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Events, deaths, births, of MAR 27
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• Born~to~die child~king Louis XVII... • Krushchev consolidates power as USSR dictator... • Strongest earthquake in US HISTORY... • Charles I becomes British king... • First Mormon temple... • Guerre de Crimée... • Japanese cherry trees... • Cray Computer bankrupcy... • Rolls~Royce co–founder is born... • Satellite communication inventor is born... • TV Marti... • Mexicans execute defenders of Goliad... • Bombing of Cambodia to continue... • South Vietnamese attack in Cambodia... • Last German V~2s... • Tarantelli ucciso per le Br...
 On a 27 March:
2134 32nd recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
2002 Two-day summit meeting of the Arab League starts in Beirut. Heads of state from only 10 of the leagues' 22 members are attending — with some hardline leaders like Libya's staying away out of rejection of the Saudi ideas on peace with Israel, while others from the Gulf had to stay home for health reasons. Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat decided not to come after Israel demanded he call a cease-fire before it would let him travel to Beirut and said it may not let him return home if there is violence in his absence. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak also stays away in solidarity with Arafat, and so does Jordan's King Abdullah II. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and top EU officials are present.
     The acting ruler of Saudi Arabia, Crown Prince Abdullah, gives details of the peace-with-Israel plan he had announced in February. He proposes Wednesday that the Arab world offer Israel “normal relations”' and security in exchange for full withdrawal from Arab lands held since 1967, establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital and a right of return for Palestinian refugees.
      Only three Arab League members — Egypt, Jordan and Mauritania — have full diplomatic links with Israel. Qatar and Oman have low-level trade relations with Israel.
      Arab leaders consider several other matters for their summit-ending proposal, including resolutions on Iraq, providing financial aid to the Palestinians and reaffirming their positions on terrorism.
2002 The US State Department releases its new list of foreign terrorist organizations, these 23: — Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) — Abu Sayyaf Group — Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade [Palestine] — Armed Islamic Group — 'Asbat al-Ansar — Aum Shinrikyo — Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA = Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) — Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group) — Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) — Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) — Hizballah (Party of God) — Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) — Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed) — Al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) — Kahane Chai (Kach) — Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) — Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous) — Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) [Sri Lanka] — Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK) — National Liberation Army (ELN) — Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) — Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) — Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) — PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC) — Al-Qaida [Islamic] — Real IRA [Northern Ireland] — Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) — Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA) — Revolutionary Organization 17 November [Greece] — Revolutionary People’s Liberation Army/Front (DHKP/C) — Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) — Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) [Peru] — United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)
2000 The US Supreme Court rules that the federal government may not deny food stamps and other welfare benefits to people who live permanently in the US but are not citizens.
2000 DaimlerChrysler AG announces that it will buy 34% of Japan's Mitsubishi Motors Corp.
2000 La Justicia española acepta a trámite la querella por genocidio contra el pueblo maya interpuesta por Rigoberta Menchú contra el régimen militar guatemalteco.
1998 The US Food and Drug Administration approves the drug Viagra, made by Pfizer, saying that it helped about two-thirds of impotent men improve their sexual function. (It would become an E-mail spam plague).
1996 An Israeli court convicts former law student Yigal Amir, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's confessed assassin, then sentences him to life in prison.
1994 El colombiano César Gaviria es elegido secretario general de la Organización de Estados Americanos.
1993 El secretario general del Partido Comunista, Jiang Zemin, es elegido presidente de la República Popular China.
1992 La Comunidad de Estados Independientes (surgida de la disolución de la URSS) acuerda el establecimiento de una Asamblea Parlamentaria.
1992 Apple and Sharp announced a deal to co-develop a pocket-sized computer: the Newton would be released in January 1993 and become a failure because of its problems with handwriting recognition. Although Apple poured some $500 million into its development, the struggling product was finally killed off in March 1998.
1991 President George Bush (Sr.) publicly disagreed with Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, who claimed he had urged further fighting in the Persian Gulf War at the time Bush ordered a cease-fire.. (Schwarzkopf later apologized to Bush.) Later events would prove that Bush had made a disastrous decision, which ennabled Saddam Hussein to continue his cruel dictatorship in Iraq and his defiance of international law.
^ 1990 TV Marti begins broadcasting to Cuba.
      The US government begins the operation of TV Marti, which broadcast television programs into communist Cuba. The project marked yet another failed attempt to undermine the regime of Cuban leader Fidel Castro. TV Marti was put together under the auspices of the Voice of America, the US radio and television broadcasting system established in the 1940s to beam news and propaganda throughout the world, particularly directed toward communist nations. The new addition to this propaganda arsenal, TV Marti, was primarily the result of intense lobbying by Cuban-American interest groups and a handful of senators and representatives from south Florida and New Jersey (areas with large Cuban-American populations). TV Marti programming tried to give Cubans an accurate look at American life.
      The legality and effectiveness of TV Marti were immediately issues for debate. International law forbade the transmitting of television signals into another nation if the transmission interfered with regular programming. TV Marti representatives argued that the signal was being sent on unused channels in Cuba. As for how effective it was, Cuba immediately worked to jam the signal as soon as TV Marti launched, so only a few people on the outskirts of Havana could conceivably see the broadcasts. The first day's programming included some footage of old World Series games, music videos, and replays of the old "Kate and Allie" sitcom. TV Marti was a powerful indication of the strength of Cold War animosities and the Cuban-American lobby in the United States. The United States and Cuba had been locked in a diplomatic war since Fidel Castro came to power in 1959, and the United States resorted to a number of different schemes to try to unseat the dictator during the following decades. During that time, the Cuban-American lobby, which was well organized and well funded, became a powerful voice in Washington. Despite the fact that TV Marti was a dismal failure in terms of weakening the Castro regime, it continues to receive funding and is still in operation.
1987 Camilo José Cela recibe el Premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras.
1985 El presidente estadounidense, Ronald Reagan obtiene el apoyo oficial de la OTAN a su programa de defensa espacial, conocido como Star Wars.
1980 Mount St Helens becomes active after 123 years, shooting out ash and steam. On 18 May 1980 it will blow its top in the most destructive eruption in US history.
^ 1973 Bombing of Cambodian rebels to continue.
      The White House announces that, at the request of Cambodian President Lon Nol, the bombing of Cambodia will continue until communist forces cease military operations and agree to a cease-fire. In March 1970, Lon Nol had overthrown Prince Norodom Sihanouk in a bloodless coup. Between 1970 and 1975, Lon Nol and his army, the Forces Armees Nationale Khmer (FANK), with US support and military aid, fought the Khmer Rouge and Sihanouk's supporters for control of Cambodia. During the five years of bitter fighting, approximately 10 percent of Cambodia's 7 million people died. When the US forces departed South Vietnam in 1973, both the Cambodians and South Vietnamese found themselves fighting the communists alone. Without US support, Lon Nol's forces succumbed to the Khmer Rouge, surrendering to the communists in April 1975. The victorious Khmer Rouge evacuated Phnom Penh and began reordering Cambodian society, which resulted in a killing spree and the notorious "killing fields." Eventually, hundreds of thousands of Cambodians were murdered or died from exhaustion, hunger, and disease.
1968 Suharto asume la presidencia de Indonesia con plenos poderes para gobernar.
1962 Archbishop Joseph Francis Rummel ordered all Roman Catholic schools in the New Orleans diocese to end segregation.
1961 Se autorizan de nuevo en Turquía los partidos políticos.
^ 1958 Khrushchev consolidates power as URRS dictator.
      Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev replaces Nicolay Aleksandrovich Bulganin as Soviet premier, becoming the first leader since Joseph Stalin to simultaneously hold the USSR's two top offices. Khrushchev, born into a Ukrainian peasant family in 1894, worked as a mine mechanic before joining the Soviet Communist Party in 1918. In 1929, he went to Moscow and steadily rose in the party ranks and in 1938 was made first secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party. He became a close associate of Joseph Stalin, the authoritative leader of the Soviet Union since 1924. In 1953, Stalin died, and Khrushchev grappled with Stalin's chosen successor, Georgy Malenkov, for the position of first secretary of the Communist Party. Khrushchev won the power struggle, and Malenkov was made premier, a more ceremonial post. In 1955, Malenkov was replaced by Bulganin, Khrushchev's hand-picked nominee.
