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Pope canonizes 5 Spaniards^  On a 04 May:

2003 During a nearly 3-hour Mass on Madrid's Plaza de Colón, ailing Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] canonizes five 20th-century Spanish religious who worked with the poor: Father Pedro Poveda Castroverde [03 Dec 1874 – 28 Jul 1936], who was killed during the opening days of the Spanish Civil War; Ángela de la Cruz (María de los Ángeles Guerrero González) [30 Jan 1846 – 02 Mar 1932], who founded the Sisters of the Company of the Cross; Genoveva Torres Morales [03 Jan 1870 – 05 Jan 1956], who founded the Sisters of the Sacred Heart and of the Holy Angels; Maravillas de Jesús Pidal y Chico de Guzmán [04 Nov 1891 – 11 Dec 1974], who founded convents for the Order of Discalced Carmelites; José María Rubio y Peralta [22 Jul 1864 – 02 May 1929], a Jesuit priest, ordained in 1887.
      A crowd of one million overflows into the four boulevards intersecting at the Plaza and watches on eight giant TV screens. communion is distributed by 1500 priests shuttling in minibuses.
     During his nearly 25 years as Pope, John Paul II has now canonized 469 saints in all, more than any other Pope. He hopes to reinvigorate Spain's Catholics, half of whom, instead of attending Mass every Sunday, almost never do so, while one-quarter of them only attend once a month.
      During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), 4184 priests and religious were murdered by the losing anti-clerical Republican government side, as the Church was closely allied with the insurgent Falangists of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde.
^ 2001 Pope expresses Catholic repentance for sins against Orthodox
      Arriving in Greece for the first visit by a pope in 13 centuries, John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] prays for God's forgiveness for "the occasions, past and present, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters." Then, in his address in English to Archbishop Christodoulos, Primate of Greece, he mentioned the worst example of this: “I am thinking of the disastrous sack of the imperial city of Constantinople, which was for so long the bastion of Christianity in the East. It is tragic that the assailants, who had set out to secure free access for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their own brothers in the faith. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep regret.” On 12 April 1204, Constantinople was carried by storm, and the next day the ruthless plundering of its churches and palaces was begun. The masterpieces of antiquity, piled up in public places and in the Hippodrome, were utterly destroyed. Clerics and knights, in their eagerness to acquire famous and priceless relies, took part in the sack of the churches. This contributed to the decline of Constantinople, which at last fell to the Ottoman Turks on 2 May 1453.
Trafficant2001 James A. Trafficant, during his 9th term as US Congressman (D — Ohio 17th district, Youngstown), is indicted for taking bribes. He had similar legal troubles before, including before he was elected to Congress, when he was a sheriff (and was acquitted that time). [image >]

^ 2000 The Love Bug computer virus strikes

      First in Asia, then in Europe, and then in the US, as the day starts, many computer users find E-mail messages with an attached file named ILOVEYOU or LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.TXT.vbs. When users of MS Outlook double-click on the file to read it, the virus immediately mails itself to everyone in the victims address book. It also deletes jpg and jpeg files, and alters mp3 files to make them inaccessible. The virus also direcs the victims browser to dowload from four web sites in the Philippines a file WIN-BUGSFIX.EXE which send the victim's passwords to an Internet account in the Philippines. The virus stays on the computer to reactivate itself later
    Many organisations shut down completely their E-mail system. Among them Ford Motor Co., Microsoft Corp., Estée Lauder Cos., US Army, US Navy.
      [I received one, but of course immediately deleted attachment and message, besides I don't use Outlook, nor the E-mail address book in Eudora].
^ 2000 US Park Service starts forest fire in NM
      Superintendent Roy Weaver of the 132.44-square-km Bandelier National Monument 10 km from Los Alamos, orders a "controlled burn" to clear brush (so as to prevent future uncontrollable fires) on a 120 hectare section of forest. At 12:20 (local time) the National Weather Service, consulted, warns that the weather conditions are at the worst rated level. Somehow the warning is disregarded and the fire is started at 19:20.
     Early the next day 000505 the fire goes out of control, flames shoot up into the sky and burning embers spread the fire over a wide area of the tinder-dry forest. The fire destroys hundreds of homes, endangers the Los Alamos nuclear facility and its stored nuclear weapons and waste, forces the evacuation of hundreds of families, and causes over one billion dollars of damage. Over a thousand firefighters are called in and they are unable to bring the fire under control until weeks later.
1996 José María Aznar López, líder del Partido Popular (PP), por voto de 181-166 en el Congreso, es elegido presidente del Gobierno de España.
1994 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat sign a historic accord on Palestinian autonomy that grants self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
1994 Interpublic Group (IPG), owner of several major advertising firms, including McCann-Erickson and Lintas Worldwide, announces that it will invest in a new interactive venture called InterActive Partners.
1993 Software baron and Microsoft cofounder Paul Allen files documents announcing his intention to buy America Online, newspapers report. Allen already held 25% of the company's stock and was the company's single largest shareholder. In the end, however, Allen did not try to acquire the company.
1991 Morris K Udall, (Rep-D-Ariz), resigns due to Parkinson disease
1991 Pres Bush is hospitalized for erratic heartbeat
^ 1989 North convicted in Iran-Contra Affair.
      As part of the Iran-Contra affair, a federal jury convicted Marine Lieutenant Colonel Oliver L. North, a former official of the National Security Council, on charges of obstruction of justice and destruction of evidence.
      The Iran-Contra affair first became public in late 1986, when it was revealed that members of the Reagan administration, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the armed forces were illegally selling arms to Iran for two purposes: to help secure the release of American hostages held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian groups, and to raise funds for the illicit support of the Contras in their guerrilla war against Nicaragua's Communist government. Under orders from President Ronald Reagan, North directed the operation, and worked closely with Vice Admiral John M. Poindexter of the NSC, who helped raise private and foreign funds for the Contras.
      Revelations about the Iran-Contra connection cause outrage in Congress, which in 1983 had passed the Boland amendments prohibiting the Defense Department, the CIA, or any other government agency from providing military aid to the Contras. In December 1986, Lawrence E. Walsh was named special prosecutor to investigate the matter, and over the course of the investigation thirteen top White House, State Department, and intelligence officials were found guilty on charges ranging from perjury to conspiracy to defraud the United States.
      Although President Reagan was heavily implicated by North in his testimony during the televised congressional hearings and also by Walsh in his final Iran-Contra report, neither he nor Vice President George Bush were directly indicted in the subsequent criminal trials. Oliver North, whose convictions were later suspended in an appeals court, eventually had all his convictions overturned by a federal judge because the prosecutors had used testimony that North had given to Congress under immunity.
1988 Investigadores estadounidenses de Wistard obtienen la primera vacuna contra la rabia, mediante técnica de ingeniería genética.
1986 Dimite en Afganistán Babrak Karmal, al perder la confianza de Moscú. Le sucede Mohamed Najibullah.
1983 Es disuelto en Irán el Partido Comunista.
1982 Guerra de las Malvinas: la nave más moderna de la flota británica, el destructor "Shefield", es hundida por un cohete lanzado desde un avión argentino.
^ 1979 Margaret Thatcher becomes UK prime minister.
