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Events, deaths, births, of 01 MAY
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” MAY 01    wikipedia
• Battle of Manila Bay... • Mayday as Labor Day... • Empire State Building opens... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Mother Jones is born... • Author of Catch 22 is born... • “Silone” is born... • US spy plane shot down over USSR... • Lusitania sails to its doom... • North Vietnamese capture provincial capital... • Senator criticizes Vietnam War... • Locomobile... • US climber reaches top of Everest... • US president empowered over foreign trade... • Watson hired by future IBM... . • Cordwainers unite... • Gloria Carpenter found dead... • Pur Sang des Autos... • Missing intern dies...
^  On a 01 May:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for May 2010:
General: Fundamentalism and Extremism — That every tendency to fundamentalism and extremism may be countered by constant respect, by tolerance and by dialogue among all believers.
Missionary: Persecuted Christians — That the Christians persecuted for the sake of the Gospel may persevere, sustained by the Holy Spirit, in faithfully witnessing to the love of God for the entire human race. —(091213)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for May 2009:
General: That the laity and the Christian communities may be responsible promoters of priestly and religious vocations.
Mission: That the recently founded Catholic Churches, grateful to the Lord for the gift of faith, may be ready to share in the universal mission of the Church, offering their availability to preach the Gospel throughout the world.—(090301)

2006 The American Civil Liberties Union of Kentucky files a federal lawsuit challenging restrictions on freedom of speech and expression in two bills passed during the 2006 session of the Kentucky General Assembly, which create restrictions near funerals, wakes, memorial services, and burials, which, the ACLU argues in the court papers, prohibit non-disruptive, non-disorderly speech and visual displays. — (060526)
Ralston
2004 Under a special transition status, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, and (the Greek part of) Cyprus, join the European Union's previous members (from the 01 Nov 1993 taking effect of the 07 Feb 1992 Treaty of Maastricht) Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and (from 01 Jan 1995) Sweden, Austria, Finland.



2003 Aron Ralston, 27, of Aspen Colorado, is stuck in an eastern Utah desert, with his right arm pinned down by a 400-kg chalkstone boulder which fell about 50 cm onto his arm as he was climbing alone in narrow Blue John Canyon, adjacent to the Maze District of Canyonlands National Park, in the afternoon of 26 April. He ran out of water on 29 April. There is no chance anyone will find him and rescue him. The alternative being death, he cuts off his arm below the elbow with a pocket knife, improvises a tourniquet, rappels 20 meters down a rock wall, hikes 20 km until he meets some hikers who call a rescue helicopter 100 km south of Green River, Utah. [< Ralston when he still had two arms]

bloody
ZOOM IN on complete picture
2003 On the flight deck of the airplane carrier USS Abraham Lincoln under a banner proclaiming “Mission Accomplished”, US usurper-President “Dubya” Bush [06 Jul 1946~] stages a speech in which he boasts that major combat operations in Iraq have accomplished their purpose and are over. Dubya passes under silence the phony reason which he gave for starting the war: the weapons of mass destruction allegedly stockpiled by dictator Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937 – 30 Dec 2006], as by now these “WMD”s are obviously non-existent. In fact the Iraq war only becomes worse and worse as a multi-party civil war which Dubya stubbornly drags out throughout the remaining 6 years of his presidency at the cost of tens of thousands of civilian and military lives (not to mention billions and billions of dollars), as he gradually becomes despised by world opinion and by the majority of the people of the US. Dubya makes himself as ridiculous as when he started (on 07 October 2001) the war in Afghanistan, boasting that he would soon capture or kill Osama bin Laden [10 Mar 1957~], supreme commander of Al Qaeda, responsible for the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. —(070501)
click for coffins

2002 California Condor AC-9 [do NOT pronounce it “asinine”] is released to the wild. When it was brought into captivity in 1987, it was the last free-flying California Condor. It became part of the fledgling captive breeding program. Many of the offspring that AC-9 produced and raised in captivity were released to the wild in both California and Arizona.

2000 Joerg Haider resigns after 14 years as leader of Austria's far-right [meaning far-wrong] Freedom Party.
^ 1997 Labour Party returns to power in the UK
      After eighteen years of Conservative rule, British voters give the Labour Party, led by Tony Blair, a landslide victory in British parliamentary elections. In the poorest Conservative Party showing since 1832, Prime Minister John Major was rejected in favor of Scottish-born Blair, who at age forty-three became the youngest British prime minister in over a century. Blair studied law at Oxford, and in 1975 joined the Labour Party. In 1983, he was elected an MP from Sedgefield, and became the party’s spokesperson on treasury affairs in 1985 and trade and industry in 1987. In the next year, he joined the shadow cabinet as energy secretary, and in 1993, he became shadow home secretary. In 1994, he was elected leader of the Labour Party, and over the next three years he orchestrated Labour’s ideological shift to the middle, borrowing such popular Conservative policies as free-market reforms. In May of 1997, his "new" Labour Party won a resounding victory and he was sworn in as prime minister.
1996 At the White House, PLO leader Yasser Arafat meets US President Clinton for 45 minutes, then criticizes Israel for keeping its borders closed to Palestinian workers.
1991 The government of Angola and US-backed guerrillas initialed agreements ending their civil war.
1991 Pope John Paul II publishes his Encyclical Centesimus annus [English text] two weeks in advance of the 100th anniversary of the 15 May 1891 Encyclical Rerum Novarum [English text] of Leo XIII.
1986 Tass reports Chernobyl nuclear power plant mishap
1981 US Senator Harrison A. Williams Jr., D-N.J., is convicted in New York of charges related to the FBI's Abscam investigation.
1979 Marshall Islands (in the Pacific) become self-governing
1979 Home rule introduced to Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)
1978 Naomi Uemura became first to reach North Pole overland alone
^ 1972 North Vietnamese capture provincial capital.
      North Vietnamese troops capture Quang Tri City, the first provincial capital taken during their ongoing offensive. The fall of the city effectively gave the communists control of the entire province of Quang Tri. As the North Vietnamese prepared to continue their attack to the south, 80% of Hue's population — already swollen by 300'000 refugees — fled to Da Nang to get out of the way. Farther south along the coast, three districts of Binh Dinh Province also fell, leaving about one-third of the province under communist control. These attacks were part of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south.
      Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the defenders suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisers and American airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders, retaking Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, which he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces so US troops could be withdrawn.
^ 1969 Senator criticizes Nixon's handling of Vietnam War.
      In a speech on the floor of the Senate, George Aiken (R-Vermont), senior member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, urges the Nixon administration to begin an immediate "orderly withdrawal" of US forces from South Vietnam. Aiken said, "It should be started without delay." The speech was widely regarded as the end of the self-imposed moratorium on criticism that senators had been following since the Nixon administration took office. Nixon responded on several occasions that ending the Vietnam War was his "first priority." His first public act in response to the mounting criticism was to announce in June 1969 that he would begin an immediate withdrawal of 25'000 soldiers from South Vietnam with additional withdrawals to follow at specified intervals. In order to do this, he instituted his "Vietnamization" program, which was designed to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese forces so they could eventually assume responsibility for the entire war effort.
1967 Anastasio Somoza Debayle became president of Nicaragua (of the dictator, CIA-stooge variety).
1965 USSR launches Luna 5; later impacts on Moon
1964 first BASIC program run on a computer (Dartmouth)
^ 1963 A US climber reaches top of Everest
      James W. Whittaker of Redmond, Washington, became the first US climber to reach the summit of Mt. Everest, the tallest mountain in the world.
      Located in the central Himalayas on the border of China and Nepal, Everest stands 8848 m above sea level. Called Chomo-Lungma, or "Mother Goddess of the Land" by the Tibetans, the English named the mountain after Sir George Everest, an early nineteenth-century British surveyor of the Himalayas.
      In May of 1953, climber and explorer Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay of Nepal made the first successful climb of the peak. Hillary was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for the achievement.
      Ten years later, American James Whittaker reached Everest’s summit with his Sherpa climbing partner Nawang Gombu. The first US woman to successfully climb Everest was Stacy Allison in 1988.
1963 Indonesia takes control of Irian Jaya (west New Guinea) from Netherlands
1961 Tanganyika granted full internal self-government by Britain
1961 first US airplane hijacked to Cuba
1961 Fidel Castro announces there will be no more elections in Cuba
^ 1960 US spy plane shot down over Russia.
      A US U-2 high altitude reconnaissance aircraft is shot down over Sverdlovsk in central Russia, forcing its pilot, Francis Gary Powers, to bail out at 4600 meters. The CIA-employed pilot survives the parachute jump from his crippled aircraft, but is picked up by the Soviet authorities, who immediately arrest him.
      On 05 May, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced the capture of the US spy, and vowed that he would put him on trial. After initial denials, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower admitted on 07 May that the unarmed reconnaissance aircraft was indeed on a spy mission. In response, Khrushchev cancelled a long-awaited summit meeting in Paris, and in August, Powers was sentenced to ten years in a Soviet prison for his confessed espionage.
      However, a year-and-a-half later, the Soviets agreed to release him in exchange for Rudolph Abel, a Soviet spy caught and convicted in the United States five years earlier. Upon returning to the US, the CIA and the Senate cleared Powers of any personal blame for the incident.
     The incident derailed an important summit meeting between President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that was scheduled for later that month. The U-2 spy plane was the brainchild of the Central Intelligence Agency, and it was a sophisticated technological marvel. Traveling at altitudes of up to 21'000 m, the aircraft was equipped with state-of-the-art photography equipment that could, the CIA boasted, take high-resolution pictures of headlines in Russian newspapers as it flew overhead.