      In 1956, Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his totalitarian policies at the 20th Party Congress, leading to a "thaw" in the USSR that saw the release of millions of political prisoners. Almost immediately, the new atmosphere of freedom led to anti-Soviet uprisings in Poland and Hungary. Khrushchev flew to Poland and negotiated a diplomatic solution, but the Hungarian rebellion was crushed by Warsaw Pact troops and tanks. Khruschev's program of de-Stalinization was opposed by some hard-liners in the Communist Party, and in June 1957 he was nearly ousted from his position as first secretary. After a brief struggle, he secured the removal of Malenkov and the other top party members who had opposed him and in 1958 prepared to take on the post of premier. On 27 March 1958, the Supreme Soviet — the Soviet legislature — votes unanimously to make First Secretary Khrushchev also Soviet premier, thus formally recognizing him as the undisputed leader of the USSR.
      In foreign affairs, Premier Khrushchev's stated policy was one of "peaceful coexistence" with the West. He said, "we offer the capitalist countries peaceful competition" and gave the Soviet Union an early lead in the space race by launching the first Soviet satellites and cosmonauts. A visit to the United States by Khrushchev in 1959 was hailed as a new high in US-Soviet relations, but superpower relations would hit dangerous new lows in the early 1960s. In 1960, Khrushchev walked out of a long-awaited four-powers summit over the U-2 affair, and in 1961 he authorized construction of the Berlin Wall as a drastic solution to the East German question. Then, in October 1962, the United States and the USSR came close to nuclear war over the USSR's placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba. After 13 tense days, the Cuban Missile Crisis came to an end when Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the offensive weapons in exchange for a secret US pledge not to invade Cuba. The humiliating resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis, an agricultural crisis at home, and the deterioration of Soviet-Chinese relations over Khrushchev's moderate policies all led to growing opposition to Khrushchev in the party ranks. On 14 October 1964, Leonid Brezhnev, Khrushchev's protégé and deputy, organized a successful coup against him, and Khrushchev abruptly stepped down as first secretary and premier. He retired to obscurity outside Moscow and lived there until his death in 1971.
1952 Fracasa un atentado contra el canciller de Alemania occidental Adenauer.
1945 General Eisenhower declares German defenses on Western Front broken
1945 Tras la aceptación del Conferencia del acta de Chapultepec, Argentina declara la guerra a Alemania y Japón.
1944 Children's Aktion—Nazis collect all the Jewish children of Lovno
1944 1000 Jews leave Drancy, France, for Auschwitz Concentration Camp
1944 El Gobierno de Vichy autoriza la incorporación de franceses en la SS.
1941 Britain leases defense bases in Trinidad to US for 99 years
1940 Décision franco–britannique de ne pas conclure de paix ou d'armistice séparés.
1940 Himmler ordena la construcción del campo de concentración de Auschwitz.
1935 Entra en vigor la retirada de Japón de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1934 El Gobierno Alejandro Lerroux restablece la pena de muerte en España para contener el terrorismo y la inestabilidad social.
1933 Japón se retira de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1925 Cecil Kimber registered his first modified Morris car, the prototype of the MG. With their overhead cam engines, MG’s would be popular in the US as sports cars.
1920 El socialdemócrata Hermann Müller es nombrado canciller de la república de Weimar.
1918 Besarabia queda incorporada a Rusia.
1912 La Cámara de los Comunes británica aprueba una ley de salario mínimo para los mineros para dar respuesta a las promesas realizadas durante la huelga de la minería.
^ 1912 Japanese cherry trees planted along the Potomac
      In Washington DC, First Lady Helen Herron Taft, wife of President William Howard Taft, and the Viscountess Chinda, wife of the Japanese ambassador, plant two Yoshina cherry trees on the northern bank of the Potomac Tidal Basin, near the Jefferson Memorial. The event was held in celebration of a gift, by the Japanese government, of 3020 trees to the US government for planting along Washington’s Potomac River.
      The placement of blossoming cherry trees along the Potomac fulfilled a long and determined quest by travel writer and photographer Eliza Scidmore. In 1885, upon her return from a trip to Japan, Scidmore broached the idea of bringing the trees to the District of Columbia with US government officials, but the proposal fell on deaf ears.
      However, in 1909, the recent success of one hundred Japanese cherry trees planted in Chevy Chase, Maryland, inspired Scidmore to raise money for the trees herself and then donate them to the city. As a matter of course, she sent a note to the new First Lady Helen Herron Taft outlining her new plan. Helen Taft had once lived in Japan while her husband served as president of the Philippine Commission, and knowing the beauty of cherry blossoms, she greeted the proposal enthusiastically. Upon learning of the first lady’s plans, the Japanese consul in New York broached the idea of making a gift of the trees to the US government from the city of Tokyo.
      In January 1910, two thousand Japanese cherry trees arrived in Washington, but, unfortunately, they had become diseased during the trip from Japan. Yukio Ozaki, the mayor of Tokyo, met the distressing news with determination and good will. A private Japanese citizen again donated the costs for the trees, and 3020 specimens were taken from the famous collection on the bank of the Arakawa River in Adachi Ward, a suburb of Tokyo. On 26 March 1912, the trees arrived in Washington, and the next day, the first two trees were planted along the Tidal Basin in a formal ceremony. The rest of the trees were then planted along the basin, in East Potomac Park, and on the White House grounds. The blossoming trees proved immediately popular with visitors to Washington’s Mall area, and, in 1934, city commissioners sponsored a three-day celebration of the late March blossoming of the trees, which in later years grew into the annual Cherry Blossom Festival.
      After World War II, cuttings from Washington’s cherry trees were sent back to Japan to restore the Tokyo collection that were severely damaged by Allied bombing attacks during the war.
1903 On his property, near Waitohi, South Island, New Zealand, Richard William Pearse [03 Dec 1877 – July 1953] flies for some 100 meters in his home-made aircraft, a a triangular frame of iron suspended beneath cloth-covered wings made of bamboo. It would be on 17 December 1903 that the Wright brothers make their first flight. But first of all (not counting Daedalus and Icarus) was Clément Ader [04 Feb 1841 – 05 March 1926] who on 09 October 1890 flew his Eole II for 40 meters at Armainvilliers (Seine-et-Marne), France, and on 14 October flew 300 meters in his Avion, at the military camp of Satory.
1899 El ingeniero y físico italiano Guglielmo Marconi establece la primera conexión mediante telegrafía sin hilos entre Inglaterra y Francia.
1884 The first long-distance telephone call is made, between Boston and New York City.
1868 El canciller alemán, Bismarck, firma con el zar de Rusia un acuerdo por el que Rusia se comprometía a concentrar sus tropas en la frontera para y detener a las fuerzas de Austria-Hungría en caso de producirse un conflicto franco-prusiano.
1866 US President Andrew Johnson vetoes civil rights bill; it later becomes 14th amendment to the Constitution.
1865 Lincoln meets with Generals US Grant and William T. Sherman at City Point, Virginia
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
1863 Skirmish at Palatka, Florida.
1863 Confederate President Davis calls for this to be a day of fasting and prayer
1861 El Parlamento piamontés, reunido en Turín, declara a Roma capital de Italia, aunque hasta 1870 no entrarían en la ciudad las tropas de Víctor Manuel.
1855 The distillation of kerosene from petroleum is patented by Abraham Gesner [02 May 1797 – 29 April 1864]. Petroleum had previously been considered either a nuisance, or a miracle cure (by Amerindians first). Kerosene is a light fraction petroleum product refined from the raw petroleum. Kerosene is one of the lighter "distillates" in a petroleum refinery, lighter than gasoil/diesel, and often in the same mix with jet fuel (e.g., Jet A1). It has been used for lighting [in lanterns such as this >], cooling and refrigeration for one hundred years. Kerosene is found throughout the world, and is one of the most common lighting fuels in the developing world. It is also often used for cooking, primarily in urban areas in the developing world. It is used as an ingredient in lamp oils, charcoal starter fluids, jet engine fuels and insecticides. K-1 kerosene has a low sulfur content and is used in portable space heaters. Kerosene is a variable mixture usually of about 10 hydrocarbons, each containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule, including n-dodecane, alkyl benzenes, and naphthalene and its derivatives. Kerosene saved the whales (by becoming a cheaper replacement for sperm oil).
^ 1854 La guerre de Crimée est déclarée.