      Margaret Thatcher [13 Oct 1925~], leader of the Conservative Party, is sworn in as Britain's first female prime minister. The Oxford-educated chemist and lawyer was sworn in the day after the Conservatives won a 44-seat majority in general parliamentary elections. Margaret Hilda Roberts was born in Grantham, England, in 1925. She was the first woman president of the Oxford University Conservative Association and in 1950 ran for Parliament in Dartford. She was defeated but garnered an impressive number of votes in the generally liberal district. In 1959, after marrying businessman Denis Thatcher and giving birth to twins, she was elected to Parliament as a Conservative for Finchley, a north London district. During the 1960s, she rose rapidly in the ranks of the Conservative Party and in 1967 joined the shadow cabinet sitting in opposition to Harold Wilson's ruling Labour cabinet. With the victory of the Conservative Party under Edward Health in 1970, Thatcher became secretary of state for education and science.
      In 1974, the Labour Party returned to power, and Thatcher served as joint shadow chancellor before replacing Edward Health as the leader of the Conservative Party in February 1975. She was the first woman to head the Conservatives. Under her leadership, the Conservative Party shifted further right in its politics, calling for privatization of national industries and utilities and promising a resolute defense of Britain's interests abroad. She also sharply criticized Prime Minister James Callaghan's ineffectual handling of the chaotic labor strikes of 1978 and 1979. In March 1979, Callaghan was defeated by a vote of no confidence, and on May 3 a general election gave Thatcher's Conservatives a majority in Parliament. Sworn in the next day, Prime Minister Thatcher immediately set about dismantling socialism in Britain. She privatized numerous industries, cutback government expenditures, and gradually reduced the rights of trade unions.
      In 1983, despite the worst unemployment figures for half a decade, Thatcher was reelected to a second term, thanks largely to the decisive British victory in the 1982 Falklands War with Argentina. In other foreign affairs, the "Iron Lady" presided over the orderly establishment of an independent Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) in 1980 and took a hard stance against Irish separatists in Northern Ireland. In October 1984, an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb exploded at the Conservative Party conference in Brighton. The prime minister narrowly escaped harm. In 1987, an upswing in the economy led to her election to a third term, but Thatcher soon alienated some members of her own party because of her poll-tax policies and opposition to further British integration into the European Community. In November 1990, she failed to received a majority in the Conservative Party's annual vote for selection of a leader. She withdrew her nomination, and John Major, the chancellor of the Exchequer since 1989, was chosen as Conservative leader. On November 28, Thatcher resigned as prime minister and was succeeded by Major. Thatcher's three consecutive terms in office marked the longest continuous tenure of a British prime minister since 1827. In 1992, she was made a baroness and took a seat in the House of Lords.
1970 In deciding the legal case Walz v. Tax Commission of New York, the US Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of a New York statute exempting church-owned property from taxation.
^ 1961 US considers intervention in Vietnam.
      At a press conference, Secretary of State Dean Rusk reports that Viet Cong forces have grown to 12'000 men and that they had killed or kidnapped more than 3,000 persons in 1960. While declaring that the United States would supply South Vietnam with any possible help, he refused to say whether the United States would intervene militarily. At a press conference the next day, President John F. Kennedy said that consideration was being given to the use of United States forces. Kennedy's successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, did eventually commit more than 500'000 American soldiers to the war.
1961 Malcolm Ross and Victor Prather reach 34'668 m (record) in balloon
1961 13 Freedom Riders begin bus trip through South, leaving Washington for New Orleans to challenge racial segregation in interstate buses and bus terminals.
1954 El general Stroessner da un golpe de Estado en Paraguay y pasa a ser el nuevo Presidente de la República.
1945 German forces in the Netherlands, Denmark and northwest Germany agree to surrender.
^ 1945 Soviets double-cross the West.
      Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov informs US Secretary of State Stettinius that the Red Army has arrested 16 Polish peace negotiators who had met with a Soviet army colonel near Warsaw back in March.
      When British Prime Minister Winston Churchill learns of the Soviet double-cross, he reacts in alarm, stating, "There is no doubt that the publication in detail of this event…would produce a primary change in the entire structure of world forces." Churchill, fearing that the Russian forces were already beginning to exact retribution for losses suffered during the war (the Polish negotiators had been charged with "causing the death of 200 Red Army officers"), sent a telegram to President Harry Truman to express his concern that Russian demands of reparations from Germany, and the possibility of ongoing Russian occupation of Central and Eastern Europe, "constitutes an event in the history of Europe to which there has been no parallel." Churchill clearly foresaw the "Iron Curtain" beginning to drop. Consequently, he sent a "holding force" to Denmark to cut off any farther westward advance by Soviet troops.
1942 Food first rationed in US
^ 1942 The Battle of the Coral Sea: 2nd day
      This is the second day of the first modern naval engagement in history, called the Battle of the Coral Sea. On May 3, 1942, a Japanese invasion force had succeeded in occupying Tulagi of the Solomon Islands in an expansion of Japan's defensive perimeter. The United States, having broken Japan's secret war code and forewarned of an impending invasion of Tulagi and Port Moresby, attempted to intercept the Japanese armada.
      Four days of battles between Japanese and American aircraft carriers resulted in 70 Japanese and 66 Americans warplanes destroyed. This confrontation, called the Battle of the Coral Sea, marked the first air-naval battle in history, as none of the carriers fired at each other, allowing the planes taking off from their decks to do the battling. Among the casualties was the American carrier Lexington; "the Blue Ghost" (so-called because it was not camouflaged like other carriers) suffered such extensive aerial damage that it had to be sunk by its own crew. Two hundred sixteen Lexington crewmen died as a result of the Japanese aerial bombardment.
      Although Japan would go on to occupy all of the Solomon Islands, its victory was a Pyrrhic one: The cost in experienced pilots and aircraft carriers was so great that Japan had to cancel its expedition to Port Moresby, Papua, as well as other South Pacific targets.
1938 Douglas Hyde (a protestant) becomes first president of Eire.
1938 El Vaticano reconoce al de Francisco Franco Bahamonde como Gobierno legítimo de España.
^ 1932 Al Capone enters prison for tax evasion.
     Mobster Al Capone, convicted of income-tax evasion, enters the federal penitentiary in Atlanta.
      After a long reign atop Chicago's seething Underworld, the law finally nabbed Al Capone in the fall of 1931. Following a high-wattage trial, the notorious mob kingpin was sentenced to an eleven-year jail term and forced to pay $80,000 in fines. But, while Capone was an alleged killer, as well as the force behind gambling rings and bootlegging networks, his trip to prison wasn't tied to any of these eminently punishable enterprises. Rather, Capone had been tripped up for repeatedly failing to pay his taxes. Capone's fiscal offenses, which had been unearthed by the band of Treasury agents now enshrined in pop-culture history as the "Untouchables," landed him first in an Atlanta prison; two years into his term, Capone was shuttled to the recently opened Bay Area prison, Alcatraz. However, Capone never served out his sentence: suffering from an advanced bout of syphilis, he was set free in 1939 favor of an extended stay in a Baltimore hospital.
^ 1930:: 1028 economists protest high tariffs.
     1028 leading economists sign a petition that protests against the misguided proposed Smoot-Hawley bill, which hoped to revive the economy by raising tariffs. While the petition doesn't derail the bill — Smoot-Hawley would passed into law the following month—the economists' warnings would proved prophetic, as a number of foreign nations retaliated against Smoot-Hawley by enacting their own hefty tariffs and quotas on imports that successfully exacerbated America's fiscal woes.
