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Events, deaths, births, of 05 MAY
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• Karl Marx is born... • Battle of Puebla... • Japanese bomb Oregon... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Sacco and Vanzetti arrested...• Battle of Coral Sea... • Torture by electric chair... • Gates and Justice Department disagree... • Napoléon dies... • IRA hunger striker dies... • Italians conquer Addis Ababa... • 15 minutes in space ... • Push for silver standard... • Keats's first poem... • Clone E~mail worms... • Woodin to Treasury... • “Big Blue” blues... • West Germany rid of occupiers... • Sitting Bull retreats to Canada... • North Vietnamese maintain siege... • US captures Snoul, Cambodia...
^  On a 05 May:
^ 2006 US Inventors Hall of Fame: new members
Listed with the inventions that got them this recognition (most of them made many other inventions):
  • Herman Affel [1893-1972], Lloyd Espenschied [27 Apr 1889 – Jun 1986] Coaxial cable
    While at AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1929, Affel and Espenschied invented the coaxial cable. The cable advanced long distance telephone service, making it possible to carry thousands of simultaneous phone calls on long distance circuits.
  • Karl Bosch [27 Aug 1874 – 26 Apr 1940], Fritz Haber [09 Dec 1868 – 29 Jan 1934] Ammonia production process
    The Haber-Bosch process has remained unchanged since the early 1900s, and is used today to manufacture thousands of tons of ammonia used worldwide in the production of fertilizer. Haber received the 1931 Nobel Prize for chemistry. Bosch shared the 1931 Nobel Prize for chemistry with Friedrich Bergius [11 Oct 1884 – 30 Mar 1949].
  • Willard Boyle [19 Aug 1924- ], George E. Smith [1930-] Charge-coupled device
    The charge-coupled device (CCD) was key to advancing digital imaging technology, and can be found in most imaging devices including digital cameras, scanners and satellite surveillance.
  • Vinton G. Cerf [23 Jun 1943~], Robert E. Kahn [23 Dec 1938~] Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
    Cerf and Kahn (not Al Gore [31 Mar 1948~]) created the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) that allows the widespread use of the Internet. Cerf and Kahn are often referred to as the “fathers of the Internet.”
  • Robert W. Gore [1937- ] Gore-Tex
    Gore (related? to Al Gore [31 Mar 1948~]?) invented ePTFE, an expanded form of Teflon (PTFE) widely known by the Gore-Tex brand name, permeable to water vapor but not to liquid water. Valued by outdoor enthusiasts, Gore-Tex materials also have applications in medical, industrial, electrical and textile products.
  • Richard Hoe [12 Sep 1812 – 07 Jun 1886] Rotary printing press
    Hoe’s advanced printing press technology allowed for the development of the first mass media, and revolutionized newspaper printing.
  • Benjamin Holt [1849-1920] Track-type tractor
    Holt ushered in the modern era of mechanized farming with his invention, the first track-type tractor known as the “Caterpillar.” The tractor went on to be applied not just to agriculture, but also earthmoving and military operations.
  • Ali Javan [1926- ] Helium-neon laser
    The helium-neon laser is the most useful, practical and profitable type of laser in use today. It made holography practical, is used in UPC code checkout scanners and is critical for a wide range of construction, medical and monitoring technologies.
  • Robert Langer [1948- ] Controlled Drug Delivery
    Langer revolutionized biomedical technology through the development of a controlled drug delivery system. He also pioneered a variety of remotely controlled drug delivery systems that vary the amount of drug released through electric impulse, ultrasound and magnetic fields.
  • Julio Palmaz [1945- ] Intravascular Stent
    The Palmaz Stent was the first commercially successful intravascular stent. It has revolutionized cardiac care, with more than a million people undergoing coronary artery stenting annually to repair clogged arteries.
  • Gregory Pincus [09 Apr 1903 – 22 Aug 1967] Oral contraceptive pill
    By creating the first practical oral contraceptive, the birth control pill, in the 1950s, Gregory Pincus brought privacy and convenience to women worldwide.
  • Games Slayter [1896-1964], Dale Kleist [1909-1998], John Thomas [1907-1991] Fiberglass
    In the 1930s, the trio developed the method for mass production of affordable fiberglass, the basis for Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation. Today, Owens Corning is a $5 billion global leader, manufacturing not just glass fiber insulation, but also glass fiber impregnated laminates used in sports cars, boats and bathroom fixtures.
  • Elihu Thomson [29 Mar 1853 – 13 Mar 1937] Arc lighting
    Thomson was an integral contributor to the development of electricity as a power and light source during the turn of the 20th century.
  • William Upjohn [1853-1932] Dissolvable pill
    In 1880, Upjohn began developing a pill that dissolved easily in the stomach. In 1884 he invented a machine to mass-produce these pills with a regulated dosage.
  • Granville Woods [1856-1910] Railroad telegraph
    Woods developed the railroad telegraph, a device that transmitted messages between moving trains. Prior to its creation, moving trains were unable to communicate with each other or with rail stations. Because he was Black, Woods remained poor despite this and his many other inventions.
—(060505)
TREE price chart
2005 General elections in Dominica.
2005 Parliamentary elections in the UK are a victory for the Labour Party.

2003 Before the opening of the stock markets in New York, USA Interactive (USAI) announces an agreement for it to acquire Lending Tree Inc. (TREE) giving 0.6199 USAI share for each TREE share.. On the NASDAQ 13 million of the 22.6 million TREE shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $14.69 to an intraday high of $21.36 and closing at $20.72. They had traded as low as $8.95 as recently as 05 March 2003 and never higher than the $21.00 they reached on 16 February 2000, two days after they started trading at $18.00. [3~year price chart >]. Also on the NASDAQ, 18.5 million of the 549 million USAI shares are traded, down from their previous close of $34.96 to close at $34.10 (equivalent to $21.14 for TREE at the announced acquisition rate). TREE is an Internet-based marketplace for consumers and lenders that collects and compares consumer credit requests and related credit information to the underwriting criteria of over 100 participating lenders. USAI, through its present subsidiaries, engages indiversified media and electronic commerce businesses that includes; electronic retailing, ticketing operations and television broadcasting.

2002 Runoff presidential election in France, first round. Moderate right-wing President Jacques Chirac, 69, wins overwhelmingly his third reelection, defeating right-wing extremist Jean-Marie Le Pen, 73, of the Front National.
2001 En Palma de Mallorca, la VII Diada per la Llengua reune a miles de personas, incluyendo al Gobierno balear en pleno, quienes reclaman para Baleares el derecho a utilizar cotidianamente el catalàn como lengua viva, y más autogobierno y autonomía financiera
2000 Ahmet Necdet Sezer, a staunch advocate of democratic rights, is elected Turkey's 10th president, with 330 of the votes in the 550-member parliament. Sezer, the chief justice of the Constitutional Court is only the fourth civilian to hold the post of president. The election raises hopes that Sezer will be able to nudge Turkey toward the democratic reforms that are crucial if the country is to realize its goal of membership in the European Union.
2000 Dozens of Falun Gong followers protest in Tiananmen Square on the Chinese New Year of the Dragon.
2000 The Labor Department reportes that the US's unemployment rate had hit a 30-year low of 3.9% in April 2000, with Blacks and Hispanics recording the lowest jobless rates in history.
2000 Reformers sweep Iran's run-off elections, winning control of the legislature from conservatives for the first time since 1979 Islamic revolution. It does them little good, since the fundamentalist mullahs have rigged the system to keep control of the country through the courts and the military.
^ 2000 — Yesterday's ILOVEYOU E-mail worm spawns clones.
http://www.mcafee.com/ warns: There are a growing number of variants of this worm being transmitted via email attachment. The most common are:
  • SUBJECT: "ILOVEYOU"
    MESSAGE: "kindly check the attached LOVELETTER coming from me."
    ATTACHMENT: "LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.TXT.vbs"
  • SUBJECT: "Virus ALERT!!!"
    MESSAGE: A long message that pretends to be information from Symantec Corp. about VBS/LoveLetter.worm
    ATTACHMENT: "protect.vbs"
  • SUBJECT: "Dangerous Virus Warning"
    MESSAGE: "There is a dangerous virus circulating. Please click attached picture to view it and learn to avoid it."
    ATTACHMENT: "virus_warning.jpg.vbs"
  • SUBJECT: "Joke"
    MESSAGE: NONE
    ATTACHMENT: "VeryFunny.vbs"
  • SUBJECT: "Important ! Read carefully !!"
    MESSAGE: "Checked the attached IMPORTANT coming from me !"
    ATTACHMENT: "IMPORTANT.TXT.vbs"
  • SUBJECT: "Mothers Day Order Confirmation"
    MESSAGE: "We have proceeded to charge your credit card for the amount of $326.92 for the mothers day diamond special. We have attached a detailed invoice to this email. Please print out the attachment and keep it in a safe place.Thanks Again and Have a Happy Mothers Day!"
    ATTACHMENT: " mothersday.vbs"
  • SUBJECT: "Susitikim shi vakara kavos puodukui..."
    MESSAGE: "kindly check the attached LOVELETTER coming from me."
    ATTACHMENT: "LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.TXT.VBS"
          This worm attempts to send copies of itself through mIRC to the IRC channels and through Outlook to all address book entries. It also infects files on local and remote drives including files with the following extensions: .vbs, .vbe, .js, .jse, .css, .wsh, .sct, .hta, .jpg, .jpeg, .mp3, and .mp2. It also tried to download a password-stealing Trojan horse program from a Web site (which was soon removed by the provider). Also described at http://www.symantec.com/avcenter/venc/data/vbs.loveletter.a.html

