• Exiled mullah killed by bomb... • Cops killed while killing workers at Haymarket... • Kent State students killed by National Guard... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Soviet double cross... • Battle of Coral Sea... • Thatcher becomes UK prime minister... • Tito dies... • US considers Vietnam intervention... • Counterproductive high tariffs... • Reagan aide convicted... • Al Capone to prison... • First phonograph... • Plain~paper fax... • Alliance of US and France... • Pope says accept Amerindians in the Church ... • Park Service starts forest fire... • Love Bug computer virus... • The Naked and the Dead...
a 04 May:
2003 During a nearly 3-hour Mass on Madrid's Plaza de Colón, ailing Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] canonizes five 20th-century Spanish religious who worked with the poor: Father Pedro Poveda Castroverde [03 Dec 1874 – 28 Jul 1936], who was killed during the opening days of the Spanish Civil War; Ángela de la Cruz (María de los Ángeles Guerrero González) [30 Jan 1846 – 02 Mar 1932], who founded the Sisters of the Company of the Cross; Genoveva Torres Morales [03 Jan 1870 – 05 Jan 1956], who founded the Sisters of the Sacred Heart and of the Holy Angels; Maravillas de Jesús Pidal y Chico de Guzmán [04 Nov 1891 – 11 Dec 1974], who founded convents for the Order of Discalced Carmelites; José María Rubio y Peralta [22 Jul 1864 – 02 May 1929], a Jesuit priest, ordained in 1887.
A crowd of one million overflows into the four boulevards intersecting at the Plaza and watches on eight giant TV screens. communion is distributed by 1500 priests shuttling in minibuses.
During his nearly 25 years as Pope, John Paul II has now canonized 469 saints in all, more than any other Pope. He hopes to reinvigorate Spain's Catholics, half of whom, instead of attending Mass every Sunday, almost never do so, while one-quarter of them only attend once a month.
During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), 4184 priests and religious were murdered by the losing anti-clerical Republican government side, as the Church was closely allied with the insurgent Falangists of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde.
^ 2000 The Love Bug computer virus strikes
First in Asia, then in Europe, and then in the US, as the day starts, many computer users find E-mail messages with an attached file named ILOVEYOU or LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.TXT.vbs. When users of MS Outlook double-click on the file to read it, the virus immediately mails itself to everyone in the victims address book. It also deletes jpg and jpeg files, and alters mp3 files to make them inaccessible. The virus also direcs the victims browser to dowload from four web sites in the Philippines a file WIN-BUGSFIX.EXE which send the victim's passwords to an Internet account in the Philippines. The virus stays on the computer to reactivate itself later
Many organisations shut down completely their E-mail system. Among them Ford Motor Co., Microsoft Corp., Estée Lauder Cos., US Army, US Navy.
[I received one, but of course immediately deleted attachment and message, besides I don't use Outlook, nor the E-mail address book in Eudora].
1994 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat sign a historic accord on Palestinian autonomy that grants self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
1994 Interpublic Group (IPG), owner of several major advertising firms, including McCann-Erickson and Lintas Worldwide, announces that it will invest in a new interactive venture called InterActive Partners.
1993 Software baron and Microsoft cofounder Paul Allen files documents announcing his intention to buy America Online, newspapers report. Allen already held 25% of the company's stock and was the company's single largest shareholder. In the end, however, Allen did not try to acquire the company.
1991 Morris K Udall, (Rep-D-Ariz), resigns due to Parkinson disease
1991 Pres Bush is hospitalized for erratic heartbeat
| 1988 Investigadores estadounidenses de Wistard obtienen
la primera vacuna contra la rabia, mediante técnica de ingeniería genética.
1986 Dimite en Afganistán Babrak Karmal, al perder la confianza de Moscú. Le sucede Mohamed Najibullah.
1983 Es disuelto en Irán el Partido Comunista.
1982 Guerra de las Malvinas: la nave más moderna de la flota británica, el destructor "Shefield", es hundida por un cohete lanzado desde un avión argentino.
| 1961 Malcolm Ross and Victor Prather reach 34'668 m
(record) in balloon
1961 13 Freedom Riders begin bus trip through South, leaving Washington for New Orleans to challenge racial segregation in interstate buses and bus terminals.
1954 El general Stroessner da un golpe de Estado en Paraguay y pasa a ser el nuevo Presidente de la República.
1945 German forces in the Netherlands, Denmark and northwest Germany agree to surrender.
| 1938 El Vaticano reconoce al de Francisco Franco Bahamonde
como Gobierno legítimo de España.