      By the spring of 1930, America was showing no signs of shrugging off devastating fiscal damage wrought by the Great Crash of 1929. In hopes of reviving the economy, legislators drafted the Smoot-Hawley bill, a fiercely protectionist piece of legislation that aimed to preserve the domestic market for American-made goods by raising duties on imports to astronomical heights. While Smoot-Hawley had its share of powerful allies, including President Herbert Hoover, it also had its share of detractors, including a sizable cadre of economists who argued that Smoot-Hawley would slam shut the door to international trade and ravage the global fiscal order. Hoover and his allies dismissed such claims, arguing that Smoot-Hawley would revive the domestic economy and thus enable the US to help stabilize global finances. The president's counter-arguments proved persuasive, and by early May the successful passage of the tariff legislation seemed like a fait accompli. But, Smoot-Hawley's detractors did not give up on their crusade: on this day in 1930,
1928 Se reanudan las hostilidades chino-japonesas.
1927 first balloon flight over 40,000 feet (Scott Field, Ill)
1926 General strike paralyzes Britain
1923 Entra en vigor la Constitución de Palestina.
1919 Les étudiants manifestent à Pékin.
1916 Durante la 1a Guerra Mundial: Acuerdo Sykes-Picot, por el que Oriente Medio se dividía en zonas de influencia. Francia recibiría como protectorados Siria y Líbano y Gran Bretaña tendría Palestina, Transjordania e Irak.
1878 Phonograph shown for first time, at Grand Opera House
1865 Surrender of Confederate General Richard Taylor's forces at Citronelle, Alabama
1865 Abraham Lincoln is buried at Springfield, Illinois
1864 Ulysses S. Grant begins his duel with Robert E Lee by having his Army of the Potomac cross Rapidan at Germanna and Ely's Ford, Virginia
1863 Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia continues with the Battle of Salem Church
1861 At Gretna, LA one of first guns of Rebel navy is cast
1858 War of the Reform (Mexico); Liberals establish capital at Vera Cruz
1814 Bourbon reign restored in France
1814 Fernando VII firma un Real Decreto que anula la Constitución de 1812 y proclama la vuelta al absolutismo real en España..
^ 1778 Franco-American Alliance ratified.
      The Continental Congress voted to ratify two treaties signed by representatives from the United States and France in Paris three months before, clearing the way for France to enter the American Revolution on the side of the United States. The Treaty of Amity and Commerce recognized the US as an independent nation and encouraged trade between France and the America, while the Treaty of Alliance provided for a military alliance against Great Britain, stipulating that the absolute independence of the US be recognized as a condition for peace and that France would be permitted to conquer the British West Indies.
      With the treaties, the first entered into by the US government, the Bourbon monarchy of France formalized its commitment to assist the American colonies in their struggle against France's old rival, Great Britain. The eagerness of the French to help the United States was motivated both by an appreciation of the American revolutionaries' liberal democratic ideals and by a bitterness at having lost most of their American empire to the British at the conclusion of the French and Indian Wars in 1763.
      France had been secretly providing aid to the United States since the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, and in 1776, the Continental Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee to a joint diplomatic commission to secure a formal alliance with France. However, it was not until 17 October 1777, and the US victory over the British at the Battle of Saratoga, that the French became convinced that the Americans were committed to the struggle and thus worthy partners in a formal alliance.
      On 06 February 1778, the Treaty of Amity and Commerce and the Treaty of Alliance were signed, and on 04 May, the Continental Congress ratified these treaties. On 17 June, war between Britain and France began when a British squadron fired on two French ships. During the US War of Independence French armies and naval fleets proved critical in the defeat of the British, which culminated at the Battle of Yorktown in October of 1781.
1776 Rhode Island declares independence from England
1704 Desembarca en Lisboa el archiduque Carlos de Austria al frente de 14'000 hombres, para iniciar la guerra de sucesión española.
1626 Dutch explorer Peter Minuit lands on present-day Manhattan Island. (which Amerindians will sell for $24 in cloth and buttons).
1589 Una escuadra inglesa al mando de Francis Drake inicia las operaciones para apoderarse de La Coruña.
^ 1493 Pope Alexander VI issues the bull Inter Caetera II.
      It recommends that the people the New World be brought to the faith, to which they seem well disposed..The subsequent 1494 "Treaty of Tordesillas" (inspired by Inter Caetera) would divide the New World, everything 370 leagues (400 km?) west of the Cape Verde islands going to Spain, everything east to Portugal. A reading of the bull [below] clearly shows that, contrary to what has been alleged, it in no way sanctions the human rights violations of which conquistadores became guilty, and against which the missionary clergy, most notably Bartolomé de Las Casas, protested vigorously.
     Returning from his first voyage, Columbus landed on the Portuguese coast and was at once invited to Court. He reached Lisbon March 4, 1493, upon the invitation of the King of Portugal. On hearing his report, King John II claimed the newly discovered lands for Portugal by virtue of the Treaty of Alcacovas of 1479, sanctioned by the Bulls of Pope Sixtus IV, dated 21 June 1481. The text of the Treaty and the Bull contain some slight variations and thereby allow of different interpretations. It is difficult to decide, therefore, whether this claim of the Portuguese King was justified. Contemporary as well as modern historians have always differed widely in their opinions. It is generally believed that, with his famous message on his discoveries, Columbus dispatched to the Spanish Kings, who were at Barcelona, a report on the difficulties raised by the Portuguese King, but it is questioned whether this was sent from Lisbon by land or from Palos after having reached the latter port, 14 March 1493.
      King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain reported the great news at once to Pope Alexander VI. It is again doubtful whether this was done by a special messenger or by a courier sent to Cardinal Bernardin de Carvajal and to Ruiz de Medina, then Spanish ambassadors at the Holy See, and whether this was done in consequence of the Portuguese claims or according to a general custom of that period. Pope Alexander VI, himself a Spaniard, granted the request to confer the lately discovered lands on the Crown of Spain by three Bulls issued on 03 May and 04 May 1493 (all much in favor of Spain, and depriving Portugal of nearly all privileges bestowed upon it by the Bulls of 1452 and 1454, issued bu Nicholas V, and by that of 1481 of Sixtus IV and one of 1484 of Innocentius VIII). Some months later, on 26 September 1493, a fourth Bull was issued granting to Spain almost unlimited rights. But this act remained without consequence; for in the meantime, at the suggestion of the King of Spain, it was agreed that, to avoid complications already threatening, a conference should be held. Portuguese ambassadors were sent to Barcelona and, after many negotiations and some interruptions, a settlement was finally reached at the small Spanish town of Tordesillas and a treaty was signed on 07 June 1494. Obviously inspired by the corresponding passage in the second Bull "Inter Caetera", but not referring to this or any other bulls or treaties, it was provided that there should be drawn a line running from North to South, 370 leagues west from Cape Verde Islands, and that everything west of this line should belong to Spain, everything east of it to Portugal.
      The sanction, which by the terms of the Treaty was to be asked was never given by Alexander VI and not before 24 January 1506, was a Bull to such effect issued by Pope Julius II. Although much disputed and very differently interpreted, this Treaty remained in force until 13 January 1750, when the Treaty of Madrid annulled the boundary line. It would seem, however, that this boundary line, first provided for in the second Bull "Inter caetera" and later corrected in the Treaty of Tordesillas, decided what parts of the western hemisphere as well as which regions of the eastern hemisphere were discovered, possessed and civilized by Spain and by Portugal respectively, and which still speak the language and show the influence of the culture of their first discoverers.
     Like the bull Eximiae devotionis of 03 May, the bull Inter Caetera of 04 May is a restatement of part of the bull Inter Caetera of 03 May. Taken together the two later bulls cover the same ground as the bull "Inter caetera" of May 3, for which they form a substitute. The changes introduced into the bull "Inter caetera" of 04 May, are, however, of great importance, and highly favorable to Spain. Instead of merely granting to Castile the lands discovered by her envoys, and not under Christian rule, the revised bull draws a line of demarcation one hundred leagues west of any of the Azores or Cape Verde Islands, and assigns to Castile the exclusive right to acquire territorial possessions and to trade in all lands west of that line, which at Christmas, 1492, were not in the possession of any Christian prince. The general safeguard to the possible conflicting rights of Portugal is lacking. All persons are forbidden to approach the lands west of the line without special license from the rulers of Castile.