      Flights over the Soviet Union began in mid-1956. The CIA assured President Eisenhower that the Soviets did not possess anti-aircraft weapons sophisticated enough to shoot down the high-altitude planes. On 01 May 1960, a U-2 flight piloted by Francis Gary Powers disappeared while on a flight over Russia. The CIA reassured the president that, even if the plane had been shot down, it was equipped with self-destruct mechanisms that would render any wreckage unrecognizable and the pilot was instructed to kill himself in such a situation. Based on this information, the US government issued a cover statement indicating that a weather plane had veered off course and supposedly crashed somewhere in the Soviet Union. With no small degree of pleasure, Khrushchev pulled off one of the most dramatic moments of the Cold War by producing not only the mostly-intact wreckage of the U-2, but also the captured pilot-very much alive. A chagrined Eisenhower had to publicly admit that it was indeed a US spy plane.
1960 India's Bombay state split into Gujarat and Maharashtra states.
1948 The People's Democratic Republic of Korea is proclaimed in North Korea.
1948 Glenn Taylor, Idaho Senator, arrested in Birmingham Alabama for trying to enter a meeting through a door marked "for Negroes"
1947 Vice Adm Roscoe Hillenkoeter becomes first director of the CIA
1944 Messerschmitt Me 262 Sturmvogel, first jet bomber, makes first flight
1939, The World of Tomorrow Fair opens
in New York. Spanning 500 hectares, the fair is marked by two structures — the Crystal Ball Perisphere and the gold Trylon — and President Franklin D. Roosevelt presides over the opening ceremonies. Although virtually every nation on earth is represented, Germany is conspicuously absent, as Europe is on the brink of World War II.
1937 FDR signs act of neutrality
1934 Philippine legislature accepts US proposal for independence
1925 Cyprus becomes a British Crown Colony
^ 1915 Lusitania sails off for the last time.
     The British 32'000 tons Lusitania, largest passenger vessel on transatlantic service, leaves New York harbor for Great Britain, with more than 1900 passengers and crew on board. The ship would never reach its destination.
      Germany had published an advertisement warning people against traveling on such enemy ships. In February 1915, the German government announced an unrestricted warfare campaign: any ship sailing to or from Allied countries was subject to attack. This violated international agreements: nonmilitary vessels suspected of carrying war materials were supposed to be stopped and searched, not fired upon.
      On 07 May the Lusitania would be torpedoed by a German U-Boat, 16 km from the coast of Ireland. After a second, larger explosion, the Lusitania would list and then sink in twenty minutes. 63 infants and 1135 other persons would die, including 128 US citizens.
      The sinking of the Lusitania would have a profound impact on US public opinion. Germany apologized for the incident, but claimed that the U-boat fired only one torpedo and that contraband munitions on the ship caused the second explosion. If true, Britain was violating the rules of warfare by using a civilian ship to carry ammunition. The British denied this, claiming that the second explosion was caused by the torpedo igniting coal dust in the ship's almost empty bunkers.
+ ZOOM IN +
^ 1914 Thomas Watson hired by future IBM
      A bright young salesman named Thomas Watson joins the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), a disorganized conglomeration of smaller companies that produced punch cards and tabulating systems.
      About 235 employees worked at CTR at the time. Watson quickly unified the company and, in 1924, changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM). During his four decades with the company Watson built IBM into one of the world's most successful corporations. When Watson died in 1956, the company employed more than sixty thousand people. The company's primary products included typewriters and primitive computers.
      It was not until Watson's son, Thomas Watson, Jr., took over in 1952 that the company began to focus on the fledgling market for electronic computers. By the late 1960s, IBM produced 70% of the world's computers and 80% of the US's computers. In 1981, the company successfully entered the personal computer market; however, it never gained the same dominance in personal computing that it enjoyed in mainframe computing.
1908 World's most intense shower (6.3 cm in 3 minutes) at Portobelo Panama
^ 1902 Gasoline Locomobile
      The first prototype gasoline-powered Locomobile is completed at the company's factory in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
      Francis and Freelan Stanley created the original steam-powered Locomobile in 1898. "Yankee tinkerers," the Stanley brothers had been working on designs for steam-powered carriages for many years. Success came when one of their cars appeared at a Boston fair in October 1908. Interest in their cars, stemming from the debut of their lightweight, affordable vehicle, led them to undertake the construction of one hundred cars. To put the brothers' ambition in perspective, one need only recognize that the largest US gasoline-powered auto producer in the country, Alexander Winton, made twenty-two cars in 1898; Pope Electric of Hartford, Connecticut, produced a few dozen. The Stanley Brothers' resolve to "mass-produce" inexpensive cars marked an important transition in automobile manufacturing. But only a few months into their venture, the Stanley Brothers sold their enterprise to Amzi Barber, America's sheet-asphalt tycoon. It was under Barber's direction that the Locomobile name became a brand.
      The 1899 Locomobile sold for $600 and, as its advertisements boasted, it was noiseless and odorless. Refreshing to think of, but the Locomobile's water tank held only twenty-one gallons, enough for just a twenty-mile journey. Besides, starting a steam-powered engine was time-consuming and dangerous, as boilers frequently burned out. The gasoline burners that heated the boilers could backfire, potentially setting the car on fire. Sales of the Locomobile peaked in 1900 at sixteen hundred, a remarkable figure at such an early date. The total was far greater than any other US automaker could produce and it rivaled the French automaker, De Dion-Bouton, as the greatest car production in the world. Sales fell the next year, however, as the primacy of gasoline-powered automobiles was established. Gas-powered cars could go farther, faster, and with fewer hassles than steam-powered cars of comparable sizes. Barber hired automobile engineer Andrew Riker to design him a gas-powered vehicle. The car he designed sold for $5000.
      The new Locomobile appealed to rich consumers, and the company shifted its focus from low-cost production for the masses to high-cost production for the elite few. The last Locomobile steamers were produced in 1904. The end of the steam era saw the end of the company's importance. Other firms had been building gas-powered automobiles better, for longer. Locomobile survived through World War I producing trucks for the war market. After the war it became one in the overflowing market of luxury cars. The company died in 1929 after having been briefly incorporated into one of William Durant's holding companies.
1889 first International Workers Day, according to the 2nd Internationale.
^ 1886 US Origin of Mayday as Labor Day in most countries other than the US
      MAYDAY — the first of May — is recognized around the world as a day to celebrate international workers’ solidarity. It is often forgotten that this day of commemoration of working class revolutionary awareness originated with the movement for the eight-hour day and the other basic rights of labor that are taken for granted by American workers today — the movement that was centered in Chicago and that reached its peak in 1886.
     The story begins at a convention of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in 1884. The Federation (the predecessor to the American Federation of Labor) called for a great movement to win the 8-hour workday, which would climax on 01 May 1886.
      The plan was to spend two years urging all American employers to adopt a standard 8-hour day, instead of the 10 to 12, even up to 16-hour days that were prevalent. After 01 May of 1886, all workers not yet on an 8-hour schedule, were to cease work in a nation-wide strike until their employer would meet the demand.

80'000 Marched
      Although some employers did meet the deadline, many did not. Accordingly, great demonstrations took place on 01 May all across the US. Chicago's was the biggest with an estimated 80'000 marching on Michigan Avenue, much to the alarm of Chicago's business leaders and newspapers who saw it as foreshadowing "revolution," and demanded a police crackdown.
      In fact, the Anarchists and other political radicals in Chicago were reluctant to have anything to do with the 8-hour day strike, which they saw as "reformist;" but they were prevailed upon by the unionists to participate because Albert Parsons and others were such powerful orators and had a substantial following.
      On 03 May, strikers and their supporters at the McCormick Reaper plant on Blue Island Ave. were killed and injured by police.
     A mass protest meeting was called for the night of 04 May 1886 in the city haymarket at Randolph St. and DesPlaines Ave. It was so poorly planned that the organizers had to round up speakers, including Parsons, at the spur of the moment. A rain began to fall, and as the last speaker was concluding, a large force of 200 police arrived with a demand that the meeting disperse.

Bomb Thrown
      Someone, unknown to this day, then threw a bomb at the massed police. In their confusion, the police began firing their weapons in the dark, killing at least four in the crowd and wounding many more. Several police were killed (only one by the bomb), the rest probably by police fire. The myth of the Haymarket Riot was born.
      In the aftermath of the event, unions were raided all across the country. The Eight-Hour Movement was derailed and it was not until passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act in 1935, that the 8-hour workday became the national standard, a part of the Fair Labor Standards Act passed during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "New Deal."
      Albert Parsons and seven others associated with radical organizations were prosecuted in a show trial. None were linked to the unknown bomb thrower, and some were not even present at the time. They were held to be responsible for the bomb thrower's act, because their public criticism of corporate America, the political structure, and the use of police power against the working people, was alleged to have inspired the bomber.

Governor's Pardon
      They were found guilty in a trial which Governor John Peter Altgeld subsequently held to be grossly unfair.
      The Haymarket case became a world-wide scandal. Governor Oglesby was petitioned by hundreds of thousands, including AFL President Samuel Gompers, to grant clemency, and thus prevent a miscarriage of justice by stopping the executions. It was to no avail. They were hanged on 11 November 1887.
      In July of 1889, a delegate from the AFL attending an international labor conference in Paris, urged that 01 May of each year be celebrated as a day of labor solidarity. It was adopted. Accordingly, with the glaring exception of the United States, workers throughout most of the civilized world consider May First to be their "Labor Day."
