<< Mar 28| HISTORY 4 2DAY |Mar 30 >>
Events, deaths, births, of MAR 29 v.9.20
[For Mar 29 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Apr 08 1700s: Apr 09 1800s: Apr 10 1900~2099: Apr 11]
• Le dernier chef vendéen est fusillé... • Victimes de la Terreur... • Condorcet dies in a prison of the Revolution... • Mariner 10 visits Mercury... • Death of leading woman mathematician... • British defeat Zulus... • Wal~Mart founder is born... • Mexicans surrender Vera Cruz to US... • Death sentence for murderous cultists... • The first Tatras... • Rosenbergs convicted of espionage... • Parents of Frankenstein's author marry... • Survey of Cumberland Road... • Prodigy VP quits... • HP technology advances networking... • IBM sues for patent infringement... • Mass murderer's punishment: 3 years at home... • Armée en terre cuite... • Last US troops leave Vietnam... • Electricity futures... • US Army conquers Frankfurt...
a 29 March:
2006 Total solar eclipse visible in equatorial West Africa, the Sahara, the western Mediterranean, Turkey, and Russia. — (051003)
2003 The Baldin Collection goes on display at Moscow's Museum of Architecture. — more
2001 Caterina Provenzano, 8 months old, is kidnapped in the morning from her home in Alcamo, Sicily, by two men posing as gas company workers. 14 hours later, thanks to an anonymous call, she is found alive and well in a blanket in a cardboard box on the side of a road near a refinery. Her grandfather is a well-off marble merchant, but no ransom was paid.
1999 The Dow Jones industrial average closes at 10'006.78, first time above 10'000.
1999 Luis González Macchi se convierte en el nuevo hombre fuerte de Paraguay tras la dimisión del presidente Raúl Alberto Cubas Grau. [en cambio el hombre fuerte de Cuba nunca se llamó Fidel Paraguas].
1997 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU envía una fuerza internacional a Albania con 2500 soldados de España, Francia y Grecia, entre otros países.
1996 Electricity futures
Tthe New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) opens a new commodities market for power supplies. The power contract, set to be delivered that summer at the California-Oregon border, hit the board shortly after the opening bell. The power market enjoyed a lively first day of action as more than 1000 contracts changed hands. Still, some traders remained cautious about Wall Street’s newest trading pit. As one electricity trader noted, the electricity market had the potential to be extremely "volatile." But, for financial experts like Stephen Fleishman, a utility analyst with Dean Witter, the wild fluctuations were precisely what made the power market so appealing. According to Fleishman, the volatility would help establish a "transparent, competitive price" for power and thus nourish the power industry’s move to a newly deregulated playing field.
Nevertheless the limit imposed by California on the price of electricity to consumers would result in a shortage of electricity in that state, leading to a crisis in 2001.
California/Oregon Border Electricity
In the development of the electricity futures contract, the Exchange has recognized that the market is currently divided into three broad regions: the eastern United States, the western part of the continent, and Texas. These contracts focus on the western United States which encompasses a large geographical area with a number of major suppliers representing virtually every available source of electric generation - oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, and geothermal. The suppliers are the core of an active wholesale market, and are a diverse group: investor-owned utilities, municipally owned utilities, co-generators, government power authorities, and power marketers. The region also has an active wholesale market, and utilities in California have recently begun operating under a performance-based ratemaking policy. The Exchange has electricity futures and options contracts based on two delivery locations: one based on delivery at the California/Oregon border, the other at the Palo Verde switchyard in Arizona. Both sites are major market centers. Given the rapid development in the power markets in this region, the Exchange felt it was prudent to offer contracts representing both delivery sites in order to ensure the futures market will coincide with the industry's need for a price reference and risk management tool. The contracts are traded on the NYMEX Division of the Exchange. Under the terms of the NYMEX/COMEX merger, COMEX Division members will have proprietary trading rights for two years from the date of its launch. On March 29, 1996, the New York Mercantile Exchange launched two electricity futures contracts - one based on delivery at the California/Oregon border, the other at the Palo Verde switchyard in Arizona - providing the industry with a price reference and risk management tool. One month later, on April 26, the Exchange launched companion options contracts.
|1995 IBM sues for patent
Conner Peripherals, a disk-drive maker based in San Jose, filed a lawsuit against IBM, accusing the company of patent infringement. The company said IBM had infringed on its power-management technology patent, which prevented unnecessary disk-drive operation and could extend battery life in portable computers. In 1993, IBM had sued Conner for allegedly infringing on data storage technology patents.
|1995 Hewlett-Packard technology
Hewlett-Packard announced a new technology that would simplify document printing across computer networks. Previously, sending documents through a network to a distant location could be problematic, but improved networking capabilities throughout the '90s smoothed this and other network issues. Novell had recently announced similar network printing technology.