      It is not probable that by this bull Alexander VI intended to secure to Portugal an eastern route to the Indies, as some writers have maintained. In the bulls of 03 May, the earlier papal grants to Portugal are said to have given her rights in the region of Guinea and the Gold Mine, but the Indies are not mentioned. The bull of May 4 does not name Portugal and refers to her only in the clause which excepts from the donation any lands west of the demarcation line, which at Christmas, 1492, might be in the possession of any Christian prince.
^ The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI.) 04 May 1493.
Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, and Granada, health and apostolic benediction.
      Among other works well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself. Wherefore inasmuch as by the favor of divine clemency, we, though of insufficient merits, have been called to this Holy See of Peter, recognizing that as true Catholic kings and princes, such as we have known you always to be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost the whole world declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, and diligence, without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shedding even of your blood, are laboring to that end; recognizing also that you have long since dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your endeavors — as witnessed in these times with so much glory to the Divine Name in your recovery of the kingdom of Granada from the yoke of the Saracens — we therefore are rightly led, and hold it as our duty, to grant you even of our own accord and in your favor those things whereby with effort each day more hearty you may be enabled for the honor of God himself and the spread of the Christian rule to carry forward your holy and praiseworthy purpose so pleasing to immortal God.
      We have indeed learned that you, who for a long time had intended to seek out and discover certain islands and mainlands remote and unknown and not hitherto discovered by others, to the end that you might bring to the worship of our Redeemer and the profession of the Catholic faith their residents and inhabitants, having been up to the present time greatly engaged in the siege and recovery of the kingdom itself of Granada were unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy purpose; but the said kingdom having at length been regained, as was pleasing to the Lord, you, with the wish to fulfill your desire, chose our beloved son, Christopher Columbus, a man assuredly worthy and of the highest recommendations and fitted for so great an undertaking, whom you furnished with ships and men equipped for like designs, not without the greatest hardships, dangers, and expenses, to make diligent quest for these remote and unknown mainlands and islands through the sea, where hitherto no one had sailed; and they at length, with divine aid and with the utmost diligence sailing in the ocean sea, discovered certain very remote islands and even mainlands that hitherto had not been discovered by others; wherein dwell very many peoples living in peace, and, as reported, going unclothed, and not eating flesh.
      Moreover, as your aforesaid envoys are of opinion, these very peoples living in the said islands and countries believe in one God, the Creator in heaven, and seem sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good morals. And it is hoped that, were they instructed, the name of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be introduced into the said countries and islands.
      Also, on one of the chief of these aforesaid islands the said Christopher has already caused to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, wherein he has stationed as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, who are to make search for other remote and unknown islands and mainlands. In the islands and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and very many other precious things of divers kinds and qualities.
      Wherefore, as becomes Catholic kings and princes, after earnest consideration of all matters, especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the fashion of your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed with the favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said mainlands and islands with their residents and inhabitants and to bring them to the Catholic faith.
      Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy and praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and that the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very earnestly in the Lord and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, enjoy strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose also, as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands and countries to embrace the Christian religion; nor at any time let dangers or hardships deter you there from, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Almighty God will further your undertakings.
      And, in order that you may enter upon so great an undertaking with greater readiness and heartiness endowed with benefit of our apostolic favor, we, of our own accord, not at your instance nor the request of anyone else in your regard, but out of our own sole largess and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your envoys and captains, give, grant, and assign to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no matter whether the said mainlands and islands are found and to be found in the direction of India or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde.
      With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past from which the present year one thousand four hundred ninety-three begins.
      And we make, appoint, and depute you and your said heirs and successors lords of them with full and free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind; with this proviso however, that by this our gift, grant, and assignment no right acquired by any Christian prince, who may be in actual possesssion of said islands and mainlands prior to the said birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ, is hereby to be understood to be withdrawn or taking away.
      Moreover we command you in virtue of holy obedience that, employing all due diligence in the premises, as you also promise — nor do we doubt your compliance therein in accordance with your loyalty and royal greatness of spirit — you should appoint to the aforesaid mainlands and islands worthy, God-fearing, learned, skilled, and experienced men, in order to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents in the Catholic faith and train them in good morals.
      Furthermore, under penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the mainlands and islands, found and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter whatsoever, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde; apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding.
      We trust in Him from whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that, should you, with the Lord's guidance, pursue this holy and praiseworthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitious result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom.
      But inasmuch as it would be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desirable, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge do decree, that copies of them, signed by the hand of a public notary commissioned therefor, and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as anywhere else as would be given to these presents should they thus be exhibited or shown. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene, this our recommendation, exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, constitution, deputation, decree, mandate, prohibition, and will. Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul.
      Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and ninety-three, the fourth of May, and the first year of our pontificate.
      Gratis by order of our holy lord, the pope.
June. For the referendary, For J. Bufolinus.
A. de Mucciarellis.   A. Santoseverino.   L. Podocatharus.
The above bull in no way sanctions atrocities such as described in this excerpt from Bartolome de Las Casas's The Devastation of the Indies:
Conquistador atrocity      ...And the Christians, with their horses and swords and pikes began to carry out massacres and strange cruelties against them. They attacked the towns and spared neither the children nor the aged nor pregnant women nor women in childbed, not only stabbing them and dismembering them with but cutting them to pieces as if dealing with sheep in the slaughterhouse. They laid bets as to who, with one stroke of the sword, could split a man in two or could cut off his head or spill out his entrails with a single stroke of the pike.
      They took infants from their mothers' breasts, snatching them by the legs and pitching them headfirst against the crags or snatched them by the arms and threw them into the rivers, roaring with laughter and saying bas the babies fell into the water, "Boil there, you offspring of the devil!" Other infants they put to the sword along with their mothers and anyone else who happened to be nearby.
      They made some low wide gallows on which the hanged victim's feet almost touched the ground, stringing up their victims in lots of thirteen, in memory of Our Redeemer and His twelve apostles, then set burning wood at their feet and thus burned them alive. To others they attached straw or wrapped their whole bodies in straw and set them afire. With still others, all those they wanted to capture alive, they cut off their hands and hung them round the victim's neck, saying, "Go now, carry the message," meaning, Take the news to the Indians who have fled to the mountains. They usually dealt with the chieftains and nobles in the following way: they made a grid of rods which they placed on forked sticks, then lashed the victims to the grid and lighted a smoldering fire underneath, so that little by little, as those captives screamed in despair and torment, their souls would leave them.
      I once saw this, when there were four or five nobles lashed on grids and burning; I seem even to recall that there were two or three pairs of grids where others were burning, and because they uttered such loud screams that they disturbed the captain's sleep, he ordered them to be strangled. And the constable, who was worse than an executioner, did not want to obey that order (and I know the name of that constable and know his relatives in Seville), but instead put a stick over the victims' tongues, so they could not make a sound, and he stirred up the fire, but not too much, so that they roasted slowly, as he liked.
      I saw all these things I have described, and countless others. And because all the people who could do so fled to the mountains to escape these inhuman, ruthless, and ferocious acts, the Spanish captains, enemies of the human race, pursued them with the fierce dogs they kept which attacked the Indians, tearing them to pieces and devouring them. And because on few and far between occasions, the Indians justifiably killed some Christians, the Spaniards made a rule among themselves that for every Christian slain by the Indians, they would slay a hundred Indians.