      La France et le Royaume-Uni déclarent la guerre à la Russie. A l'origine du conflit, une querelle surréaliste entre Napoléon III et le tsar Nicolas Ier. Chacun veut protéger les Lieux Saints de Jérusalem, partie intégrante de l'empire turc. Comme le sultan semble donner la préférence à Napoléon III, le tsar détruit sa flotte et envahit les provinces roumaines. Il en profite pour combattre les tribus insoumises du Caucase, en particulier les Tchétchènes. Napoléon III et la reine Victoria font cause commune avec le sultan. C'est la première fois depuis... le divorce d'Aliénor d'Aquitaine, 700 ans plus tôt, que Français et Anglais s'apprêtent à combattre ensemble!!! La flotte franco-anglaise s'engage dans la mer Noire. Les alliés remportent une victoire sur les bords de l'Alma avant de mettre le siège devant Sébastopol, puissante forteresse russe dans la presqu’île de Crimée. Le fait le plus marquant de ce siège éprouvant est la «charge de la brigade légère» de lord Cardigan, qui repousse une attaque cosaque au prix de très lourdes pertes. On retient aussi le dévouement de Florence Nightingale, une Britannique de 34 ans qui organise avec talent des hôpitaux de campagne. Après la prise de Sébastopol, les Russes, épuisés, demandent la paix. Napoléon III exulte. Il espère renouer avec la gloire militaire de son oncle…
— Francia e Inglaterra, como aliadas de Turquía para el mantenimiento de la integridad del imperio otomano, declaran la guerra a Rusia, lo que da origen al conflicto de Crimea.
^ 1836 First Mormon temple dedicated
      In Kirtland, Ohio, Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon religion, dedicates the first Mormon temple. Later in the day, Smith leads his first religious service at the church, built to accommodate the fifty Mormon families he led from New York to escape religious persecution.
      In 1823, Smith, born in Vermont in 1805, claimed that he been visited by a Christian angel named Moroni who told him about an ancient Hebrew text that had lost been lost for 1500 years. The holy text, supposedly engraved on gold plates by a Native-American historian in the fourth century, related the story of Jewish peoples who had lived in America in ancient times. The belief in a divine revelation posterior to the New Testament (which also exists among Muslims, among others) is what makes the Mormons a non-Christian religion.
      Over the next six years, Smith dictated an English translation of this text to his wife and other scribes, and, in 1830, The Book of Mormon was published. In the same year, Smith founded the Church of Christ, later known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Fayette, New York. The religion rapidly gained converts and Smith set up Mormon communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois.
      However, the sect was also heavily criticized for its unorthodox practices and, on 24 June 1844, Smith and his brother were murdered in a jail cell by an anti-Mormon mob in Carthage, Illinois.
      Two years later, Smith’s successor, Brigham Young, led an exodus of persecuted Mormons from Nauvoo, Illinois, along the western wagon trails in search of religious and political freedom. In July 1847, the 148 initial Mormon pioneers reached Utah’s Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Upon viewing the valley, Young declared, "this is the place," and the pioneers began preparations for the tens of thousands of Mormon migrants who would follow.
1808 Pío VII excomulga a Napoleón I.
1803 Par la loi du du 7 Germinal an XI, le Premier consul Napoléon Bonaparte donne une base stable à la monnaie née de la Révolution en définissant la nouvelle pièce de 1 Franc par “5 grammes d'argent au titre de neuf dixièmes de fin”. Une pièce en or de 20 francs est également créée sous le nom de “Napoléon”.
1802 Treaty of Amiens:: French Revolutionary War ends. — Francia firma la Paz de Amiens con Inglaterra, por la que España recupera Menorca y cede Trinidad.
1794 US President Washington and Congress authorized creation of the US Navy.
click for triplet portrait^ 1625 click for triplet portraitCharles I ascends to the British throne
      Charles was born on 19 November 1600. Upon the death of his father, King James I, Charles I becomes the king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
      In the first year of his reign, Charles offends his Protestant subjects by marrying Henrietta Maria, a Catholic French princess. He later responds to increasing political opposition to his rule by dissolving Parliament on several occasions, and, in 1629, decides to rule entirely without Parliament.
      In 1642, the bitter struggle between king and Parliament for supremacy leads to the outbreak of the first English civil war. The Parliamentarians are led by Oliver Cromwell, whose formidable Ironsides force win an important victory against the king’s Royalist forces at Marston Moor in 1644 and at Naseby in 1645. As a leader of the New Model Army in the second English civil war, Cromwell helped repel the Royalist invasion of Scotland, and, in 1646, Charles surrenders to a Scottish army.
      In 1648, Charles is forced to appear before a high court controlled by his enemies, where he is convicted of treason and sentenced to death. On 30 January 1649, Charles is beheaded in London, England.
      The monarchy is later abolished, and Cromwell assumes control of the new English Commonwealth. In 1658, Cromwell dies and is succeeded by his son, Richard, who is forced to flee to France in the next year with the restoration of the monarchy and the crowning of Charles II, the son of Charles I. Oliver Cromwell is posthumously convicted of treason and his body is disinterred from its tomb in Westminster Abbey and hanged from the gallows at Tyburn.
Anthony van Dyck made Charles I more impressive than life in his portraits:
Charles I at the Hunt (1635, 266x207cm) — Charles I at the Hunt (1635, 266x207cm) — Charles I on Horseback (1635, 365x289cm) — Charles I from three angles (1636) — Charles I from three angles (1636) — Charles I (1636) — Charles I of England and Henrietta of FranceCharles I and Queen Henrietta Maria with Charles, Prince of Wales and Princess Mary (1632)
1572 La Inquisición encarcela a Fray Luis de León, bajo la acusación de sostener que la Biblia Vulgata contenía errores.
1512 Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León sights Florida.
1123 Finaliza el primer concilio ecuménico universal, bautizado como Concilio de Letrán, celebrado por la Iglesia de Occidente a instancias del papa Calixto II.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 27 March:

2007 Paul Christian Lautebur, born on 06 May 1929, US scientist who, .for developing magnetic resonance imaging to look inside living beings,.shared the 2003 Nobel Medicine Prize with Peter Mansfield [09 Oct 1933~], while pioneer researcher Raymond Vahan Damadian [16 Mar 1936~] complained for not being included. —(070328)
2003 Two of the five aboard a crashing US Forest Service Bell 407 helicopter among the seven searching for debris remaining from the 01 February 2003 crash of the space shuttle Columbia near Broaddus in the Angelina National Forest, San Augustine County, Texas. The other three aboard are injured.
2003 Amir Beeks, 3, of being beaten with a baseball bat, the previous afternoon, by a boy, 10, who enticed him from a library in Woodbridge NJ, and sexually assaulted him.
2003 Dusan Spasojevic, 35, and Mile Lukovic, 34, in a shootout with Serbian policemen who find them hiding in a suburb of Belgrade. The two were members of the criminal gang Zemun Clan and suspected of involvement in the 12 March 2003 assassination of Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic.
2003 Gunnery Sgt. Joseph Menusa, 33; and Lance Cpl. Jesus A. Suarez Del Solar, 20; US Marines killed in action in Iraq.
2003 Ricardo Munguía, 39, Salvadoran-Swiss water engineer working for the Red Cross in Afghanistan, shot at 10:00 by some 25 gunmen who stop the Red Cross convoy in which he was traveling in Orugan province towards Kandahar, drag out Munguía, the only non-Afghan, radio their commander, ex-Taliban Mullah Dadullah, then follow his orders to kill the foreigner. They leave the Afghan Red Cross workers unharmed, but steal a Red Cross vehicle and loot the others, setting one on fire.
Pandya2003 Haren Pandya [photo >], shot in the neck and chest as he was returning from his morning walk in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, the state of India of which he was Home Minister and had been emerging as a rival to Chief Minister Narendra Modi.
2003 Two of the 14 passengers and both crew members of a de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter of PT Air Regional which crashes at 12:30 into a 2100-meter mountain 3 minutes after taking off from Mulia, Indonesia, bound for Wamena.
