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Events, deaths, births, of MAR 25
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[For Mar 25 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Apr 041700s: Apr 051800s: Apr 061900~2099: Apr 07]
• 9 innocent young Blacks on the way to the death penalty... • Day 1 of Christian Era... • Angel visits Mary and inspires artists... • Mexicans execute 17 Texan POWs... • US troops out of Somalia... • March on Washington... • UK abolishes slave trade... • Maryland settled... • First supersonic flight of Concorde... • Mount Rushmore sculptor is born... • Snoopy takes Linus's blanket... • Walter Chrysler resigns from GM… • USSR announces withdrawal from Iran... • Traîté de Rome... • The European Common Market... • US Customs seizes poem Howl... • Cheyenne Chief Little Wolf surrenders... • Johnson meets with the "Wise Men"... • Martin Luther King leads march against Vietnam War... • Workers die in fire of locked factory... • Yugoslavia joins the Axis...
^  On a 25 March:
2004 The Vatican Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments issues the instruction Redemptionis Sacramentum on certain matters to be observed or to be avoided regarding the Most Holy Eucharist. —(100325)
2001 Municipal elections in Ivory Coast, first vote to include all the country's main parties since a military coup in December 1999.
1998 El ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional) y el Gobierno colombiano hacen público un acuerdo de paz.
1998 La Comisión Europea propone que once países (España, Alemania, Francia, Bélgica, Holanda, Luxemburgo, Finlandia, Austria, Suecia, Portugal e Irlanda) formen el núcleo fundador del euro, la moneda europea del siglo XXI, el próximo 01 Jan 1999.
1997 Las ciudades españolas de Toledo, Segovia, Córdoba, Ávila, Cáceres, Salamanca y Santiago de Compostela son declaradas Patrimonio de la Humanidad.
1996 A team of Princeton University researchers announced they had found a serious security flaw in Sun Microsystems' Java programming language on this day in 1996. Hackers exploiting the flaw could potentially use Netscape Navigator to destroy files or otherwise wreak havoc on personal computers running Java. Sun quickly acknowledged the problem and created a patch.
1996 Microsoft announced that more than one million subscribers had joined its online service, the Microsoft Network, since it went live in the fall of 1995.
1996 CompuServe starts WOW, a new online service aimed at families and home users, instead of their traditional business audience. The service, called WOW, featured parental controls over content. The $17.95 per month service launched at a time when online services were being threatened by the Internet. WOW folded after only eight months in service.
1996 US issues newly-redesigned $100 bill, more difficult to counterfeit.
1996 Comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) approaches within 0.1018 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth.
1996 An 81-day standoff between the antigovernment Freemen and federal officers begins at a ranch near Jordan, Montana.
1995 Undécima encíclica del Papa Juan Pablo II, Evangelium Vitae, un llamamiento para defender la vida.

^ 1994 Last US troops leave Somalia
      At the end of a largely unsuccessful fifteen-month mission, the last US troops depart Somalia, leaving 20'000 U.N. troops behind to keep the peace and facilitate "nation building" in the divided country.
      In January 1991, Siyad Barre, dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic since 1969, was ousted by rebels after intense and bloody fighting. Ali Mahdi Muhammad of the United Somali Congress subsequently took control of the Somali capital at Mogadishu and the rest of the southern region of the country. The Somali National Movement gained control of the north, the old British Somaliland, and proclaimed the region the independent Somaliland Republic.
      In 1992, civil war between the two Somalias, internal clan-based fighting, and the worst African drought of the century created a devastating famine which threatened one-fourth of the Somali population with starvation. In response, U.N. troops occupied Somalia in August 1992 to assure distribution of food aid and to suppress Somalia’s warring factions.
      Although many of the U.N.’s temporary humanitarian aims were achieved, the military operation was largely unsuccessful, and in late 1992, US President George Bush sent 25'000 US troops into Somalia to bolster the U.N. force.
Aidid      In 1993, the new US president, Bill Clinton, took over the mission but also the former president’s promise to withdrawal to the US troops as soon as the U.N. mission was stabilized. On May 4, the Somalia mission was formally handed back to the U.N. from the United States, and by June, only 1200 US combat soldiers remained in Somalia along with 3000 support troops.
      However, on 05 June, twenty-four Pakistani soldiers were ambushed and massacred while inspecting a weapons storage site, allegedly under orders of Somali warlord General Hussein Mohammed Farah Aidid [< photo]. US and U.N. forces subsequently began an extensive search for the elusive strongman, and in August, some four hundred elite US troops from Delta Force and the US Rangers landed in Somalia with the mission to capture Aidid.
      Two months later, eighteen US soldiers were killed and eighty-four wounded during a disastrous assault on Mogadishu’s Olympia Hotel in search of Aidid. The bloody battle, which lasted seventeen hours, was the most violent US combat firefight since Vietnam and resulted in the deaths of hundreds of Somalians. Three days later, with Aidid still at large, President Clinton decided to call off the US mission to Somalia. By 25 March 1994, the last US troops left the country, and, later in the year, the U.N. called off its peacekeeping mission to Somalia, completing its withdrawal by early 1995.