     On 26 June 1894, Governor John Peter Altgeld, having found the trial to be grossly unfair, pardoned those defendants still alive and in prison; but Parsons, Spies, Fischer, and Engel had been hanged, and Lingg was an alleged suicide [in his prison cell, on the eve of the hanging, by lighting a stick of dynamite in his mouth: how he could get that dynamite is a mystery to me]. — // from http://www.kentlaw.edu/ilhs/haymkmon.htm
1884 Construction begins on Chicago's first skyscraper (10 stories)
1873 First US postal card issued
1867 Reconstruction of South begins, Black voter registration
1863 Confederate Congress passes resolution to kill Black soldiers
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1863 Battle of Port Gibson, Mississippi
1863 Beginning of 4-day Battle of Chancellorsville near Fredericksburg, Virginia
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1857 William Walker, conqueror of Nicaragua, surrenders to US Navy
1845 At a convention in Louisville, KY, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South was organized as a new denomination, separate from its parent, the Methodist Episcopal Church.
1841 First emigrant wagon train leaves Independence, Missouri for California
1840 First adhesive postage stamps ("Penny Blacks", in England) issued
1810 US President empowered to control foreign trade
      During the early 1800s, the United States' relations with both England and France were particularly chilly. US merchant ships had become ensnared in the Napoleonic Wars, prompting Congress and President Thomas Jefferson to take economic action against the British and French governments. However, their decision to seal off trade with Europe proved to be a bad misstep: the embargo caused most domestic merchants to suffer, while some French traders in fact prospered. Legislators moved to rectify the situation by passing the Non-Intercourse Act (1809), which renewed trade relations between America and Europe, save for Britain and France.
      However, America soon reopened the waters to trade with its recalcitrant partners. First, in the spring of 1809, President James Madison lifted the embargo against England; then, on this day in 1810, Congress passed Macon's Bill No. 2, which granted Madison the power to resume trade with England and France. The legislation, which also gave Madison the leeway to slam shut the door to trade with either nation, was hardly a hit at home or abroad: Federalist forces lambasted Macon's Bill, while the French viewed it as a clear demonstration of America's pro-British leanings. The hostilities hardly abated and, a few short years later, Madison sailed the nation into the War of 1812.
^ 1794 Cordwainers Unite!
      The long and turbulent history of America's labor unions officially began on this day in 1794, as a group of shoemakers decided to join forces in the battle for wages and workplace amenities. The shoemakers, who consecrated their new brotherhood by gathering in Philadelphia, christened themselves the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers. The Cordwainers' move to unionize was borne of the shift from "economic clientage" to an open wage system that occurred in America during the late eighteenth century. This change inspired workers such as the shoemakers join forces in hopes of legitimizing their wage scales and guarding against competition from bargain-basement priced labor, craftsmen.
1776 Adam Weishaupt founds the secret society of Illuminati
1707 England, Wales and Scotland form UK of Great Britain
1501 In his encyclical "Ad ea quae circa decorem," Pope Alexander VI sanctioned the Minim Friars, a religious order founded by Francis of Paola (1416-1507) in 1435.
1006 Supernova observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 01 May:

2004 Australian Anthony Richard Mason, 57, another Australian, two US engineers, two Britons, one Saudi national guardsman, and the four gunmen who shoot randomly in the offices of contractor ABB-Lummus at an oil refinery co-owned by Exxon Mobil and the Saudi company SABIC in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.
2003 A US citizen, shot by an attacker wearing a Saudi navy uniform, at the King Abdul Aziz Naval base in Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
2003 Khaled Makhamra, a leader of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade, and a Palestinian policeman, shot by Israeli troops attacking Yata, south of Hebron, West Bank. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 2034 Palestinians and 737 Israelis.
2003 Amer Ayad, 2; the 3 brothers Yusuf Abu Hin, 30, Mahmoud Abu Hin, 37, and Ayman Abu Hin, 29, and 9 other Palestinians, including two 13-year-old boys and a man, 67, in Israeli 03:00-to-16:00 attack (intended to arrest the Abu Hins and other militants) on the Sajayia neighborhood of Gaza City. 15 Palestinians are wounded.
Chandra Levy2003 At least 176 persons, including 83 of the 198 boys in a collapsed school dormitory in Bingol, by magnitude 6.4 earthquake at 03:27 (00:27 UT) with epicenter at 38º58'N 40º28'E at a depth of 10 km, 10 km NNW of Bingol in Turkish-occupied Kurdistan.
Gary Condit2001 Assaf Hershkovitz, 31, killed by the Islamic militant group Hamas in retaliation for Palestinians killed by explosions the previous day. Hershkovitz was a resident of the Jewish enclave settlement of Ofra. His father, Arieh Hershkovitz, had been killed in another West Bank drive-by shooting in January 2001. Hershkovitz's van overturned after shots were fired at the vehicle on a road near the Beit El settlement on the outskirts of the West Bank town of Ramallah. He was wearing a bulletproof vest when he was killed. This brings the body count of the 7-month-old al-Aqsa intifada to 72 Israelis (including 4 non-Jews in Israeli army) and 431 Palestinians (including four suicide bombers, several suspected informers for Israel killed by Palestinian militants, 13 Israeli Arabs killed in pro-Palestinian riots and a German resident of the West Bank).
2001 Chandra Levy [< photo], 24, dies mysteriously, sometime after logging off her computer (where she been consulting a web site about at about Klingle Mansion in Rock Creek Park) at 13:00 in her Washington DC apartment, where her wallet, credit card, computer, and cell phone, but not her keys, remain. Soon the revelation of her love affair with married Congressman Gary Condit [photo >], 54, whose district includes her Modesto, California, home town, propels her disapperance into front-page news (eventually it ruins Condit's political career). On 22 May 2002, the dog of a man looking for turtles in Rock Creek Park a couple of kilometers north of Klingle Mansion (6 km from Levy's apartment) discovers bones, a jogging bra, tennis shoes, and other items that turn out to be the remains of Chandra Levy.
1999 Marcus Omofuma, 25, Nigerian suffocated while being forcibly deported from Austria, where he had sought asylum, by three Austrian police officers on a flight to Sofia. Police officers had bound his arms and legs on the way to the airport and covered his mouth with adhesive tape when he continued his verbal protest on the plane. When they removed the adhesive tape after landing, the officers realised that Marcus Omofuma had lost consciousness. By the time a doctor arrived to treat him.
1998 Eldridge Cleaver, 62, in Pomona, California, fiery Black Panther leader who later renounced his past and became a Republican.
1973 Asger Oluf Jörgensen Jorn, Danish painter, printmaker, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, and writer, also active in France, born on 03 April 1914. — more
^ 1973 Gloria Carpenter, 59,
found dead in her Modesto, California, home. Her body was submerged in the bathtub, initially leading authorities to believe that she had died of natural causes. Her case led to the lie detector test being found not admissible in court.
      A closer examination of the body revealed that Carpenter had been strangled to death and possibly raped. Investigators found that Carpenter had been out drinking with Jimmy Wayne Glenn earlier in the night. Despite their suspicions, police had no evidence connecting Glenn to the murder. Hoping for a clue, they asked Glenn to take a lie detection test with the newly invented Psychological Stress Evaluator.
      The Psychological Stress Evaluator (PSE) is a device that uses the recording of a person's voice to allegedly detect prevarication through ordinarily imperceptible vibrations. Unlike the standard polygraph machine, the PSE does not need to be hooked up to the person. However, as with the polygraph, there are serious doubts as to whether it actually works.
      In 1988, Congress passed the Employee Polygraph Protection Act after scientific studies showed that the tests were inaccurate. The law bars employers' use of lie detectors and other devices that purportedly gauge whether an individual is lying. Lie detection tests are also inadmissible in criminal courts. The most effective use of lie detection devices seems to be that suspects often confess to crimes if they believe that their lies will be discovered by the machine. Although this wasn't the case with Jimmy Wayne Glenn, the PSE examiner was convinced he was lying. The police continued to focus their investigation on Glenn, eventually finding physical evidence that linked him to the crime. Glenn was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.
1959 Oscar Torp Norwegian premier.
1953 Everett Shinn, US painter born on 06 November 1876. — MORE ON SHINN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images. —(070430)
1932 Paul Doumer, President of France, assassinated by Russian Paul Gargalov.
1929 Edouard Eugène François Vallet, Swiss painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 12 January 1876. — more
1928 6 children, by hailstones in Klausenburg, Romania. 10 are injured.
1919 Some 5000 people in 104 small villages, as Mount Kelud (Indonesia) erupts, boiling crater lake which breaks through crater wall.
1915 Neutral US ship Gulflight, sunk by WW I German submarine.
1900 Mihály Munkácsy von Lieb, Hungarian Realist painter born on 20 February 1844. — MORE ON MUNKÁCSY AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
^ 1898 Nearly 400 Spanish sailors at the Battle of Manila Bay
      At the Battle of Manila Bay, a US Navy squadron under Commodore George Dewey wins a decisive victory against a larger Spanish fleet. Four hundred Spanish sailors are killed and ten Spanish warships wrecked or captured at the cost of only six Americans wounded. Dewey’s victory clears the way for the US occupation of Manila in August, and the eventual transfer of the Philippines from Spanish to American control.
      In early 1898, Spain's brutal response to the Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule, the mysterious explosion of the US battleship Maine in Havana harbor, and the heavy losses to American investment caused by the Cuban conflict, were all factors that intensified US feeling against Spain. In late April, the US Congress prepared for war, adopting joint congressional resolutions demanding a Spanish withdrawal from Cuba and authorizing President William McKinley to use force.