2002 Perla Hermele, 79, of Sweden; and Israelis David Anichovitch, 70; Shimon Ben-Aroya, 42; Andre Fried, 47; Idit Fried, 47; Ami Hamami, 44; Dvora Karim, 73; Michael Karim, 78; Marianne Myriam Lehmann Zaoui, 77; Furuk Na'imi, 62, all 9 of Netanya; Eliahu Nakash, 85, and Yulia Talmi, 87, both of Tel-Aviv; Ernest Weiss, 79, and Eva Weiss, 75, both of Petah Tikva; Meir (George) Yakobovitch, 76, and Shula Abramovitch, 63, both of Holon; Sergeant Major Avrahakm Beckerman, 25, of Ashdod; Miriam Gutenzgan, 82, of Ramat Gan; Yehudit Korman, 70, of Ramat Hasharon; Lola Levkovitch, 85, of Jerusalem; Irit Rashel, 45, of Moshav Herev La'et; St.-Sgt. Sivan Vider, 20, of Bekaot; and Abdel-Basset Odeh, suicide bomber of the Iz a Din al-Kassam Brigades, who blows himself up at about 19:30 in the dining hall of the Park Hotel on the boardwalk of Netanya, Israel, where about 250 persons were for the Passover Seder. 62 persons are wounded seriously enough to remain hospitalized for a day or more. Seven of them die later of their injuries: Chanah Rogan, 92, of Netanya; Zee'v Vider, 50, of Moshav Bekaot; Alter Britvich, 88, and his wife Frieda Britvich, 86, of Netanya, on 02 April and 03 April; Sarah Levy-Hoffman, 89, of Tel-Aviv, on 07; Anna Yakobovitch, 78, of Holon, on 11 April; Eliezer Korman, 74, of Ramat Hasharon, on 05 May.
2002 Eight council members: Louiza Benakli, 40, Christian Bouthier, 46, Jacotte Duplenne, 48, Monique Leroy-Sauter, 43, Olivier Mazzotti, 38, Valérie Méot, 40, Michel Raoult, 58, Pascal Sternberg, 30, shot by Richard Durn, 33, mentally disturbed, in the Nanterre (working-class western Paris suburb) city hall at about 01:15 following a city council meeting. 17 council members and two other persons are wounded. As brave council members subdue him, Durn shouts: “Kill me! Kill me!“ The next day, during a police interrogation, he would jump to his death out of a 5th-story window.. — Détails sur les morts: Benakli (PCF, adjointe déléguée à l'enfance), avocate _ Bouthier (PCF), professeur de collège _ Duplenne (PCF, adjointe déléguée à la jeunesse et à l'enseignement), institutrice _ Leroy-Sauter (Groupe l'Union pour Nanterre, droite), expert-comptable _ Mazzotti (Groupe l'Union pour Nanterre, droite), enseignant _ Méot (PCF, secrétaire de la section locale du PCF), institutrice _ Raoult (Groupe l'Union pour Nanterre, droite), cadre _ Sternberg (Verts), conseiller régional et chargé de mission.
2001 Mahmoud Darawish, 11, Palestinian boy, by Israeli gunfire, at a refugee camp near Hebron.
1996 Phisan Moonlasartsathorn, 67, of heart failure, following many years of prostate cancer and diabetes. He and Chavalit Yongchaiyudh founded the New Aspiration Party of Thailand in 1990. He was elected an MP three times, was once science minister, and was now labor minister.
1995 René Allio, cineasta, pintor y hombre de teatro francés.
^ 1995 Cray Computer Corporation declares bankruptcy
      The Cray Computer Corporation, headed by 68-year-old computer guru Seymour Cray, filed for bankruptcy protection on this day in 1995. Seymour Cray helped develop the modern computer through his work for UNIVAC, Remington Rand, and Control Data Corporation, all leaders in computer technology in the '60s. The supercomputer developed by his unit at Control Data Corporation, introduced in 1963, was far faster than competing mainframes and was used by the military to simulate nuclear explosions and break codes. In 1972, he founded Cray Research, which became a leader in high-end machines costing between $5 million and $40 million. In addition to military purposes, these machines were used to model hurricanes and the formation of galaxies. In 1989, Cray spun off Cray Computer Corporation to make even faster and more powerful computers. The bankruptcy of Cray's new company in many ways represented the end of an era. Many early computers had been developed specifically to compute military scenarios, but the end of the Cold War had reduced demand for high-end supercomputers. Cray's new company received no orders for its Cray 4 model.
1993 Vicent Andrés Estellés, poeta y periodista español.
^ 1985 Ezio Tarantelli, Italian economist, murdered by the Red Brigades.
      Ezio Tarantelli, professore di Economia del lavoro alla Sapienza e sindacalista della Cisl, muore nella notte tra il 26 e il 27 marzo, in un attentato rivendicato dalle Brigate Rosse.
— Tarantelli, padre della concertazione e delle "35 ore" Il "padre" della predeterminazione della "scala mobile", il teorico della concertazione e del metodo del confronto triangolare tra Governo, imprese e sindacato, ma anche il convinto assertore della necessità di ritrovare un equilibrio sociale che consenta lo sviluppo dell'economia garantendo l'occupazione. Questo era Ezio Tarantelli, giovane e brillante docente universitario di economia, ucciso nella notte tra il 26 e il 27 marzo 1985 a Roma per avere difeso con coerenza e in tutte le sedi le sue convinzioni. Tarantelli era uscito dall'ambito strettamente universitario - nel quale aveva collaborato con il Nobel per l'Economia Franco Modigliani - ed era diventato un protagonista della vita politica italiana suscitando consensi e critiche ma raccogliendo ovunque stima.
      La sua proposta di predeterminare i punti di contingenza in relazione al tasso programmato di inflazione era stata resa pubblica l'08 aprile del 1981 e fatta propria dalla Cisl dell'allora segretario Pierre Carniti che l'aveva sempre difesa. La proposta era valida per il 1981 ma sarebbe stata poi ripresentata ogni anno fino a essere, almeno per quanto riguarda il senso politico, applicata con l'accordo del 14 febbraio 1984 con il "decreto antinflazione" del Governo Craxi scaturito dall'accordo separato dell'Esecutivo con Cisl e Uil e socialisti della Cgil, con cui vennero tagliati 4 punti dell'indennità di contingenza in busta paga. Tarantelli, con la sua proposta, prevedeva un negoziato triangolare tra Governo, imprenditori e sindacato per concordare una "curva" della scala mobile che fissasse nell'anno un numero minore di scatti prevedibili nei quattro trimestri in rapporto all'inflazione programmata. Al contempo Tarantelli chiedeva anche un pacchetto di misure di intervento strutturale sull'economia, con il duplice scopo di garantire il potere d'acquisto dei salari reali e il rientro dall'inflazione. La proposta di Tarantelli prevedeva anche una clausola di garanzia: «Se alla fine dell'anno - scriveva nell' 81 in un articolo sulla Repubblica - il tasso di inflazione effettivo supera quello previsto nella curva "concordata" dei punti di scala mobile, sarebbero le imprese, non lo Stato, a pagare la differenza».
      La proposta ebbe notevole successo ed entrò di prepotenza nel dibattito di allora sul contenimento dell'inflazione. In un primo tempo sembrò affascinare non solo Carniti, ma anche gli altri leader sindacali, Lama per primo, ma poi venne accantonata per l'opposizione della Cgil e del Pci, per tornare comunque alla ribalta due anni dopo prima della rottura del movimento sindacale. E il Pci promosse il referendum per l'abrogazione.
      Ma Tarantelli va ricordato anche per le sue numerose e articolate proposte per la difesa dell'occupazione che tanta influenza ebbero sulla linea del sindacato e della Cisl in particolare. «Lavorare meno per occupare di più», scriveva l'economista su Repubblica il 05 Jun 1984: «La differenza tra il tasso di aumento della produttività del lavoro e l'aumento del salario mensile deve essere esattamente pari all'aumento del tempo libero per occupato». La riduzione dell'orario di lavoro, per Tarantelli, avrebbe potuto anche non essere giornaliera, «ma attuarsi anche con l'aumento dei giorni di riposo settimanali, con un allungamento delle ferie, con la generalizzazione dei sabbatici non retribuiti».
      Una proposta che anni dopo avrebbe trovato applicazione pratica, ma non in Italia: l'avrebbe attuata il governo socialista francese guidato da Lionel Jospin con la riduzione dell'orario di lavoro alle famose "35 ore".
      Flessibilità della forza lavoro, utilizzo del part time, istituzione di un fondo di solidarietà: queste altre proposte della Cisl per le quali Tarantelli aveva portato il suo contributo. L'ultima proposta, illustrata in un articolo e in una intervista al Giornale radio 1 della Rai il giorno prima del suo omicidio: dotare il fondo sociale europeo di un finanziamento in ecu (l'antesignano dell'euro, così si chiamava all'epoca la moneta convenzionale dell'allora Cee) con diritto di ogni Paese membro di prelevare le somme disponibili in proporzione al numero dei disoccupati utilizzandole per il sostegno all'occupazione.