1992 British mathematicians find new largest prime number (2^756839 -1)
1992 Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev returns to Earth after a 10-month stay aboard the Mir space station.
1991 Amadu Tumani Ture encabeza un golpe de Estado que derroca a Moussa Traore, presidente de Malí, con el objetivo de iniciar un proceso de democratización en el país.
1991 Leonard Rose, 32, of Middletown, Maryland, pleads guilty to felony computer-crime charges. He denies being a member of the Legion of Doom, a band of hackers notorious for computer break-ins, but admits to misappropriating and modifying a copy of UNIX without a license. The government accuses him of loading a Trojan horse virus into part of the UNIX program. Rose would be sentenced to two concurrent one-year prison terms.
1990 El PP (Partido Popular) consigue el escaño para el Congreso español y los dos para el Senado por Melilla, en la repetición de las elecciones del 29 de octubre en esa circunscripción, con lo que el PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) pierde la mayoría absoluta en el Congreso.
Concorde1987 Sexta encíclica del Papa Juan Pablo II, Redemptoris Mater, que versa sobre el papel de la Virgen María.
1986 Corazón Aquino, presidenta de Filipinas, promulga una nueva Constitución de carácter provisional hasta la realización de una formal.
1985 Edwin Meese III becomes US Attorney General.
1983 ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) secuestra a Diego Prado y Colón de Carvajal, ex presidente del Banco de Descuento.
1979 The first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, Columbia, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch, which would take place on 12 April 1981. On 01 February it would breakup during reentry at the end of its 28th mission.
1977 Juan Luis Cebrián Echarri, director del diario español El país, es procesado por un delito de propaganda de anticonceptivos.
1976 Argentine military junta bans leftist political parties.
1971 European council accepts Mansholt plan laying off 5 million farmers
^ 1970 Concorde makes its first supersonic flight (1127 km/h) [photo >].
      Its prototype was first shown, in Toulouse, France, on 11 December 1967. Its first subsonic test flight was on 9 January 1969. It would be put into service on 21 January 1976 by Air France from Paris to Rio de Janeiro, and by British Airways from London to Bahrain. On 21 November 1977, after overcoming objections to its polluting effect, the Concorde would begin scheduled flights between New York and London or Paris, which remained its sole route after Paris-Rio, London-Bahrain, and other routes were dropped in 1982 due to their unprofitability.
      The Concorde's specifications are:
      Capacity: 100 passengers, and 590 kg of cargo / Seating: 100 x 2:2, with a 94 cm pitch / Range: 5943 km / Engines: Four Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593s, each producing 38,000 lbs (170 KN) thrust with reheat / Take-off speed: 402 km/h / Cruising speed: 2150 kph / Mach 2 at 16'765 m / Landing speed: 300 km/h / Length: 62.1 m / Wingspan: 25.5 m / Height: 11.3 m / Fuselage width: 2.9 m / Fuel capacity: 119'500 liters / 95'600 kg / Fuel consumption: 25'629 liters / 20'500 kg per hour / Maximum take-off weight: 185 tons / Landing gear: Eight main wheels (tires 232 lbs sq in), two nose wheels (tires 191 lbs/sq in) / Flight crew: Two pilots, one flight engineer / Cabin crew: Six.
     The Concorde would be taken out of service following the death of 113 persons in its first crash, on 25 July 2000.
1969 Pakistan General Agha Mohammed Jagja Khan succeeds Ayub Khan as President.
1969 Andes Pact signed in Peru.
^ 1968 Johnson meets with the “Wise Men”
      After being told by Defense Secretary Clark Clifford that the Vietnam War is a "real loser," President Johnson, still uncertain about his course of action, decides to convene a nine-man panel of retired presidential advisors. The group, which became known as the "Wise Men," included the respected generals Omar Bradley and Matthew Ridgway, distinguished State Department figures like Dean Acheson and George Ball, and McGeorge Bundy, National Security advisor to both the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. After two days of deliberation the group reached a consensus: they advised against any further troop increases and recommended that the administration seek a negotiated peace. Although Johnson was initially furious at their conclusions, he quickly came to believe that they were right. On 31 March, Johnson announced on television that he was restricting the bombing of North Vietnam to the area just north of the Demilitarized Zone. Additionally, he committed the United States to discuss peace at any time or place. Then Johnson announced that he would not pursue reelection for the presidency. Also on this day: A Harris Poll reports that in the past six weeks "basic" support for the war among Americans declined from 74% to 54%. The poll also revealed that 60 percent of those questioned regarded the Tet Offensive as a defeat of US objectives in Vietnam. Despite Gen. William Westmoreland's assurances in late 1967 that the United States was making headway in the war, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong had launched a massive offensive during the Tet holiday that began in late January 1968. Although the communist forces were soundly defeated during this offensive, the scope and extent of the attacks won the communists a major psychological victory in the United States, where the events of Tet confirmed a growing disenchantment with the seemingly never-ending war for increasing numbers of Americans.