1995 Prodigy VP quits
Scott Kurnit, executive vice president of Prodigy Service Company, abruptly resigned to join an online venture started by MCI Communications Corporation on this day in 1995. Prodigy, one of the earliest online services, had fallen behind America Online and CompuServe in subscribers and had laid off 14 percent of its seven hundred employees in December 1994. The joint venture between Sears and IBM had lost more than $1 billion without turning a profit since it was founded in the mid-1980s. Under Kurnit, Prodigy became the first commercial online service to offer Internet access.
| 1995 The US House of Representatives rejects 227-204
a constitutional amendment that would have limited terms to 12 years in
the House and Senate.
1993 El presidente François Mitterrand nombra primer ministro de Francia al neogaullista Edouard Balladur.
1992 El Partido Democrático gana las elecciones legislativas de Albania al partido ex comunista, en la segunda vuelta.
1990 Checoslovaquia pasa a ser la República Federal Checa y Eslovaca.
1989 I.M. Pei's pyramidal entrance to the Louvre opens in Paris.
1985 España llega a un acuerdo histórico con la Comunidad Económica Europea en Bruselas para su integración en esta organización, tras 23 años de negociaciones con la CEE.
1984 El ex presidente de Senegal Leopold Sedar Senghor ingresa en la Academia Francesa y se convierte en el primer escritor de raza negra admitido en esta institución.
1983 El democristiano Helmut Kohl, canciller de la RFA tras el triunfo de su partido en las elecciones.
1976 The last British troops leave the Maldives. This date is thereafter celebrated as the Maldives' Independence Day, though, on 25 July 1965 the Maldive Islands had attained full political independence from the British, and changed from being a sultanate to a republic on 11 November 1968.
1975 Last US troops leave Vietnam.
Under the provisions of the Paris Peace Accords signed on 27 January, 1973, the last US troops depart South Vietnam, ending nearly 10 years of US military presence in that country. The US Military Assistance Command Vietnam headquarters was disestablished. Only a Defense Attaché Office and a few Marine guards remained at the US Embassy in Saigon, although roughly 8500 US civilians stayed on as technical advisers to the South Vietnamese. Also on this day: As part of the Accords, Hanoi releases the last 67 of its acknowledged US prisoners of war, bringing the total number released to 591.
In Saigon, some 7000 US Department of Defense civilian employees remained behind to aid South Vietnam in conducting what looked to be a fierce and ongoing war with communist North Vietnam. In 1961, after two decades of indirect military aid, US President John F. Kennedy sent the first large force of US military personnel to Vietnam to bolster the ineffectual autocratic regime of South Vietnam against the communist North. Three years later, with the South Vietnamese government crumbling, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered limited bombing raids on North Vietnam, and Congress authorized the use of US troops.
By 1965, North Vietnamese offensives left President Johnson with two choices: escalate US involvement or withdraw. Johnson ordered the former, and troop levels soon jumped to more than 300'000 as the US began the largest aerial bombing campaign in history. During the next few years, the extended length of the war, the high number of US casualties, and the exposure of US involvement in war crimes, such as the massacre at My Lai, helped turn many in the United States against the Vietnam War. The communists' Tet Offensive of 1968 crushed US hopes of an imminent end to the conflict and galvanized US opposition to the war. In response, Johnson announced in March 1968 that he would not seek reelection, citing what he perceived to be his responsibility in creating a perilous national division over Vietnam. He also authorized the beginning of peace talks. In the spring of 1969, as protests against the war escalated in the United States, US troop strength in the war-torn country reached its peak at nearly 550'000 men. Richard Nixon, the new US president, began US troop withdrawal and "Vietnamization" of the war effort that year, but he intensified bombing. Large US troop withdrawals continued in the early 1970s as President Nixon expanded air and ground operations into Cambodia and Laos in attempts to block enemy supply routes along Vietnam's borders. This expansion of the war, which accomplished few positive results, led to new waves of protests in the United States and elsewhere.