  • 2000 Conjunction (very approximate) of Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Moon. The cataclysm does not occur which was predicted by Richard Noone in 5/5 2000 - Ice: The Ultimate Disaster, according to the theories of Charles Hapgood: “On May 5th in the year 2000, our moon, the planets Mercury, Venus, our Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn will be aligned with the Earth, significantly increasing the centrifugal momentum exerted on the Earth's crust. On that day, the ever growing ice ... at the South Pole will upset the Earth's axis sending trillions of tons of ice and water sweeping over the surface of our planet.”
    1999 Mireya Moscoso es proclamada presidenta electa de Panamá tras su victoria electoral.
    1998 Intuit reverses an April decision to stop making Quicken for Macintosh. The company had planned to discontinue the Mac version of its popular financial software because of dwindling Macintosh sales: Macintosh users represented about 10% of Quicken's customers in 1998, down from 15% a few years earlier. Steve Jobs, Apple's cofounder and acting CEO, persuaded Intuit to change its stance.
    ^ 1998 Gates and Justice Department talks fail
          Microsoft chairman Bill Gates [28 Oct 1955~] and Justice Department officials meet for two hours but fail to resolve their differences. Gates asked the department not to restrict his company's ability to add new features to its Windows operating system. The government alleged that Microsoft could use the operating system to stifle innovation and derail competitors. On 19 May of the same year, the Justice Department sued Microsoft in what would become a months-long court battle.
    1996 Israel and the Palestinians began the final stage of their peace talks in Taba, Egypt.
    1996 The FBI released preliminary figures showing that, in the US, serious crimes reported to police fell for the fourth straight year in 1995.
    1996 José María Aznar, elegido el día anterior por el Congreso español, jura su cargo como Jefe del Ejecutivo ante el rey Juan Carlos.
    1994 Atari Corporation, maker of popular new video games in the late 1970s and early 1980s, announces that its Jaguar video games will soon be available for personal computers.
    1993 Microsoft announces that it will bundle its popular database software, Microsoft Access, with its Microsoft Office package, which already included MS Word and Excel. Microsoft's competitors, including Lotus and WordPerfect, also added database software to their office software suites.
    1992 El Parlamento de Crimea proclama la independencia de la península y convoca un referéndum, en un reto a Ucrania. 1999 Mireya Moscoso es proclamada presidenta electa de Panamá tras su victoria electoral.
    1990 Juan Pablo II inicia una nueva visita a México, país mayoritariamente católico. Dos días después México y el Vaticano restablecen relaciones diplomáticas tras 130 años de ruptura.
    ^ 1989 IBM blue over “Big Blue” nickname.
          Red tape bogs down Big Blue, as IBM tries to copyright its longtime nickname. Although IBM executives had long resented the nickname, which mocked the company's unwieldy bureaucracy, they had an apparent change of heart in the late 1980s and decided to copyright the name. The company found itself mired in a different bureaucracy as a series of administrative errors repeatedly delayed the company's attempt to register the name with the US Patent and Trademark Office. Among the errors were a forgotten signature and an omitted date.
    1988 Eugene Antonio Marino, 53, is installed as the archbishop of Atlanta, becoming the first black Roman Catholic archbishop in the US
    1987 Congress begins Iran-Contra hearings
    1986 Con la visita del rey Hussein de Jordania a Hafez al-Asad de Syria en Damasco, quedan restablecidas de manera definitiva las relaciones entre los dos paises.
    1982 Se forma un gobierno de unidad nacional en El Salvador, con el apoyo del Ejército.
    ^ 1972 North Vietnamese maintain siege of An Loc.
          South Vietnamese troops from the 21st Division, trying to reach beleaguered An Loc in Binh Long Province via Highway 13, are again pushed back by the communists, who had overrun a supporting South Vietnamese firebase. The South Vietnamese division had been trying to break through to An Loc since mid-April, when the unit had been moved from its normal area of operations in the Mekong Delta and ordered to attack in order to relieve the surrounded city. The South Vietnamese soldiers fought desperately to reach the city, but suffered so many casualties in the process that another unit had to be sent to actually relieve the besieged city, which was accomplished on 18 June.
          This action was part of the southernmost thrust of the three-pronged Nguyen Hue Offensive (later known as the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion launched by North Vietnamese forces on 30 March to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to An Loc in the south, were Quang Tri in the north and Kontum in the Central Highlands. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders in each case were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where government forces abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. In Binh Long Province, the North Vietnamese forces had crossed into South Vietnam from Cambodia on 05 April to strike first at Loc Ninh.
          After taking Loc Ninh, the North Vietnamese forces then quickly encircled An Loc, the capital of Binh Long Province, which is only 100 km from Saigon. The North Vietnamese held An Loc under siege for almost three months while they made repeated attempts to take the city. The defenders suffered heavy casualties, including 2300 dead or missing, but with the aid of US advisers and American airpower, they managed to hold An Loc against vastly superior odds until the siege was lifted on 18 June. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and they retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, which he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces.
    1971 Race riot in Brownsville section of Brooklyn (NYC)
    ^ 1970 US forces capture Snoul, Cambodia
          In Cambodia, a US force captures Snoul, 30 km from the tip of the "Fishhook" area (across the border from South Vietnam, 110 km). A squadron of nearly 100 tanks from the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment and jet planes virtually leveled the village that had been held by the North Vietnamese. No dead North Vietnamese soldiers were found, only the bodies of four Cambodian civilians. This action was part of the Cambodian "incursion" that had been launched by US and South Vietnamese forces on 29 April. In Washington, President Nixon met with congressional committees at the White House and gave the legislators a "firm commitment" that US troops would be withdrawn from Cambodia in three to seven weeks. Nixon also pledged that he would not order US troops to penetrate deeper than 34 km into Cambodia without first seeking congressional approval. The last US troops left Cambodia on 30 June.
    1968 En l'absence de Pompidou, en voyage officiel en Iran, la manifestations des étudiants, qui on commencé à Nanterre, puis se sont propagées dans le quartier Latin, s'aggravent. Quatre manifestants sont condamnés à 2 mois de prison ferme.
    1965 first large-scale US Army ground units arrive in South Vietnam
    ^ 1961 The first US man in space
          From Cape Canaveral, Florida, Navy Commander Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr., is launched into space aboard the Freedom 7 space capsule, becoming the first US astronaut to travel in space. The suborbital flight, which lasted fifteen minutes and reached a height of 186 km, was a major triumph for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
          NASA was established in 1958 to keep US space efforts better abreast of recent Soviet achievements, such as the launching of the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the two superpowers raced to become the first country to put a man in space and return him to earth.
          On 12 April 1961, the Soviet space program enjoyed its greatest moment when cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin was launched into space, put in orbit around the planet, and safely returned to earth. Despite early setbacks in NASA's Project Mercury, Shepard's historic space flight put the Americans just under a month behind the Soviets, and restored faith in the US space program. For the next few years, NASA continued to closely trail the Soviets until July of 1969, when the Americans took a giant leap forward with Apollo 11, a three-stage spacecraft that took US astronauts to the surface of the moon and returned them to earth. On 05 February 1971, Alan B. Shepard, Jr., the first American in space, became the fifth astronaut to walk on the moon as part of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission.
    ^ 1955 West Germany rid of military occupation.
          The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) becomes a sovereign state when the United States, France, and Great Britain end their military occupation, which had begun in 1945. With this action, West Germany was given the right to rearm and become a full-fledged member of the western alliance against the Soviet Union. In 1945, the United States, Great Britain, and France had assumed the occupation of the western portion of Germany (as well as the western half of Berlin, situated in eastern Germany). The Soviet Union occupied eastern Germany, as well as the eastern half of Berlin. As Cold War animosities began to harden between the western powers and Russia, it became increasingly obvious that Germany would not be reunified. By the late-1940s, the United States acted to formalize the split and establish western Germany as an independent republic, and in May 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was formally announced. In 1954, West Germany joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the mutual defense alliance between the United States and several European nations.
          All that remained was for the US, UK, and France to end their nearly 10-year occupation. This is accomplished on 05 May 1955, when those nations issued a proclamation declaring an end to the military occupation of West Germany. Under the terms of an agreement reached earlier, West Germany would now be allowed to establish a military force of up to a half-million men and resume the manufacture of arms, though it was forbidden from producing any chemical or atomic weapons. The end of the Allied occupation of West Germany meant a full recognition of the republic as a member of the western alliance against the Soviet Union. While the Russians were less than thrilled by the prospect of a rearmed West Germany, they were nonetheless pleased that German reunification had officially become a dead issue. Shortly after the May 5 proclamation was issued, the Soviet Union formally recognized the Federal Republic of Germany. The two Germany's remained separated until 1990, when they were formally reunited and once again became a single democratic country.
    1953 Una rebelión militar en Paraguay destituye al presidente, Federico Chaves, y nombra una junta de Gobierno.
    1950 Phumiphon Adunlayadet (nacido el 5 de diciembre de 1927 en Cambridge, Massachusetts, mientras su padre, el príncipe Mahidol de Songkhla, estaba estudiando en la Universidad de Harvard), rey de Tailandia desde la muerte de su hermano mayor, Anada Mahidol, el 9 de junio de 1946, es coronado formalmente con el nombre de Rama IX.
    1950 American missionary and martyr Jim Elliot wrote in his journal: 'The conflict of science and religion is fought between the errors of both camps.'
    1949 Council of Europe established
    1946 Mariano Ospina Pérez, candidato conservador, triunfa en las elecciones de Colombia.
    1945 Netherlands and Denmark liberated from Nazi control
    1945 Liberada Eslovaquia por el Ejército Rojo, las tropas aliadas al mando del general Patton, acantonadas en Plzen, se niegan a apoyar el levantamiento del pueblo de Praga.
    1942 Sales of sugar resumed in the United States under a rationing program during WW II
    ^ 1942 The Battle of the Coral Sea: 3rd day
          This is the third day of the first modern naval engagement in history, called the Battle of the Coral Sea. On 03 May 1942 a Japanese invasion force had succeeded in occupying Tulagi of the Solomon Islands in an expansion of Japan's defensive perimeter. The United States, having broken Japan's secret war code and forewarned of an impending invasion of Tulagi and Port Moresby, attempted to intercept the Japanese armada.
          Four days of battles between Japanese and US aircraft carriers resulted in 70 Japanese and 66 US warplanes destroyed. This confrontation, called the Battle of the Coral Sea, marked the first air-naval battle in history, as none of the carriers fired at each other, allowing the planes taking off from their decks to do the battling. Among the casualties was the US carrier Lexington; "the Blue Ghost" (so-called because it was not camouflaged like other carriers) suffered such extensive aerial damage that it had to be sunk by its own crew. 216 Lexington crewmen died as a result of the Japanese aerial bombardment.
          Although Japan would go on to occupy all of the Solomon Islands, its victory was a Pyrrhic one: The cost in experienced pilots and aircraft carriers was so great that Japan had to cancel its expedition to Port Moresby, Papua, as well as other South Pacific targets.
    1941 Emperor Haile Selassie re-enters Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital, exactly five years to the day of when it was occupied by Italy.
    ^ 1936 Italian troops conquer Addis Ababa
          Benito Mussolini had been eyeing Ethiopia (also known as Abyssinia) as an economic colony to be added to Italian Somaliland, in East Africa, since the 1920s. He hoped to resettle 10 million Italians in a unified East Africa. Despite Ethiopia's membership in the League of Nations, which provided it with recourse to other member nations in the event of invasion, Italy, also a League member, attacked on October 3, 1935. Selassie formally protested before the League Council, but the League responded with only mild sanctions, fearing that a more extensive embargo, or the closure of the Suez Canal, denying Italy needed supplies and reinforcements, would lead to war-and Italy simply getting its oil from the United States, which was not a party to League agreements.
          Britain and France, both fearing that a general war would be harmful to their collective security, proposed secret negotiations with Italy, wherein Italy would be offered territory in Ethiopia's northeast; in exchange, Mussolini would end his aggression. Ethiopia would only be told of this negotiation after the fact; should Selassie reject the terms, France and Britain were off the hook, having made a "good faith" effort at peace. They could then oppose further sanctions against Italy, even propose that the ones in place be removed, thereby sparing themselves a confrontation with Mussolini. But the plans for the secret negotiation were leaked to the press, and both Britain and France were humiliated publicly for selling out a weaker League partner.