1967 Se celebra la segunda parte de la V asamblea de ETA, en la que se produce una escisión entre los partidarios del nacionalismo y la guerra revolucionaria y los etnolingüistas (estos últimos abandonan la organización). En esta asamblea se acepta el principio de la acción terrorista en espiral.
^ 1967 Martin Luther King leads march against Vietnam war
      The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., leads a march of 5000 antiwar demonstrators in Chicago. In an address to the demonstrators, King declared that the Vietnam War was "a blasphemy against all that America stands for." King first began speaking out against US involvement in Vietnam in the summer of 1965. In addition to his moral objections to the war, he argued that the war diverted money and attention from domestic programs to aid the black poor. He was strongly criticized by other prominent civil rights leaders for attempting to link civil rights and the antiwar movement.
1966 US Supreme court rules "poll tax" unconstitutional.
1965 Martin Luther King Jr leads 25'000 marchers to the state capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest the denial of voting rights to blacks.
1965 West German Bondsdag extends war crimes retribution
1960 DH Lawrence' "Lady Chatterley's Lover" ruled not obscene (New York NY)
1960 Italian government Tambroni forms.
^ 1955 The first time Snoopy goes after Linus's blanket in the Peanuts comic. [picture below]
1st time Snoopy goes for Linus's blanket
1955 East Germany granted sovereignty by occupying power, USSR
1955 US Customs seizes poem Howl       ^top^
      The US Customs Department confiscates 520 copies of Allen Ginsberg's book Howl, which had been printed in England. Officials alleged that the book was obscene. City Lights, a publishing company and bookstore in San Francisco owned by poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, proceeded to publish the book in the fall of 1956. The publication led to Ferlinghetti's arrest on obscenity charges. Ferlinghetti was bailed out by the American Civil Liberties Union, which led the legal defense. Nine literary experts testified at the trial that the poem was not obscene, and Ferlinghetti was found not guilty.
      Howl, which created a literary earthquake among the literary community when Ginsberg first read the poem in 1955, still stands as an important monument to the countercultural fervor of the late 1950s and '60s. Ginsberg stayed at the forefront of numerous liberal movements throughout his life and became a well-loved lecturer at universities around the country. He continued to write and read poetry until his death from liver cancer in 1997.
1954 Pope Pius XII encyclical Sacra virginitas.
^ 1946 Soviets announce withdrawal from Iran
      In conclusion to an extremely tense situation of the early Cold War, the Soviet Union announces that its troops in Iran will be withdrawn within six weeks. The Iranian crisis was one of the first tests of power between the United States and the Soviet Union in the postwar world. The Iranian crisis began during World War II. In 1942, Iran signed an agreement by which British and Soviet troops were allowed into the country in order to defend the oil-rich nation from possible German attack. American troops were also soon in Iran. The 1942 treaty stated that all foreign troops would withdraw within six months after the end of the war. In 1944, however, both Great Britain and the United States began to press the Iranian government for oil concessions and the Soviets thereupon demanded concessions of their own. By 1945, the oil situation was still unsettled, but the war was coming to an end and the American attitude toward the Soviet Union had changed dramatically. The new administration of Harry S. Truman, which came to power when Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April 1945, decided that the Soviets were not to be trusted and were bent on expansion. Therefore, a policy of "toughness" was adopted toward the former wartime ally.
      Iran came to be a test case for this new policy. The Soviets had decided to take action in Iran. Fearing that the British and Americans were conspiring to deny Russia its proper sphere of influence in Iran, the Soviets came to the assistance of an Iranian rebel group in the northern regions of the country. In early 1946, the United States complained to the United Nations about the situation in Iran and accused the Soviets of interfering with a sovereign nation. When the 02 March 1946 deadline for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Iran passed and the Soviets were still in place, a crisis began to develop. A major diplomatic confrontation was avoided when the Soviets announced on 25 March 1946, that they would be withdrawing their forces within six weeks. President Truman bragged that his threats of a possible military confrontation had been the deciding factor, but that seems unlikely. The Soviet Union and Iran had reached an agreement that gave the Soviets an oil concession in Iran. With this promise in hand, the Soviets kept their part of the bargain and moved their troops out of Iran in April 1946. Almost immediately, the Iranian government reneged on the oil deal and, with US aid and advice, crushed the revolt in northern Iran. The Soviets were furious, but refrained from reintroducing their armed forces into Iran for fear of creating an escalating conflict with the United States and Great Britain. The Iranian crisis, and the suspicion and anger it created between the United States and the Soviet Union, helped set the tone for the developing Cold War.
1945 US 1st army breaks out bridgehead near Remagen.
1945 US 4th Armored division arrives at Hanau & Aschaffenburg
1945 El general británico Bernard Law Montgomery comunica a sus tropas que les está prohibido confraternizar con la población alemana.