Finally, in January 1973, representatives of the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris, ending the direct US military involvement in the Vietnam War. Its key provisions included a cease-fire throughout Vietnam, the withdrawal of US forces, the release of prisoners of war, and the reunification of North and South Vietnam through peaceful means. The South Vietnamese government was to remain in place until new elections were held, and North Vietnamese forces in the South were not to advance further nor be reinforced. In reality, however, the agreement was little more than a face-saving gesture by the US government. Even before the last US troops departed on 29 March, the communists violated the cease-fire, and by early 1974 full-scale war had resumed. At the end of 1974, South Vietnamese authorities reported that 80'000 of their soldiers and civilians had been killed in fighting during the year, making it the most costly of the Vietnam War. On 30 April 1975, the last few persons from the US still in South Vietnam were airlifted out of the country as Saigon fell to communist forces. North Vietnamese Colonel Bui Tin, accepting the surrender of South Vietnam later in the day, remarked, "You have nothing to fear; between Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans have been defeated." The Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular foreign war in US history and cost 58'000 US lives. As many as two million Vietnamese soldiers and civilians were killed.
1974 Mariner 10 visits Mercury
The unmanned US space probe Mariner 10, launched by NASA on 03 November 1973, becomes the first spacecraft to visit the planet Mercury, sending back close-up images of a celestial body usually obscured because of its proximity to the sun. Mariner 10 had visited the planet Venus eight weeks before, but only for the purpose of using Venus’ gravity to whip it toward the closest planet to the sun. In three fly-bys of Mercury between 1974 and 1975, the NASA spacecraft took detailed images of the planet, and succeeded in mapping about 35% of the planet’s heavily cratered, moonlike surface. Mercury is the second smallest planet in the solar system and completes its solar orbit in only eighty-eight earth days. Data sent back by Mariner 10 discounts a previously held theory that the planet does not spin on its axis; in fact, the planet has a very slow rotational period that stretches over fifty-eight earth days. Mercury is a waterless, airless world that alternately bakes and freezes as it slowly rotates. Highly inhospitable, Mercury’s surface temperature varies from 800 degrees Fahrenheit when facing the sun and –279 degrees when facing away. Mercury has no known satellites. Mariner 10 is the only human spacecraft that has visited the planet to this date.
|1974 Eight Ohio National Guardsmen are indicted on charges
stemming from the shooting deaths of four students at Kent State University.
The guardsmen would be acquitted (one more example of the license to kill
innocent people given to the armed forces and police).
1971 US Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr. was convicted of murdering at least 22 Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai massacre. Calley ended up spending three years under house arrest.
1961 After a 4-year trial Nelson Mandela is acquitted on treason charge.
1945 II Guerra Mundial: los rusos cruzan la frontera austriaca.
1936 Amplio apoyo en plebiscito de los alemanes a la política internacional de Adolf Hitler.
1935 French liner Normandie begins its maiden voyage.
1933 Se constituye en Berlín un comité central, patrocinado por el Partido Nacionalsocialista, para dirigir el boicot contra los judíos.
1927 first auto to exceed 200 mph (322 km/h), Henry Segrave, Daytona Beach.
1908 La Cámara de los Comunes británica concede el derecho de voto a las mujeres.
1885 Una escuadra francesa se apodera de las islas de los Pescadores, tras un combate con la flota china.
1882 The Knights of Columbus, founded by Father Michael J. McGivney, is chartered by the General Assembly of Connecticut. Established as a lay fraternal society, the K of C encourages benevolence, patriotism and racial tolerance among its members.
1865 Engagement at Lewis Farm, Virginia
1865 Appomattox Campaign begins
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues.
1848 Ice jam on the Niagara!
An enormous ice dam forms at the source of the Niagara River on the eastern shore of Lake Erie. Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls at Niagara comes to a halt. The eery silence persists throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie break through the blockage and resume their course down the river and over the falls.
2003 Muhammed Darwish, 17, Palestinian, shot in the chest by Israeli troops who fire at Palestinians who throw stones at their armored vehicles, in a refugee camp in Nablus, West Bank. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1957 Palestinians and 727 Israelis.