1256 Pope Alexander IV founds the Roman Catholic religious order of the Augustine Hermits.
TO THE TOP
< 03 May 05 May >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 04 May:

2005 Palestinian cousins Uday Asi, 14, and Kamel Asi, 15, shot at 18:10 (16:10 UT) by Israeli soldiers firing at some 200 youths who were throwing rocks at bulldozers and at the five soldiers who arrived in a jeep at the separation fence work site near the village Beit Lakia north of Highway 443, near Ramallah, West Bank.
2005 Some 60 persons, including a suicide bomber, in the morning in Arbil, Iraq, outside the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) office, which also served as a police recruiting center, and where applicants were waiting in line. Some 150 persons are injured.
2003 Alexander “Skunder” Boghossian, 65, Ethiopian-born artist who played an important role in introducing European modernist styles into Africa and who, as a longtime resident of the United States, became one of the best-known African modern artists in the West. — MORE ON BOGHOSSIAN AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
2003 William Josiah Goode, US sociologist born on 30 August 1917. Author of After Divorce (1956), World Changes in Divorce Patterns (1993), Family (1982).
2003 Sara Van Grondelle-Blom of the Netherlands, born on 06 December 1892.
2003 Raeed Amar, 14, Iraqi boy, from burns, caused by bomb near Basra, Iraq
2003 Bassim Gez Agbarah [1974–], Iraqi civilian man, killed in Iraq.
2003 Maitham Haseeb Jasem, 3, Iraqi boy, killed by a missile.
2003 Mohamed Zamel Mohsen, 25, Iraqi civilian man, killed by a bomb.
2003 Mohsen Basem Naji, 8 months; and Mustafa Ghanem Johe, 6 months, Iraqi boys, killed by shrapnel
2002 Florence G. Roswell, US reading disabilities expert born in June 1904. Co-author (with Dr. Jeanne S. Chall) of the "Roswell-Chall Auditory Blending Test," and the "Roswell-Chall Diagnostic Reading Test of Word Analysis Skills." Author of Reading Disability: A Human Approach", co-author of Teaching Children to Read, a Step-by-Step Guide for Volunteer Tutors and Creating Successful Readers.
^ 2001 (Friday) Some 20 persons in mosque, including preaching Maulvi Mohammed Mussa, by bomb.
      During the Muslim Sabbath's afternoon prayers, a bomb explodes at the Jami Mosque, in Herat city, western Afghanistan, killing some 20 people including an exiled Iranian cleric and 2 of his bodyguards, and injuring some 100 others. Maulvi Mohammed Mussa, a Sunni Muslim cleric, is killed along with another Iranian believed to be the bomber. Some say the bomb exploded inside, others that it was hidden on a motorcycle driven to the front of the mosque.
      Iran is suspected of being behind the bombing, but it denies any involvement. Immediately after the explosion, hundreds of people set fire to Shiite Muslim mosques in Herat and march on the Iranian Consulate, destroying several vehicles and part of the consulate.
      Mussa had been living in Herat for several years, since his mosque in majority Shiite Muslim Iran was burned down.
      Most of Afghanistan's 21 million people, including most Taliban, are Sunni. Iran has been nervous about sending diplomats to Afghanistan since 1998, when several of its diplomats were killed following the Taliban takeover of the northern city of Mazar-e-Sharif. The Taliban blamed the 1998 killings on renegade troops, but the incident generated widespread fear of a possible retaliatory attack by the Iranian government. Relations between the two countries have improved steadily. However, the Taliban accuse Iran of arming and financing their northern-based opponents, who include a group representing Afghanistan's Shiite Muslim minority.
2001 Bonny Lee Bakley Blake, 44, murdered shortly after they dining at a Los Angeles restaurant with her husband Robert Blake, 68, TV and movie actor, who, accused of being the murderer, would be arrested on 18 April 2002, as also his bodyguard and handyman, Earle Calwell, 45, as conspirator. Blake had married Bakley after getting her pregnant.
Tito Time cover^ 1980 Marshal Josip Broz “Tito”, dictator of Yugoslavia, three days before his 88th birthday.
      Josip Broz “Tito”, Communist leader of Yugoslavia since 1945, dies in Belgrade. During his 35-year rule, Tito guided Yugoslavia along a pathway that combined dogmatic allegiance to Marxism with an independent, and often combative, relationship with the Soviet Union. The child of peasants, Tito became a convert to the ideals of Communism as a young man. His rise to prominence in Yugoslavia began during World War II when he led resistance groups fighting against both the Nazi occupation forces and their Yugoslav collaborators. In 1944, he appealed to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin for assistance in capturing the capital city of Belgrade from its Nazi occupiers. Stalin sent units of the Red Army to help in the attack and by early 1945 Tito declared himself ruler of a new Yugoslav Republic. Unlike many other Eastern European nations, however, Tito's Yugoslavia was not subjected to a lengthy Soviet occupation.
[Tito appeared on the cover of TIME 09 October 1944 >]
      After 1945, relations between Tito and the Soviet Union deteriorated rapidly. Tito's assistance to Greek communists was considered poor policy to Stalin, who had earlier reached an agreement with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to accept British hegemony in Greece. In addition, Tito's independent course in his foreign policy irritated Stalin, who expected the Communist "satellite" regimes in Eastern Europe to toe the Soviet line. In 1948, Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from the Communist Information Bureau (an agency designed to coordinate Communist policy in the international sphere). This action effectively severed ties between the Soviet bloc and Yugoslavia. Tito reacted to this by actively seeking US military and economic assistance. Somewhat surprisingly, this aid was forthcoming. President Harry S. Truman and his advisors saw in Tito an opportunity to drive a wedge into the supposedly monolithic Communist bloc and encourage other Communist regimes to break free from Soviet domination. If the US leaders expected Tito to deviate from his Marxist ideology, however, they were sadly mistaken. Until his death in 1980, Tito remained a steadfast Communist, albeit one who charted an independent course from the Soviet Union.
1978 Jorge de Sena, escritor portugués.
1976 Frank, Mary, and Michael Columbo, murdered by Frank de Luca, 36, married, and Patricia Columbo, 20, daughter of Frank and Mary, and sister of Michael. De Luca and Patricia had been in a perverted relationship for two years. They shoot Patricia's parent, then bludgeon Michael with a bowling trophy and stab him close to 100 times with scissors. The two murderers would be sentenced each to 250 years in prison.
Guardsmen shoot^ 1970 Allison Krause, Jeffrey Miller, Sandra Scheuer, William Knox Schroeder, 19, Kent State students, shot by the National Guard at 12:23.
      In Kent, Ohio, twenty-eight National Guardsmen discharge their weapons toward a group of antiwar demonstrators on the Kent State University campus, killing four students, wounding eight, and permanently paralyzing another.
      Two days earlier, the National Guard troops were called to Kent to suppress students rioting in protest of the Vietnam War and the US invasion of Cambodia. The next day, scattered protests were dispersed by tear gas and on May 4, class resumed at Kent State University. By noon on that day, despite a ban on rallies, some two thousand people had assembled on the campus.
      National Guard troops arrived and ordered the crowd to disperse, fired tear gas, and advanced against the students with bayonets fixed on their rifles. Some of the protestors, refusing to yield, responded by throwing rocks and verbally taunting the troops. Minutes later, without firing a warning shot, the Guardsmen discharged over sixty rounds toward a group of demonstrators in a nearby parking lot, killing four and wounding nine. The closest casualty was twenty yards away and the farthest was almost 250 yards away.
      After a period of disbelief, shock, and attempts at first aid, angry students gathered on a nearby slope, and were again ordered to move by the Guardsmen. Faculty members were able to convince the group to disperse, and further bloodshed was prevented.