1927 first balloon flight over 40,000 feet (Scott Field, Ill)
1926 General strike paralyzes Britain
1923 Entra en vigor la Constitución de Palestina.
1919 Les étudiants manifestent à Pékin.
1916 Durante la 1a Guerra Mundial: Acuerdo Sykes-Picot, por el que Oriente Medio se dividía en zonas de influencia. Francia recibiría como protectorados Siria y Líbano y Gran Bretaña tendría Palestina, Transjordania e Irak.
1878 Phonograph shown for first time, at Grand Opera House
1865 Surrender of Confederate General Richard Taylor's forces at Citronelle, Alabama
1865 Abraham Lincoln is buried at Springfield, Illinois
1864 Ulysses S. Grant begins his duel with Robert E Lee by having his Army of the Potomac cross Rapidan at Germanna and Ely's Ford, Virginia
1863 Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia continues with the Battle of Salem Church
1861 At Gretna, LA one of first guns of Rebel navy is cast
1858 War of the Reform (Mexico); Liberals establish capital at Vera Cruz
1814 Bourbon reign restored in France
1814 Fernando VII firma un Real Decreto que anula la Constitución de 1812 y proclama la vuelta al absolutismo real en España..
1704 Desembarca en Lisboa el archiduque Carlos de Austria al frente de 14'000 hombres, para iniciar la guerra de sucesión española.
1626 Dutch explorer Peter Minuit lands on present-day Manhattan Island. (which Amerindians will sell for $24 in cloth and buttons).
1589 Una escuadra inglesa al mando de Francis Drake inicia las operaciones para apoderarse de La Coruña.
1493 Pope Alexander VI issues
the bull Inter Caetera II.
It recommends that the people the New World be brought to the faith, to which they seem well disposed..The subsequent 1494 "Treaty of Tordesillas" (inspired by Inter Caetera) would divide the New World, everything 370 leagues (400 km?) west of the Cape Verde islands going to Spain, everything east to Portugal. A reading of the bull [below] clearly shows that, contrary to what has been alleged, it in no way sanctions the human rights violations of which conquistadores became guilty, and against which the missionary clergy, most notably Bartolomé de Las Casas, protested vigorously.
Returning from his first voyage, Columbus landed on the Portuguese coast and was at once invited to Court. He reached Lisbon March 4, 1493, upon the invitation of the King of Portugal. On hearing his report, King John II claimed the newly discovered lands for Portugal by virtue of the Treaty of Alcacovas of 1479, sanctioned by the Bulls of Pope Sixtus IV, dated 21 June 1481. The text of the Treaty and the Bull contain some slight variations and thereby allow of different interpretations. It is difficult to decide, therefore, whether this claim of the Portuguese King was justified. Contemporary as well as modern historians have always differed widely in their opinions. It is generally believed that, with his famous message on his discoveries, Columbus dispatched to the Spanish Kings, who were at Barcelona, a report on the difficulties raised by the Portuguese King, but it is questioned whether this was sent from Lisbon by land or from Palos after having reached the latter port, 14 March 1493.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain reported the great news at once to Pope Alexander VI. It is again doubtful whether this was done by a special messenger or by a courier sent to Cardinal Bernardin de Carvajal and to Ruiz de Medina, then Spanish ambassadors at the Holy See, and whether this was done in consequence of the Portuguese claims or according to a general custom of that period. Pope Alexander VI, himself a Spaniard, granted the request to confer the lately discovered lands on the Crown of Spain by three Bulls issued on 03 May and 04 May 1493 (all much in favor of Spain, and depriving Portugal of nearly all privileges bestowed upon it by the Bulls of 1452 and 1454, issued bu Nicholas V, and by that of 1481 of Sixtus IV and one of 1484 of Innocentius VIII). Some months later, on 26 September 1493, a fourth Bull was issued granting to Spain almost unlimited rights. But this act remained without consequence; for in the meantime, at the suggestion of the King of Spain, it was agreed that, to avoid complications already threatening, a conference should be held. Portuguese ambassadors were sent to Barcelona and, after many negotiations and some interruptions, a settlement was finally reached at the small Spanish town of Tordesillas and a treaty was signed on 07 June 1494. Obviously inspired by the corresponding passage in the second Bull "Inter Caetera", but not referring to this or any other bulls or treaties, it was provided that there should be drawn a line running from North to South, 370 leagues west from Cape Verde Islands, and that everything west of this line should belong to Spain, everything east of it to Portugal.