2003 Suicide bomber Ali Hammadi al-Namani; and an Iraqi cyclist, and Pfc. Michael Russell Creighton Weldon, 20; Pfc. Diego Fernando Rincon, 19; Specialist Michael Edward Curtin, 23, of South Plains, NJ; and Sgt. Eugene Williams, 24, US soldiers of the 1st Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division, manning a checkpoint on the Highway 9 to Kerbala, at Al Kifl, just north of Najaf, Iraq, as they have al-Mani open the trunk of the taxi he is driving and he detonates it, while the cyclist just happens to be passing by. Al-Namani was an Iraqi army noncomissioned officer.
2003 Lance Cpl. William W. White, 24, of Brooklyn, N.Y., of the 3rd Amphibious Assault Battalion, 1st Marine Division, dies in a vehicle accident in Iraq.
2003 Two US Special Forces soldiers, when their four vehicle-mounted reconnaissance patrol is attacked near Geresk, Helmand province, Afghanistan, by four Taliban gunmen riding on two motorcycles. Another US Special Forces soldier and three Afghan soldiers are wounded.
2003 Carlo Urbani, 46, of SARS, in Bangkok, Thailand, where he had been hospitalized for 15 days. An Italian physician, president of Medici Senza Frontiere Italia, he was working for the World Health Organization in the Hanoi, Vietnam, French International Hospital, and became the first to identify Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome as he was treating a US-born Chinese businessman, 48, arriving from Shanghai, who became its first recognized fatality. 28 February 2003 was when Dr. Urbani first saw the patient, who had been admitted to the hospital on 26 February 2003, with high fever, dry cough, myalgia (muscle soreness) and mild sore throat and, over the next four days developed increasing breathing difficulties, severe thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) and signs of adult respiratory distress syndrome requiring ventilator support. On 02 March 2003, he was transfered to Hong Kong, where he died on 13 March 2003. Of the more than 30 who got SARS among the staff of the Hanoi hospital, a nurse, 46, who had treated the businessman died on 15 March 15; a French doctor, 66, on 19 March; a Vietnamese nurse and doctor on 24 March. To date, SARS has killed at least 54 persons and sickened at least 1550, with the biggest number of cases and deaths in China's Guangdong province, where an earlier outbreak began, unrecognized, in November 2002.
2002 Five Palestinians; and Israelis First Lieutenant Boaz Pomerantz, 22, from Kiryat Shmona; and Staff Sergeant Roman Shliapstein, 22, of Ma'ale Efraim; as Israelis attack Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat's compound in Ramallah in the afternoon, tanks firing directly at his private office (which he had left), and taking control of most of the buildings in the complex, including the prison holding the suspects in the assassination of Israeli cabinet minister Rehavam Ze'evi in October 2002. [photo: tank shell explodes inside Arafat's headquarters >]
2002 Israelis Rachel Levy, 17; and Haim Smadar, 55, security guard; and Ayat Akhras, 16, girl suicide bomber from the Deheisheh refugee camp near Bethlehem, of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, in a supermarket on Uruguay Street in Jerusalem's Kiryat Yovel neighborhood shortly before 14:00.
2002 Michael Orlanski, 70, Tuvia Wisner, 79, and a Palestinian who stabs them, in the Netzarim enclave settlement in the Gaza Strip, hides for over six hours, then tries to attack a settler and is shot by him. Orlanski and Wisner, Jews from Tel Aviv, were visiting their son Yossi Orlanski, a settler.
1994 All 4 passengers and 2 crew members aboard a Beech Queen Air B80 of Kiwi West Aviation which, at 12:10, crashes into trees in a residential neighborhood near Hamilton, New Zealand, after experiencing an engine failure while taking off.