      In 1974, at the end of a criminal investigation into the Kent State incident, a federal court dropped all charges levied against eight Ohio National Guardsmen for their role in the students' deaths.
      At Kent State University, 100 National Guardsmen fire their rifles into a group of students, killing four and wounding 11. This incident occurred in the aftermath of President Richard Nixon's 30 April 1970 announcement that US and South Vietnamese forces had been ordered to execute an "incursion" into Cambodia to destroy North Vietnamese bases there. In protest, a wave of demonstrations and disturbances erupted on college campuses across the country. At Kent State University in Ohio, student protesters torched the ROTC building on campus and Ohio Governor James Rhodes responded by calling on the National Guard to restore order. Under harassment from the demonstrators, the Guardsmen fired into the crowd, killing four and wounding 11. The Guardsmen were later brought to trial for the shootings, but found not guilty. President Nixon issued a statement deploring the Kent State deaths, but said that the incident should serve as a reminder that, "When dissent turns to violence it invites tragedy." The shooting sparked hundreds of protests and college shutdowns, as well as a march on Washington DC, by 100'000 persons. The National Student Association and former Vietnam Moratorium Committee leaders called for a national university strike of indefinite duration, beginning immediately, to protest the war. At least 100 colleges and universities pledged to strike. The presidents of 37 universities signed a letter urging President Nixon to show more clearly his determination to end the war.
1966 Amédée Ozenfant, French painter, writer, and teacher, born on 15 April 1886. — more with links to images.
1964 Ramón Barba Guichard, escultor y dibujante español.
1961 Herbert Westren Turnbull, English mathematician born on 31 August 1885. He worked in algebra, particularly invariant theory and was also interested in the history of mathematics.
1949 All 31 aboard a trimotor Fiat N. 212 of Aviolinee Italiane: Valerio Bacigalupo [12 Jan 1924–]; Aldo Ballarin [10 Jan 1922–]; Virginio Maroso [26 Jun 1925–]; Giuseppe Grezar [25 Nov 1918–]; Mario Rigamonti [17 Dec 1922–]; Eusebio Castigliano [09 Feb 1921–]; Romeo Menti [05 Sep 1919–]; Ezio Loik [26 Jan 1919–]; Guglielmo Gabetto [24 Feb 1916–]; Valentino Mazzola [26 Jan 1919–]; Franco Ossola [23 Aug 21–]; Danilo Martelli [27 May 1923]; Dino Ballarin; Emile Bongiorni; Rubens Fadini; Ruggero Grava; Piero Operto; Giulio Schubert; who are the Grande Torino soccer team; their managers Arnaldo Agnisetta and Ippolito Civalleri; their trainer Egri Ernest Erbstein [13 May 1888–], their English coach Leslie Lievesley; their masseur Ottavio Cortina; the organizer Andrea Bonaiuti; the sport reporters Renato Casalbore, Renato Tosatti, and Luigi Cavallero; and the crew of 4: captain Pierluigi Meroni, Antonio Pangrazi, Celestino D'Inca, and Cesare Biancardi; as the plane, bringing them back from Lisbon, crashes in heavy fog at 17:05 into a wall of the basilica on Superga hill, just outside Turin, Italy.
1936 Alfred Cardew Dixon, English mathematician born on 22 May 1865. He worked both on ordinary and partial differential equations studying abelian integrals, automorphic functions and functional equations.
1935 Narciso Díaz de Escovar, poeta y erudito español.
1916 Joseph Mary Plunkett [21 Nov 1887–], William James Pearse [1881–], Edward Daly [28 Feb 1891–], and Michael O'Hanrahan [1877–], Irish patriots, executed by British firing squad. Pearse was the brother of Pádraig Pearse [10 Nov 1879 – 03 May 1916], executed the previous day.
^ 1916 Joseph Mary Plunkett, 28, Irish patriot, executed by British firing squad.
     He is shot for his participation in the Easter Rising. He was a poet, author of The Circle and the Sword, Occulta [Selection from Occulta] [Another selection from Occulta], Collected Poems. During the Rising, Joseph was stationed at the GPO, and he was one of the signers of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic. After the surrender to the English army, he was imprisoned in Richmond Barracks, and is executed in the courtyard of Kilmainham jail, in the morning. He and Grace Gifford had been married in the jail's chapel only a few hours earlier. His friend, Thomas MacDonagh, 38, had been executed the day before. Joseph's father, and his brother John, both also involved in the Rising, had their death sentences commuted to ten years' penal servitude. Grace was later also imprisoned in Kilmainham.
When I am dead let not your murderous tears
Deface with their slow dropping my sad tomb
Lest your grey head grow greyer for my doom
And fill its echoing corridors with fears:
Your heart that my stone monument appears
While yet I live — O give it not to gloom
When I am dead, but let some joy illume
The ultimate Victory that stings and sears.
Already I can hear the stealthy tread
Of sorrow breaking through the hush of day;
I have no hope you will avert my dread,
Too well I know, that soon am mixed with clay,
They mourn the body who the spirit slay
And those that stab the living weep the dead.

(from Occulta)
1891 Sherlock Holmes “dies” at Reichenbach Falls. At the end of The Final Problem, Dr. Watson comes to the end of the path overlooking the Reichenbach Falls precipice where Sherlock Holmes had met his archenemy Dr. Moriarty, finds a few abandoned belongings and a note, then adds: “An examination by experts leaves little doubt that a personal contest between the two men ended, as it could hardly fail to end in such a situation, in their reeling over, locked in each other's arms. Any attempt at recovering the bodies was absolutely hopeless, and there, deep down in that dreadful caldron of swirling water and seething foam, will lie for all time the most dangerous criminal and the foremost champion of the law of their generation.” And yet...Conan Doyle's readers would react in dismay, and the author would find himself compelled satisfy them in The Adventure of the Empty House.
Haymarket massacre
1886, Mathias J. Degan, 7 other policemen, and a number of demonstrators at Haymarket Square       ^top^
      What begins as a peaceful labor protest in Haymarket Square in Chicago, turns into a riot, leaving more than 100 wounded and 8 police officers dead. After Chicago authorities arrested and detained nearly every anarchist and socialist in town, eight men, who were either speakers in or organizers of the protest, were charged with murder.
       The demonstration, which drew some 1500 Chicago workers, was organized by German-born anarchists in protest of the previous day's killing of four strikers and the wounding of others in an unprovoked attack by the Chicago police into a crowd of striking workers at the nearby McCormick Harvesting Machine Company..
     The May 4 rally began an about 20:30. at the Haymarket, a site on Randolph between Halsted and Des Plaines Street, but due to low attendance it was moved a half block away to Des Plaines Street north of Randolph Street. The crowd listened quietly to speakers advocating a mandatory eight-hour workday for employees. After 10 p.m., as the final speaker was winding the rally down, which had thinned out because of rain, 176 policemen led by Inspector John Bonfield moved in demanding immediate dispersal of the remaining 200 workers. Suddenly a bomb exploded, thrown by a person who was never positively identified. After the explosion, officers began firing wildly in all directions, inciting a riot among protestors.. Policeman Mathias J. Degan died almost instantly and seven other officers died later, 67 policeman were wounded.. No official count was made of civilian deaths or injuries probably because friends and/or relatives carried them off immediately. Medical evidence later showed that most of the injuries suffered by the police were caused by their own bullets.