The sanction, which by the terms of the Treaty was to be asked was never given by Alexander VI and not before 24 January 1506, was a Bull to such effect issued by Pope Julius II. Although much disputed and very differently interpreted, this Treaty remained in force until 13 January 1750, when the Treaty of Madrid annulled the boundary line. It would seem, however, that this boundary line, first provided for in the second Bull "Inter caetera" and later corrected in the Treaty of Tordesillas, decided what parts of the western hemisphere as well as which regions of the eastern hemisphere were discovered, possessed and civilized by Spain and by Portugal respectively, and which still speak the language and show the influence of the culture of their first discoverers.
Like the bull Eximiae devotionis of 03 May, the bull Inter Caetera of 04 May is a restatement of part of the bull Inter Caetera of 03 May. Taken together the two later bulls cover the same ground as the bull "Inter caetera" of May 3, for which they form a substitute. The changes introduced into the bull "Inter caetera" of 04 May, are, however, of great importance, and highly favorable to Spain. Instead of merely granting to Castile the lands discovered by her envoys, and not under Christian rule, the revised bull draws a line of demarcation one hundred leagues west of any of the Azores or Cape Verde Islands, and assigns to Castile the exclusive right to acquire territorial possessions and to trade in all lands west of that line, which at Christmas, 1492, were not in the possession of any Christian prince. The general safeguard to the possible conflicting rights of Portugal is lacking. All persons are forbidden to approach the lands west of the line without special license from the rulers of Castile.
It is not probable that by this bull Alexander VI intended to secure to Portugal an eastern route to the Indies, as some writers have maintained. In the bulls of 03 May, the earlier papal grants to Portugal are said to have given her rights in the region of Guinea and the Gold Mine, but the Indies are not mentioned. The bull of May 4 does not name Portugal and refers to her only in the clause which excepts from the donation any lands west of the demarcation line, which at Christmas, 1492, might be in the possession of any Christian prince.
^ The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI.) 04 May 1493.
Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious sovereigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, and Granada, health and apostolic benediction.
Among other works well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself. Wherefore inasmuch as by the favor of divine clemency, we, though of insufficient merits, have been called to this Holy See of Peter, recognizing that as true Catholic kings and princes, such as we have known you always to be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost the whole world declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, and diligence, without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shedding even of your blood, are laboring to that end; recognizing also that you have long since dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your endeavors as witnessed in these times with so much glory to the Divine Name in your recovery of the kingdom of Granada from the yoke of the Saracens we therefore are rightly led, and hold it as our duty, to grant you even of our own accord and in your favor those things whereby with effort each day more hearty you may be enabled for the honor of God himself and the spread of the Christian rule to carry forward your holy and praiseworthy purpose so pleasing to immortal God.
We have indeed learned that you, who for a long time had intended to seek out and discover certain islands and mainlands remote and unknown and not hitherto discovered by others, to the end that you might bring to the worship of our Redeemer and the profession of the Catholic faith their residents and inhabitants, having been up to the present time greatly engaged in the siege and recovery of the kingdom itself of Granada were unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy purpose; but the said kingdom having at length been regained, as was pleasing to the Lord, you, with the wish to fulfill your desire, chose our beloved son, Christopher Columbus, a man assuredly worthy and of the highest recommendations and fitted for so great an undertaking, whom you furnished with ships and men equipped for like designs, not without the greatest hardships, dangers, and expenses, to make diligent quest for these remote and unknown mainlands and islands through the sea, where hitherto no one had sailed; and they at length, with divine aid and with the utmost diligence sailing in the ocean sea, discovered certain very remote islands and even mainlands that hitherto had not been discovered by others; wherein dwell very many peoples living in peace, and, as reported, going unclothed, and not eating flesh.
Moreover, as your aforesaid envoys are of opinion, these very peoples living in the said islands and countries believe in one God, the Creator in heaven, and seem sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good morals. And it is hoped that, were they instructed, the name of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be introduced into the said countries and islands.
Also, on one of the chief of these aforesaid islands the said Christopher has already caused to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, wherein he has stationed as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, who are to make search for other remote and unknown islands and mainlands. In the islands and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and very many other precious things of divers kinds and qualities.