1991 Lee Atwater, 40, political strategists, of brain tumor.
1991 Gerardo Molina Ramírez, ideólogo y político colombiano.
1985 The Singing Nun and her friend Annie Pêcher, hounded by tax collectors, commit suicide in Belgium with an overdose of alcohol and barbiturates. The Singing Nun was Jeanine Deckers, born on 17 October 1933, who joined the Dominican Fichermont Convent in Belgium. Popular in the convent for her music, she was encouraged by the other nuns to record an album in 1963, and one song, "Dominique," soared to the top of the charts in the United States. Overnight, the Dominican nun was an international celebrity with the stage name of Soeur Sourire. She performed in concerts and appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show in 1964. In 1965, a movie called The Singing Nun, starring Debbie Reynolds, was made about her, though she rejected the film as "fictional." As the 1960s progressed, the Singing Nun stopped performing and entered a rigorous religious life in the convent in 1965. In 1967, however, she left the convent to pursue her musical career, though most of her earnings still went to the convent. Nevertheless, she was a one-hit wonder, who gradually faded into obscurity, not least because of her own disdain for fame: her second album, released in 1967, was aptly titled I Am Not a Star. Though she was deeply religious, she was also increasingly critical of the conservatism of the Roman Catholic Church, and she became an advocate of birth control. Having faded into obscurity, she opened a school for autistic children in Belgium with a close friend, Annie Pêcher. By the early 1980s the Belgian government began claiming that she owed back taxes; she claimed that the money was given to the convent and therefore exempt from taxes.
1983 Maurice Kendall, mathematician.
1982 Indalecio Liévano Aguirre, historiador, político y estadista colombiano.
1980 José María Peiró, de 13 años, alcanzado por la explosión de una carga depositada por ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) en una bolsa de deportes bajo el coche de un guardia civil, en Azcoitia (Guipúzcoa), es el primer niño muerto por el terrorismo en España.
1980 Cochran, mathematician.
1977:: 13 of the 20 passengers and 2 of the 3 crew members aboard a de Havilland Canada DCH-6 Twin Otter 300 of Merpati Nusantara Airlines which stalls and crashes into trees in the Bainaha Valley of Indonesia, as a result of the pilot applying full power and going into too steep a climb in an effort to clear a mountain that he had suddenly noticed just ahead.
1962 Zwelibanzi Kwetshuba, Black from Pongoland, executed by the South African apartheid regime.
1944 Grace Chisholm (Young),
English mathematician, first woman Ph.D. in Germany.
Grace Chisholm was born on 15 March 1868 in Haslemere, near London, the youngest of three surviving children. Her father was Warden of the Standards in the British government, in charge of the department of weights and measures. Her brother was sent to grammar school, a prestigious boarding school, and then earned a top scholarship to Oxford, but in the custom of the times in England, Grace and her sister were taught at home by their mother and a governess. At the age of 17 Grace Chisholm passed the Cambridge Senior Examination.
Her family encouraged her to become involved in social work among the London poor but Grace wanted to continue her studies. Her mother would not allow her to study medicine so she decided to study mathematics at Girton College, part of Cambridge University. Girton, opened in 1869, was the first school in England dedicated to educating women at the university level. Grace Chisholm entered Girton in 1889 at the age of 21. At Girton her tutor was William Young. Women could not earn formal degrees at Cambridge at that time, but in 1893 she passed her final examinations (Mathematics Tripos) and scored the equivalent of a first-class degree.
Grace Chisholm wanted to continue in mathematics but women were not yet admitted to graduate schools in England so she went to Göttingen in Germany to study with Felix Klein. This was one of the major mathematical centers in the world. The decision to admit her had to be approved by the Berlin Ministry of Culture.
Under Klein's supervision, Grace Chisholm earned the Ph.D. magna cum laude, in 1895. Her thesis was on The algebraic groups of spherical trigonometry. Again government approval had to be obtained to allow her to take the examination. She thus became the first woman to officially receive a doctorate in any field in Germany. Although Sofia Kovalevskaia had been awarded a doctorate in mathematics in absentia from Göttingen in 1874 after submitting a thesis, the rules for doctoral degrees had become stricter, and Grace was required to take courses and pass a difficult examination showing broader knowledge as well as prepare a thesis in order to receive her degree.
The year after her Ph.D., Grace Chisholm married William Henry Young, who had been her tutor at Girton College. William Young was also a mathematician. Between them they wrote about 220 mathematical articles, several books, and had 6 children within the span of 9 years. It is not clear how much of the collaboration is really Grace's work and how much is her husband's, but it is now generally agreed that William Young would probably have accomplished very little without the help of his wife, a fact he often acknowledged. Grace wrote up his papers for publication, often filling in proofs and correcting mistakes. But she also produced a substantial amount of excellent work herself despite the fact that her husband was often away from the family for large parts of the year, leaving Grace to take care of the children and home at La Conversion, near Lausanne in Switzerland, to where they had moved from Germany before WW I, as anti-British sentiment was increasing in Germany. In 1915, she wrote a paper on the foundations of calculus that won the Gamble Prize at Cambridge, and later published a book on geometry and one on set theory with her husband.