      Il 09 Jun 1985, quattordici mesi dopo l'omicidio di Tarantelli, il Partito Comunista guidato da Alessandro Natta portò al voto quasi 45 milioni di italiani per il referendum abrogativo dell'accordo sulla contingenza. Alle urne si recarono il 60,4% degli aventi diritto, quasi 34 milioni di cittadini. Vinse il pentapartito di Governo promotore del comitato per il "no" all'abrogazione della norma con il 54,3% (18,4 milioni di voti) contro il 45,7% dei "sì" (15,45 milioni di voti).
1977: 583 die in aviation's worst accident, as KLM flight 4805, attempting to take off, crashes at 17:07 into Pan Am Clipper flight 1736 on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, to which several planes had been redirected after a terrorist bomb exploded at their intended destination at Las Palmas, on another Canary island. As a result, the small Tenerife airport became crowded and the taxiways leading to the runway were congested. Among the planes waiting for approval to leave were two Boeing 747s, one, “Victor”, of the Pan American airline, the other of the KLM Royal Dutch airline. As evening approached, there was heavy fog. Both the US and the Dutch aircraft were ready for takeoff at about the same time. The Pan Am jet was moving to leave the runway so the KLM flight could take off, but the Pan Am plane missed the taxiway turnout and the KLM plane began its takeoff roll without permission. Just as the KLM plane was taking off, it hit the Pan Am plane. Both planes burst into flames. Everyone aboard the KLM plane perished -- all 14 members of the crew and all 234 passengers. On the Pan Am flight, 9 of the 16 crew members died along with 326 of the 380 passengers. It is the deadliest airplane accident in history (though surpassed by the deliberate crashing of two planes into the World Trade Center in New York on 11 September 2001, which caused 2752 deaths). Only 15 of the survivors walked away from the crash. The Dutch, Spanish, and US governments conducted investigations into the cause of the accident. Although the final reports disagreed about the cause, the transcript from the cockpit recorders suggests that the Dutch pilot disobeyed or misunderstood instructions from the air traffic controllers. The second deadliest airplane accident was the crash of a Japan Air Lines Boeing 747 into Mount Osutaka on12 August 1985, resulting in 520 deaths.
1972 Maurits C. Escher, Dutch mathematical artist born on 17 June 1898. . MORE ON ESCHER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1968 Col. Yuri A. Gagarin and Colonel-Engineer Col. Vladimir Sergeyevich Seryogin [07 Jul 1922–], some 50 km east of Moscow, in 10:31 crash of a MiG-15 fighter plane on a training flight in which Seryogin was the instructor of Gagarin, born on 09 March 1934, famous for making man's first flight in space on 12 April 1961, lasting from 09:07 to 10:55 including an 89-minute orbit.
^ 1965:: 53 Vietcong in Cambodia, 3 South Vietnamese of the attacking force.
      Following several days of consultations with the Cambodian government, South Vietnamese troops, supported by artillery and air strikes, launch their first major military operation into Cambodia. The South Vietnamese encountered a 300-man Viet Cong force in the Kandal province and reported killing 53 communist soldiers. Two teams of US helicopter gunships took part in the action. Three South Vietnamese soldiers were killed and seven wounded.
^ 1964 125 victims of Alaska earthquake and tsunami
      At 17:36 (03:36:14 UT 28 Mar) The strongest earthquake in US history, measuring 8.4 on the Richter scale, slams into southern Alaska, killing 15 persons, plus 110 in the ensuing tsunami, and injuring thousands.
      The massive earthquake had its epicenter at 61º06'N 147º30'W in Prince William Sound, about 120 km east of Anchorage and 150 km west of Valdez, although approximately 800'000 square kilometers of US, Canadian, and international territory were affected.
      Anchorage, Alaska’s largest city, sustained the most property damage and initial loss of life, with about thirty blocks of dwellings and commercial buildings damaged or destroyed in the downtown area.
      Although only fifteen persons died or were fatally injured during the duration of the three-minute quake, the ensuing tsunami killed another one hundred and ten persons. The tidal wave, 67 meters at its highest point, devastated towns along the Gulf of Alaska, and caused serious damage in British Columbia, Canada, in Hawaii, and along the West Coast of the United States, where fifteen people died. Property damage was about 311 million dollars. The next day, US President Lyndon B. Johnson declared Alaska an official disaster area.
more
1956 Efraim Martínez, Zambrano, Colombian painter born on 07 Dec 1898. — more
^ 1945 The victims of the last German V-2s.
      In a last-ditch effort to deploy their remaining V-2 missiles against the Allies, the Germans launch their long-range rockets from their only remaining launch site, in the Netherlands. Almost 200 civilians in England and Belgium were added to the V-2 casualty toll. German scientists had been working on the development of a long-range missile since the 1930s. In 03 October 1942, victory was achieved with the successful trial launch of the V-2, a 12-ton rocket capable of carrying a one-ton warhead. The missile, fired from Peenemunde, an island off Germany's Baltic coast, traveled 190 km in that first test. The brainchild of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, the V-2 was unique in several ways. First, it was virtually impossible to intercept. Upon launching, the missile rises 10 km vertically; it then proceeds on an arced course, cutting off its own fuel according to the range desired. The missile then tips over and falls on its target at a speed of some 6000 km/h. It hits with such force that the missile burrows itself into the ground several feet before exploding. The V-2 had the potential of flying a distance of 300 km, and the launch pads were portable, making them impossible to detect before firing. The first launches as part of an offensive occurred on 06 September 1944, when two missiles were fired at Paris. On 08 September, two more were fired at England, which would be followed by over 1100 more during the next six months.
      On 27 March 1945, taking advantage of their one remaining V-2 launch site, near The Hague, the Germans fired their V-2s for the last time. At 07:00 London awoke to a blast-one of the bombs had landed on a block of flats at Valance Road, killing 134 persons. Twenty-seven Belgian civilians were killed in Antwerp when another of the rockets landed there. And that afternoon, one more V-2 landed in Kent, England, causing the very last British civilian casualty of the war. By the end of the war, more than 2700 Brits had died because of the rocket attacks, as well as another 4483 deaths in Belgium. After the war, both the United States and the Soviet Union captured samples of the rockets for reproduction. Having proved so extraordinarily deadly during the war, the V-2 became the precursor of the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) of the postwar era.
1944 2000 Jews are murdered in Kaunas Lithuania
1944 40 Jewish policemen in Riga, Latvia, ghetto are shot by the Gestapo
1942 Julio González, Spanish artist born on 21 September 1876. — Julio González, escultor español conocido fundamentalmente por sus trabajos con el hierro forjado, fallece en la localidad francesa de Arcueil.
1929 Shatunovsky, mathematician.
1925 Carl Neumann, mathematician.
1920 Samuel Colman, US painter, interior designer, and writer, born on 04 March 1832. MORE ON COLMAN AT ART “4” MARCH 04 with links to images.
1899 Myles Birket Foster, British painter born on 04 February 1825. — more with links to images.
1888 Faà di Bruno, mathematician.
1882 (29 Mar?) Thomas Jones Barker, British painter born on 19 April 1813. — more
1875 Francisco Javier Parcerisa, pintor y litógrafo español.
1843 Jakob Gauermann, German artist born on 03 September 1773.
^ 1836:: 417 Texans, executed by Mexicans at Goliad.
      In a disastrous setback for the Texans resisting Santa Anna's dictatorial regime, the Mexican army defeats and executes 417 Texas revolutionaries at Goliad. Long accustomed to enjoying considerable autonomy from their Mexican rulers, many Anglo Texan settlers reacted with alarm when Antonio López de Santa Anna proclaimed himself dictator of Mexico in 1835. Santa Anna immediately imposed martial law and attempted to disarm the Texans. Yet, this move merely fed the flames of Texan resistance. In November 1853, Texan leaders proclaimed their resistance to Santa Anna's dictatorship, though they stopped short of calling for independence. The next month, the Texans managed to defeat 800 Mexican soldiers stationed in San Antonio. However, the rebel leaders remained deeply divided over what to do next, making them vulnerable to Santa Anna's ruthless determination to suppress dissension. While the Texas rebels dallied, Santa Anna moved decisively. In mid-February he led a massive Mexican army across the Rio Grande, and after a 13-day siege of the Alamo, crushed the rebels in San Antonio.