    ^ 1933 Woodin to Treasury to fight the Depression
          President Franklin Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945] appoints William Hartman Woodin [27 May 1868 – 03 May 1934] as the fifty-first Secretary of the Treasury during one of the most turbulent and dramatic periods in the nation's fiscal history. Woodin is immediately enlisted in the battle against the Depression.
         Just four days after Woodin assumed office, President Roosevelt called the now-famous "banking holiday" that temporarily shuttered the US 's financial institution. Over the next ten days, Roosevelt, Woodin and other leaders worked to stabilize the US's finances and stem the public's frantic drive to yank their funds from the nation's banks. The "holiday" also gave Roosevelt time to push the Emergency Banking Act through the legislative chain; quickly adopted by Congress, the legislation not only granted the president increased economic authority, but enlarged the responsibilities of Woodin and the Treasury. Indeed, when the banks reopened, they were now under the watchful eye of the secretary of the Treasury. Along with minding the US's fiscal institutions, Woodin was also charged with pumping the economy with new Federal Reserve notes and taking measures to bolster the public's faith in the economy. However, the hefty task of righting the nation's economic ills soon took a toll on Woodin's health; he resigned on 31 December 1933, less than a year after taking over at the helm of the Treasury.
    1932 Japan and China signed a peace treaty.
    1927 El presidente de Chile, Emiliano Figueroa, presenta su dimisión y le sustituye Carlos Ibáñez.
    1926 Sinclair Lewis refuses his Pulitzer Prize for "Arrowsmith"
    1925 High school biology teacher John T. Scopes, 24, is arrested for teaching the theory of evolution in his Dayton, Tennessee, classroom.
    ^ 1920 Sacco and Vanzetti are arrested
    for the murders in South Braintree, Massachusetts, on 15 April 1920, of F.A. Parmenter, paymaster of a shoe factory, and Alessandro Berardelli, the guard accompanying him, and the robbery of the $15'766.51 payroll that they were carrying.
          On 05 May 1920, Nicola Sacco [22 Apr 1891 – 23 Aug 1927] and Bartolomeo Vanzetti [11 Jun1888 – 23 Aug 1927], two Italian anarchists who had immigrated to the United States in 1908, one a shoemaker and the other a fish peddler, are arrested for the crime. On 31 May 1921, they were brought to trial before Judge Webster Thayer of the Massachusetts Superior Court, and on 14 July 1921 both were found guilty by verdict of the jury. Socialists and radicals protested the men's innocence.
          Many people felt that there had been less than a fair trial and that the defendants had been convicted for their radical, anarchist beliefs rather than for the crime for which they had been tried. All attempts for retrial on the ground of false identification failed. On 18 November 1925, one Celestino Madeiros, then under a sentence for murder, confessed that he had participated in the crime with the Joe Morelli gang. The state Supreme Court refused to upset the verdict, because at that time the trial judge had the final power to reopen on the ground of additional evidence. The two men were sentenced to death on 09 April 1927.
          A storm of protest arose with mass meetings throughout the nation. Governor Alvan T. Fuller appointed an independent advisory committee consisting of President A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard University, President Samuel W. Stratton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Robert Grant, a former judge. On 03 August 1927, the governor refused to exercise his power of clemency; his advisory committee agreed with this stand.
          Demonstrations proceeded in many cities throughout the world, and bombs were set off in New York City and Philadelphia. Sacco and Vanzetti, still maintaining their innocence, were executed on 23 August 1927.
          Opinion has remained divided on whether Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty as charged or whether they were innocent victims of a prejudiced legal system and a mishandled trial. There is widespread agreement, however, that the two men should have been granted a second trial in view of their trial's significant defects.
          It is probable that Sacco was guilty but that Vanzetti was innocent. This was stated in 1941 by anarchist leader Carlo Tresca [1879-1943] and in November 1982 by Ideale Gambera, son of anarchist Giovanni Gambera [–Jun 1982]. According to October 1961 ballistic tests, the bullet that killed Berardelli .was fired from Sacco's Colt automatic.
          On 23 August 1977 the governor of Massachusetts, Michael S. Dukakis [03 Nov 1933~], issued a proclamation stating that Sacco and Vanzetti had not been treated justly and that “any disgrace should be forever removed from their names”.
    1916 US marines invade Dominican Republic, stay until 1924
    1914 From California, Erwin G. "Cannonball" Baker begins first cross-US motorcycle trip (5438 km). In response to his appeal, people had informed him which were the least deplorable roads and promised to bring him gasoline where it was not available.
    1912 Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda begins publishing (4/22 OS)
    1908 Great White Fleet arrives in SF
    1904 El Congreso venezolano confiere al general Castro poderes de dictador por un año.
    ^ 1895 Push in US Congress for silver standard.
          Following the lead of Richard Bland (Missouri) and journalist-turned-political-firebrand, William Jennings Bryan (Nebraska), Democrats in Congress mount the charge for the free coinage of silver. Though the Democrats are the minority party in the House, their legislation on behalf of silver is not without support. Indeed, with the nation still licking its wounds from the depression of 1893, there is growing sentiment behind a shift from the gold standard to silver.
          While the Democrats failed to push the free coinage of silver into the law books, Bryan and his allies in the party remained undeterred. The following year, the Democrats tabbed Bryan as their presidential nominee, in hopes that he could ride the silver issue all the way to the Oval Office. Though Bryan roused the troops at the Democratic convention, famously chiding the Republicans and hard money advocates for attempting to "crucify mankind on a cross of gold," his fiery oratory and unswerving support for silver proved to be no match for his competitor, the Republican nominee and chosen candidate of Big Business, William McKinley.
    1893 Panic hit the New York Stock Exchange; by year's end, the US would be in a depression.
    1877 Porfirio Díaz es proclamado presidente de México, con lo que comienza una dictadura que duró 35 años.
    ^ 1877 Harrassed by US, Sitting Bull retreats to Canada.
          Nearly a year after the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull and a band of followers cross into Canada hoping to find safe haven from the US Army. On 25 June 1876, Sitting Bull's warriors had joined with other Indians in the Battle of the Little Big Horn in Montana, which resulted in the massacre of George Custer and five troops of the 7th Cavalry. Worried that their great victory would provoke a massive retaliation by the US military, the Indians scattered into smaller bands. During the following year, the US Army tracked down and attacked several of these groups, forcing them to surrender and move to reservations. Sitting Bull and his followers, however, managed to avoid a decisive confrontation with the US Army. They spent the summer and winter after Little Big Horn hunting buffalo in Montana and fighting small skirmishes with soldiers. In the fall of 1876, Colonel Nelson A. Miles met with Sitting Bull at a neutral location and tried to talk him into surrendering and relocating to a reservation. Although anxious for peace, Sitting Bull refused. As the victor of the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull felt he should be dictating terms to Miles, not the other way around. Angered by what he saw as Sitting Bull's foolish obstinacy, Miles stepped up his campaign of harassment against the chief and his people. Sitting Bull's band continued to roam about Montana in search of increasingly scarce buffalo, but the constant travel, lack of food, and military pressure began to take a toll.
          On this day Sitting Bull abandons his traditional homeland in Montana and leads his people north to cross the border into Canada. Sitting Bull and his band stayed in the Grandmother's Country— so called in honor of the British Queen Victoria — for the next four years. The first year was idyllic. The band found plenty of buffalo and Sitting Bull could rest and play with his children in peace. The younger warriors, though, soon tired of the quiet life. The braves made trouble with neighboring tribes, attracting the displeasure of the Canadian Mounties. While the Canadian leaders were more reasonable and sensitive about Indian affairs than their aggressive counterparts to the south, they became increasingly nervous and pressured Sitting Bull to return to the US Ultimately, though, Sitting Bull's attempt to remain independent was undermined by the disappearance of the buffalo, which were being wiped out by Indians, settlers, and hide hunters. Without meat, Sitting Bull gave up his dream of independence and asked the Canadian government for rations. Meanwhile, emissaries from the US came to his camp and promised Sitting Bull's followers they would be rich and happy if they joined the American reservations. The temptation was too great, and many stole away at night and headed south. By early 1881, Sitting Bull was the chief of only a small band of mostly older and sick people. Finally, Sitting Bull relented. On 10 July 1881, more than five years after the fateful battle at the Little Big Horn, the great chief led 187 Indians from their Canadian refuge to the United States. After a period of confinement, Sitting Bull was assigned to the Standing Rock reservation in South Dakota in 1883. Seven years later he was dead, killed by Indian police when he resisted their attempt to arrest him for his supposed participation in the Ghost Dance uprising.
    1864 Atlanta Campaign-5 days fighting begins at Rocky Face Ridge
    1863 Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia concludes
    1862 Peninsular Campaign — Battle of Williamsburg, Virginia begins
    1859 Firma de un tratado de límites y navegación fluvial entre Brasil y Venezuela.
    1842 City-wide fire burns for over 100 hours (Hamburg Germany)
    ^ 1816 The Examiner publishes John Keats's first poem
         The first published poem by John Keats [31 Oct 1795 – 23 Feb 1821], appears in The Examiner, a lively radical weekly newspaper. The sonnet To Solitude, with its controlled rhythm and youthful echoes of Wordsworth, is a clear indication of Keats's rapidly maturing talent. Signed simply `J.K.', it attracts little public attention, but Keats would be sufficiently encouraged to persevere with his writing and by the end of the year he would decided to give up the practice of medicine.
          Unlike many writers of his day, Keats came from a lower-middle-class background. His father worked at a stable in London and eventually married the owner's daughter. John was the first of the couple's five children. John was sent to private school, where he was high spirited and boisterous, given to fist fights and roughhousing despite his small stature-as an adult, he was barely over five feet tall. Keats' schoolmasters encouraged his interest in reading and later introduced him to poetry and theater.
          When John was eight, his father fell off a horse and died, launching a long economic struggle that would keep Keats in poverty throughout his life, despite a large inheritance that was owed him. His mother quickly remarried, and the five Keats children were sent to live with their maternal grandparents, who owned the stable. The marriage failed, and their mother soon joined them. However, she died in 1810, and John's grandparents died by 1814.
          The Keats children were cheated from their money by an unscrupulous guardian who apprenticed John to a surgeon in 1811. Keats worked with the surgeon until 1814, then went to work for a hospital in London as a junior apothecary and surgeon in charge of dressing wounds. In London, Keats pursued his interest in literature while working at the hospital. He became friends with the editor of The Examiner, Leigh Hunt, a successful poet and author who introduced him to other literary figures, including Percy Bysshe Shelley.
          Although Keats did not write his first poem until age 18, he quickly showed tremendous promise, encouraged by Hunt and his circle. Keats' work first appeared in The Examiner on this day in 1816, followed by Keats' first book, Poems (1817). After 1817, Keats devoted himself entirely to poetry, becoming a master of the Romantic sonnet and trying his hand at epic poems like Hyperion.
          The year 1818 was a tragic one for Keats. His financial struggles deepened when his brother Tom fell ill with tuberculosis, and another brother's poor investment left him stranded and penniless in Kentucky. On top of these problems, a strenuous walking tour of England's Lake District damaged Keats' health. The one bright spot in his life was Fanny Brawne, a young woman with whom he fell madly in love. They became engaged, but Keats' poverty did not allow them to marry.
          From January to September 1819, Keats produced an outpouring of brilliant work, including such poems as Ode on a Grecian Urn, Ode to a Nightingale, and La Belle Dame Sans Merci. But on 03 February 1820, Keats coughed up blood and realized immediately he had tuberculosis. Although, on 17 September 1820, he left for Italy hoping the climate might ease his condition, he knew he was fated to die soon, which he did on 23 February 1821, only 25 years old.
    O SOLITUDE! If I must with thee dwell,
      Let it not be among the jumbled heap
      Of murky buildings; - climb with me the steep,
    Nature's Observatory - whence the dell,
    Its flowery slopes - its rivers crystal swell,
      May seem a span: let me thy vigils keep
      'Mongst boughs pavilioned; where the Deer's swift leap
    Startles the wild Bee from the Fox-glove bell.
    Ah! fain would I frequent such scenes with thee;
      But the sweet converse of an innocent mind,
      Whose words are images of thoughts refin'd,
    Is my soul's pleasure; and it sure must be
      Almost the highest bliss of human kind,
    When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee.