1944 RAF Sergeant Nicholas S. Alkemade survives a jump from his burning Lancaster bomber from 5500 m without a parachute. He was the tail gunner and his parachute was burning forward. He falls through trees onto snow on a steep hillside in Germany. His only injury is a twisted ankle suffered while leaving the plane. The Germans who capture him ask where he hid his parachute. When they finally believe his story, they give him a celebration..(some sources give the date as 23 March).
^ 1941 Yugoslavia joins the Axis
      Yugoslavia, despite an early declaration of neutrality, signs the Tripartite Pact, forming an alliance with Axis powers Germany, Italy, and Japan. A unified nation of Yugoslavia, an uneasy federation of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, was a response to the collapse of the Ottoman and Hapsburg empires at the close of World War I, both of which had previously contained parts of what became Yugoslavia. A constitutional monarchy, Yugoslavia built friendships with France and Czechoslovakia during the years between the world wars. With the outbreak of World War II, and the Anschluss ("union") between Austria and Germany, pressure was placed on Yugoslavia to more closely ally itself Germany, despite Yugoslavia's declared neutrality. But fear of an invasion like that suffered by France pushed Yugoslavia into signing a "Friendship Treaty"--something short of a formal political alliance--on 11 December 1940. With the war spreading to the Balkans after the invasion of Greece by Italy, it was important to Hitler that the Axis powers have an ally in the region that would act as a bulwark against Allied encroachment on Axis territory.
      Meeting on 14 February 1941, Adolf Hitler proved unable to persuade Yugoslav Prime Minister Dragisa Cvetkovic to formally join the Axis. The next day, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill contacted the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul, in an effort to encourage him to remain firm in resisting further German blandishments. It was essential to the Allies that Yugoslavia cooperate with Anglo-Greek forces in fending off an Axis conquest of Greece. But with King Boris of Bulgaria caving into Germany, Prince Paul felt the heat of the Nazis, and on 20 March he asked the Yugoslav Cabinet for their cooperation in allowing the Germans access to Greece through Yugoslavia. The Cabinet balked, and four ministers resigned in protest at the suggestion. This gesture failed to prevent Prime Minister Cvetkovic from finally signing the Tripartite Pact in Vienna on 25 March 1941. Within two days, the Cvetkovic government was overthrown by a unified front of peasants, the church, unions, and the military-an angry response to the alliance with Germany. Prince Paul was thrown from his throne in favor of his son, King Peter, only 17 years old. The new government, led by Air Force Gen. Dusan Simovic, immediately renounced the Tripartite Pact. In less than two weeks, Germany invaded the nation and occupied it by force.
1937 Italy and Yugoslavia sign non-aggression treaty (Pact of Belgrade)
1935 1st Belgium government of Van Zealand resigns
^ 1931 The not-yet-Scottsboro Boys get off their fateful Chattanooga choo-choo
      The previous day, Roy Wright, 13, Eugene Williams, 13, Andy Wright, 17, Haywood Patterson, 17, Olin Montgomery, 17, Willie Roberson, 17, Ozzie Powell, 16, Charles Weems, 21 and Clarence Norris, 21, independently of each other, hopped onto at freight train leaving their home town of Chattanooga, Tennessee, on a trip that was to ruin their lives. On 25 March, they get pulled off the train and are arrested in Paint Rock, Alabama, falsely accused of rape by two white girls, one an admitted town prostitute, Ruby Bates (who would later recant) and Victoria Price. The men would be tried on 06 April, in Scottboro, Alabama, and, except for Roy Wright for whom a mistrial was declared, condemned to death on 09 April, not surprisingly as they were all negroes (the word used in those days).
     The nine young black men were accused of raping two white women on a train in Alabama, and arrested. The boys were fortunate enough to narrowly escape a lynch mob sent to kill them, but were railroaded into convictions and death sentences. The Supreme Court overturned the convictions on the basis that the defendants did not have effective representation. Victoria Price and Ruby Bates, the alleged victims, were not the virtuous women that the white establishment in Alabama had tried to portray. In fact, both were prostitutes who had concocted the charges out of thin air (Bates eventually recanted her testimony). The accused boys did not receive counsel until the morning of the trial, at which point the lawyers made little effort to defend them. On the same day that the case began, the defendants were convicted and sentenced to death. The blatant unfairness of the case attracted the attention of liberals across the country. The transcript of the trial left the Supreme Court with no other choice but to throw out the convictions. Still, Alabama insisted on retrying the defendants. Samuel Liebowitz, one of the premier defense attorneys at that time, came to represent the Scottsboro nine, but his expertise mattered little. The jury, all white men because black men were systematically excluded, convicted once again. In fact, there would be many more trials of the Scottsboro defendants over the years: each time the jury convicted, only to be later reversed upon appeal. When the saga finally ended, all of the defendants were finally released. But not before each had served an average of 10 years for the phantom crime.