Wherefore, as becomes Catholic kings and princes, after earnest consideration of all matters, especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the fashion of your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed with the favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said mainlands and islands with their residents and inhabitants and to bring them to the Catholic faith.
Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy and praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and that the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very earnestly in the Lord and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, enjoy strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose also, as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands and countries to embrace the Christian religion; nor at any time let dangers or hardships deter you there from, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Almighty God will further your undertakings.
And, in order that you may enter upon so great an undertaking with greater readiness and heartiness endowed with benefit of our apostolic favor, we, of our own accord, not at your instance nor the request of anyone else in your regard, but out of our own sole largess and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your envoys and captains, give, grant, and assign to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no matter whether the said mainlands and islands are found and to be found in the direction of India or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde.
With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past from which the present year one thousand four hundred ninety-three begins.
And we make, appoint, and depute you and your said heirs and successors lords of them with full and free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind; with this proviso however, that by this our gift, grant, and assignment no right acquired by any Christian prince, who may be in actual possesssion of said islands and mainlands prior to the said birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ, is hereby to be understood to be withdrawn or taking away.
Moreover we command you in virtue of holy obedience that, employing all due diligence in the premises, as you also promise nor do we doubt your compliance therein in accordance with your loyalty and royal greatness of spirit you should appoint to the aforesaid mainlands and islands worthy, God-fearing, learned, skilled, and experienced men, in order to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents in the Catholic faith and train them in good morals.
Furthermore, under penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the mainlands and islands, found and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter whatsoever, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde; apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding.
We trust in Him from whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that, should you, with the Lord's guidance, pursue this holy and praiseworthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitious result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom.
But inasmuch as it would be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desirable, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge do decree, that copies of them, signed by the hand of a public notary commissioned therefor, and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as anywhere else as would be given to these presents should they thus be exhibited or shown. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene, this our recommendation, exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, constitution, deputation, decree, mandate, prohibition, and will. Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul.
Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, in the year of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand four hundred and ninety-three, the fourth of May, and the first year of our pontificate.
Gratis by order of our holy lord, the pope.
June. For the referendary, For J. Bufolinus.
A. de Mucciarellis. A. Santoseverino. L. Podocatharus.
The above bull in no way sanctions atrocities such as described in this excerpt from Bartolome de Las Casas's The Devastation of the Indies:
...And the Christians, with their horses and swords and pikes began to carry out massacres and strange cruelties against them. They attacked the towns and spared neither the children nor the aged nor pregnant women nor women in childbed, not only stabbing them and dismembering them with but cutting them to pieces as if dealing with sheep in the slaughterhouse. They laid bets as to who, with one stroke of the sword, could split a man in two or could cut off his head or spill out his entrails with a single stroke of the pike.
They took infants from their mothers' breasts, snatching them by the legs and pitching them headfirst against the crags or snatched them by the arms and threw them into the rivers, roaring with laughter and saying bas the babies fell into the water, "Boil there, you offspring of the devil!" Other infants they put to the sword along with their mothers and anyone else who happened to be nearby.
They made some low wide gallows on which the hanged victim's feet almost touched the ground, stringing up their victims in lots of thirteen, in memory of Our Redeemer and His twelve apostles, then set burning wood at their feet and thus burned them alive. To others they attached straw or wrapped their whole bodies in straw and set them afire. With still others, all those they wanted to capture alive, they cut off their hands and hung them round the victim's neck, saying, "Go now, carry the message," meaning, Take the news to the Indians who have fled to the mountains. They usually dealt with the chieftains and nobles in the following way: they made a grid of rods which they placed on forked sticks, then lashed the victims to the grid and lighted a smoldering fire underneath, so that little by little, as those captives screamed in despair and torment, their souls would leave them.
I once saw this, when there were four or five nobles lashed on grids and burning; I seem even to recall that there were two or three pairs of grids where others were burning, and because they uttered such loud screams that they disturbed the captain's sleep, he ordered them to be strangled. And the constable, who was worse than an executioner, did not want to obey that order (and I know the name of that constable and know his relatives in Seville), but instead put a stick over the victims' tongues, so they could not make a sound, and he stirred up the fire, but not too much, so that they roasted slowly, as he liked.