      On 23 April, President McKinley asked for 125'000 volunteers to fight against Spain, and the next day Spain issued a declaration of war. One week later, Dewey won his great victory at Manila Bay, and on 11 June, six hundred US Marines landed at Guantanamo, Cuba. In Cuba, American forces, featuring the Theodore Roosevelt-led cavalry regiment known as the "Rough Riders," triumphed at the battles of El Caney and San Juan Heights, and on 03 July, the remaining Spanish fleet was destroyed near Santiago de Cuba.
      On 17 July, nearly 25'000 Spanish soldiers surrendered at Santiago de Cuba, and the war effectively came to an end. An armistice was signed on 12 August, and representatives were sent to Paris, France, to arrange peace. On 10 December, the Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the Spanish-American war, virtually dissolving the once-proud Spanish Empire, and granting the United States its first overseas empire. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded to the United States, and Cuba became a US protectorate. Hawaii, an independent republic run by American expatriates since 1894, was also formally annexed during the Spanish-American War.
     At Manila Bay in the Philippines, the US Asiatic Squadron destroys the Spanish Pacific fleet in the first battle of the Spanish-American War. Nearly 400 Spanish sailors were killed and 10 Spanish warships wrecked or captured at the cost of only six Americans wounded. The Spanish-American War had its origins in the rebellion against Spanish rule that began in Cuba in 1895. The repressive measures that Spain took to suppress the guerrilla war, such as herding Cuba's rural population into disease-ridden garrison towns, were graphically portrayed in US newspapers and enflamed public opinion. In January 1898, violence in Havana led US authorities to order the battleship USS Maine to the city's port to protect US citizens. On 15 February, a massive explosion of unknown origin sank the Maine in the Havana harbor, killing 260 of the 400 US crewmembers aboard. An official US Naval Court of Inquiry ruled in March, without much evidence, that the ship was blown up by a mine but did not directly place the blame on Spain. Much of Congress and a majority of the American public expressed little doubt that Spain was responsible, however, and called for a declaration of war. In April, the US Congress prepared for war, adopting joint congressional resolutions demanding a Spanish withdrawal from Cuba and authorizing President William McKinley to use force.
      On 23 April, President McKinley asked for 125'000 volunteers to fight against Spain. The next day, Spain issued a declaration of war. The United States declared war on 25 April. US Commodore George Dewey, in command of the seven-warship US Asiatic Squadron anchored north of Hong Kong, was ordered to "capture or destroy" the Spanish Pacific fleet, which was known to be in the coastal waters of the Spanish-controlled Philippines. On 30 April, Dewey's lookouts caught sight of Luzon, the main Philippine island. That night, under cover of darkness and with the lights aboard the US warships extinguished, the squadron slipped by the defensive guns of Corregidor Island and into Manila Bay. After dawn rose, the US lookouts sighted the Spanish fleet: 10 out-of-date warships anchored off the Cavite naval station. The US fleet, in comparison, was well armed and well staffed, largely due to the efforts of the energetic assistant secretary of the navy, Theodore Roosevelt, who had also selected Dewey for the command of the Asiatic Squadron.
      At 05:41, at a range of 4900 meters from the enemy, Commodore Dewey turned to the captain of his flagship, the Olympia, and said, “You may fire when you are ready, Gridley.” Two hours later, the Spanish fleet was decimated, and Dewey ordered a pause in the fighting. He met with his captains and ordered the crews a second breakfast. The four surviving Spanish vessels, trapped in the little harbor at Cavite, refused to surrender, and at 11:15. fighting resumed. At 12:30, a signal was sent from the gunboat USS Petrel to Dewey's flagship: "The enemy has surrendered."
      Dewey's decisive victory cleared the way for the US occupation of Manila in August and the eventual transfer of the Philippines from Spanish to US control. In Cuba, Spanish forces likewise crumbled in the face of superior US forces, and on 12 August an armistice was signed between Spain and the United States. In December, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the brief Spanish-US War. The once-proud Spanish empire was virtually dissolved, and the United States gained its first overseas empire. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a US protectorate. Philippine insurgents who fought against Spanish rule during the war immediately turned their guns against the new occupiers, and 10 times more US soldiers died suppressing the Philippines than in defeating Spain.
1897 Louisa Luetgert, murdered by her husband Adolphe Luetgert, who, on 11 March 1897, had had 378 pounds of potash delivered to his sausage factory in Chicago, in which he now boils the corpse. Only a few tiny bone fragments and two gold ring, one engraved with Louisa's name, would be found. Adolphe would be convicted of first-degree murder and die in prison 14 years later.
1886 (or 02 May?) Jerome Thompson, US painter born on 30 January 1814.
1875 Alfred George Stevens, English sculptor, designer, and painter, born on 31 December 1817. — MORE ON STEVENS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1870 Gabriel Lamé, French engineer and mathematician born on 22 July 1795. He worked on a wide variety of different topics. His work on differential geometry and contributions to Fermat's Last Theorem are important. In 1839 he proved the theorem for n=7, ie. that x^7 + y^7 = z^7 has no non-zero integer solutions for x, y and z
1869 A colt, by a meteorite, near New Concord, Ohio.
^ 1794 (12 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire ou militaire de Paris:
BERNARD Claude Antoine, âgé de 32 ans, marchand de bois, né et domicilié à Besançon (Doubs), comme convaincu de conspiration contre l'unité et l'indivisibilité de la République et la sûreté du Peuple français.
MOUTHON François Joseph, âgé de 34 ans, natif de Turin, garde du tyran Sarde, et lieutenant de gendarmerie au service de la République à Carrouge, domicilié à Chambéry (Mont-Blanc), comme contre-révolutionnaire agent des fédéralistes, ayant provoqué une force départementale pour marcher sur Paris.
POULET Jean Antoine, agent de l'émigré Beaufremont commissaire de section à Besançon, âgé de 60 ans, né et domicilié à Besençon (Doubs), comme convaincu d'avoir entretenu des intelligences avec les fédéralistes de Strasbourg.
RABAULT Jacques, négociant armateur, âgé de 56 ans, natif de Jason, département du Tarn, domicilié à Marseille (Bouches du Rhône), comme convaincu de s’être montré un des plus zélés partisans du fédéralisme.
CHALMETON Joseph Ignace, procureur syndic, du district d’Uzès, domicilié à Nismes (Gard).
NOGARET Guillaume, commis marchand épicier, et commissaire de section à Besançon, âgé de 46 ans, natif de Dijon (Côte-d’Or), domicilié à Besançon, (Doubs), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GLUTRON Jean, âgé de 39 ans, né à Braville, aubergiste et entrepreneur des convois militaires, domicilié à Evreux (Eure), comme fournisseur infidèle.
LAUDOIS Pierre, huissier, âgé de 30 ans, né à St Nicolas (Eure), commis de Glutron, entrepreneur des convois, domicilié à Evreux, même département, comme fonctionnaire public infidèle.
DELIGNY Claude Louis, âgé de 59 ans natif de Boutigny (Seine et Marne), cultivateur fermier, domicilié à Pommeuse, même département, comme convaincu d’avoir enfoui quantité de bijoux et assignats.
CHUPIN (ou CAUPIN ou CHUPPIN) Adélaïde Jos., ex noble, âgée de 43 ans, femme de Langlois de Pommeuse, conseiller de grand-chambre au parlement de Paris, domiciliée à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire convaincue d'avoir enfoui quantité d'assignats et bijoux.
LANGLOIS-DE-POMMEUSE Auguste Henri, ex noble, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement, âgé de 59 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
LANGLOIS Auguste Louis (dit Rezy), ancien officier aux gardes, âgé de 46 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme contre révolutionnaire.
SEURRE Gervais (dit Joinville), âgé de 44 ans, natif de Nigueville, domestique de Langlois-Pommeuse, domicilié à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant enterré et enfoui une grande partie d'argenterie et de numéraire de Langlois et sa femme.
VILLECOT Guillaume, jardinier, âgé de 39 ans, natif de Maupertuis, domicilié à Guerard, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir caché de l'argenterie dans le jardin de Langlois-Guerard, et porté chez Deligny du numéraire et des bijoux pour les enfouir.
VIGNIE Etienne, ex chapelain de Langlois de Pommeuse, âgé de 40 ans, né à Rigeaux (Seine et Marne), comme convaincu d'avoir facilité les correspondances et intelligences entretenues par les frères et femme Langlois, avec les ennemis extérieurs de la République.
Domiciliés à Ste Lumine-du-Coutay, département de la Loire Inférieure, par la commission militaire séante à Nantes, comme brigands de la Vendée:
GRELE Pierre. — GUILBOT ClaudePILOT HubertRENAUD PierreVERGER Pierre.
A Arras:
CATAËRT Auguste, âgé de 45 ans, né à Lille, y demeurant, orfèvre joaillier, guillotiné.
DE LAMBESSART Lamoral François Joseph Humbert, âgé de 30 ans, rentier, né et demeurant à Lille.
DELATTRE Joseph, âgé de 50 ans, né à Lagnicourt, demeurant à Etrun, receveur, célibataire.
DELORNE D'ALINCOURT Louis, âgé de 38 ans, né à Paris, cultivateur à Allouagne.
LESUR Barnabé François Henri, âgé de 42 ans, né à Béthune, médecin, demeurant à Lille.
VITRY Elisabeth Caroline, âgée de 80 ans, née à Aire, y demeurant, veuve de Lamette N.
Ailleurs:
BOUTTIER Mathieu Louis, prêtre, domicilié à Mézière, canton de Rennes (Ille et Vilaine), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
BRUGIERE Jean, prêtre domicilié à Sauve-Libre, canton de Besse (Puy-de-Dôme), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DEFUGE Louis, domicilié à Montpellier (Hérault), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
DUDOT Médard, et DUDOT Jean Sébastien, fils de Jean François Xavier, domiciliés à Gorze (Moselle), par le tribunal criminel militaire près de Moselle, comme émigrés.