    J.K
    KEATS ONLINE:
    The Eve of St. Agnes, Lamia, The Poetical Works of John Keats.
    1814 British attack Ft Ontario, Oswego, NY
    1808 Carlos IV firma en Bayona (Francia) su renuncia a la corona de España.
    1795 GODINEAU René, (dit Flambart), 53 ans, né et domicilié à Traversone, journalier, propose d'arborer le drapeau blanc à l'arrivée des brigands de la Vendée ou, en tout cas, c'est ce dont on l'accuse au tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Paris pour le condamner à mort le 28 fructidor an 3 (14 septembre 1795).
    Etats-Généraux1789 Ouverture des Etats-Généraux
          Ce sont 1200 députés venus de toute la France qui sont appelés nominativement du vestibule pour entrer dans la salle des Menus-Plaisirs où vont se tenir ces Etats généraux devant plus de 2000 spectateurs. Cet appel dure plus de trois heures et c'est une population assez hétéroclite qui fait son entrée… Les 300 représentants du Clergé, les 300 de la Noblesse et les 600 représentants portent une tenue bien différente. Il convient de remarquer que les représentants du Tiers Etat ne sont en aucun cas issus de milieux pauvres ou indigents, la plupart sont des bourgeois : médecins, commerçants ou industriels… Ainsi, sur six cent représentants du Tiers Etat on ne trouve qu'un seul paysan.
         Tout commence avec le Discours royal largement applaudi mais qui ne laisse pas supposer une volonté de réforme : Le discours du Roi Louis XVI se veut conciliateur mais délibérément conservateur. Barratin, le Garde des Sceaux prend ensuite la parole mais la foule attend avec impatience Necker qui devrait trancher le problème du vote par tête plutôt que par ordre.
          En fait, le discours de Necker ne sera qu'un cours magistral de financier qui ennuie tout le monde et le vrai problème du vote par tête est repoussé à plus tard. Le Roi se lève ensuite mettant ainsi un terme à la séance. Aucun des trois ordres n'a pu s'exprimer, sans doute craignait-on l'impertinence du Tiers Etat. Les réunions qui se tiennent le soir même entre représentants des divers ordres conduisent à former trois groupes distincts au sein de l'assemblée. (Le premier jour les représentants des divers ordres étaient placés selon les régions et non selon l'ordre représenté. Cette décision a une grande importance puisqu'elle détermine les débats contradictoires qui vont avoir lieu ensuite… )
    1780 Francisco de Goya y Lucientes presenta su célebre Cristo Crucificado para su recepción como miembro en la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
    1749 Pope Benedict XIV proclaims 1750 a Jubilee Year [?]
    1518 El marino y explorador Juan de Grijalva descubre las islas de Yucatán.
    1511 El Consejo Real dicta su primera sentencia reconociendo la mayor parte de los derechos de don Diego Colón Muniz, quien reclamaba todos los títulos y honores que se habían otorgado a su padre Cristóbal Colón: Títulos hereditarios de Almirante, Virrey y Gobernador de las Indias, gobierno de Puerto Rico, Veragua y Urabá, nombramiento de ternas para los oficios de justicia, diezmos de los beneficios indianos, etc. Pero Fernando el Católico mantiene su negativa a aceptar el cargo de Virrey como vitalicio, por lo que el pleito continuara largo tiempo.
    1494 Colón descubre la isla a la que llamó Santiago, actual Jamaica, durante su segundo viaje a América.
    0553 2nd Council of Constantinople (5th ecumenical council) opens.
    TO THE TOP
    < 04 May 06 May >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 05 May:

    Judy Trunnell-- 2009 Judy Dominguez Trunnell [31 Dec 1975–] [photo>], who lived in Harlingen, Texas, and was a special education teacher in Mercedes, wife of Steven M. Trunnell, becomes the first US citizen to die of H1N1 flu (incorrectly known as “swine flu”). On 01 May 2009, having fallen into a coma, she was delivered of slightly premature but healthy Gabbie Ella Trunnell by cesarean section and is also survived by her other daughter Hannah Rayne Trunnell, 4. —(090514).

    2006 Ten US soldiers who are all those aboard a CH-47 Chinook helicopter shot down in the afternoon by a shoulder-fired missile in near Asadabad in Kunar province, Afghanistan, where some 2500 US and Afghan soldiers are conducting Operation Mountain Lion near the border with Pakistan.. — (060507)

    2003 Edward A. Dowey Jr., US Protestant theologian born on 21 February 1918. Author of The Knowledge of God in Calvin's Theology (1952).
    2003 Abas Kamel Mlake, 20, Iraqi civilian man bystander, shot in Iraq.
    2003 Hazem Husien Ali, 45, Iraqi civilian man bystander, shot in Iraq.
    2003 Naemaa Husain Mohamed, 75, Iraqi woman, killed by a missile.
    2003 Salih Saadon Salih Al-Amerey, 16, Iraqi civilian boy, killed by shrapnel.
    2003 Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu, South African anti-Apartheid leader, born on unknown date of 1912, but he chose 18 May for birthday purposes.

    2002 Eliezer Korman, 74, Israeli from Ramat Hasharon, of injuries received on 27 March 2003 in suicide bombing at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, which caused 23 immediate deaths, and 7 delayed deaths, including his.