     There was national and international outrage, and much legal maneuvering by the Communist party (who found there a good cause to exploit) and the NAACP, in mutual rivalry. The convictions were overturned by the US Supreme court in Norris v. Alabama and in Powell v. Alabama, both on 19321107. A new trial started in Decatur, Alabama on 28 March 1933. The US Supreme Court intervened again on 19350401 in Patterson v. Alabama. The trials would last for several years and eventually charges were dropped against five of the nine (one of the five being Eugene Williams). The other four were retried in 1936 and 1937 and convicted; three were later paroled, and the fourth, Patterson, escaped.
     After the years in prison, the Scottsboro Boys were completely demoralized, and went on to live lives of quiet desperation and of petty crime or worse. The last known surviving member of the group, Clarence Norris, who had fled North after his parole in 1946, lived as a fugitive for 30 years until he obtained a full pardon from Alabama Governor George Wallace in 1976..

1928 El general Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona gana las elecciones presidenciales en Portugal.
1924 Greek parliament selects Admiral Paul Koundouriótis as premier — Proclamación de la República en Grecia.
1923 British government grants Trans-Jordan autonomy
1920 Greek Independence Day
^ 1920 Walter Chrysler resigns from General Motors.
      Walter P. Chrysler resigned as executive vice president in charge of automotive operations for General Motors. Born in the western Kansas railroad town of Wamego, Chrysler grew up around Union Pacific engineers. Early in life he formed the ambition of becoming a locomotive engineer himself. Working his way up from the position of janitor, he achieved his lifelong engineering dream by the time he was twenty. Chrysler’s attention gradually shifted to the automotive industry. "To me it was the transportation of the future," he explained, "and as such I wanted to be a part of it. That was where I saw opportunity." In 1912, while employed by the American Locomotive Company, Chrysler was offered a position in Flint, Michigan by Buick president Charles Nash. The job promised half of his current salary, but he took it anyway. As a manager at Buick, Chrysler revolutionized the company’s mass production capabilities and distinguished himself as an irreplaceable part of the GM team.
      However, in 1916 William C. Durant regained control of the company he had founded and Chrysler’s mentor, Charles Nash, was forced out. Recognizing Chrysler’s value, Durant offered him the presidency of Buick, a title worth $500'000 a year. Chrysler had previously made $25'000 a year. Heeding warnings from Nash that Durant was a micro-managing tyrant, Chrysler did not immediately accept the offer. Eventually, though, the money was too good to turn down. Among his many accomplishments as head of Buick, Chrysler’s greatest achievement may have been initiating GM’s purchase of the Fisher Body Plant on which the company relied for its products. GM purchased 60% of Fisher’s stock and gained control over one of its most important components. Eventually, William Durant lived up to Nash’s warnings. He began to meddle in Buick’s affairs, infuriating Chrysler to the point of despair on numerous occasions. One day Chrysler reached the boiling point during a board meeting and walked out. Long-time GM president Alfred Sloan later recalled, "I remember the day. He [Chrysler] banged the door on the way out, and out of that bang came eventually the Chrysler Corporation."
1919 El Primer Ministro británico David Lloyd George se desmarca de la postura francesa sobre Alemania.
1912 Redacción del Plan Orozquista, petición formal de la reforma social más amplia y general de toda la Revolución Mexicana.
1895 Italian troops invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
^ 1894 Coxey’s Army begins March on Washington
      On Easter Sunday, a band of some one hundred unemployed workers, led by social reformer Jacob S. Coxey, departs Massillon, Ohio, on a protest march to the nation’s capital.
      Coxey, born in Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, in 1854, established himself in the scrap-iron business before becoming involved in Massillon’s sandstone quarries. After the US economic crisis known as the "Panic of 1893" left many local workers unemployed, Coxey planned a march of jobless men on Washington to petition Congress to take action to resolve America’s epidemic unemployment problems through the creation of public works programs. He gathered more than one hundred men, and, on 25 March 1894, led by a six-piece band, "Coxey’s Army" left Massillon, hoping to reach Washington in time for a May Day demonstration.
      Along the way, Coxey expected to gather tens of thousands of jobless workers in his march, which would dramatically draw attention to the desperate plight of the nation’s unemployed. Although the marchers were met with curious and often supportive crowds in most cities and towns they passed through, by the time they reached Washington on April 30, the army numbered less than five hundred.
      The next day, Coxey and two other labor leaders were arrested for trespassing on the lawn of the US Capitol when they tried to present petitions to Congress. With their leaders in jail, and under pressure from the police, Coxey’s Army disbanded.
      In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, a number of worker "armies" attempted similar protest marches on Washington DC, but few were particularly successful. One group of over one thousand unemployed men even set out from California for Washington, but only seventeen of these men ever reached the nation’s capital.
      Jacob Coxey himself later became mayor of Massillon, Ohio, and, in 1932 and 1936, ran unsuccessfully for the presidency.