Besides her extensive work in mathematics, Grace Chisholm Young completed all the requirements for a medical degree except the internship, learned six languages, and taught each of her six children a musical instrument. She left Switzerland in 1940 with the approach of World War II, but her husband could not get out. He died in 1942, and two years later Grace suffered a heart attack and died on 29 March 1944. The Fellows of Girton College had just recommended that she be awarded an honorary degree, but she died before it could be given to her.
Of her six children,
One of Grace Young's fourteen grandchildren, Sylvia Wiegand, fifth of the six children of Laurence Young, is a mathematician at the University of Nebraska (as is her husband Roger A. Wiegand) and a past president of the Association for Women in Mathematics.
|1891 Georges Pierre Seurat, French Pointillist
painter born on 02 December 1859. MORE
ON SEURAT AT ART 4 DECEMBER
with links to images.
1885 George Rouse, Black, lynched in Dooly County, Georgia, accused of the rape and murder of a White woman.
1882 Thomas Jones Barker, British artist born in 1815.
1818 Alexandre Sabès Pétion, 47, Haitian liberator and president-for-life (of Southern Haiti) remembered by the Haitian people for his liberal rule and by South Americans for his support of Simón Bolívar during the struggle for independence from Spain. Rival of Henri Christophe (king Henri I of Northern Haiti)
1812 Johann Friedrick Dryander, German artist born on 26 April 1756.
1796 CHARRETTE-de-la-CONTRIE François Athanase, âgé de 33 ans, né à Couffé, département de la Loire Inférieure, avant la révolution, lieutenant de vaisseau, et depuis chef des royalistes de la Vendée et lieutenant général des armées de Louis XVIII, condamné à mort le 9 germinal an 4, par le conseil militaire, séant à Nantes, pour avoir fromenté et dirigé en chef la guerre civile de la Vendée, faussé son serment de soumission aux loi de la République, entretenu des correspondance avec les ci-devant princes, les émigrés, les chouans et autres ennemis intérieurs et extérieurs de la République, et comme ayant été pris les armes à la main. Il est fusillé le même jour, à Nantes, sur la place des Agriculteurs (aujourd'hui place Viarmes). [< clic sur le portrait pour l'agrandir]
Né le 21 Apr 1763, il était le brigand bien-aimé des humbles et des grandes dames, incapable de se plier à quelque discipline que ce fût. Ancien lieutenant de vaisseau dans la marine royale, il émigre en 1790 mais revient en France au printemps 1792. Il participe, comme Lescure et Henri de La Rochejaquelein, à la défense des Tuileries le 10 Aug 1792. Depuis lors, il vit retiré sur ses terres, dans son manoir de Fonteclose, près de Machecoul.
Quand les paysans du Marais viennent lui demander de se mettre à leur tête, il accepte avec réticence. Il s'entend mal avec les autres chefs de l'insurrection et les troupes qu'il dirige ne se joignent que rarement à l'Armée Catholique et Royale. N'ayant pas participé à la virée de Galerne, il continue le combat dans le marais nantais. A partir de la fin de 1794, c'est lui qui incarne la lutte de la Vendée que la répression des Bleus a relancée. En 1795 il signe avec les Républicains la paix de la Jaunaye, dans l'espoir qu'on lui confiera le petit Louis XVII. Après la mort de "l'enfant du temple", il reprend bientôt le combat, mais la politique d'amnistie conduite par Hoche le coupe rapidement du soutien des paysans. Charette est capturé, un mois après Stofflet, dans les bois de la Chabotterie.
1794 BUCHOT Charles André, âgé de 61 ans, né à Colmar, demeurant à Doulens, général de brigade, époux de Claire Lenseigne, condamné à mort à Arras le 09 germinal an II
1794 COLIGNON Jean Baptiste, imprimeur, âgé de 61 ans, né et domicilié à Metz, département de la Moselle, condamné à mort le 9 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspirateur en imprimant et distribuant des ouvrages tendants à ébranler la fidélité des citoyens.
