite
1851 Refrigeration machine is patented by Dr. John Gorrie.— El Dr. John Farrie obtiene la patente de su "maquina de refrigerar".
1849 John Melhuish Strudwick, British Pre-Raphaelite painter who died on 16 July 1937. MORE ON STRUDWICK AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1840 first postage stamps issued (Great Britain)
1833 Steel plow: the first one is made by John Deere.
1823 Johann Batholomäus Duntze, German artist who died in 1895.
1807 Moritz Karl Friedrich Müller, German artist who died on 08 November 1865.
1801 Auguste Flandrin, Lyon French painter and printmaker, who died on 30 August 1842. — more with link to an image.
1769 Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette, French mathematician who died on 16 January 1834. He was son of bookseller Jean-Pierre Hachette,
1758 Maximilien-François-Marie-Isidore Robespierre, Arras, French revolutionary / avocat (1781). He was responsible for many heads chopped off by the guillotine, including, on 10 Thermidor An II (28 July 1794), his own, in the Thermidorian Reaction against his reign of Terror through the Comité de Salut Public.
^ 1758 André Masséna, in Nice, leading French general of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, who died on 04 April 1817
      Orphaned at an early age, Masséna enlisted in the Royal Italian regiment in the French service in 1775. At the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, he was a sergeant at Antibes. He soon became a captain in the Revolutionary government's army of Italy at Nice, and in December 1793 he was made general of a division.
      During the next two years in campaigns against the Austrians in Italy, Masséna displayed a genius for maneuvering his forces over difficult terrain. Becoming the most trusted lieutenant of Napoléon Bonaparte [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821] during the Italian campaign of 1796–1797, he won the Battle of Rivoli (14 Jan 1797), a key victory in the successful drive against Mantua. After Rome fell to the French in February 1798, Masséna was sent as an assistant to the French commander there; a week after his arrival, his troops mutinied and forced his recall. Nevertheless, in March 1799 he was made commander of the French army in Switzerland. He defeated a large Russian army in the Second Battle of Zürich on 25 September 1799 and then prevented another Russian army from advancing into Italy. These victories saved France from the immediate threat of invasion.
      Shortly after Napoléon came to power in the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (09 Nov 1799), Masséna was sent to command the badly demoralized army of Italy. He restored his troops' fighting spirit, and, by holding out against Austrian besiegers at Genoa from 21 April to 04 June 1800, he enabled Napoleon to maneuver into position behind the enemy and win the Battle of Marengo (14 June 1800), forcing the Austrians to evacuate most of northern Italy.
      Although Masséna was made a marshal in 1804, he had little respect for Napoléon's imperial regime. He reconquered Calabria from the British in 1806 and in 1808 was made duc de Rivoli. In 1809 he displayed stunning heroism in two important battles against the Austrians, at Aspern-Essling (near Vienna) on 21 May and 22 May 1809 and at Wagram on 05 July and 06 July 1809. Napoléon rewarded him with the title prince d'Essling in January 1810. Three months later Masséna, in poor health, was given command of the French forces that were fighting the British in Portugal. The British commander, Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington [01 May 1769 – 14 Sep 1852], defeated him at Buçaco, Portugal, on 27 September 1810, and at Fuentes de Oñoro, Spain, on 05 May 1811. Masséna was then relieved of his command. He was in Paris in 1815 but took no part in the Hundred Days of Napoléon; instead he supported the restoration of King Louis XVIII [17 Nov 1755 – 16 Sep 1824] to the French throne. .
1688 Charles Parrocel, French painter and engraver who died on 24 (25?) May 1752 — more
1581 Frans Francken II, Flemish painter who would die on his 61st birthday (see above)
^ 0973 Henry II, duke of Bavaria (as Henry IV, 995–1005), German king (from 1002), and Holy Roman emperor (1014–1024), last of the Saxon dynasty of emperors. He died on 13 July 1024.
      He was canonized by Pope Eugenius III in 1146 in response to church-inspired legends. He was, in fact, far from saintly, but there is some truth in the legends concerning his religious character. Together with Henry III, he was the great architect of cooperation between church and state, following a policy inaugurated by Charlemagne and promoted by Otto I the Great (Holy Roman emperor, 962–973). His canonization is sometimes justified onthe grounds that he was a great representative of the medieval German priestly kings.