^ 1879 Cheyenne Chief Little Wolf surrenders
      Little Wolf, often called "the greatest of the fighting Cheyenne," surrenders to his friend Lieutenant W. P. Clark. Little Wolf was the chief of the Bowstring Soldiers, an elite Cheyenne military society. From early youth, Little Wolf had demonstrated rare bravery and a brilliant understanding of battle tactics. First in conflicts with other Indians like the Kiowa and then in disputes with the US Army, Little Wolf led or assisted in dozens of important Cheyenne victories. Historians believe Little Wolf was probably involved in the disastrous Fetterman Massacre of 1866, in which the Cheyenne cleverly lured a force of 80 American soldiers out of their Wyoming fort and wiped them out. After Cheyenne attacks had finally forced the US military to abandon Fort Phil Kearney along the Bozeman Trail, Little Wolf is believed to have led the torching of the fort. He was also a leading participant in the greatest of the Plains Indian victories, the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. As with many of the other Plains Indian warriors, Little Wolf was finally forced to make peace during the army's major offensive following the massacre at Little Bighorn.
      In 1877, the government sent Little Wolf to a reservation in Indian Territory. Disgusted with the meager supplies and conditions on the reservation, in 1878 Little Wolf determined to leave the reservation and head north for the old Cheyenne territory in Wyoming and Montana. On 09 September 1878, he and Chief Dull Knife [–1883] led what was left of their people from the reservation. Their combined band consisted of 89 warriors and 246 women and children. Though Little Wolf and Dull Knife announced that their intentions were peaceful, settlers in the territory they passed through feared attack. They traveled more than 600 km, managing to kept Cheyenne casualties low while defeating or eluding the various Army detachments sent to bring them back (more than 10'000 soldiers were employed for this task). In October the Cheyenne crossed the South Platte River, near Fort Robinson, Nebraska, and Dull Knife and some of his followers stopped there.
      Little Wolf and the rest of the Cheyenne continued to march northwest to Montana. In the spring of 1879, while still traveling north, Little Wolf and his followers were overtaken by a cavalry force under the leadership of Captain W.P. Clark, an old friend of Little Wolf's. The confrontation might easily have turned violent, but with his force of warriors diminished and his people tired, Little Wolf was reluctant to fight the more powerful US army. Clark's civilized and gracious treatment of Little Wolf helped convince the chief that further resistance was pointless, and he agreed to surrender on 25 March 1879.
      After returning to the reservation, Little Wolf briefly served as a scout for General Nelson A. Miles. However, during this time he disgraced himself among his people by killing one of his tribesmen. The formerly celebrated Cheyenne warrior lived out the rest of his life on the reservation but had no official influence among his own people.
1865 Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman, in front of Petersburg, Virginia.
1865 Battle of Mobile, Alabama, siege of Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely, begins.
1865 Battle of Bluff Spring FL.
1864 Attack on Paducah, Kentucky by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest
1863 Skirmish at Brentwood TN.
1847 Pope Pius IX encyclical On aid for Ireland.
1842 Marc Brunel finaliza, tras 18 años de trabajos de construcción, la perforación del túnel de 1100 m de longitud que pasa por debajo del Támesis y une Wapping con Rotherhithe. El túnel se ha perforado gracias al empleo del sistema de escudo por él inventado y más tarde servirá para el paso del ferrocarril metropolitano.
1835 Aparece el primer cuadernillo de los cuentos de Hans Christian Andersen.
1821 Greece gains independence from Turkey (National Day)
1820 Greeks revolt against Ottoman empire.
1813 Napoléon nomme douze évêques, ripostant ainsi contre la rétractation que, la veille, le pape Pie VII a fait du semblant de concordat en onze articles, que Napoléon lui a fait signer le 25 janvier 1813 à Fontainebleau.
^ 1807 Great Britain abolishes the slave trade
      In England, the royal assent is given for an act by Parliament to abolish the slave trade, less than four weeks after the US Congress banned the importation of slaves from Africa into the United States.
      The movement in Great Britain to abolish the slave trade, which in turn strongly influenced the movement in the US, had been initiated some two decades before by William Wilberfore, an independent MP from Yorkshire. Wilberfore introduced his first abolition bill in 1789, but came against strong opposition by the West Indian sugar lobby, whose inhospitable colonial plantations lacked the self-sustaining slave populations enjoyed in the American South.
      In March of 1807, both Parliament and Congress abolished the African slave trade, and in 1833, Parliament abolished slavery in Great Britain and all British territories. However, despite extensive patrols by the British Royal Navy along the African coast, the illegal trade of African slaves to Brazil and Cuba continued until after the US Civil War, when the US government joined Britain in effectively enforcing the ban.
      By 1865, over twelve million Africans had been shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas, and some one million of these individuals had died from mistreatment during the voyage. In addition, an estimated three million Africans died in slave wars and forced marches directly resulting from the European colonial demand for African slaves.