LIMOGES Leger, ex curé de Bouchaud, domicilié à Bouchaud (Dordogne), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
PORTEFAIX-BORIE André, ex supérieur du séminaire d'Alby, domicilié à Paulhiac (Lozère), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme réfractaire à la loi.
1793 JUZEAU Antoine, âgé de 23 ans, négociant, né et domicilié à Angoulême (Charente), est condamné à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Paris, comme émigré.
1730 François de Troy, French portrait painter born in February 1645. — MORE ON DE TROY AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1171 Dermot MacMurrough, last Irish king of Leinster
 
< 30 Apr 02 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 01 May:
 
^ 1971 Amtrak starts operations.
     In the US during the 1940s the passenger train began fighting a battle against the airplane and private automobile. By the 1960s the passenger train was rarely considered as a means of travel. Schedules were erratic, trains were run down, and more often than not the journey was a miserable experience. Then, in October, 1970, in an attempt to revive passenger rail service, Congress passed the Rail Passenger Service Act, which created the National Railroad Passenger Corporationo a private company. It is better known as Amtrak, a blending of the words "American" and "Track".
      On 01 May 1971, with 25 employees, Amtrak begins managing a nation-wide rail system dedicated to passenger service, as Clocker no. 235 departs from New York's Penn Station at 00:05 bound for Philadelphia. Amtrak announces a schedule of 184 trains, serving 314 destinations. Two of the original employees would be among the 25'000 of the year 2000, when Amtrak would be serving with 265 trains per weekday (excluding commuter trains) more than 500 stations in all US states except Alaska, Hawaii, Maine, South Dakota, and Wyoming.
     Amtrak takes over the passenger operations of 18 US intercity passenger railroads. The other three would continue their own intercity passenger train service for some time. They are the Rock Island Railroad, the Southern Railway, and the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad. The Southern Railway would ceased operations of its Southern Crescent in 1979, which Amtrak would take over, renaming it the Crescent. The Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad would cease passenger train operations in 1983, and Amtrak would replace them by re-routing its California Zephyr.
1940 Felipe Arizmendi Esquivel, in Chiltepec, Mexico. He was ordained a priest of the diocese of Toluca on 25 August 1963, consecrated a bishop for Tapachula, Chiapas, on 07 March 1991; appointed Bishop of San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, on 31 May 2000 and installed there on his 60th birthday. — (051119)
^ 1931 Empire State Building opens
      At the White House in Washington DC, President Herbert Hoover pushed a button that turned on the lights of New York City’s Empire State Building, officially opening the tallest building ever built until 41 years later. Standing 102 stories, or 443 m from the top of its lightning rod to 34th Street and Fifth Avenue below, the skyscraper became a world-famous symbol of US ambition, and dominated the Manhattan skyline for decades. Designed by architect William Frederick Lamb, the Empire State Building was constructed during the height of the Great Depression, but took just over a year to complete at a cost of only forty million dollars. In 1950, a 62-meter television transmitter-tower was constructed on the building’s roof. Although the Empire State Building was surpassed as the world’s tallest building in 1972 by New York’s first World Trade Center tower, and later by others (see below) it remained a top-ten tourist destination for US travelers.
     Every year there is a race up the 1575 steps from the Lobby to the 86th floor. Paul Crake, from Australia, finished in a record 9 min. 53 sec. in 2000. The elevator can do it in 45 sec.
From left to right, in the above scale drawing, the buildings are:
CN Tower (553 m, Toronto), World Financial Center (468 m, Shanghai), Petronas Towers (twin; 452 m, Kuala Lumpur), Sears Tower (443 m, Chicago), Jin Mao Building (420 m, Shanghai), [World Trade Center (twin; 417 m, New York) destroyed on 11 September 2001], Empire State Building (381 m), Central Plaza (Hong Kong), Bank of China (369 m, Hong Kong), Tuntex and Chein-Tai Tower (Kaoshiung), Amoco Building (346 m, Chicago), John Hancock Tower (344 m, Chicago), Shun Hing Square (325 m, Shenzen), Sky Central Plaza (322 m, Guangzhou), Baiyoke Tower II (Bangkok), Chrysler Building (319 m, New York), NationsBank Plaza (Atlanta), First Interstate World Center (310 m, Los Angeles), ATandT Corporate Center (Chicago), Texas Commerce Tower (305 m, Houston).
P.S. A discussion of the many meanings of "the tallest structure in the world".
1933 The Catholic Worker, first issue is published. Founded by Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin, the monthly newspaper will promote social reconstruction through shared farming and housing for the urban poor.
^ 1925 “The Thoroughbred of Racing Cars” slogan
      Ettore Bugatti registers both the slogan "Le Pur Sang Des Automobiles," and the thoroughbred racing horse profile, as French trademarks.
      The year before, Bugatti had produced the breakthrough sports car on which his historic reputation is founded. The Bugatti 35, often called the most beautiful car ever designed, was the first sports car capable of reaching 160 km/h. Equipped with a hollow front axle, cast aluminum wheels, and cable-actuated brakes, the Bugatti 35's lightweight aluminum body panels tapered gracefully in a continuous line from grill to tail. The Type 35 won 351 races and broke forty-seven records in 1926, living up to its description as the thoroughbred of automobiles.
1924 Terry Southern, US novelist and screenwriter who died on 29 October 1995.
^ 1923 Joseph Heller,
near Coney Island in Brooklyn, author of Catch-22. His father, a Russian immigrant who drove a bakery delivery truck, died when Heller was five. Heller attended Abraham Lincoln High School in Brooklyn and worked as a filing clerk and blacksmith's assistant before enlisting in the Army. He trained as a bombardier and flew 60 combat missions near the end of World War II. While in the military, he ran across an apparent paradox in Army regulations. A pilot could be grounded if found insane, but if the pilot requested to be grounded because of insanity, the Army considered him perfectly sane for wanting to avoid danger-and wouldn't ground him. This paradox defined his first novel, the satirical masterpiece Catch-22 (1961).
      After the war, Heller attended college on the GI Bill, earning a master's degree from Columbia and studying at Oxford for a year on a Fulbright scholarship. During the next decade, he taught English at Penn State, wrote advertising copy for Time and Look magazines, and later worked as a promotions manager at McCall's. He wrote Catch 22 in his spare time, over the course of eight years. The book wasn't an overnight success, but it became increasingly popular as the anti-war protest movements of the 1960s caught fire. Catch-22 became known as the first great protest novel after World War II. Heller's subsequent six novels, including Something Happened (1974), Good as Gold (1979), God Knows (1984), and Closing Time (1994), never achieved the popularity of Catch 22. Meanwhile, in 1982, Heller's marriage ended, and he was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome, a potentially fatal muscular disease. He spent a year in the hospital and recuperating at home. At the end of the year, he married his nurse.
Guillain-Barre Syndrome:
     Guillain-Barre Syndrome (acute idiopathic polyneuritis) is a very rare, rapidly progressive disorder causing inflammation of the nerves (polyneuritis) and paralysis. Although the precise cause of Guillain-Barre Syndrome is unknown, a viral or respiratory infection precedes the onset of the syndrome in about half of the cases. This has led to the theory that Guillain-Barre Syndrome may be an autoimmune disease. Damage to the covering of nerve cells (myelin) and nerve axons (the extension of the nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the nerve cell body) results in delayed nerve signal transmission. There is a corresponding weakness in the muscles innervated by the affected nerves.
^ 1912 Winthrop Rockefeller, US politician and philanthropist, who died on 22 February 1973. He was the second youngest of the five sons of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. [29 Jan 1874 – 11 May 1960].
      He left college in 1934 and did various kinds of work for the Rockefeller interests, in the oil fields of Texas and at the Chase National Bank, before joining the US Army in 1941. After World War II he became part of New York's cafe society before moving to Arkansas in 1953, where he eventually built an enormous experimental farm called Winrock. There he engaged in various local philanthropic ventures.
      Becoming Republican governor of Arkansas (1967–1971), he secured passage of the state's first minimum-wage law, introduced extensive prison reforms, and took significant steps toward the desegregation of state schools. His philanthropies in Arkansas included $1'250'000 for a model school, financing of civic projects and medical clinics, and contributions to the building of the Arts Center at Little Rock.
1912 , US philanthropist and governor of Arkansas (1967-1971). He died on 22 February 1973.
^ 1900 Secondino Tranquilli “Ignazio Silone
       An Italian, he would become a writer, leftist politician, possibly secret agent, and died on 22 August 1978.
     Secondino Tranquilli lost his father in 1910, then a brother, and his mother in the January 1915 earthquake in the Marsica region. By age 18, he became a socialist militant, and in 1921 took part in the foundation of the Partito Comunista Italiano, and wrote for party newspapers. From 1921 to 1927 he accomplished missions of the Communist Party in various European countries, and was imprisoned a couple of times. On 13 April 1928 his brother Romolo Tranquilli was arrested as a suspect in the assination attempt on king Vittorio Emanuele III (which resulted in 20 persons killed and 40 wounded, and whose real culprits have never been discovered); Romolo died in prison in 1932 from the tortures inflicted by the fascist police). It seems that Silone, a high ranking Communist by then, became a double agent for the fascist police (so as to alleviate the fate of his brother).