      Henry II became king of Germany in 1002 and Holy Roman emperor in 1014. His mother was the Burgundian Princess Gisela. His father, Henry II the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria, having been in rebellion against two preceding German kings, was forced to spend long years in exile from Bavaria. The younger Henry found refuge with Bishop Abraham of Freising and was later educated at the Cathedral School of Hildesheim. As he was exposed thus to strong church influence in his youth, religion influenced him strongly. Contemporaries observed an ironic trait in his character and were also impressed by his ability to intersperse his speeches with biblical quotations. Though devoted to church ritual and personal prayer, he was a tenacious and realistic politician, not adverse to alliances with heathen powers. Usually in poor health, he yet performed for 22 years the office of the itinerant king, riding on horseback through his dominions to judge and compose feuds, pursue rebels, and extend the power of the crown.
      After the death of King Otto III [Jul 980 – 23 Jan 1002], Henry, aware of strong opposition to his succession, captured the royal insignia that were in the keeping of the dead king's companions. At Otto's funeral the majority of the princes declared against Henry, and only in June, with the assistance of Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, did Henry secure both election and coronation. It took another year before his recognition was final.
      Henry first turned his attention to the east and made war against the Polish king Boleslaw I the Brave. After a successful campaign, he marched into northern Italy to subdue Arduin of Ivrea, who had styled himself king of Italy. His sudden interference led to bitter fighting and atrocities, and although Henry was crowned king in Pavia on 15 May 1004, he returned home, without defeating Arduin, to pursue his campaigns against Boleslaw. In 1003 Henry had made a pact with the Liutitian tribe against the Christian Boleslaw, and he allowed the Liutitians to resist German missionaries east of the Elbe River. Henry was more interested inconsolidating his own political power than in spreading Christianity. Supported by his tribal allies, he waged several campaigns against Poland, until in 1018, at Bautzen, he made a lasting compromise peace with the Poles.
      Sensitive to tradition and anxious to be crowned emperor, Henry decided in late 1013 on another expedition to Italy. He marched straight to Rome, where he was crowned Holy Roman emperor by Pope Benedict VIII [–09 Apr 1024], on 14 February 1014. By May he was back in Germany, seeking to fulfill his duties to Italy by charging German officials with the administration of the country. Henry even convened an Italian imperial court at Strassburg (now Strasbourg) in 1019. In 1020 Pope Benedict visited him in Germany and begged him to put in another appearance in Italy to fight the Greeks in the south and protect the papacy against the Lombard princes. Henry reluctantly responded the following year, fighting both Greeks and Lombards successfully; but he withdrew at the first opportunity.
      Henry's main interest and success were concentrated on the consolidation of a peaceful royal regime in Germany. He spent much time and energy in elaborating the so-called Ottonian system of government. Inaugurated by Otto I [23 Nov 912 – 07 May 973], this system was based upon the principle that the lands and the authority of the bishops ought to be at the disposal of the king. Henry made generous grants to the bishops and, by adding to their territorial holdings, helped to establish them as secular rulers as well as ecclesiastical princes. He freely availed himself of the royal right to appoint faithful followers to these bishoprics. He insisted on episcopal celibacy, to make sure that on the death of a bishop the see would not fall into the hands of the bishop's children. In this way, he managed to create a stable body of supporters who made him more and more independent of rebellious nobles and ambitious members of his own family.
      His greatest achievement was the foundation of the new bishopric of Bamberg. The upper region of the Main River was poorly populated, and Henry set aside large tracts of personal property to establish the new bishopric, much against the wishes of the bishop of Würzburg in the middle Main region. He obtained the consent of other bishops at a synod in Frankfurt in late 1007. The new bishop was consecrated on Henry's birthday in 1012. In 1020 Bamberg was visited by the pope, and it quickly developed into a splendid cathedral town where contemporary scholastic culture and art, as well as piety, found the support of Henry and his queen, Cunegunda (who was canonized in 1200). During the last years of his reign Henry planned, in concert with Pope Benedict VIII, an ecclesiastical reform council at Pavia to seal the system of ecclesiastico-political order he had perfected in Germany. But he died suddenly in July 1024, before this could be done.

Holidays Bulgaria : Shepherd's and Herdsman's Day / Denmark : Prayer Day / Lebanon : Martyrs' Day

Religious Observances Denmark : Prayer Day l RC : St John Before the Latin Gate / Christian : May Fellowship Day (Church Woman United)
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Thoughts for the day:
“Hearts will never be practical til they're unbreakable.”
“Give me the luxuries of life and I will willingly do without the necessities.”
— Frank Lloyd Wright, US architect [08 Jun 1867 – 09 Apr 1959]
“Homes designed by Frank Lloyd Wright provide some luxuries, but lack such necessities as a leakproof roof.”
"An expert is a person who has made all the mistakes that can be made in a very narrow field.” —
Niels Bohr [07 Oct 1885 – 18 Nov 1962], soccer player, Nobel-prize-winning physicist.
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