Saint Patrick1802 France, Netherlands, Spain, and England sign Peace of Amiens
1789 Francisco de Goya y Luciente es nombrado pintor de cámara por Carlos IV. Nació el 30 marzo 1746 y murió el 13 Apr 1828. — LINKSCarlos IV y su familiaCarlos IV cazador
1753 Voltaire leaves the court of Frederik II of Prussia
1700 England, France, and Netherlands ratify 2nd Extermination treaty
1655 Christiaan Huygens discovers Titan (Saturn's largest satelite)
^ 1634 The settlement of Maryland
      The first colonists to Maryland land at St. Clement’s Island on Maryland’s western shore, and the town of St. Mary’s is founded.
      In 1632, King Charles I of England granted a charter to George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, yielding him propriety rights to a region east of the Potomac River in exchange for a share of the income derived from the land. The territory was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta Maria, the queen consort of Charles I.
      Before settlement began, however, George Calvert died and was succeeded by his son Cecilius, who sought to establish Maryland as a haven for Roman Catholics persecuted in England. In March 23, 1634, the first English settlers to Maryland--a carefully selected group made up of both Catholics and Protestants--arrived at St. Clement’s Island aboard the Ark and the Dove.
      Religious conflict was strong in ensuing years as the American Puritans, growing more numerous in the colony and supported by Puritans in England, set out to destroy the religious freedom guaranteed with the founding of the colony. In 1649, Maryland Governor William Stone, under the direction of the second Lord Baltimore, passed an act ensuring religious liberty and justice to all who believed in Jesus Christ.
      However, in 1654, the so-called Toleration Act was repealed after the Puritans seized control, leading to a brief civil war that ended with Lord Baltimore losing control of propriety rights over the colony in March 1655. Although the Calverts later regained control of Maryland, anti-Catholic activity persisted until the nineteenth century, when many Catholic immigrants to America chose Baltimore as their home and helped enact laws to protect their free practice of religion.
1609 Henry Hudson embarks on an exploration for Dutch East India Co.
1409 Council of Pisa opens.
1306 Robert the Bruce crowned king of Scotland.
1133 William the Conqueror orders 1st Domesday Survey of England.
0708 Constantine begins his reign as Pope.
0433 Saint Patrick arrives in Ireland.. [< picture]
0031: 1st Easter, according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus.
^ 0001 The Annunciation, first day of Christian Era, according to Dionysius.
      Roman Church historian Dionysius Exiguus (ca.500–550), in calculating his history of the Christian Church, took this day as the supposed date of the Annunciation. March 25th afterward became the first day of the calendar year, until the Gregorian Calendar Reform of 1582 changed the day to January first. The Annunciation is celebrated every year on this date, except 25 March happens to be on a day of Holy Week (as in 2005), in which case the Annunciation is celebrated a few days later (on 04 April in 2005).
      In chronology Dionysius has left his mark conspicuously, for it was he who introduced the use of the Christian Era (see Chronology) according to which dates are reckoned from the Incarnation, which he assigned to 25 March, in the year 754 from the foundation of Rome (A. U. C.). By this method of computation he intended to supersede the "Era of Diocletian" previously employed, being unwilling, as he tells us, that the name of an impious persecutor should be thus kept in memory. The Era of the Incarnation, often called the Dionysian Era, was soon much used in Italy and, to some extent, a little later in Spain; during the eighth and ninth centuries it was adopted in England. Charlemagne is said to have been the first Christian ruler to employ it officially. It was not until the tenth century that it was employed in the papal chancery. Dionysius also gave attention to the calculation of Easter, which so greatly occupied the early Church. To this end he advocated the adoption of the Alexandrian Cycle of nineteen years, extending that of Saint Cyril for a period of ninety-five years in advance. It was in this work that he adopted the Era of the Incarnation.

The angel's visit to Mary inspires great paintings over a thousand years later, and here are LINKS TO SOME OF THE BEST, AT ART “4” MARCH
< 24 Mar 26 Mar >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 25 March:

Sister LucieSister Philomena 2003 Sister Philomena Fogarty, 64 [photo >], Irish-born, of the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, murdered by Adrian O'Neill Robinson, 25, who cuts off her head, hands, and feet, and dumps her body in the Centre Pointe office parking lot in Virginia Beach, Virginia, off I-264 at the Independence Boulevard exit. On 22 March 2003, Robinson had murdered his father, Henry Robinson, 56, in their home in Hamilton, Georgia. Then Adrian walked 5 km to a Christ the King Catholic church and broke into the mobile home which Sister Philomena shared with Sister Lucie Kristofik, 72 [< photo]. They were not there. When they returned on 23 March, Robinson took $900, bound and gagged them, put them in their car and drove to Norfolk, Virginia, to the Hampton Inn on Military Highway, where, on 25 March he left Sister Lucie, bound but unharmed, while he took Sister Philomena, and then killed her. Police would notice the car, driven by Robinson, at 03:32 on 26 March on Stanhope Avenue in Norfolk, but Robinson flees on foot. At 04:10 Virginia Beach police discover Sister Philomena's body. Robinson is arrested the next day at the closed but unlocked Norfolk Burger King on Tidewater Drive, where a janitor recognizes him and sets off the silent alarm at 01:45. Adrian Robinson was wanted in Norfolk on a 1998 forgery charge.