      Despite the lack of evidence linking the eight anarchists to the bomb, the Haymarket Square Riot set off a national wave of xenophobia, as hundreds of foreign-born radicals and labor leaders were rounded up in Chicago and elsewhere. A grand jury eventually indicted thirty-one suspected labor radicals in connection with the bombing. The defendants were widely believed to be guilty before the trial began. In fact, jury selection at the trial took a full 21 days. Not a single juror was accepted in the first eight days because virtually every one was convinced that the defendants were guilty. The jurors who eventually heard the case were only slightly more objective. At the end of the sensational and controversial trial. Judge Joseph E. Gary imposed the death sentence on seven of the men and the eighth was sentenced to fifteen years in prison.
      On 11 November 1887, Samuel Fielden, Adolph Fischer, August Spies, and Albert R. Parson became the first labor activists to be executed in America. Of the three others sentenced to death, Louis Lingg committed suicide by lighting a stick of dynamite in his mouth on the eve of the execution and the other two had their death sentences commuted to life imprisonment by Illinois Governor Richard J. Oglesby. Governor Oglesby was acting in response to widespread public questioning of their guilt, though he refused to grant a pardon. But his successor, Governor John P. Altgeld, courageously pardoned the three activists still living, in prison, on 18930623 and thereby sank his own political career.
Gergonne's theorem

1864 The dead of the Battle of Jenkins Ferry, after the Second Kansas Colored Infantry Regiment under the command of Brevet colonel J. H. Gillpatrick attack Confederate troops with the battle cry, “Remember Poison Spring!”, referring to the Confederates' 18 April 1864 massacre of Black prisoners of the First Kansas Colored Infantry Regiment.

1859 Joseph Diaz Gergonne, French mathematician born on 19 June 1771. From 1810 to 1831 he published the journal Annales de mathématique pures et appliquées commonly known as Annales de Gergonne. His name is also attached to Gergonne's theorem [diagram >].
Tipu^ 1799 Tipu and many defenders and attackers in the fall of Mysore.
     Within two months of the British declaring war on Mysore (the 4th Mysore War), General Harris, British Commander in Chief, the Madras army and the Bombay army under General Stuart, close on Seringapatam, Mysore's capital on an island in the Cauvery River. Two critical factors added urgency: near famine in the British camp, and the appoaching monsoon, which would render the River Cauvery impassable. The Sultan of Mysore, Tipu gloomily views the breach effected in the north-west fortifications. Amidst suspicions of treachery and ill omens for 04 May, his fierce “tiger” spirit seems to have deserted him. He is unprepared for the British attack at 13:00, led by Major-General David Baird (who, as a captain, had been captured at the battle of Pollilur on 10 September 1780, during the 2nd Mysore War) and held prisoner in Seringapatam until the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore). The British quickly gain the ramparts, divide into two columns and stream north and south towards the palace. Within two hours, Tipu's family has surrendered, and at about 17:00 Tipu's dead body is found, under a heap of the slain, by General Baird, Major Allan and Lt. Col. Close.
     Born on 20 November 1750, Fateh Ali Tipu, “the Tiger of Mysore” [portrait >], was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employ of his father, Hyder Ali [1721 – 07 Dec 1782], who was the Muslim ruler of Mysore. Tipu was also an excellent scholar, and reputed a good poet. He was also a strongly religious Suni.
      In 1767 Tippu commanded a corps of cavalry against the Marathas in the Carnatic region of western India, and he fought against the Marathas on several occasions between 1775 and 1779. During the second Mysore War, in February 1782 an army led by Tipu, aided by 400 Frenchmen, defeated on the banks of the Coleroon River Colonel John Brathwaite with his 100 British soldiers and 1800 sepoys. In April 1782 , 1200 French soldiers landed at Porto Novo and seized Cuddalore, while the British tried to drive Hyder and Tipu from the fort of Arni, their chief arsenal in the plains. On the arrival of George Macartney (later 1st Earl Macartney) as governor of Madras, the British fleet captured Nagappattinam and convinced Hyder that he could not stop the British. In his dying words, Hyder implored Tipu to make peace with the British.
      Tipu succeeded his father on 07 December 1782 and in 1784 concluded peace with the British by the Treaty of Mangalore and assumed the title of sultan of Mysore. In 1789, however, he provoked British invasion by attacking their ally, the raja of Travancore. He held the British at bay for more than two years, but by the Treaty of Seringapatam (March 1792) had to cede half his dominions, pay substantial reparation and surrender two of his sons, Abdul Khalik, 8, and Moiz-Ud-Din, 5, as hostages. They were delivered to Lord Cornwallis at Seringapatam on 26 February 1792 and they were returned 18 months later.
      He remained restless and unwisely allowed his negotiations with Revolutionary France to become known to the British. On this pretext the governor-general, Lord Mornington (later the marquess of Wellesley) [20 Jun 1760 – 26 Sep 1842], launched the fourth Mysore War. Seringapatam is stormed by British-led forces on 04 May 1799, and Tippu died leading his troops in the breach.
      Tippu was an able general and administrator, and, though a Muslim, he retained the loyalty of his Hindu subjects. He proved cruel to his enemies and lacked the judgment of his father, however.
MORE
^ 1794 (15 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
LACROIX François, commis principal de la loterie nationale, 52 ans, natif de Nancy, département de la Meurthe, domicilié à Paris, pour avoir tenu des propos tendants à la dissolution de la représentation nationale.
     ... domiciliés à Verdun (Meuse), comme complices d'un complot tendant à livrer la place de Verdun à l'ennemi:
BARTHE Jean Baptiste, 62 ans, natif de Thionville, juge de Paix. — DESPREZ Gérard, gendarme de brigade nationale, 50 ans, natif de Givet-de-Hilaire.
     ... comme participants à un complot contre la sûreté et la liberté du Peuple, tendant à avilir la représentation nationale et rétablir le despotisme:
BOISSARD Théodore Joseph, 55 ans, ex avocat et procureur, syndic du district de Pontarlier, né et domicilié à Pontarlier, département du Doubs, comme convaincu d'être auteur ou complice du complot.
Le BIEUSSAIT Guillaume, de Vierval, 76 ans, né à Rocher, département de la Manche, ancien mousquetaire, lieutenant colonel de cavalerie, chevalier du ci-devant ordre de St Louis, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'être complice du complot.
     ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
DURANT Jean François, gendarme à pied de la 32ème division de l'armée du Nord, 24 ans, natif de Neufchâteau, domicilié à Epinal, département des Vosges.
DUTAILLY Antoine, 52 ans, né à Besançon, y demeurant département du Doubs, homme de loi et agent de Choiseul-la-Beaume.
CHOISEUIL-LA-BAUME Cl. Antoine Clériat, 61 ans, natif de Nanci, ex marquis et ex lieutenant général, domicilié à Paris.
LEBEGUE Jacques Louis, (dit Oynville), ex noble, maire et présidant du district de Pithiviers, 58 ans, né et domicilié à Pithiviers, département du Loiret.
LEBEGUE BOIS Julien François, ex avocat au parlement de Paris, 70 ans, né et domicilié à Paris.
LEBIENSAIS DE WIESVAL Georges, ex noble, lieutenant colonel de cavalerie, chevalier de St Louis, 76 ans, né au Roché, département de la Manche.
LEVIS Marc Antoine, ex comte, chevalier de St Louis, ex député à l'assemblée constituante, 55 ans, né à Lugny, département de la Saône et Loire, domicilié à Paris.
MAUVIELLE Marie Pierre Thomas, ex noble, 59 ans, né à Coutances, département de la Manche, domicilié à Rocher-la-Liberté, même département.
MARTIN Charles Jérôme, notaire public, 37 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, ... et comme ayant cherché à soustraire le nommé Bois, frère de l'ex ministre Duportail, en constatant sa résidence en France, longtemps après le décret d'accusation porté contre lui par le corps législatif; il fut appelé en témoignage, à midi il parut au tribunal, et une heure après il était sur la charrette avec les autres condamnés.