1794 DELMOTTE Louis Joseph, âgé de 32 ans, né à Bertincourt, manouvrier, époux de Telle Angélique, condamné à mort à Arras le 09 germinal an II
1794 HARELLE J. val. Marie, marchand âgé de 30 ans, né et domicilié à l’Aigle, département de l’Orne, condamné à mort, le 09 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspirateur.
1794 MARCHAND Jeanne, veuve Loudais, domiciliée à St Germain-de-Lasignan, département de la Charente Inférieure, condamnée. à mort comme conspiratrice, le 09 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1794 POIRÉ François, huissier à la convention nationale, ci-devant, domestique de Talleyrand-Perigord, puis de la Polignac, né à Outrebois, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 09 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir entretenu des intelligences et correspondances avec les Anglais, au moyen desquelles ils ont été instruits de plusieurs des plans du gouvernement français, et des mesures secrètes de la Convention de ses comités et du pouvoir exécutif.
1631 Jorge Manuel Theotocopuli, Spanish (not Greek?) artist born in 1578.
1629 Jacob Gheyn II, Dutch draughtsman, engraver, and painter, born in 1565. MORE ON GHEYN AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1935 Angel García López, escritor español.
1927 John Robert Vane, investigador británico, P. Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina 1982.
1905 Edward Burra, British painter, illustrator, and stage designer, who died on 22 October 1976. — more with links to images.
1902 Sir William Walton, England, composer (Troilus and Cressida). He died on 08 March 1983.
1902.Marcel Aymé, à Joigny, écrivain.
1899 (17 March Julian) Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria, Russian director of the Cheka in Georgia, then head of the NKVD succeeding Nikolay I. Yezhov (who was shot on orders from Stalin in 1938). Beria carried out purges and (as head of the MVD Ministry for Internal Affairs) administered the Gulag. After Stalin died in 1953, Beria tried to succeed him as dictator, but was outmaneuvered by a coalition led by Malenkov, Molotov, and Krushchev, who accused him of being an imperialist agent and of conducting criminal antiparty and antistate activities, for which they had him executed on 23 December 1953. The Soviet secret police started in December 1917 as the Bolshevik Cheka (short for VECHEKA All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counterrevolution and Sabotage), then in 1922 was supplanted by the GPU (State Political Administration) renamed in 1923 OGPU (Unified S.P.A.). In 1934 was created the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs) which took over the secret police. In 1954 it became the KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti Committee for State Security) which started by purging Beria supporters. — Having joined the Communist Party in 1917, Beria participated in revolutionary activity in Azerbaijan and Georgia before he was drawn into intelligence and counterintelligence activities (1921) and appointed head of the Cheka (secret police) in Georgia. He became party boss of the Transcaucasian republics in 1932 and personally oversaw the political purges in those republics during Stalin's Great Purge (1936–1938). Beria was brought to Moscow in 1938 as the deputy to Nikolay Yezhov, head of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), the Soviet secret police. Yezhov was apparently arrested and shot on Stalin's orders, and Beria became head of the secret police (1938–1953). He supervised a purge of the police bureaucracy itself and administered the vast network of labour camps set up throughout the country. In February 1941 he became a deputy prime minister of the U.S.S.R., and during World War II, as a member of the State Defense Committee, he not only controlled the Soviet Union's internal-security system but also played a major role in raw-materials production using the slave labour in the camps. He was made a marshal of the U.S.S.R. in 1945. He was also a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party from 1934 and of the executive policy-making committee,the Politburo, from 1946. When the Politburo was reorganized as the Presidium in 1952, Beria retained his seat. Two days after the death of Stalin [21 Dec 1879 – 05 Mar 1953], Beria became one of four deputy prime ministers as well as head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, an organization which at that time combined both the secret political and regular police functions. During the ensuing struggle for power, Beria apparently attempted to use his position as chief of the secret police to succeed Stalin as sole dictator. By July 1953, however, he had been defeated by an anti-Beria coalition (led by Georgy M. Malenkov [13 Jan 1902 – 14 Jan 1988], Vyacheslav M. Molotov, and Nikita S. Khrushchev). He was arrested, deprived of his government and party posts, and publicly accused of being an “imperialist agent” and of conducting “criminal antiparty and antistate activities.” Convicted of these charges at his trial, Beria was immediately executed, on 23 December 1953.