      In a letter of 13 April 1930, Silone announces that he intends to end both his membership in the Communist Party (whose “cretino e criminale” adhesion to Stalinism he rejected) and his collaboration with the fascist police. Silone spent 1931 to 1944 in exile in Switzerland. His most famous novel is Fontamara (published in 1933, first in German). He wrote also Un viaggio a Parigi (6 short stories, 1935), the novels Vino e pane (1937) and Il Seme Sotto la Neve (1941), the essay Il fascismo, le sue origini e il suo sviluppo (1934); the political phisosophy work La scuola dei dittatori (1938), the antology Nuovo incontro con Mazzini (1939), the play Ed egli si nascose (1944, written in Swiss internment imposed because of his clandestine socialist political activities). Disappointed by political parties, he returned to writing: three novels: Una manciata di more (1952), Il segreto di Luca (1956), La volpe e le camelie (1960); a volume of essays and short stories Uscita di Sicurezza (1949); a play: L'avventura di un povero cristiano (1968); his last novel La speranza di Suor Severina (posthumously, 1981).
1898 Eugene Black, US financier; president of the World Bank (1949-62). He died on 20 February 1992.
1896 Mark Clark, US army general during World War II and the Korean War. He died on 17 April 1984.
^ 1887 Alan G. Cunningham,
who grew up to be commander of the British forces that captured Ethiopia in World War II, liberating it from its Italian occupiers.
      The younger brother of Admiral Andrew Cunningham, the man who effectively eliminated the Italian naval threat in the Mediterranean as early as 1940, General Alan Cunningham did virtually the same to the Italian threat in Ethiopia. Overcoming topographical and administrative obstacles, Cunningham's forces entered Italian Somaliland, occupied the ports of Chisimaio and Mogadiscio, and then pursued the Axis enemy into the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa. On May 20, 1941, along with General Sir William Platt, whose army was advancing on the Italian invaders from the north, Cunningham received the surrender of Amadeo di Savoia, commander of the Italian armies. The way was paved for the return of Ethiopia's emperor, Haile Selassie. Cunningham was less successful in campaigns in Libya and was finally relieved of his command. He returned to England and in 1941 was knighted for the successes he had enjoyed. He went on to become British high commissioner in Palestine from 1945 until Israel's independence in 1948. His autobiography, A Sailor's Odyssey, was published in 1951.
1881 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, French philosopher and paleontologist, who died on 10 April 1955.
1865 Frans Mortelmans, Belgian artist who (mortal man's fate) died in 1936.
1858 Charles Vetter, German artist who died in 1936.
1855 Cecilia Beaux, US portrait painter who died on 17 September 1942. — more with links to images.
1848 Adelsteen Eilert Normann (or Normand), Norwegian artist who died in 1918.
^ 1830 Mary Harris Jones “Mother Jones”
in Ireland, one of the most passionate and enduring figures in the US union movement.
      Jones immigrated to the United States and married an ironworker. Her involvement with labor was sparked by twin tragedies in the latter half of the nineteenth century: Jones lost her husband in 1867, and then all her worldly goods in the Chicago fire of 1871. Left in a seemingly desperate bind, Jones sought help from the Knights of Labor, then a nascent labor organization enjoying its first fruits of success. Jones identified with the Knights’ push to ameliorate workers' lives, and readily lent her help to their cause. She proved to be a fierce organizer and a tremendous public speaker, inspiring crowds of workers to join forces with the labor movement.
      By 1890, Jones had became one of the flag-bearers for the United Mine Workers, crusading in the name of organizing and aiding the nation's coal miners. Jones died on 30 November 1930, just as the US and its workers were descending into the depths of the Great Depression.
1829 José Alencar, Brazilian journalist, novelist, and playwright, who died on 12 December 1877.
1828 George Clarkson Stanfield, British artist who died on 22 March 1878.
1827 Jules Adolphe Aimé Louis Breton, French Realist painter who died on 05 July 1906. — MORE ON BRETON AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1825 George Innes I, US Hudson River School painter who died on 03 August 1894. — MORE ON INNES AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1825 Johann Jakob Balmer, Swiss mathematician who died on 12 March 1898. He is best remembered not fon mathematics which occupied most of his life, but for his work on spectral series and his 1885 formula for the wavelengths of the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom l = hm² / (m² - n²), which for m - 3, 4, 5, 6, fitted the data he had; and which correctly predicted the lines for m= 7, and the next few values.
1813 Abraham Hulk I, Dutch British artist who died on 14 November 1884.
1785 Guillaume-François Colson, French artist who died on 03 February 1850.
^ 1769 Arthur Wesley, Duke of Wellington, who died on 14 September 1852, British army commander during the Napoleonic Wars and later prime minister of Great Britain (1828–1830). He first rose to military prominence in India, won successes in the Peninsular War in Spain (1808–1814), and shared in the victory over Napoléon [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821] at the Battle of Waterloo (1815).
     Wellington twice reached the zenith of fame with a period of unexampled odium intervening. By defeating Napoleon at Waterloo he became the conqueror of the world's conqueror. After Waterloo he joined a repressive government, and later, as prime minister, he resisted pressure for constitutional reform. False pride, however, never prevented him from retreating either on the field or in Parliament, and for the country's sake he supported policies that he personally disapproved. In old age he was idolized as an incomparable public servant—the Great Duke. Reaction came after his death. He has been rated an over-cautious general and, once, Britain's worst 19th-century prime minister. Today there is widespread appreciation of his military genius and of his character as an honest and selfless politician, uncorrupted by vast prestige.
     Born in Dublin, Arthur Wesley (from 1798: Wellesley) was the fifth son of the 1st earl of Mornington. Too withdrawn to benefit from his Eton schooling, he was sent to a military academy in France, being, in his widowed mother's words, “food for powder and nothing more.” At the age of 18 he was commissioned in the army and appointed aide-de-camp to the Irish viceroy. In 1790–1797 he held the family seat of Trim in the Irish Parliament. At 24, though in debt, he proposed to Catherine (Kitty) Pakenham but was rejected. Arthur abandoned heavy gambling to concentrate on his profession. As lieutenant colonel of the 33rd Foot by purchase, he saw active service in Flanders (1794–1795), learning from his superiors' blunders. After failing to obtain civil employment, he was glad to be posted to India in 1796.
      In India he adopted a regimen of abstemiousness and good humor. The arrival of his eldest brother, Richard Wellesley [20 Jun 1760 – 26 Sep 1842], as viceroy enabled him to exploit his talents. He commanded a division against Tipu Sultan of Mysore and became governor of Mysore (1799) and commander in chief against the Marathas. Victories, especially at Assaye (1803), resulted in a peace that he himself negotiated. All the successful qualities he later exhibited on European battlefields were developed in India: decision, common sense, and attention to detail; care of his soldiers and their supplies; and good relations with the civilian population. Napoleon was unwise in later writing him off as a mere “Sepoy general.” Wellesley returned to England in 1805 with a knighthood.
      Wellesley's new assignments were disappointing: an abortive expedition to Hanover, followed by a brigade at Hastings. But he felt he must serve wherever duty required. One dutywas to marry his faded Kitty in 1806; another was to enter Parliament in order to repel radical attacks on his brother's Indian record. He spent two years in Ireland as Tory chief secretary. On a brief military expedition in Copenhagen (1807), a welcome break, he defeated a small Danish force. When in 1808 the Portuguese rose against Napoleon, Wellesley was ordered to support them.
      Wellesley did not intend to be “half beaten before the battle began”, the usual effect on continental armies of Napoleon's supremacy. With “steady troops” he expected to master the French attack. His “thin red line” of British infantry did indeed defeat the columns of Gen. Andoche Junot [23 Oct 1771 – 29 Jul 1813] at Vimeiro (21 August 1808), but the arrival of two superior British officers prevented a pursuit because they preferred to sign the unpopular convention of Sintra, whereby Junot's army was repatriated. Public outcry brought about the court-martial of Wellesley and his colleagues. Though acquitted, Wellesley returned to Ireland as chief secretary. After the British evacuated Spain, however, he persuaded the government to let him renew hostilities in 1809, arguing that Portugal could still be held, a decision that was crucial to Europe. Landing at Lisbon, he surprised Marshal Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult [29 Mar 1769 – 26 Nov 1851], captured Oporto, and chased the French back into Spain; but a joint Anglo-Spanish advance on Madrid failed, despite a victory at Talavera (27 Jul and 28 Jul 1809). Though rewarded with a peerage for his offensive, Viscount Wellington retreated with his greatly outnumbered force to his Portuguese base, defeating Marshal André Masséna at Bussaco on the way (27 September 1810). He had secretly fortified the famous “lines of Torres Vedras” across the Lisbon peninsula. Masséna's evacuation of Portugal in the spring of 1811 and the loss of Fuentes de Oñoro (03 May to 05 May 1811) triumphantly justified Wellington's defensive, scorched-earth policy and confirmed his soldiers' trust in him. He was nicknamed “nosey” by his men, and “the beau” by his officers, for his slim 175-cm height, the perfectly cut civilian clothes he preferred to wear, his wavy brown hair, and brilliant blue eyes.
      His slowly growing army was not strong enough to capture the Spanish fortresses of Ciudad-Rodrigo and Badajoz until 1812. Then, having defeated “40'000 Frenchmen in 40 minutes” at Salamanca (22 July 1812), he entered Madrid (12 August 1812). His siege of Burgos failed and his army retreated again to Portugal, from which it was launched for the last time into Spain in May 1813. After a dash across the peninsula, he brought the French to bay at Vitoria, routing them and capturing all their baggage (21 June 1813). This glittering prize was too much for the victors, who let the French escape into the Pyrenees, while Wellington denounced his drunken troops as “the scum of the earth.” The victory at Vitoria gave impetus to the European alliance against Napoleon, and Soult's initial success in the Pyrenees could not prevent Wellington from taking San Sebastián and Pamplona. Whey dry weather came, Wellington invaded France, crossing the river lines one after another until on April 10, 1814, he stormed into Toulouse, thus ending the Peninsular War. (Four days earlier Napoleon had abdicated.) Already marquess and field marshal, he was now created a duke, with the nation'sgift of £500,000 and later of Stratfield Saye in Hampshire to keep up his position.