I saw all these things I have described, and countless others. And because all the people who could do so fled to the mountains to escape these inhuman, ruthless, and ferocious acts, the Spanish captains, enemies of the human race, pursued them with the fierce dogs they kept which attacked the Indians, tearing them to pieces and devouring them. And because on few and far between occasions, the Indians justifiably killed some Christians, the Spaniards made a rule among themselves that for every Christian slain by the Indians, they would slay a hundred Indians.
|1256 Pope Alexander IV founds the Roman Catholic religious order of the Augustine Hermits.|
2005 Palestinian cousins Uday Asi, 14, and Kamel Asi, 15, shot at 18:10 (16:10 UT) by Israeli soldiers firing at some 200 youths who were throwing rocks at bulldozers and at the five soldiers who arrived in a jeep at the separation fence work site near the village Beit Lakia north of Highway 443, near Ramallah, West Bank.
2005 Some 60 persons, including a suicide bomber, in the morning in Arbil, Iraq, outside the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) office, which also served as a police recruiting center, and where applicants were waiting in line. Some 150 persons are injured.
2003 Alexander “Skunder” Boghossian, 65, Ethiopian-born artist who played an important role in introducing European modernist styles into Africa and who, as a longtime resident of the United States, became one of the best-known African modern artists in the West. MORE ON BOGHOSSIAN AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
2003 William Josiah Goode, US sociologist born on 30 August 1917. Author of After Divorce (1956), World Changes in Divorce Patterns (1993), Family (1982).
2003 Sara Van Grondelle-Blom of the Netherlands, born on 06 December 1892.
2003 Raeed Amar, 14, Iraqi boy, from burns, caused by bomb near Basra, Iraq
2003 Bassim Gez Agbarah [1974–], Iraqi civilian man, killed in Iraq.
2003 Maitham Haseeb Jasem, 3, Iraqi boy, killed by a missile.
2003 Mohamed Zamel Mohsen, 25, Iraqi civilian man, killed by a bomb.
2003 Mohsen Basem Naji, 8 months; and Mustafa Ghanem Johe, 6 months, Iraqi boys, killed by shrapnel
2002 Florence G. Roswell, US reading disabilities expert born in June 1904. Co-author (with Dr. Jeanne S. Chall) of the "Roswell-Chall Auditory Blending Test," and the "Roswell-Chall Diagnostic Reading Test of Word Analysis Skills." Author of Reading Disability: A Human Approach", co-author of Teaching Children to Read, a Step-by-Step Guide for Volunteer Tutors and Creating Successful Readers.
1976 Frank, Mary, and Michael Columbo, murdered by Frank de Luca, 36, married, and Patricia Columbo, 20, daughter of Frank and Mary, and sister of Michael. De Luca and Patricia had been in a perverted relationship for two years. They shoot Patricia's parent, then bludgeon Michael with a bowling trophy and stab him close to 100 times with scissors. The two murderers would be sentenced each to 250 years in prison.
1964 Ramón Barba Guichard, escultor y dibujante español.
1961 Herbert Westren Turnbull, English mathematician born on 31 August 1885. He worked in algebra, particularly invariant theory and was also interested in the history of mathematics.
1949 All 31 aboard a trimotor Fiat N. 212 of Aviolinee Italiane: Valerio Bacigalupo [12 Jan 1924–]; Aldo Ballarin [10 Jan 1922–]; Virginio Maroso [26 Jun 1925–]; Giuseppe Grezar [25 Nov 1918–]; Mario Rigamonti [17 Dec 1922–]; Eusebio Castigliano [09 Feb 1921–]; Romeo Menti [05 Sep 1919–]; Ezio Loik [26 Jan 1919–]; Guglielmo Gabetto [24 Feb 1916–]; Valentino Mazzola [26 Jan 1919–]; Franco Ossola [23 Aug 21–]; Danilo Martelli [27 May 1923]; Dino Ballarin; Emile Bongiorni; Rubens Fadini; Ruggero Grava; Piero Operto; Giulio Schubert; who are the Grande Torino soccer team; their managers Arnaldo Agnisetta and Ippolito Civalleri; their trainer Egri Ernest Erbstein [13 May 1888–], their English coach Leslie Lievesley; their masseur Ottavio Cortina; the organizer Andrea Bonaiuti; the sport reporters Renato Casalbore, Renato Tosatti, and Luigi Cavallero; and the crew of 4: captain Pierluigi Meroni, Antonio Pangrazi, Celestino D'Inca, and Cesare Biancardi; as the plane, bringing them back from Lisbon, crashes in heavy fog at 17:05 into a wall of the basilica on Superga hill, just outside Turin, Italy.