      Meanwhile, to the south, Santa Ann's chief lieutenant, General Urrea, moved to destroy another faction of the rebel army attempting to defend the town of Goliad. Disagreements among the Texans had led to a division of the rebel forces. James W. Fannin was left with only slightly more than 300 Texans to protect Goliad, a position the rebels needed in order to maintain their supply routes to the Gulf Coast. As Urrea's much larger 1400-man army approached, Fannin acted with indecision, wondering if he should go to the aid of the besieged men at the Alamo. Belatedly, Fannin attempted to fall back from the approaching Mexican army, but his retreat order came too late.
      On 19 March, Urrea surrounded the small column of rebel soldiers on an open prairie, where they were trapped without food, water, or cover. After repulsing one Mexican assault, Fannin realized there was no chance of escape. Rather than see his force annihilated, Fannin surrendered. Apparently, some among the Texans who surrendered believed they would be treated as prisoners of war. Santa Anna, however, had clearly stated several months before that he considered the rebels to be traitors who would be given no quarter.
      In obedience to Santa Anna's orders, on this day Urrea orders his men to open fire on Fannin and his soldiers, along with about 100 other captured Texans. More than 400 men are executed at Goliad. Ironically, rather than serving to crush the Texas rebellion, the Goliad Massacre helped inspire and unify the Texans. Now determined to break completely from Mexico, the Texas revolutionaries began to yell "Remember Goliad!" along with the more famous battle cry, "Remember the Alamo!" Less than a month later, Texan forces under General Sam Houston dealt a stunning blow to Santa Anna's army in the Battle of San Jacinto, and Texas won its independence.
1820 Franz Gerhard von Kügelgen, German painter born on 06 February 1772. — more with links to images.
1809 Joseph Marie Vien, French Neoclassical painter born on 18 June 1716. MORE ON VIEN AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1770 Giovanni-Battista Tiepolo, Italian painter born on 05 March 1696. MORE ON TIEPOLO AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1723 Constantyn Netscher, Dutch artist born on 16 December 1668.
1677 Jan Meerhout, Dutch artist.
1625 James I, “king of Great Britain” (as he called himself), born on 19 June 1566. He became king James VI of Scotland on 24 July 1567, upon the abdication of his mother Mary, Queen of Scots (he never saw her after the age of 2). He became the first Stuart king of England in 1603 at the death of childless queen Elizabeth I.
1546 Leonor de Castro Melo y Meneses, born in 1512, wife of Saint Francisco de Borja, marqués de Lombay y cuarto duque de Gandía [28 Oct 1510 – 01 Oct 1572].
1378 Gregory XI, Pope, born Pierre Roger de Beaufort in 1331. He was a nephew of Pope Clement VI, who made him a cardinal in 1348. After the death of Urban V, the cardinals unanimously elected him pope at Avignon, in December, 1370. He was ordained a priest on 04 January 1371 and was crowned pope on 05 January 1371. He was the last French Pope. He moved the Holy See from Avignon back to Rome, where he arrived on 17 January 1377.
French oriflam^ 1351 John Bramborough and 44 others killed in the “Combat des Trentes”, episode in the struggle for the succession to the duchy of Brittany between Charles of Blois, supported by the King of France, and John of Montfort, supported by the King of England. The combat at arms was celebrated by an unknown trouvère and retold with variations by Jean Froissart.
      When, in spite of a truce, John Bramborough, the English captain of Ploërmel, continued his ravages in the district of Josselin, 12 km to the west, Jean de Beaumanoir, captain of Josselin and marshal of Brittany, sent Bramborough a challenge. Thus on 27 March 1351, a fight took place on the Moor of Mi-Voie, between Josselin and Ploërmel, with 30 picked champions, knights and squires, on either side. Beaumanoir's side comprised 30 Bretons (under this flag >), Bramborough's 20 Englishmen, 6 German mercenaries, and 4 Brabançons. The battle, fought with lances, swords, daggers, and maces, is reminiscent of the last fight of the Burgundians in the Nibelungenlied, especially in the advice of Geoffroy du Bois to his wounded leader, who was asking for water: “Bois ton sang, Beaumanoir, la soif te passera!” The fighting lasted all day. The victory was decided by Guillaume de Montauban, who mounted his horse and overthrew seven of the English champions, the rest being forced to surrender. All the combatants were either dead or seriously wounded. The prisoners were well treated and released for a small ransom.
     The War of Succession of Brittany ended in 1364, when Charles de Blois was defeated and killed in Auray.
      En Bretagne, les partisans des Monfort s'oppose à ceux des Penthièvre pour diriger le duché, et ce depuis 1341. La peste s'ajoute en 1348 à ces combats pour décimer la population. Aussi chaque partie ne se contente que de défendre ses positions.
      En mars 1351, Robert de Beaumont, agissant pour le compte des Penthièvre, arrive devant Ploërmel. Son souhait est de s'en emparer. Mais cette ville, sous le commandement de Brandebourg résiste. Robert de Beaumont propose alors un tournoi entre les deux parties. Brandebourg, séduit par l'idée augmente même le nombre des chevaliers qui y participeront.
      Trois jours après, soixante chevaliers se retrouvent dans un champ clos. Sur les trente chevaliers de chaque clan, il y en a cinq à cheval et les autres sont à pied. Le choix des armes est libre et est constitué de dagues, épées et haches.
      Lorsque le signal est donné, les soixante chevaliers se lancent les uns vers les autres. Et cela se fait dans le vacarme des armures et des armes qui s'entrechoquent. Si les hommes de Brandebourg commencent par prendre le dessus, ce dernier tombe à la suite d'un coup de lance. Il ne se relève pas. Une pause dans les combats est faite.
      Les combats recommencent et Beaumont, se battant à pied, est gravement blessé. Les bretons s'agglutinent pour former un carré et ainsi réduire à néant les offensives françaises. Montauban, le seul encore à cheval, fonce sur le carré breton qui s'ébranle, permettant aux chevaliers français d'assaillir leurs adversaires. Devant un tel assaut, ils se rendent. Il reste neuf bretons et six français sur les soixante chevaliers du départ.
      Si les survivants sont vus comme des héros, les clercs n'approuvaient pas cette recherche d'honneur des chevaliers.
A mi-chemin entre Josselin et Ploërmel, un obélisque de granit, ou pyramide de la Mie-Voie (inauguré en 1819) commémore le souvenir du Combat des Trente. Cet épisode de la guerre de succession de Bretagne est devenu célèbre grâce au récite de Froissart, chroniqueur du 14ème siècle.
A la mort du duc de Bretagne Jean III, en 1341, une grave crise de succession oppose son demi-frère Jean de Montfort et ses alliés anglais à sa nièce Jeanne de Penthièvre, mariée à Charles de Blois, neveu du Roi de France, et soutenue par la Couronne. En 1351, Jean de Beaumanoir, sénéchal de la maison des Rohan, tient pour Charles de Blois le château de Josselin, tandis que l'Anglais Bemborough, qui occupe Ploërmel pour Jean de Montfort, pille et rançonne le pays.
     Beaumanoir s'apitoie sur le sort des paysans et va en demander raison aux Anglais. Il lance un défi à Bemborough. Ainsi s'affronteront sur la lande de Mi-Voie, trente chevaliers franco-bretons et trente chevaliers anglo-bretons en une bataille qui dura longtemps. Au chef des premiers. Beaumanoir, blessé, crie sa soif, Geoffroy du Bouays lui réplique : « Bois ton sang, Beaumanoir, la soif te passera. » Le parti de Charles de Blois remporte la victoire. Froissart raconte qu'à la table du Roi Charles V, il vit un des survivants du combat, Even de Charuel, « le visage si tailladé et découpé qu'il montrai que la besogne fut bien combattue. » Cette bataille ne résout rien, mais la chronique de Froissart en a fait le modèle des exploits de chevalerie, et la célèbre Ballade des Trente, que La Villemarqué publiera en 1838 dans son Barzaz Breiz, s'achève ainsi : « Il n'eut pas été l'ami des Bretons, celui qui n'eut pas applaudi dans la ville de Josselin en voyant revenir les nôtres, des fleurs de genêt à leurs casques ».
      « Ils avaient courtes épées de Bordeaux raides et aiguës, et épieux, et dagues, et quelques-uns des haches, et s'en donnaient merveilleusement grands horizons ; vous pouvez bien croire qu'ils firent entre eux mainte belle appertise d'armes, homme contre homme, corps à corps et main à main ; on n'avait point auparavant, depuis cent ans passés, ouï rapporter chose pareille….