      With Napoleon on Elba, Wellington was appointed ambassador to the restored Bourbon court of Louis XVIII. In February 1815 he took the place of Viscount Castlereagh, the foreign secretary, at the Congress of Vienna, but, before delegates could finish their peacemaking, Napoleon had escaped, landing in France (01 March 1815) and begun his Hundred Days. The victory of Wellington and the Prussian field marshal Gebhard Leberecht Blücher on 18 June 1815 at Waterloo established the Duke as Europe's most renowned, if not most jubilant, hero. “I hope to God that I have fought my last battle,” he said, weeping for the fallen. “It is a bad thing to be always fighting.” His hope was fulfilled. As commander in chief during the occupation of France, he opposed a punitive peace, organized loans to rescue French finances, and advised withdrawal of the occupying troops after three years. For these wise policies he won the gratitude of the peace congress, returning home in 1818 with the batons (symbol of field marshal) of six foreign countries.
     Wellington's experiences abroad prevented him from ever becoming a party politician. Though he joined the Earl of Liverpool's Tory cabinet as master general of the ordnance, he exempted himself from automatically opposing a subsequent Whig government: “a factious opposition,” he argued, “is highly injurious to the interests of the country.” His identification with the party of law and order, however, increased when postwar discontent boiled over in the 16 August 1819 Peterloo Massacre at a Manchester demonstration for parliamentary reform and the Cato Street Conspiracy, a plot to murder the Cabinet. The popular George Canning [11 Apr 1770 – 08 Aug 1827] succeeded Viscount Castlereagh [18 Jun 1769 – 12 Aug 1822] as foreign secretary in 1822. Despite Canning's antipathy to the congress system, Wellington himself overbore the personal objections of George IV [12 Aug 1762 – 26 Jun 1830] to him, believing that the system was by now unshakably established. When Canning extricated Britain from its European commitments, Wellington was left to bitter self-reproach. His own diplomatic failures at the Congress of Verona (20 Oct 1822 – 14 Dec 1822), at which he vainly sought to heal dissension among the European allies, and in Russia (1826) increased his chagrin. Straightforward to a fault, Wellington was unsuited to carrying out Canning's subtle policies, but he gained respect abroad as an honest man.
      In 1825 Wellington turned to Ireland's problem, formulating it as a basic dilemma: political violence would end only after the Catholics' claim to sit in Parliament, known as Catholic Emancipation, had been granted; yet the Protestant establishment, or ascendancy, must be preserved. He worked privately at a solution, by which a papal concordat to ensure at least minimum control of Catholic clergy would be the precondition of Emancipation. When Canning, an unqualified Emancipator, became prime minister in April 1827, however, Wellington felt that Protestant ascendancy was in jeopardy. He and Robert Peel [05 Feb 1788 – 02 Jul 1850] headed a mass exodus from the government, Wellington also resigning his command of the army. This action was interpreted as pique at the King's choosing his rival for prime minister. In denying the allegation, Wellington rashly asserted that he, a soldier, would be “worse than mad” to consider himself fit for the premiership. After Canning's death, he resumed his army command. Within five months Canning's successor, Frederich John Robinson Viscount Goderich [01 Nov 1782 – 28 Jan 1859], had given up the task, and on 09 January 1828, the King summoned the Duke of Wellington.
      The Duke's aim was to achieve a strong and balanced government by reuniting the Tory Party.Having reluctantly resigned again as commander in chief, he invited the Canningites, headedby William Huskisson [11 Mar 1870 – 15 Sep 1830], to serve, while dropping the ultra-Tories as incompatible with his policy of moderation. With the right wing thus alienated, a chasm began to open on the left. The opposition's demand for extensive reforms met with sympathy from Huskisson's group. Wisely, the Duke retreated, first on a church issue, himself reforming the Test and CorporationActs that penalized Nonconformists, and again on a Corn Law (prohibiting importation of cheaper foreign grains) question, introducing a more liberal reform than he and the agricultural interest desired. Shortly afterward, however, he collided head-on with the Huskissonites on parliamentary reform; the whole group resigned in May. A further crisis immediately arose during the by-election in Clare, Ireland, where William Vesey-Fitzgerald, Huskisson's ministerial successor, defending his seat, was defeated by Daniel O'Connell, the Irish Catholic leader. The defeat of Vesey-Fitzgerald, a popular pro-Catholic, carried an alarming moral for the Duke: until Emancipation was granted, no Tory would win in southern Ireland. There might well be civil war. In August 1828 Wellington therefore undertook the most exacting political duty of his career—the conversion of George IV, Peel, who was now leader of the Commons, and a majority of Tories to Catholic Emancipation, a reform that they had hitherto regarded as anathema. It took six months of indefatigable persuasion behind closed doors to win over the King. Peel's position was equally problematic, as a publicly declared Protestant, he clung to the idea of supporting Emancipation only from the back benches; but finally Wellington's patience and Peel's generosity prevailed, and he agreed to continue leading the Commons. A number of ultra-Tories defied to the last Wellington's order to “right-about face,” but the majority of the party obeyed. So in April 1829, though the Tories were split, Catholic Emancipation became law, the Duke's greatest political victory, with melodrama being added by his fighting a duel with an abusive ultra-Tory, the Earl of Winchilsea.
      Wellington has sometimes been criticized for inconsistency. It now appears that he was merely secretive in not taking the public into his confidence much earlier. His willingness for some form of Emancipation by 1825 might with advantage have been disclosed.
     A demand for further changes, already stimulated by Wellington's own achievements, was powerfully reinforced by countrywide hardship during 1829–1830 and canalized by Charles Grey, the 2nd Earl Grey [13 Mar 1764 – 17 Jul 1845], the Whig leader, into fresh moves for parliamentary reform that would allow industrial towns like Birmingham to have a voice in Parliament, in place of pocketboroughs owned by the nobility and gentry. Expression of dissatisfaction with Wellington's fatalistic attitude toward poverty and unemployment was made possible when the accession of William IV in 1830, following George IV's death, provided a general election. France's bourgeois revolution that same year, the July Revolution, greatly encouraged British reformers. Though Wellington's ministry survived, it was weakened, and Huskisson's sudden death frustrated tentative plans for reconciliation. Wellington saw parliamentary reform not as a panacea but as constitutional suicide. A fortnight before the opening of Parliament he wrote a letter to a friend denouncing reform as ruinous and disclosing his unalterable decision to oppose it. He staggered Parliament on 02 November 1830 with an uncompromising declaration against any reform whatever. A combination of reformers and vengeful ultra-Tories defeated him on 15 November 1830. Peel made him resign the next day. He was succeeded by Grey.
      As a soldier Wellington had shown uncanny ability in guessing what lay “on the other side of the hill.” Through lack of political imagination, however, he saw revolution beyond the hill of reform, “revolution by due course of law.” For this delusion he was deservedly called reactionary.
     In opposition, the Duke proceeded to thwart Grey's attempts to get a reform bill through the Lords. Wellington's windows were twice smashed by radical mobs, and his iron shutters helped form the image of an iron duke. The titanic struggle culminated in the crisis of May 1832, which promised to end like the July Revolution of France. The King refused to create enough new peers to overwhelm the hostile Lords, Grey resigned, and Wellington failed to recruit an alternative government. Faced by tumultuous deadlock, Wellington, still opposing reform, then retreated for the sake of the country, persuading his followers to join him in absenting himself from Parliament until the Reform Bill became law in June. He was mobbed nonetheless by an angry crowd on Waterloo Day. “An odd day to choose,” was his only comment.
      The Duke's abstention had saved the Lords, and, as long as he led the Tory peers, he continued to steer them away from fatal clashes with the Commons. Whenever possible he supported the King's government. In 1834 William IV dismissed the Whigs by a political coup, summoning the Duke to form a ministry; but the 65-year-old duke replied that Peel must be prime minister. This abnegation, most rare in a politician, did not go unappreciated. He served under Peel as foreign secretary (1834–1835) and as minister without portfolio (1841–1846). He also served as chancellor of Oxford, constable of the Tower, lord-lieutenant of Hampshire, and elder brother and later master of Trinity House, not to mention a father figure to Queen Victoria [24 May 1819 – 22 Jan 1901]. He made a mistake in holding the chief command of the army throughout his last 10 years, because he was past initiating the reforms that were later sorely needed. Nevertheless, he showed a touch of his old genius in 1848, when his calm handling of a threatened Chartist rising prevented any violence. Thanks to his again ordering the peers to “right-about face,” this time over the Corn Laws, he enabled Peel to abolish them. Wellington retired from public life after 1846, though he was still consulted by all parties. Apsley House, his town residence at Hyde Park Corner, was known as No. 1 London. As lord warden of the Cinque Ports, he died at Walmer Castle, his favorite residence, from a stroke.