1936 Alfred Cardew Dixon, English mathematician born on 22 May 1865. He worked both on ordinary and partial differential equations studying abelian integrals, automorphic functions and functional equations.
1935 Narciso Díaz de Escovar, poeta y erudito español.
1916 Joseph Mary Plunkett [21 Nov 1887–], William James Pearse [1881–], Edward Daly [28 Feb 1891–], and Michael O'Hanrahan [1877–], Irish patriots, executed by British firing squad. Pearse was the brother of Pádraig Pearse [10 Nov 1879 – 03 May 1916], executed the previous day.
What begins as a peaceful labor protest in Haymarket Square in Chicago, turns into a riot, leaving more than 100 wounded and 8 police officers dead. After Chicago authorities arrested and detained nearly every anarchist and socialist in town, eight men, who were either speakers in or organizers of the protest, were charged with murder.
The demonstration, which drew some 1500 Chicago workers, was organized by German-born anarchists in protest of the previous day's killing of four strikers and the wounding of others in an unprovoked attack by the Chicago police into a crowd of striking workers at the nearby McCormick Harvesting Machine Company..
The May 4 rally began an about 20:30. at the Haymarket, a site on Randolph between Halsted and Des Plaines Street, but due to low attendance it was moved a half block away to Des Plaines Street north of Randolph Street. The crowd listened quietly to speakers advocating a mandatory eight-hour workday for employees. After 10 p.m., as the final speaker was winding the rally down, which had thinned out because of rain, 176 policemen led by Inspector John Bonfield moved in demanding immediate dispersal of the remaining 200 workers. Suddenly a bomb exploded, thrown by a person who was never positively identified. After the explosion, officers began firing wildly in all directions, inciting a riot among protestors.. Policeman Mathias J. Degan died almost instantly and seven other officers died later, 67 policeman were wounded.. No official count was made of civilian deaths or injuries probably because friends and/or relatives carried them off immediately. Medical evidence later showed that most of the injuries suffered by the police were caused by their own bullets.
Despite the lack of evidence linking the eight anarchists to the bomb, the Haymarket Square Riot set off a national wave of xenophobia, as hundreds of foreign-born radicals and labor leaders were rounded up in Chicago and elsewhere. A grand jury eventually indicted thirty-one suspected labor radicals in connection with the bombing. The defendants were widely believed to be guilty before the trial began. In fact, jury selection at the trial took a full 21 days. Not a single juror was accepted in the first eight days because virtually every one was convinced that the defendants were guilty. The jurors who eventually heard the case were only slightly more objective. At the end of the sensational and controversial trial. Judge Joseph E. Gary imposed the death sentence on seven of the men and the eighth was sentenced to fifteen years in prison.
On 11 November 1887, Samuel Fielden, Adolph Fischer, August Spies, and Albert R. Parson became the first labor activists to be executed in America. Of the three others sentenced to death, Louis Lingg committed suicide by lighting a stick of dynamite in his mouth on the eve of the execution and the other two had their death sentences commuted to life imprisonment by Illinois Governor Richard J. Oglesby. Governor Oglesby was acting in response to widespread public questioning of their guilt, though he refused to grant a pardon. But his successor, Governor John P. Altgeld, courageously pardoned the three activists still living, in prison, on 18930623 and thereby sank his own political career.
1864 The dead of the Battle of Jenkins Ferry, after the Second Kansas Colored Infantry Regiment under the command of Brevet colonel J. H. Gillpatrick attack Confederate troops with the battle cry, “Remember Poison Spring!”, referring to the Confederates' 18 April 1864 massacre of Black prisoners of the First Kansas Colored Infantry Regiment.
1859 Joseph Diaz Gergonne, French mathematician born on 19 June 1771. From 1810 to 1831 he published the journal Annales de mathématique pures et appliquées commonly known as Annales de Gergonne. His name is also attached to Gergonne's theorem [diagram >].
and many defenders and attackers in the fall of Mysore.