    ^ 2001 Barbara Ann Ford, 62, Sister of Charity of New York, shot in the head in Guatemala City, at 10:25.
         She was there to buy a hot water heater for her mission in Lemoa, departamento del Quiché. There she had assisted in a number of excavations of mass graves of the Guatemalan civil war which ended in 1996 after claiming 200'000 dead. She also helped compile the Guatemalan Catholic Church's human rights report, which blamed the army for more than 90% of the civil war's deaths. Improbably, authorities have said she was killed during a failed car-jacking. Sister Barbara had first arrived in Guatemala in 1978.
    2001 Ahmed Khalil Assad, 37, shot more than 20 times from an Israeli position on a nearby hill, as he left his home in Artas, near Bethlehem. Assad, a local leader of the Islamic Jihad, coordinated and participated in attacks on Israelis during the al-Aqsa intifada started in September 2000. He had spent 8 years in Israeli jails. This brings this intifada's body count to 433 Palestinians and 72 Israelis.
    ^ 1990 Jesse Tafero, by electric chair torture.
          Jesse Tafero is executed in Florida after his electric chair malfunctions three times, causing flames to leap from his head.
          Tafero's death sparked a new debate on humane methods of execution. Several states ceased use of the electric chair and adopted lethal injection as their means of capital punishment. As the 20th century came to an end, some states were having difficulty finding experienced executioners while others were unable to find technicians who could repair electric chairs. The move toward lethal injection was also problematic since there were few qualified people who knew how to construct a proper system. If done incorrectly, an injection containing a combination of a paralytic drug and a lethal dose of potassium chloride can paralyze an inmate and result in a painful death.
          Tafero's botched execution was far from an anomaly. In Alabama, Horace F. Dunkins' execution was prolonged 19 long minutes while sitting in a broken electric chair. In July 1998, Florida inmate Allen Lee "Tiny" Davis, who weighed 344 pounds, screamed in pain during his electrocution while blood poured down his shirt. Authorities later claimed that the blood was a result of a bloody nose.
    ^ 1981 Bobby Sands, 27, IRA activist, on 66th day of hunger strike
          While imprisoned in Belfast's Maze Prison, Bobby Sands led members of the Irish Republican Army on a hunger strike in protest of their treatment as criminals rather than political prisoners by British authorities. In the midst of the demonstration, Sands was elected to the British Parliament by his district in Northern Ireland. Nevertheless, the British government would not give in, and on 05 May 1981, after refusing food for sixty-six days, Sands dies. He was serving a fourteen-year sentence for possessing a firearm.
         Imprisoned Irish-Catholic militant Bobby Sands dies after refusing food for 66 days in protest of his treatment as a criminal rather than a political prisoner by British authorities. His death immediately touches off widespread rioting in Belfast, as young Irish-Catholic militants clashed with police and British Army patrols and started fires. Bobby Sands was born into a Catholic family in a Protestant area of Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1954. In 1972, sectarian violence forced his family to move to public housing in a Catholic area, where Sands was recruited by the Provincial Irish Republican Army (IRA). The Provincial IRA, formed in 1969 after a break with the Official IRA, advocated violence and terrorism as a means of winning independence for Northern Ireland from Britain. (The Provincial IRA, the dominant branch, is generally referred to as simply the IRA.) After independence, according to the IRA, Northern Ireland would be united with the Republic of Ireland in a socialist Irish republic.
          In 1972, Sands was arrested and convicted of taking part in several IRA robberies. Because he was convicted for IRA activities, he was given "special category status" and sent to a prison that was more akin to a prisoner of war camp because it allowed freedom of dress and freedom of movement within the prison grounds. He spent four years there. After less than a year back on the streets, Sands was arrested in 1977 for gun possession near the scene of an IRA bombing and sentenced to 14 years in prison. Because the British government had enacted a policy of "criminalization" of Irish terrorists in 1976, Sands was imprisoned as a dangerous criminal in the Maze Prison south of Belfast. During the next few years, from his cell in the Maze, he joined other imprisoned IRA terrorists in protests demanding restoration of the freedoms they had previously enjoyed under special category status. In 1980, a hunger strike lasted 53 days before it was called off when one of the protesters fell into a coma. In response, the British government offered a few concessions to the prisoners, but they failed to deliver all they had promised and protests resumed. Sands did not take a direct part in the 1980 strike, but he acted as the IRA-appointed leader and spokesperson of the protesting prisoners.
          On 01 March 1981 — the fifth anniversary of the British policy of criminalization — Bobby Sands launched a new hunger strike. He took only water and salt, and his weight dropped from 70 to 43 kg. After two weeks, another protester joined the strike, and six days after that, two more. On 09 April, in the midst of the strike, Sands was elected to a vacant seat in the British Parliament from Fermanagh and South Tyrone in Northern Ireland. Parliament subsequently introduced legislation to disqualify convicts serving prison sentences for eligibility for Parliament. His election and fears of violence after his death drew international attention to Sands' protest. In the final week of his life, Pope John Paul II sent a personal envoy to urge Sands to give up the strike. He refused. On 03 May he fell into a coma, and in the early morning of 05 May he died. Fighting raged for days in Belfast, and tens of thousands attended his funeral on 07 May. After Sands' death, the hunger strike continued, and nine more men perished before it was called off on 03 October 1981, under pressure from Catholic Church leaders and the prisoners' families. In the aftermath of the strike, the administration of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher agreed to give in to several of the protesters' demands, including the right to wear civilian clothing and the right to receive mail and visits. Prisoners were also allowed to move more freely and no longer were subject to harsh penalties for refusing prison work. Official recognition of their political status, however, was not granted.
    1977 Ludwig Erhard, político alemán, ministro de Economía en cuatro gabinetes consecutivos y sucesor de Adenauer en el gobierno, nacido el 4 de febrero de 1897 en Fürth (Baviera) y muerto en Bonn.
    1964 Godfrey Clive Miller, Australian artist born on 20 August 1893.
    1957 Leopold Löwenheim, German (Jewish according to the Nazis and therefore persecuted) mathematician born on 26 June 1878. He is remembered for the Löwenheim-Skolem paradox — which Skolem [23 May 1887 – 23 Mar 1963] pointed out is not a paradox! — which produces non-standard models, for example a denumerable model of the reals.
    ^ 1945 Elsie Mitchell, Edward Engen, Sherman Shoemaker, Jay Gifford, Richard Patzke, Ethel Patzke,
    killed in Oregon while dragging a Japanese balloon bomb
         In Lakeview, Oregon, Mrs. Elsie Mitchell, and five neighborhood children were killed while attempting to drag a Japanese balloon out the woods. Unbeknownst to Mitchell and the children, the balloon was armed, and it exploded soon after they began tampering with it. They were the first and only known American civilians to be killed in the continental United States during World War II. The US government eventually gave $5000 in compensation to Mitchell's husband, and $3000 each to the families of Edward Engen, Sherman Shoemaker, Jay Gifford and Richard and Ethel Patzke, the five slain children.
          The explosive balloon found at Lakeview was a product of one of only a handful of Japanese attacks against the continental United States, which were conducted early in the war by Japanese submarines and later by high-altitude balloons carrying explosives or incendiaries. In comparison, three years earlier, on 18 April 1942, the first squadron of US bombers dropped bombs on the Japanese cities of Tokyo, Kobe, and Nagoyo, surprising Japanese military command who believed their home islands to be out of reach of Allied air attacks.
          When the war ended on 14 August 1945, some 160'000 tons of conventional explosives and two atomic bombs had been dropped on Japan by the United States. Approximately half-a-million Japanese civilians were killed during these bombing attacks.

    ^ 1919 Lyman Frank Baum children's book author (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz), in Chittenango, New York.
         Born on 15 May 1856, L. Frank Baum wrote 14 Oz books. He dies of a stroke, leaving Glinda of Oz unfinished. It was finished and published in 1920. Ruth Plumly Thompson took over the job of writing Oz books after Baum's death.