      The phrase “retained servant of King and people” and variants of it were used repeatedly by the Duke of himself and aptly suggest the self-dedication for which he is chiefly honored. Many amusing personal peculiarities in clothes and correspondence, together with a gift for repartee, made him a “character” as well as a hero. “Publish and be damned!” was his famousretort to a blackmailer. His marriage was not happy: Kitty both feared him and worshipped him to excess. She died on 24 April 1831. Of his two sons, the elder edited his latest Despatches and the younger produced the grandchildren to whom he was devoted, as he was to all children. His intense friendships with Harriet (the wife of Charles) Arbuthnot, Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, and others showed that he could have been happy with a clever woman; perhaps he was happiest of all, however, in the camaraderie of his staff, his military family. Some modern historians have objected to the posthumous title Iron Duke on the reasonable grounds that he was neither cold nor hardhearted. Yet he himself often boasted ofhis iron hand in maintaining discipline. His engaging simplicity and extraordinary lack of vanity were expressed in a favorite saying, “I am but a man.”
1697 David Mathieu, German artist who died on 08 June 1755.
1682 Paris Observatory inaugurated by Louis XIV and his court.
^ 1672 Joseph Addison , English essayist, poet, and dramatist, who died on 17 June 1719.
      Addison was a leading contributor to and guiding spirit of the periodicals The Tatler and The Spectator. His writing skill led to his holding important posts in government while the Whigs were in power.
     Addison was the eldest son of the Reverend Lancelot Addison, later archdeacon of Coventry and dean of Lichfield. After schooling in Amesbury and Salisbury and at Lichfield Grammar School, he was enrolled at the age of 14 in the Charterhouse in London. Here began his almost-lifelong friendship with Richard Steele [1672 – 01 Sep 1729], who later became his literary collaborator. Both went on to the University of Oxford, where Addison matriculated at Queen's College in May 1687. Through distinction in Latin verse he won election as Demy to Magdalen College in 1689 and took the degree of M.A. in 1693. He was a fellow from 1697 to 1711. At Magdalen he spent 10 years as tutor in preparation for a career as a scholar and man of letters. In 1695 A Poem to his Majesty (William III), with a dedication to Lord Keeper Somers, the influential Whig statesman, brought favourable notice not only from Somers but also Charles Montague (later Earl of Halifax), who saw in Addison a writer whose services were of potential use to the crown. A treasury grant offered him opportunity for travel and preparation for government service. He also attained distinction by contributing the preface to Virgil's Georgics, in the great 1697 translation by John Dryden [19 Aug 1631 – 12 May 1700].
      The European tour (1699–1704) enabled Addison not only to become acquainted with English diplomats abroad but also to meet contemporary European men of letters. After time in France, he spent the year 1701 in leisurely travel in Italy, during which he wrote the prose Remarks on Several Parts of Italy (1705; rev. ed. 1718) and the poetic epistle A Letter from Italy (1704). From Italy Addison crossed into Switzerland, where, in Geneva, he learned in March 1702 of the death of William III and the consequent loss of power of his two chief patrons, Somers and Halifax. He then toured through Austria, the German states, and the Netherlands before returning to England in 1704.
     In London Addison renewed his friendship with Somers and Halifax and other members of the Kit-Cat Club, which was an association of prominent Whig leaders and literary figures of the day, among them Steele, William Congreve, and Sir John Vanbrugh. In August 1704 London was electrified {to the despair of sellers of candles and lamp oil?} by the news of the Duke of Marlborough's sweeping victory over the French at Blenheim (13 Aug 1704), and Addison was approached by government leaders to write a poem worthy of the great occasion. Addison was meanwhile appointed commissioner of appeals in excise, a sinecure left vacant by the death of John Locke. The Campaign, addressed to Marlborough, was published on 14 December 1704 (though dated 1705). By its rejection of conventional classical imagery and its effective portrayal of Marlborough's military genius, it was an immediate success that perfectly expressed the nation's great hour of victory.
      The Whig success in the election of May 1705, which saw the return of Somers and Halifax to the Privy Council, brought Addison increased financial security in an appointment as undersecretary to the secretary of state, a busy and lucrative post. Addison's retention in a new, more powerful Whig administration in the autumn of 1706 reflected his further rise in government service. At this time he began to see much of Steele, helping him write the play The Tender Husband (1705). In practical ways Addison also assisted Steele with substantial loans and the appointment as editor of the official London Gazette. In 1708 Addison was elected to Parliament for Lostwithiel in Cornwall, and later in the same year he was made secretary to the Earl of Wharton, the new lord lieutenant of Ireland. Addison's post was in effect that of secretary of state for Irish affairs, with a revenue of some £2000 a year. He served as Irish secretary until August 1710.
     It was during Addison's term in Ireland that his friend Steele began publishing The Tatler, which appeared three times a week under the pseudonym of Isaac Bickerstaff. Though at first issued as a newspaper presenting accounts of London's political, social, and cultural news, thisperiodical soon began investigating English manners and society, establishing principles of ideal behaviour and genteel conduct, and proposing standards of good taste for the general public. The first number of The Tatler appeared on 12 April 1709, while Addison was still in England; but while still in Ireland he began contributing to the new periodical. Back in London in September 1709, he supplied most of the essays during the winter of 1709–1710 before returning to Ireland in May.
      The year 1710 saw the overturn of the Whigs from power and a substantial Tory victory at the polls. Although Addison easily retained his seat in the Commons, his old and powerful patrons were again out of favor, and, for the first time since his appointment as undersecretary in 1705, Addison found himself without employment. He was thus able to devote even more time to literary activity and to cultivation of personal friendships not only with Steele and other Kit-Cats but, for a short period, with Jonathan Swift, until Swift's shift of allegiance to the rising Tory leaders resulted in estrangement. Addison continued contributing to the final numbers of The Tatler, which Steele finally brought to a close on 02 January 1711. Addison had written more than 40 of The Tatler's total of 271 numbers and had collaborated with Steele on another 36 of them.
      Thanks to Addison's help The Tatler was a success. By the end of 1710 Steele had enough material for a collected edition of The Tatler. Thereupon, he and Addison decided to make a fresh start with a new periodical. The Spectator, which appeared six days a week, from 01 March 1711 to 06 December 1712, offered a wide range of material to its readers, from discussion of the latest fashions to serious disquisitions on criticism and morality, including Addison's weekly papers on John Milton's Paradise Lost and the series on the “pleasures of the imagination.” From the first Addison was the leading spirit in The Spectator's publication, contributing 274 numbers in all. In bringing learning “out of closets and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables, and in coffee-houses,” The Spectator was eminently successful. One feature of The Spectator that deserves particular mention is itscritical essays, in which Addison sought to elevate public taste. He devoted a considerable proportion of his essays to literary criticism, which was to prove influential in the subsequent development of the English novel. His own gift for drawing realistic human characters found brilliant literary expression in the members of the Spectator Club, in which such figures as Roger de Coverley, Captain Sentry, Sir Andrew Freeport, and the Spectator himself represent important sections of contemporary society. More than 3000 copies of The Spectator were published daily, and the 555 numbers were then collected into seven volumes. Two years later (from 18 June to 20 December 1714), Addison published 80 additional numbers, with the help of two assistants, and these were later reprinted as volume eight. Addison's other notable literary production during this period was his tragedy Cato. Performed at Drury Lane on 14 April 1713, the play was a resounding success, largely, no doubt, becauseof the political overtones that both parties read into the play. To the Whigs Cato seemed the resolute defender of liberty against French tyranny, while the Tories were able to interpret the domineering Caesar as a kind of Roman Marlborough whose military victories were a threat to English liberties. The play enjoyed an unusual run of 20 performances in April and May 1713 and continued to be performed throughout the century.
      With the death of Queen Anne on 01 August 1714, and the accession of George I, Addison's political fortunes rose. He was appointed secretary to the regents (who governed until the arrival of the new monarch from Hanover) and in April 1717 was made secretary of state. Ill health, however, forced him to resign the following year. Meanwhile, he had married the dowager Countess of Warwick and spent the remaining years of his life in comparative affluence at Holland House in Kensington. A series of political essays, The Free-Holder, or Political Essays, was published from 23 December 1715 to 29 June 1716, and his comedy The Drummer was produced at Drury Lane on 10 March 1716.
      Meanwhile, Addison had a quarrel with the most gifted satirist of the age, Alexander Pope [21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744], who after Addison's death would make him the subject of one of the most celebrated satiric “characters” in the English language. In 1715 Pope had been angered by Addison's support of a rival translation of the Iliad by Thomas Tickell, and in 1735 Pope published “An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,” in which there appears a notable portrait of Addison as a narcissistic and envious man of letters. A second quarrel further embittered Addison; the dispute over a bill for restricting the peerage, in which he and Steele took opposing sides, estranged the two friends during the last year of Addison's life.
      .
1567 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt, Dutch painter who died on 27 June 1641. — MORE ON MIEREVELT AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1493 Phillippus Paracelsus Switzerland, physician/alchemist (or 11/10)
 
Holidays  66 nations : Labor Day / Zambia : Labour Day (Monday ) / Finland : Vappu Day / Hawaii : Lei Day / Mass : Senior Citizens' Day (1963) / US : Child Health Day / US : Dewey Day (Battle of Manila Bay) (1898) / Turkey : Commemoration of Yunus Emre

Religious Observances RC : St Joseph the Workman, stepfather of Jesus (opt) / Ang, Luth : SS Philip and James, apostles
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Thoughts for the day :
Do not clog intellect`s sluices with knowledge of questionable uses.”
“When you try to get even, you end up being at odds.”
“The world needs odd numbers and odd persons, they should not try to get even.”
"He who is swift to believe is swift to forget."
— Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, Polish-born scholar [1907 – 23 Dec 1972] — {The only thing I remember about whatever it is that Rabbi What's-His-Name said, is that I never believed it.}
"He who is swift to believe is swift to forget Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel.”
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