Within two months of the British declaring war on Mysore (the 4th Mysore War), General Harris, British Commander in Chief, the Madras army and the Bombay army under General Stuart, close on Seringapatam, Mysore's capital on an island in the Cauvery River. Two critical factors added urgency: near famine in the British camp, and the appoaching monsoon, which would render the River Cauvery impassable. The Sultan of Mysore, Tipu gloomily views the breach effected in the north-west fortifications. Amidst suspicions of treachery and ill omens for 04 May, his fierce “tiger” spirit seems to have deserted him. He is unprepared for the British attack at 13:00, led by Major-General David Baird (who, as a captain, had been captured at the battle of Pollilur on 10 September 1780, during the 2nd Mysore War) and held prisoner in Seringapatam until the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore). The British quickly gain the ramparts, divide into two columns and stream north and south towards the palace. Within two hours, Tipu's family has surrendered, and at about 17:00 Tipu's dead body is found, under a heap of the slain, by General Baird, Major Allan and Lt. Col. Close.
Born on 20 November 1750, Fateh Ali Tipu, “the Tiger of Mysore” [portrait >], was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employ of his father, Hyder Ali [1721 – 07 Dec 1782], who was the Muslim ruler of Mysore. Tipu was also an excellent scholar, and reputed a good poet. He was also a strongly religious Suni.
In 1767 Tippu commanded a corps of cavalry against the Marathas in the Carnatic region of western India, and he fought against the Marathas on several occasions between 1775 and 1779. During the second Mysore War, in February 1782 an army led by Tipu, aided by 400 Frenchmen, defeated on the banks of the Coleroon River Colonel John Brathwaite with his 100 British soldiers and 1800 sepoys. In April 1782 , 1200 French soldiers landed at Porto Novo and seized Cuddalore, while the British tried to drive Hyder and Tipu from the fort of Arni, their chief arsenal in the plains. On the arrival of George Macartney (later 1st Earl Macartney) as governor of Madras, the British fleet captured Nagappattinam and convinced Hyder that he could not stop the British. In his dying words, Hyder implored Tipu to make peace with the British.
Tipu succeeded his father on 07 December 1782 and in 1784 concluded peace with the British by the Treaty of Mangalore and assumed the title of sultan of Mysore. In 1789, however, he provoked British invasion by attacking their ally, the raja of Travancore. He held the British at bay for more than two years, but by the Treaty of Seringapatam (March 1792) had to cede half his dominions, pay substantial reparation and surrender two of his sons, Abdul Khalik, 8, and Moiz-Ud-Din, 5, as hostages. They were delivered to Lord Cornwallis at Seringapatam on 26 February 1792 and they were returned 18 months later.
He remained restless and unwisely allowed his negotiations with Revolutionary France to become known to the British. On this pretext the governor-general, Lord Mornington (later the marquess of Wellesley) [20 Jun 1760 – 26 Sep 1842], launched the fourth Mysore War. Seringapatam is stormed by British-led forces on 04 May 1799, and Tippu died leading his troops in the breach.
Tippu was an able general and administrator, and, though a Muslim, he retained the loyalty of his Hindu subjects. He proved cruel to his enemies and lacked the judgment of his father, however.
1794 (15 floréal
an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
LACROIX François, commis principal de la loterie nationale, 52 ans, natif de Nancy, département de la Meurthe, domicilié à Paris, pour avoir tenu des propos tendants à la dissolution de la représentation nationale.
... domiciliés à Verdun (Meuse), comme complices d'un complot tendant à livrer la place de Verdun à l'ennemi:
BARTHE Jean Baptiste, 62 ans, natif de Thionville, juge de Paix. DESPREZ Gérard, gendarme de brigade nationale, 50 ans, natif de Givet-de-Hilaire.
... comme participants à un complot contre la sûreté et la liberté du Peuple, tendant à avilir la représentation nationale et rétablir le despotisme:
BOISSARD Théodore Joseph, 55 ans, ex avocat et procureur, syndic du district de Pontarlier, né et domicilié à Pontarlier, département du Doubs, comme convaincu d'être auteur ou complice du complot.
Le BIEUSSAIT Guillaume, de Vierval, 76 ans, né à Rocher, département de la Manche, ancien mousquetaire, lieutenant colonel de cavalerie, chevalier du ci-devant ordre de St Louis, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'être complice du complot.
... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
DURANT Jean François, gendarme à pied de la 32ème division de l'armée du Nord, 24 ans, natif de Neufchâteau, domicilié à Epinal, département des Vosges.
DUTAILLY Antoine, 52 ans, né à Besançon, y demeurant département du Doubs, homme de loi et agent de Choiseul-la-Beaume.