Mais finalement les Anglais en eurent le pire….Ainsi Brandebourch, leur capitaine, y fut tué et huit de leurs compagnons ; les autres se rendirent prisonniers. Messire Robert et ses compagnons demeurés en vie les emmenèrent au château de Josselin et les rançonnèrent depuis courtoisement quand ils furent guéris, car il n'y avait nul qui ne fut blessé tant des Français que des Anglais » (Jean Froissart Chroniques)
Combat des Trente à Ploërmel
     Le 27 mars 1351, sur la lande de Ploërmel, deux camps bretons règlent leur différend par un singulier combat.
      C'est l'épisode le plus mémorable de la guerre de Succession de Bretagne ouverte dix ans plus tôt par la mort du duc Jean III le Bon, le 30 avril 1341, sans enfant et sans héritier désigné.
Succession contestée
      La succession du duc Jean III le Bon est revendiquée par Charles de Blois, neveu du roi de France et époux de Jeanne de Penthièvre, nièce du défunt duc. Il a l'appui de la haute noblesse et du roi de France Philippe VI de Valois.
      Mais le demi-frère de Jean III, Jean de Montfort, conteste la succession par les femmes. Il a le soutien de la petite noblesse bretonne et surtout du roi d'Angleterre Édouard III, qui lui-même vient de revendiquer la couronne de France.
      Dans un premier temps, Jean de Montfort prend possession du duché mais il est rapidement défait par l'armée française et emprisonné au Louvre, à Paris, cependant que sa femme, Jeanne de Flandre, poursuit le combat. Libéré en 1343 à la faveur d'une trêve, Jean de Montfort meurt peu après.
      La guerre de Succession de Bretagne, aussi appelée guerre des deux Jeanne, ne s'en poursuit pas moins, étroitement imbriquée à la guerre franco-anglaise, plus tard appelée guerre de Cent Ans.
Singulier combat
      De nombreuses empoignades marquent cette longue guerre. Les paysans bretons en sont les principales victimes.
      Le 25 mars 1351, Jean de Beaumanoir, capitaine du château de Josselin, provoque en combat singulier les Anglais de Richard de Bremborough, établi non loin de là, à Ploërmel.
      Le capitaine anglais préfère à un combat singulier un combat par équipes : «Dieu soit Juge entre nous ! Que chacun de nous choisisse trente à quarante champions pour soutenir sa cause. On verra de quel côté est le droit».
      Les deux camps désignent chacun trente champions et le combat commence deux jours plus tard sur la lande, au lieu-dit le chêne de Mi-Voie (ou Mivoye), dans le Morbihan actuel.
      C'est un carnage sans règle qui n'a rien à voir avec les joutes codifiées de l'époque. Les combattants, chevaliers, écuyers, mercenaires, sont à pied ou à cheval, avec des armes disparates. Pour le chroniqueur Jean Froissart qui en a fait le récit complet, ce fut «un moult haut, un moult merveilleux fait d'armes».
      Au plus fort des combats, Beaumanoir lui-même, blessé, réclame à boire. L'un de ses compagnons, Geoffroy du Bois, lui lance selon la chronique : «Bois ton sang, Beaumanoir ! Et la soif te passera». Et le capitaine retrouve sa combativité.
      Le soir venu, Beaumanoir et son camp remportent une victoire relative avec «seulement» six morts, les Anglais ayant de leur côté perdu neuf hommes dont leur chef, Bremborough.
Vers la paix
       La guerre se poursuit encore de longues années. En 1352, à Mauron, une bataille occasionne cette fois plusieurs centaines de victimes dans les deux camps. Enfin, à Auray, le 29 septembre 1364, Charles de Blois est défait et tué.
      La paix signée à Guérande le 12 avril 1365 consacre la victoire posthume de Jean de Montfort. C'est son fils qui prend la couronne ducale sous le nom de Jean IV.
      A la même époque, le capitaine Bertrand du Guesclin, un ancien partisan de Charles de Blois, se met au service du roi de France et donne la paix au royaume.
      Resté secrètement allié au roi d'Angleterre dont il a épousé la fille, Marie, Jean IV est plus tard chassé de ses terres par Bertrand du Guesclin. Mais les protestations de la noblesse bretonne obligent la France à le rétablir dans ses droits par un second traité de Guérande, en 1381.
      Ce fut en Bretagne comme en France le retour de la prospérité et une grande période d'effervescence artistique.
      Par le traité du Verger du 19 Aug 1488, le duc François II, petit-fils de Jean IV le Vaillant, allait entraîner le rattachement définitif de la Bretagne au royaume de France.
 
< 26 Mar 28 Mar >
^  Births which occurred on a 27 March:

1955 Mariano Rajoy, político español, vicepresidente primero y ministro de Interior.
1944 Enrique Barón, político español.
1935 Stanley Francis Rother, who, on 25 May 1963 would be ordained a Catholic priest of the diocese of Oklahoma City - Tulsa,
and in 1968 become a missionary in the parish of Santiago Atitlán, diocese of Sololá, Guatemala. On 28 July 1981 he would be murdered by a death squad organized by the Guatemalan army. —(080306)
1917 Cyrus R Vance, US Secretary of State (1977-1980)
1915 Denton Welch, English painter and novelist who died on 30 November 1948. — links to images.
Callaghan 27 March 2002^ 1912 Leonard James “Jim” Callaghan, British Labour Party politician who died on 26 March 2005. He was prime minister from 05 April 1976 to 04 May 1979.
      His father, a British Navy Chief Petty Officer of Irish ancestry, died when Callaghan was 9, plunging the family into poverty. They received no pension until Labor came into office in 1931 and paid the family a weekly pension of 10 shillings (then worth about $2). Owing to poverty, Callaghan entered the civil service at age 17 as a tax officer. By 1936 he had become a full-time trade-union official. He met Harold Laski [30 Jun 1893 – 24 Mar 1950], chairman of the Labour Party's National Executive Committee, who encouraged him to be a candidate for Parliament. Callaghan served as a lieutenant in naval intelligence during World War II, and he was elected on 05 July 1945 to Parliament, for the constituency of Cardiff South.
      Between 1947 and 1951 Callaghan held junior posts at the Ministry of Transport and at the Admiralty. When the Labour government of Harold Wilson [11 Mar 1916 – 24 May 1995] was formed in 1964, Callaghan was named chancellor of the Exchequer. In this capacity he helped secure in 1966–1967 international agreement to a system called Special Drawing Rights, which in effect created a new kind of international money. He resigned from the Exchequer, after he was forced to devalue the pound sterling on 18 November 1967. He then served as home secretary until 1970. In Wilson's second government in 1974, Callaghan was named foreign secretary; and after Wilson's 16 March 1976 resignation, Callaghan succeeded him as prime minister, largely because the Parliamentary Labour Party considered him the least divisive candidate. The slim Labour majority made Callaghan dependent on a contentious alliance with the Liberals.
      Throughout his ministry (1976–1979), Callaghan, a moderate within the Labour Party, tried to stem the increasingly vociferous demands of Britain's trade unions. He also had to secure the passage of unpopular cuts in government spending early in his ministry. His reassuring public manner, which got him the nickname “Sunny Jim”, came to be criticized as complacency when a series of labor strikes during the “Winter of Discontent” 1978–1979 paralyzed hospital care, refuse collection, and other essential services. On returning from a summit meeting in Guadeloupe, he said: “I don't think that other people in the world would share the view that there is mounting chaos.” The headlines made that: “Crisis what crisis?”
      On 28 March 1979 his government lost a no-confidence vote in the House of Commons by 311 votes to 310, the first such occurrence since 1924. At the subsequent general election on 03 May 1979, Margaret Thatcher [13 October 1925~] led the Conservatives to a victory which was to keep them in power for 18 years.
      On 15 October 1980, Callaghan resigned as leader of the Labour Party, to be succeeded by Michael Foot [23 Jul 1913~]. Callaghan remained an Member of Parliament until the general election of 11 June 1987 in which he did not participate. Shortly afterwards in 1987, he was made a life peer, which put him in the House of Lords. Also in 1987 he published his autobiography, Time and Chance.
      When Audrey Callaghan [28 Jul 1915 – 15 Mar 2005], his wife since 28 July 1938, died, he seemed to have lost the will to hang on to a life that, since 14 February 2005, had been longer than that of Harold Macmillan [10 Feb 1894 – 29 Dec 1986], which, until then, was longer than that of any other Prime Minister in British history.
^ 1910 John Pierce, inventor of satellite communication.