    BAUM ONLINE:
  • Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz
  • Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz
  • The Emerald City of Oz
  • The Emerald City of Oz
  • Glinda of Oz
  • A Kidnapped Santa Claus
  • The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus
  • American Fairy Tales
  • The Enchanted Island of Yew
  • Glinda of Oz
  • John Dough and the Cherub
  • A Kidnapped Santa Claus
  • The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus
  • The Lost Princess of Oz
  • The Magic of Oz
  • The Marvelous Land of Oz
  • Ozma of Oz
  • The Patchwork Girl of Oz
  • Little Wizard Stories of Oz
  • The Lost Princess of Oz
  • The Magic of Oz
  • The Marvelous Land of Oz
  • The Marvelous Land of Ozl
  • The Master Key
  • Ozma of Oz
  • The Patchwork Girl of Oz
  • Rinkitink in Oz
  • Rinkitink In Oz
  • The Road to Oz
  • The Scarecrow of Oz
  • Tik-Tok of Oz
  • The Tin Woodman of Oz
  • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
  • The Road to Oz
  • The Scarecrow of Oz
  • The Sea Fairies
  • Sky Island
  • Tik-Tok of Oz
  • The Tin Woodman of Oz
  • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
  • co-author of: The Royal Book of Oz
  • 1916 John MacBride, 50, Irish patriot, executed by British firing squad for his participation in the Easter Rising. He had fought in the Irish brigade with the Boers against the British in 1899.
    1913 Henri Moret, French artist born on 12 December 1856. — MORE ON MORET AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1907 Eugène-Alexis Girardet, French painter born on 31 May 1853. — more with links to images.
    1886 Seven strikers, killed by militia (the Bay View Massacre). Striking steelworkers, marching toward a mill in the Bay View section of Milwaukee, are intercepted by a squad of militia, who shoot point blank into the strikers, killing seven.
    1883 Eva Gonzalès, Mme Henri Guérard, during childbirth, French Impressionist painter born on 19 April 1849, model and student of Édouard Manet. — MORE ON GONZALÈS AT ART “4” MAY
    with links to images.
    ^ 1862 Nearly 500 French and 100 Mexican soldiers at the battle of Puebla
          Cinco de Mayo: During the French-Mexican War, a badly supplied and outnumbered Mexican army under General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated a French army attempting to capture Puebla de Los Angeles, a small town in east central Mexico. Victory at the Battle of Puebla did not stop the French for long, but it represented a great moral victory for the Mexican government, and symbolized the country's will to defend its sovereignty against threat by a powerful foreign nation.
          In 1861, after establishing his liberal Mexican government, Benito Juarez became president of a country in financial ruin, and he was forced to default on his debts to European governments. In response, France, Britain, and Spain sent naval forces to Veracruz to demand reimbursement. Britain and Spain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew, but France under Napoléon III decided to use the opportunity to carve a dependent empire out of Mexican territory.
          Late in 1861, a well-armed French fleet stormed Veracruz, landing a large French force and driving President Juarez and his government into retreat. Certain that French victory would come swiftly in Mexico, 6000 French troops under General Charles Latrille de Lorencez set out to attack Puebla de Los Angeles. From his new headquarters in the north, Juarez rounded up a rag-tag force of loyal men and sent them to Puebla.
          Led by Texas-born General Zaragoza, the 2000 Mexicans fortified the town and prepared for the French assault. On the fifth of May, 1862, Lorencez drew his army, well-provisioned and supported by heavy artillery, before the city of Puebla and began his assault from the north. The battle lasted from daybreak to early evening, and when the French finally retreated they had lost nearly 500 soldiers to the less than 100 Mexicans killed.
          Although not a major strategic victory in the overall war against the French, Zaragoza's victory at Puebla tightened Mexican resistance, and six years later, France withdrew. The same year, Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, installed as emperor of Mexico by Napoléon in 1864, was captured and executed by Juarez's forces. Puebla de Los Angeles, the site of Zaragoza's historic victory, was renamed Puebla de Zaragoza in honor of the general.
          Today, Mexicans celebrate the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla as Cinco de Mayo, a national holiday in Mexico.
    1859 Johann Peter Guztav Lejeune Dirichlet, German mathematician born on 13 February 1805 in the ephemereal empire of the tyrant who died in abject exile 38 years, to the day, before him. In 1826 Dirichlet proved that in any arithmetic progression with first term coprime to the difference there are infinitely many primes. He made many other important contributions to mathematics.
    1821 Napoléon Bonaparte,  former French ruler who once ruled an empire that stretched across Europe, dies as a British prisoner on the island of Saint Helena in the southern Atlantic Ocean. — full coverage at  MORE “4” MAY — (060505)
    1811 Antoine de Marcenay de Ghuy, French artist born in 1724.
    1809 Joseph-Laurent Malaine (or Malines, Mallache), French artist born on 21 February 1745.
    ^ 1794 (16 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    COTTEREAU Perrine, et COTTEREAU Renée, domiciliées à St Ouen (Mayenne), comme espionnes des brigands de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante à Laval
    LUGAU Jean, volontaire au St 2ème bataillon du Tarn, domicilié à Paul-de-Lamialte (Tarn), comme embaucheur, par le tribunal militaire du 1er arrondissement de l'armée des Pyrénées-Orientales.
    MARAIN Augustin, voiturier, domicilié à Lyon (Rhône), comme distributeur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Ain.
    VERLING Marguerite, veuve Commet, domicilié à Vamerange (Moselle), comme distributrice de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    COLIN François, âgé de 54 ans, natif de Metz, ex substitut du procureur du roi au ci-devant parlement de Metz, ex présidant du tribunal criminel et administrateur du département, domicilié à Ars-sur-Moselle.
    LAVOISIER Antoine Laurent, ex fermier général, ex noble âgé de 50 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, membre de la ci-devant académie des sciences, régisseur des poudres et salpêtre, commissaire à la trésorerie, comme complice de la conspiration des fermiers généraux contre le peuple français en mettant dans le tabac, de l'eau et des ingrédients nuisibles à la santé. Chimiste français né à Paris le 26 août 1743, guillotiné à Paris le 8 mai 1794. L'un des créateurs de la chimie moderne. On lui doit la nomenclature chimique, la connaissance de la composition de l'eau et de l'air, la découverte du rôle de l'oxygène dans les combustions et dans la respiration animale, l'énoncé de la loi de conservation de la premières mesures calorimétriques, Député suppléant, il fit partie de la commission chargée d'établir le système métrique. Lavoisier fut exécuté avec les fermiers généraux, en 1794, dont il faisait partie. A ceux qui intervinrent en sa faveur, le tribunal répondit: “La Révolution n'a pas besoin de savants.”
    LOISELLIER Claude Françoise, ouvrière en modes, âgée de 44 ans, née et domiciliée à Paris, comme convaincue d'avoir placardé un écrit portant ces mots: “Peuple, vous qui êtres unis, grand corps de citoyens, armez-vous donc de force et de courage pour sauver la vie à ces innocents victimes que l'on fait périr tous les jours, et faites finir la guillotine.”
    SAUVAGE Jean, armurier et canonnier de la section du Panthéon Français, âgé de 34 ans, natif de Boulang, domicilié à Paris, , comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant dit, en mettant la main sur un bonnet blanc : “Voilà le bonnet que j'aime; pour le bonnet rouge, je n'en veux pas;” qu'il irait en Angleterre pour se soustraire à la révolution, que dans les armées on les faisait égorger, et qu'il aimerait mieux être quillotiné que de repartir.
    ENNOUF Félicité Mélanie, âgée de 21 ans, fille, marchande de modes, née et domiciliée à Paris, pour avoir composé des écrits et tenu des propos contre-révolutionnaires.
    VIROLLE Marie Magdeleine, coiffeuse, âgée de 25 ans, née à Angoulême, domiciliée à Paris, comme auteur d'écrits, dans lesquels, les membres de la Convention et des autorités constituées étaient traités de gueux.
    LABUSSIERE Jacques Jean, ex noble et capitaine au ci-devant régiment d'Auvergne, âgé de 54 ans, né à Angalien (Nièvre), domicilié à Nevers, même département, comme complice d'un complot qui a existé le 9 août 1792, de la part du dernier tyran roi et autre.
    DREUX Jeanne, femme Lichy, âgée de 62 ans, native de Sauvigny, département de l'Allier, ex noble, domiciliée à Cosne, département de la Nièvre, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    DUCHESNE Jacques, âgé de 60 ans, ci-devant domestique, facteur, militaire, natif de Verdun, domicilié à Chaillot (Seine), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    DUVERNE M. Joséphine Thomassine Pacôme, âgée de 36 ans, né à Mingot, fille ex noble, domiciliée à Cosne (Nièvre), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    1793 CHARRIER Jacques, laboureur et officier municipal domicilié à Salertaine (Vendée), condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
    1793 JICQUIAU Claude, cultivateur, domicilié à Ferel (Morbihan), condamné à mort, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    1793 LAVAL Jacques, ex noble, domicilié à Meri (Orne), condamné à mort, comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Orne.
    1705 Leopold I, 64, Emperor of Holy Roman Empire.
    1601 Jacob-Willemsz Delff I, Dutch artist born in 1550.

    0449 Saint Hilary [401–], Archbishop of Arles. —(071110)
     
    < 04 May 06 May >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 05 May:

    1976 El Frente de Liberación Nacional de Córcega (FLNC) es fundado en Ajaccio, aglutinando a votantes y simpatizantes del partido político ARC (Acción Regionalista Corsa), dirigido por Edmond Simeoni, cuyo objetivo principal se centra en conseguir un sistema de gobierno autonómico para la isla.
    1958 Ron Arad, who became a captain in the Israeli Air Force. On 16 October 1986, he is the navigator in an Israeli F-4 Phantom jet which is shot down in southern Lebanon. Arad and the pilot parachute out. The pilot is rescued, but Arad is captured by members of the Lebanese Shiite militia Amal, and is then held hostage for decades. It is believed that Arad was bartered and sold over the years to different Lebanese factions and was moved back and forth between Lebanon and Iran, and that he died in 1996 in the hands of the pro-Iranian Hezbollah, who claim that Arad disappeared when his guards left their post.
    1935 Piero Guccione, Italian painter.
    1934 John J. Sweeney, AFL-CIO.
    1912 Adolf Ottman, Anne-Marie Ottman, Emma Ottman, and Elisabeth Ottman, in Munich Germany. They would be the world's oldest living quadruplets when Adolf was the first one of them to die, on 17 March 1992.
    1903 James Beard US, culinary expert/author (Delights and Prejudices)
    1897 Francesco Tricomi, Italian mathematician who died on 21 November 1978. In 1923 he wrote a paper on the Tricomi differential equation, which would become very important in the theory of supersonic flight. He wrote 346 papers, 300 of which are listed in his La mia vita di matematico attraverso la cronistoria dei miei lavori (1967). They cover a vast range of subjects including singular integrals, differential and integral equations, pseudodifferential operators, functional transforms, special functions, probability theory and its applications to number theory, not to mention the history of mathematics.
    1895 Stefan Bergman, Polish-born Jewish US mathematician who died on 06 June 1977. He is best known for his Bergman Kernel function which he invented in 1921. Read all about it in Riemann Mapping Theorem and the Bergman Kernel (PDF)... and weep.
    1884 Wang Tjing-Wei, Premier of China (1932-1935)
    1867 Nelly Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman) (courageous journalist, writing about taboo subjects of her time: divorce, poverty, capital punishment, insanity)
    1883 Anna Johson Pell Wheeler, US mathematician who died on 26 March 1966. He first husband was South Dakota University professor of mathematics Alexander Pell who, if this article is not just a pipe dream, really was, unknown to anyone in the US, Sergey Degaev [1857-1921], a Russian nihilist revolutionary, turned police informer, turner top-cop killer, turned fugitive, turned benevolent and altruistic professor. In 1925 Anna married Arthur Wheeler, who died in 1932.
    1867 Nellie Bly whose name became a synonym for female star reporter.
    1848 The Communist Manifesto, on the 30th birthday of its author, Karl Marx, is published in London by the Communist League.
    1847 American Medical Association organized (Philadelphia)
    1846 Henryk Sienkiewicz Poland, author (Quo Vadis, Nobel 1905) SIENKIEWICZ ONLINE: Quo Vadis: A Narrative of the Time of Nero
    1833 Soledad Acosta de Samper, colombiana, será escritora, ha de morir el 17 de marzo de 1913.
    1816 American Bible Society organized (NY)
    1842 Heinrich Martin Weber, German mathematician who died on 17 May 1913. He worked on a wide variety of topics, but his main work was in algebra, number theory, analysis, and applications of analysis to mathematical physics.
    1833 Lazarus Immanuel Fuchs, German mathematician who died on 26 April 1902. He worked on differential equations and the theory of functions.
    ^ 1818 Karl Heinrich Marx
          Karl Marx was born in Trier, Prussia — the son of a Jewish lawyer who converted to Lutheranism. He studied law and philosophy at the universities of Berlin and Jena and initially was a follower of G.W.F. Hegel, the 19th-century German philosopher who sought a dialectical and all-embracing system of philosophy.
          In 1842, Marx became editor of the Rheinische Zeitung, a liberal democratic newspaper in Cologne. The newspaper grew considerably under his guidance, but in 1843 the Prussian authorities shut it down for being too outspoken. That year, Marx moved to Paris to co-edit a new political review. Paris was at the time a center for Socialist thought, and Marx adopted the more extreme form of Socialism known as Communism, which called for a revolution by the working class that would tear down the Capitalist world.
          In Paris, Marx befriended Friedrich Engels [28 Nov 1820 – 05 Aug 1895], a fellow Prussian who shared his views and was to become a lifelong collaborator [Is it true that Engels knew all the angles, but no angels?]. In 1845, Marx was expelled from France and settled in Brussels, where he renounced his Prussian nationality and was joined by Engels. During the next two years, Marx and Engels developed their philosophy of Communism and became the intellectual leaders of the working-class movement.
          In 1847, the League of the Just, a secret society made up of revolutionary German workers living in London, asked Marx to join their organization. Marx obliged and with Engels renamed the group the Communist League and planned to unite it with other German worker committees across Europe. The pair were commissioned to draw up a manifesto summarizing the doctrines of the League.
    Marx Engels      Back in Brussels, Marx [< photo] wrote The Communist Manifesto in January 1848, using as a model a tract Engels [photo >] wrote for the League in 1847. In early February 1848, Marx sent the work to London, and the League immediately adopted it as their manifesto and  published it on 05 May 1848.  The political pamphlet — arguably the most influential in history — proclaimed that "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles" and that the inevitable victory of the proletariat, or working class, would put an end to class society forever.
          Originally published in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei, the work had little immediate impact. Its ideas, however, reverberated with increasing force into the 20th century, and by 1950 nearly half the world's population lived under Marxist governments. .
          Many of the ideas in The Communist Manifesto were not new, but Marx had achieved a powerful synthesis of disparate ideas through his materialistic conception of history. The Manifesto opens with the dramatic words, "A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism," and ends by declaring: "The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workers of the world, unite!" In The Communist Manifesto, Marx predicted imminent revolution in Europe. The pamphlet had hardly cooled after coming off the presses in London when revolution broke out in France on 22 February over the banning of political meetings held by socialists and other opposition groups. Isolated riots led to popular revolt, and on 24 February King Louis-Philippe was forced to abdicate. The revolution spread like brushfire across continental Europe. Marx was in Paris on the invitation of the provincial government when the Belgian government, fearful that the revolutionary tide would soon engulf Belgium, banished him. Later that year, he went to the Rhineland, where he agitated for armed revolt.
          The bourgeoisie of Europe soon crushed the Revolution of 1848, and Marx would have to wait longer for his revolution. He went to London to live and continued to write with Engels as they further organized the international Communist movement. In 1864, Marx helped found the International Workingmen's Association — known as the First International — and in 1867 published the first volume of his monumental Das Kapital — the foundation work of communist theory. By the time of his death on 14 March 1883, it was clear that Marx had made his marks: Communism had become a movement to be reckoned with in Europe. Twenty-three years later, in 1917, Vladimir Lenin [22 Apr 1870 – 21 Jan 1924], a Marxist, led the world's first successful Communist revolution in Russia.
         There are many copies of the Manifesto online. Here are links to some in the original German:
    Manifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen ParteiManifest der Kommunistischen Partei
    WERKEN VON MARX UND ENGELS (auf Deutsch)   — Marx–Engels Selected Works  
    EXTENSIVE LINKS TO MARK–ENGELS ONLINE in English, German, French, Swedish
    MARX ONLINE
    Das Kapital Das Kapital
    (in English translations):
  • The Civil War in France
  • The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850
  • Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
  • The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoléon
  • The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoléon
  • Capital (volume 1)
  • On the Jewish Question
  • The Poverty of Philosophy (contrib. by Engels)
  • Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations
  • Value, Price and Profit
  • Wage-Labor and Capital
  • ENGELS ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Anti-Dühring: Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science
  • Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
  • The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State
  • The Part Played by Labour in the Transition From Ape to Man
  • The Peasant War in Germany
  • Socialism, Utopian and Scientific
  • The Condition of the Working Class in England (zipped PDF)
  • The Housing Question
  • Principles of Communism
    co-author, with Marx, of
  • The Communist Manifesto
  • The Communist Manifesto
  • The Communist Manifesto (zipped PDF)
  • 1813 Soren Kierkegaard Denmark, philosopher, founded Existentialism. KIERKEGAARD ONLINE: — SelectionsThe Concept of DreadCollected works (in Danish)
    1766 Firmin Massot, Swiss painter, draftsman, and teacher, who died on 16 May 1849. more with an image of Mme. de Staël and something about her.
    1580 Johann Faulhaber, Ulm, Germany, weaver who became a mathematician and surveyor specialized in fortifications. He was was a Cossist (= early algebraist). He is important for his work explaining the recently invented logarithms. He died in 1635.
     
    Holidays Denmark-1945, Ethiopia-1941, Netherlands-1945 : Liberation Day / Ethiopia : Victory Day / Japan : Tango-no-sekku [Boys' Festival]/Children's Day / Mexico : Cinco de Mayo/Battle of Pueblo (1862) / South Korea : Dano Festival/Children's Day (1975) / Thailand : Coronation Day / New Orleans : McDonogh Day (1850) ( Friday )

    Religious Observances Christian : May Fellowship Day (Church Woman United) / old RC : St Pius V, pope (1566-1572)
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “A plucked goose doesn`t lay golden eggs.”
    “A golden goose doesn`t lay any eggs.”
    “The goose that lays golden eggs wasn't born from one.”
    “Feed a goose golden corn and it won`t lay golden eggs, it'll die.”
    “Don't bite the hand that feeds the goose that lays the golden eggs.”
    “Don't kill the goose that lays the golden eggs, make a catscan.”
    “When in doubt, duck.”
    — Malcolm Forbes, US publisher [1919-1990].
    “When in doubt, don't quack even if you're a duck, just duck.”
    “When in doubt, pout.”
    “The validity of some statements cannot be determined, and this is one of them.”
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    updated Friday 15-May-2009 2:00 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.40 Monday 05-May-2008 1:42 UT
    v.7.40 Thursday 03-May-2007 16:51 UT
    v.6.41 Sunday 07-May-2006 14:48 UT
    v.5.41 Thursday 05-May-2005 3:57 UT
    Tuesday 25-May-2004 4:55 UT

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