CHOISEUIL-LA-BAUME Cl. Antoine Clériat, 61 ans, natif de Nanci, ex marquis et ex lieutenant général, domicilié à Paris.
LEBEGUE Jacques Louis, (dit Oynville), ex noble, maire et présidant du district de Pithiviers, 58 ans, né et domicilié à Pithiviers, département du Loiret.
LEBEGUE BOIS Julien François, ex avocat au parlement de Paris, 70 ans, né et domicilié à Paris.
LEBIENSAIS DE WIESVAL Georges, ex noble, lieutenant colonel de cavalerie, chevalier de St Louis, 76 ans, né au Roché, département de la Manche.
LEVIS Marc Antoine, ex comte, chevalier de St Louis, ex député à l'assemblée constituante, 55 ans, né à Lugny, département de la Saône et Loire, domicilié à Paris.
MAUVIELLE Marie Pierre Thomas, ex noble, 59 ans, né à Coutances, département de la Manche, domicilié à Rocher-la-Liberté, même département.
MARTIN Charles Jérôme, notaire public, 37 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, ... et comme ayant cherché à soustraire le nommé Bois, frère de l'ex ministre Duportail, en constatant sa résidence en France, longtemps après le décret d'accusation porté contre lui par le corps législatif; il fut appelé en témoignage, à midi il parut au tribunal, et une heure après il était sur la charrette avec les autres condamnés.
MONIOTTE Claude Philippe, 76 ans, ex conseiller au présidial, et juge de tribunal de district de Besançon, département du Doubs, ... et comme ayant entretenu des correspondances et intelligences avec les ennemis extérieurs et intérieurs de la République.
SAINTENAY Auguste Joseph, garçon confiseur, 18 ans, natif d’Orchies, département du Nord, domicilié à Paris, ... et comme ayant crié vive le roi, dans la prison des Madelonnettes où il était détenu.
Domicilié à Ste-Lumine-du-Coutay, canton de Machecoul (Loire Inférieure), comme brigands de la Vendée, par la commission militaire de Nantes:
FLEURY Jean GRUET Pierre GUILBERT Pierre MARSELLOT Pierre MOUTY Pierre
BARBION Jacques Joseph, 48 ans, né à Orgeville, marchand de vache, condamné à mort à Arras.
BAUD Etienne Auguste, (dit Vieuxville), domicilié à Rennes, (Ille-et-Vilaine), comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JOGER Ignace, domicilié à Vettolsheim (Bas-Rhin), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré
ROCH L. J. Théodore, ex vicaire, domicilié à Jouvelle (Doubs), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
ROSTAN Honoré, et TOESCA Jacques, maçon, domiciliés à Nice (Alpes Maritimes), comme assassins, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
| 1768 Charles
Étienne Louis Camus, French mathematician born on 25
1739 Andrey Matveev, Russian painter born in 1702. — more with links to images.
1677 Isaac Barrow , English mathematician born in October 1630. He developed a method of determining tangents that closely approached the methods of calculus, and he was first to recognise that integration and differentiation are inverse operations.
1615 Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish physician and mathematician, born on 29 September 1561.
1528 (sometime between 04 May and 23 Jun) Bernhard Strigel, Swabian portraitist and altarpiece painter born in 1460 or 1461. MORE ON STRIGEL AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1410 Papa Alejandro V.
1958 Keith Haring, pintor estadounidense.
1928 Muhammad Hosni Mubarak, militar y político egipcio.
1918 Kakuei Tanaka Japanese PM convicted of bribe-taking
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1851 Thomas Wilmer Dewing, US painter who died in 1938. MORE ON DEWING AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1845 William Kingdon Clifford, English mathematician who died on 03 March 1879. He studied non-Euclidean geometry arguing that energy and matter are simply different types of curvature of space. He introduced what is now called a Clifford algebra which generalizes Grassmann's exterior algebra. He did NOT have a gigantic red dog, Euclidean or not.
1826 Frederic Edwin Church, US Hudson River School painter who died on 07 April 1900, specialized in Landscapes. MORE ON CHURCH AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
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1733 Jean Charles de Borda, French mathematician and physicist born in Dax, a town in a rather arid region where rain is welcome, hence the saying about a rainy day: “It's good weather for Dax”. De Borda died on 19 February 1799 in Paris and was buried in weather that would have been excellent for Dax: during a pouring rain.
1715 First folding umbrella is introduced by a French manufacturer (Paris)
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