1896 Ackermann, mathematician.
1895 Anne Redpath, British artist who died on 07 January 1965. — more with links to images.
1895 Ernst Junger, escritor y filósofo alemán.
1892 Jozsef Mindszenty, Hungarian Catholic priest; Cardinal, opposed totalitarianism of Nazis and Communists, was persecuted, imprisoned. He died on 06 May 1975.
1892 Maria Muraro, Italian who live past her 2004 birthday.
1889 Howard Lindsay, US playwright, producer and partner of Russel Crouse. Lindsay died on 11 February 1968.
1888 United Parcel Service is founded by James E Casey.
1886 Coca-Cola created (with cocaine)
1882 The Knights of Columbus are chartered in Connecticut.
1853 Elihu Thomson, US engineer and inventor; founder of US electrical industry, who died on 13 March 1937.
1873 Tullio Levi-Cività, mathematician.
1829 Ritta and Christina Siamese twins, in Sardinia.
1826 Wilheim Liebknecht, dirigente socialdemócrata alemán.
1825 Faà di Bruno, mathematician.
1819 Isaac Mayer Wise, Bohemian-born US rabbi; organized Reform Jewish institutions in US. [That was Wise.] He died on 26 March 1900.
1819 Edwin Drake drilled first productive US oil well.
1818 Gonsalvo Carelli, Italian artist who died in 1900.
1802 Johann Moritz Rugendas, German artist who died on 29 May 1858. MORE ON RUGENDAS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1790 John Tyler, in Charles City County, Virginia, 10th Pres (1841-1845) (the first president to marry while in office). He died on 18 January 1862.
1788 Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, aspirante carlista al trono de España.
1758 Scott-Pierre-Nicolas Legrand de Lérant, French artist who died on 11 May 1829.
1561 Santorio Sanctorius, Trieste, Italy, Italian physician; introduced use of precision instruments in medicine. He was burned at stake as a heretic on 22 February 1636.
which occur on a 22 March:
2961 Easter Sunday
2950 Easter Sunday
2939 Easter Sunday
2893 Easter Sunday
2882 Easter Sunday
2871 Easter Sunday
2809 Easter Sunday
2798 Easter Sunday
2787 Easter Sunday
2714 Easter Sunday
2708 Easter Sunday
2703 Easter Sunday
2657 Easter Sunday
2646 Easter Sunday
2635 Easter Sunday
2589 Easter Sunday
2578 Easter Sunday
2567 Easter Sunday
2499 Easter Sunday
2426 Easter Sunday
2415 Easter Sunday
2342 Easter Sunday
2331 Easter Sunday
2274 Easter Sunday
2263 Easter Sunday
2195 Easter Sunday
2122 Easter Sunday
2116 Easter Sunday
2111 Easter Sunday
2108 Holy Thursday
2105 Palm Sunday
2099 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2097 Good Friday
2093 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2086 Good Friday
2082 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2076 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2071 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2065 Easter Sunday
2054 Easter Sunday
2048 Palm Sunday
2043 Easter Sunday
2037 Palm Sunday
2026 Palm Sunday
2020 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2015 Palm Sunday
2009 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2040 Holy Thursday
2029 Holy Thursday
2024 Good Friday
2018 Holy Thursday
2013 Good Friday
2002 Good Friday
1998 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1992 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1991 Good Friday
1987 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1981 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1970 Easter Sunday
1964 Easter Sunday
1959 Easter Sunday
1956 Holy Thursday
1953 Palm Sunday
1945 Holy Thursday
1942 Palm Sunday
1936 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1934 Holy Thursday
1931 Palm Sunday
1929 Good Friday
1925 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1923 Holy Thursday
1918 Good Friday
1914 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1908 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1907 Good Friday
1903 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1896 Palm Sunday
1891 Easter Sunday
1888 Holy Thursday
1885 Palm Sunday
1877 Holy Thursday
1812 Easter Sunday
1807 Easter Sunday
1750 Easter Sunday
1739 Easter Sunday
1682 Easter Sunday
1671 Easter Sunday
1592 Easter Sunday
1587 Easter Sunday