MONIOTTE Claude Philippe, 76 ans, ex conseiller au présidial, et juge de tribunal de district de Besançon, département du Doubs, ... et comme ayant entretenu des correspondances et intelligences avec les ennemis extérieurs et intérieurs de la République.
SAINTENAY Auguste Joseph, garçon confiseur, 18 ans, natif d’Orchies, département du Nord, domicilié à Paris, ... et comme ayant crié vive le roi, dans la prison des Madelonnettes où il était détenu.
Domicilié à Ste-Lumine-du-Coutay, canton de Machecoul (Loire Inférieure), comme brigands de la Vendée, par la commission militaire de Nantes:
FLEURY Jean — GRUET Pierre — GUILBERT Pierre — MARSELLOT Pierre — MOUTY Pierre
Ailleurs:
BARBION Jacques Joseph, 48 ans, né à Orgeville, marchand de vache, condamné à mort à Arras.
BAUD Etienne Auguste, (dit Vieuxville), domicilié à Rennes, (Ille-et-Vilaine), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JOGER Ignace, domicilié à Vettolsheim (Bas-Rhin), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré
ROCH L. J. Théodore, ex vicaire, domicilié à Jouvelle (Doubs), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
ROSTAN Honoré, et TOESCA Jacques, maçon, domiciliés à Nice (Alpes Maritimes), comme assassins, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1768 Charles Étienne Louis Camus, French mathematician born on 25 August 1699.
1739 Andrey Matveev, Russian painter born in 1702. — more with links to images.
1677 Isaac Barrow , English mathematician born in October 1630. He developed a method of determining tangents that closely approached the methods of calculus, and he was first to recognise that integration and differentiation are inverse operations.
1615 Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish physician and mathematician, born on 29 September 1561.
1528 (sometime between 04 May and 23 Jun) Bernhard Strigel, Swabian portraitist and altarpiece painter born in 1460 or 1461. — MORE ON STRIGEL AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1410 Papa Alejandro V.
 
< 03 May 05 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 04 May:

1992 Plain paper fax
      Hewlett-Packard unveils a new fax machine that prints on plain paper instead of the special fax paper used by most fax machines at the time. On the same day, the company introduces a high-end color ink-jet printer called the Paintjet XL300 that can print nearly photographic images. HP's lower-end ink-jet printers, introduced several years earlier, had quickly replaced rival dot-matrix printers.
1964 BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) computer language, invented by John Kemeny [31 May 1926 – 26 Dec 1992] and Thomas Kurtz. Its first program is run at 02:00 at Dartmouth College.
1958 Keith Haring
, pintor estadounidense.
^ 1948 The Naked and the Dead
      Twenty-five-year-old Norman Mailer's first novel, The Naked and the Dead, is published. The book is critically acclaimed and widely considered one of the best novels to come out of World War II.
      Mailer was born in New Jersey in 1923 and raised in Brooklyn. He attended Harvard and joined the Army during World War II. After leaving the Army in 1946, he studied at the Sorbonne, where he wrote the Naked and The Dead, based on his own military experiences. The book, which closely chronicles the lives of 13 soldiers stationed in the Pacific, presents a fictional story with precise, journalistic detail. Mailer's next two books, Barbaray Shore (1951) and The Deer Park (1955), were savaged by critics, but his subsequent journalistic chronicles fared better. The Armies of the Night (1968), an account of his participation in the Washington peace march of 1967, won a Pulitzer Prize for nonfiction and the National Book Award in 1969. His novel The Executioner's Song, a fictionalized account of the life of convicted murderer Gary Gilmore, won the Pulitzer for fiction in 1980. In 1991, his four-pound novel Harlot's Ghost explored the CIA from 1948 through the Kennedy administration.
      Mailer's reputation as a hard-drinking, tough-talking anti-feminist made him a controversial literary figure in the 1970s and 1980s. His high-profile exploits included drinking binges, the alleged stabbing of his wife at a party, and a run for the mayoralty of New York.
1938 William J Bennett US Secretary of Education (1985-88)
1928 Muhammad Hosni Mubarak, militar y político egipcio.
1918 Kakuei Tanaka Japanese PM convicted of bribe-taking
1918 Gastón Baquero, poeta y ensayista cubano.
1909 André Hambourg, French painter who died on 05 December 1999. — more with links to images.
1893 Mollie Beard, in US Georgia. She would die on 03 September 2003 in California.
1893 Vonnie Looney, in US West Virginia. She would die on 03 September 2003 in Ohio.
1889 Cardinal (Joseph) Spellman (Roman Catholic clergy leader)
^ 1886 The first practical phonograph
      Chinchester Bell, cousin of Alexander Graham Bell, and Charles Sumner Tainter patents the first practical phonograph. The machine, called the "graphophone," was designed for "recording and reproducing speech and other sounds." The two men also worked with Alexander Graham Bell to invent a process for reproducing sound from phonograph records and "transmitting and recording sounds by radiant energy." Thomas Alva Edison had patented an earlier design of the phonograph in 1878.
1887 Ramón Carande, historiador español.
1875 Ramiro de Maeztu, escritor y político español.
1851 Thomas Wilmer Dewing, US painter who died in 1938. — MORE ON DEWING AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1845 William Kingdon Clifford, English mathematician who died on 03 March 1879. He studied non-Euclidean geometry arguing that energy and matter are simply different types of curvature of space. He introduced what is now called a Clifford algebra which generalizes Grassmann's exterior algebra. He did NOT have a gigantic red dog, Euclidean or not.
1826 Frederic Edwin Church, US Hudson River School painter who died on 07 April 1900, specialized in Landscapes. — MORE ON CHURCH AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1796 Horace Mann US, (educator: the father of public education in the US; founder of Westfield, MA State College; author, editor: Common School Journal)
1780 José María Arrubla Martínez, político y estadista colombiano.
1770 baron François Pascal Simon Gérard, French Neoclassical painter and illustrator who died on 11 January 1837. — MORE ON GÉRARD AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1733 Jean Charles de Borda, French mathematician and physicist born in Dax, a town in a rather arid region where rain is welcome, hence the saying about a rainy day: “It's good weather for Dax”. De Borda died on 19 February 1799 in Paris and was buried in weather that would have been excellent for Dax: during a pouring rain.
1715 First folding umbrella is introduced by a French manufacturer (Paris)
1622 Juan de Valdés Leal (Juan de Nisa), Spanish painter and engraver who died on 15 October 1690. — MORE ON VALDÉS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
 
Holidays Tonga : Crown Prince's Birthday / US : Student Memorial Day (1970) / Bird Day (1894)

Religious Observances Christian : St Florian, patron of firemen / Luth, old RC, Ang : St Monica, mom of St Augustine of Hippo / Jewish : Yom Hashoah (Holocaust Memorial Day) (Nisan 27, 5757 AM)
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Thought (damnable) for the day:
“A man without a God is like a fish without a bicycle.”
or should it be: “A man without a bicycle is like a fish without a God.”?
or perhaps: “A man without a fish is like a God without a bicycle.”?
How about: “A fish without a man is like a bicycle without a God.”?

or is this better: “A bicycle without a fish is like a God without a man.”?
or again:: “A bicycle without a man is like a God without a fish.”?
The women's movement sterilely started it all with its: “A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle.”
My own contribution (non-political, non-sexist, non-theological, but strictly zoological) is:
“A fish without an umbrella is like a snake without shoes.”
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updated Friday 08-May-2009 19:28 UT
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