      John Pierce, an electrical engineer who was influential in the development of microwaves and radar during World War II, began working on the theory of satellite communication in 1954. His writings, which detailed the use of satellites in beaming radio signals around the world, were largely ignored. However, he convinced NASA to convert the Echo balloon satellite into a radio wave reflector. His successful experiments with Echo in 1960 led to the development of Telstar, which initiated modern television and radio communications by amplifying signals from one station on Earth and beaming them to another.
1905 Kalmár, mathematician.
1903 Xavier Villaurrutia, poeta y escritor mexicano.
1901 Sato Eisaku, (Lib) Japanese PM (1964-72) (Nobel Peace Prize 1974). He died on 03 June 1975.
1897 Hartree, mathematician.
1894 Leroy Leveson Laurent Joseph de Maistre, British artist who died in 1968.
1879 Edward J. Steichen, US painter turned photographer; who died on 25 March 1973.
1875 Albert Marquet, French Fauvist painter who died on 13 June 1947. — {Il y avait un peintre du nom de Marquet / qui était souvent recherché par le Parquet. / Mais alors pour outremer il s'embarquait, / et personne ne le remarquait}MORE ON MARQUET AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
^ 1863 Henry Royce, Rolls-Royce co-founder.
     Sir Henry Royce, the British industrialist whose fleet of high-end, high-priced cars stand as an enduring symbol of wealth, entered the working world at the tender age of fifteen, first serving as an apprentice engineer for the Great Northern Railway company. Royce enjoyed a successful career as an engineer and in the mid-1880s, he set up his own shop, which eventually became Royce Ltd. Royce initially focused his company on the production of motors, electric cranes, and generators. However, by 1904, he had unveiled the nascent version of what would become his signature product, the luxury automobile. Royce's first batch of cars caught the eye of C.S. Rolls, a British "motor dealer." Rolls snapped up Royce's initial line and, two short years later, the duo merged their companies as Rolls-Royce Ltd. Royce died on 22 April 1933.
kerosene lantern1863 Mito Umeta, Japan, who would die on 31 May 1975.
1857 Karl Pearson, mathematician.
1853 Wilhelm Gause, German artist who died in 1916.
1851 Vincent d'Indy Paris France, dandy composer (Symphonie Cévenole)
1847 Otto Wallach Germany, chemist (Nobel 1910). He died on 26 February 1941.
1846 Kerosene: Dr. Abraham Gesner MD [1797-1864], a Canadian living at this time in the US, patents a process for retorting an illuminating liquid from oil shale, which is given the trade name "Kerosene". Gesner also invented a kerosene lantern [shown here >]. After 1859 when E.L. Drake drilled the first petroleum well in Pennsylvania, kerosene was mainly distilled from petroleum crude (of which it constitutes 10 to 25%) and became plentiful. It was the major refinery product until the advent of the automobile.
1845 Wilhelm Konrad Rõntgen Germany, discovered X-rays (Nobel 1901)
1832 William Quiller Orchardson, British artist who died on 13 April 1910. MORE ON MARQUET AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
de Vigny1813 Nathaniel Currier, lithographer, founder of Currier & Ives firm which mass-produced hand-colored lithographic prints. — more with links to images.
1797 baron Alfred-Victor de Vigny, [< à 17 ans, en uniforme de gendarme de la Maison du Roi] French poet, dramatist and novelist who died on 17 September 1863. Jusqu'en 1827, capitaine dans la garde royale, il mena une vie de garnison monotone. En 1826, il publia les Poèmes antiques et modernes et un roman historique, Cinq-Mars, suivi de Stello (roman à thèse, 1832), Chatterton (drame, 1835), Servitude et grandeur militaires (récits, 1835).Très affecté par la perte de sa mère et sa rupture avec l'actrice Marie Dorval (1837), déçu par les milieux littéraires (discours offensant du comte Molé à l'Académie française, où il a été élu en 1845) et par son échec à la députation en 1848, Vigny se retira en Charente dans son manoir du Maine-Giraud. Les Destinées, recueil posthume de poèmes philosophiques, furent publiées en 1864. (La Mort du loup, 1843 ; la Maison du berger et le Mont des Oliviers, 1844). L'œuvre de Vigny est empreinte d'un stoïcisme hautain, qui s'exprime en vers denses et dépouillés, souvent riches en symboles. — DE VIGNY ONLINE: (images de pages): Poèmes ; Héléna ; le Somnanbule ; la Fille de Jephté ; la Femme adultère ; le Bal ; la Prison, etc.Théâtre. Les destinées : poèmes philosophiquesPoésiesLes consultations du docteur Noir : première consultation : StelloServitude et grandeur militaireCinq-Mars ou Une conjuration sous Louis XIII — (texte): Les consultations du docteur Noir ; Stello : première consultation ; Daphné : seconde consultation du docteur Noir ; ...
1797 Noël-Dieudonné Finart, French artist who died in 1852.
^ 1785 Louis-Charles, duc de Normandie, Versailles.
     He would become Louis XVII, orphaned and abused by the French Revolution until he died at age 10 in prison on 08 June 1795. Also called Louis-Charles de France, titular king of France from 1793. Second son of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette, he was the royalists' first recognized claimant to the monarchy after his father was executed during the French Revolution.
      Baptized Louis-Charles, he bore the title duc de Normandie until he became dauphin on the death of his eight-year-old elder brother, Louis-Joseph, in June 1789, shortly after the outbreak of the Revolution. With the overthrow of the monarchy in the popular insurrection of 10 August 1792, Louis-Charles was imprisoned with the rest of the royal family in the Temple in Paris. Louis XVI was beheaded on 21 January 1793, and French émigrés immediately proclaimed Louis-Charles the new king of France.
      Since France was at war with Austria and Prussia, Louis XVII became a valuable pawn in negotiations between the revolutionary government and its enemies. On 03 July 1793, he was taken from his mother and put under the surveillance of a cobbler, Antoine Simon. Marie-Antoinette was guillotined on 16 October 1793, and in January 1794 Louis was again imprisoned in the Temple. The harsh conditions of his confinement rapidly undermined his health. His death was a severe blow to the constitutional monarchists, who had once again become a powerful political force. An inquest established that Louis had succumbed to scrofula (tuberculosis of the lymph glands or bones).
      The secrecy surrounding the last months of Louis XVII's life gave rise to rumors. Some said that he was not dead but had escaped from the Temple. Others alleged that he had been poisoned. During the next few decades, more than 30 persons claimed to be Louis XVII. On 20 April 2000 it was announced that DNA testing of the preserved heart of the child who died in the Temple prison, proved that he was indeed the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette.
1753 Andrew Bell, Scottish clergyman who developed popular education. He died on 27 January 1832.
1678 Karel Breydel chevalier d'Anvers, Flemish artist who died on 12 September 1733.
 
Holidays Burma : Resistance Day

Religious Observances  old RC : St John Damascene, confessor/dr (now 12/4) / Ang : Charles H Brent, Bp of Philippines, and of Western NY / Santos Narsés, Lázaro, Ruperto, Alejandro, Fileto y Macedón. / Saint Habib:: D'un mot arabe qui signifie «aimé», ce chrétien naquit près d'Édesse, dans l'Irak actuel, sous le Bas-Empire romain. Il fut brûlé vif par le préfet de la province en 322.
Holy Thursday in 1902, 1975, 1986, 1997, 2059, 2070, 2081, 2092.
Good Friday in 1891, 1959, 1964, 1970, 2043, 2054, 2065, 2111, 2116, 2122.
Easter Sunday in 1910, 1921, 1932, 2005, 2016.


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Thoughts for the day:
“Often the test of courage is not to die but to live.” — Vittorio Alfieri, Italian dramatist [16 Jan 1749 – 08 Oct 1803].
“In battle he who runs away, lives to fight another day.”
“Don't die for your country: make the enemy die for his.”
“Don't ask what your country can do for you, ask what it can do to you.”
“There are no good deaths, only good lives moving on to better ones.”
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PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4mar/h4mar27.html
http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4mar/h4mar27.html
http://www.geocities.com/quermaz/history/h4mar/h4mar27.html
updated Thursday 26-Mar-2009 4:02 UT
principal updates:
v.8.20 Wednesday 26-Mar-2008 21:00 UT
v.7.21 Wednesday 28-Mar-2007 18:38 UT
Monday 27-Mar-2006 5:27 UT
v.5.30 Monday 04-Apr-2005 6:16 UT
Wednesday 31-Mar-2004 3:29 UT

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