2003 Haqam Nassar, 14, Palestinian boy, shot in the abdomen by Israeli troops while he was throwing stones at armored personnel carriers. Another Palestinian boy, 12, is wounded in the leg.

Corp. Stephen John Allbutt, and Trooper David Jeffrey Clarke, soldiers of the British Lancers, part of the 1st Regiment of Fusiliers, by another British Challenger II tank mistakenly firing one round at theirs, in which the other two soldiers are wounded; near Az Subayr, close to Basra, Iraq.

2003 British Lance Cpl. Barry Stephen and Sgt. Steven Mark Roberts, in combat near Az Zubayr, close to Basra, Iraq.
Major Stone
2003 US Air Force Maj. Gregory Stone, 40 [< photo], from injuries inflicted on 23 March 2003 by US Sgt. Asan Akbar in grenade and gunfire attack on three tents in the Kuwait headquarters of the 101st Airborne Division, to which Stone was assigned as liaison officer.

2002 Some 2000 persons by 6.0 earthquake
in the Hindu Kush mountains, centered at 35º58'N 69º11'E near Nahrin, 150 km north of Kabul, Aughanistan. which strikes at .19:27 local (14:56:37 UT) with a 5.0 aftershock (at 35º59'N 69º13'E) at 02:45 the next morning (21:45:07 UT) and further minor aftershocks. Damage is severe due to the relative shallowness (33 km) of the epicenter.

2001 Sister Michelle Lewis, 39, stabbed by novice Brother Mykaylo Kofel, 18, a Ukrainian, at the Byzantine Catholic Holy Cross Academy, in Kendall, Florida.

1999 Charles Rector, in Texas, by lethal injection, to which he was sentenced because on 17 October 1881 beaten and raped Katy Davis in her Austin apartment then shot her and threw her into Town Lake where she drowned.

1999 David Fisher, executed in Virginia, because, in order to collect on a $25'000 policy, he had hired Bobby Mulligan for $7000 to kill David Wilkey, 18, which Mulligan did on 21 November 1983 by shooting him while he was on a hunting trip. Mulligan confessed to his father 3 years later. Fisher had 25 previous convictions and was born Leeman Curtis Fortner but had undergone a name change when he enrolled in the federal witness protection program after being involved in organized crime.

, in order to collect on a $25,000 policy. Fisher had 25 previous convictions and was born Leeman Curtis Fortner but had undergone a name change when he enrolled in the federal witness protection program after being involved in organized crime.

1995 Warren E. Burger, chief US Supreme Court justice (1969-1986)
^ 1997 Mass suicide of the 39 Heaven’s Gate cult members is completed by the last 2.
      On 26 March 1997, following an anonymous tip, police would enter a mansion in Rancho Santa Fe, an exclusive suburb of San Diego, California, and discover thirty-nine victims of a mass suicide. The deceased, made up of twenty-one women and eighteen men, all White, of ages 26 to 72, were all found lying peaceably in matching dark clothes and Nike sneakers, and had no noticeable signs of blood or trauma.
      It is later revealed that the men and women were members of "Heaven’s Gate," a religious cult that believed that by committing suicide they could leave their bodily "containers" and enter an alien spacecraft hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet. The cult was led by Marshall M. Applewhite, a music professor who, after surviving a near-death experience in 1972, was recruited into the cult by one of his nurses, Bonnie Lu Nettles. In 1975, together with Nettles, Applewhite persuaded a group of twenty people from Oregon to abandon their families and possessions and move to eastern Colorado, where an extra-terrestrial spacecraft would take them into the "Kingdom of Heaven." Nettles, who called herself "Ti," and Applewhite, who took the name of "Do," explained that their human bodies were merely containers that would be abandoned in favor of a higher physical existence. As the spacecraft never arrived, membership in Heaven’s Gate diminished, and, in 1985, Bonnie Lu Nettles, Applewhite’s "sexless partner," died.
      However, during the early 1990s, the cult resurfaced as Applewhite began recruiting new members to ascend with him to the heavenly kingdom. Soon after the 1995 discovery of the comet Hale-Bopp, the Heaven’s Gate members became convinced that an alien spacecraft was on its way to earth, hidden behind the comet in order to prevent human detection. In October 1996, Applewhite rented a large home in Rancho Santa Fe, explaining to the owner that his group was made up of Christian-based angels sent to earth. He advocated sexual abstinence, and several male cult members followed his example by undergoing castration operations.
      In 1997, as part of its 4000-year orbit of the sun, the comet Hale-Bopp passed near the earth in one of the most impressive astronomical events of the twentieth century. In late March 1997, as Hale-Bopp reached its closest distance to earth, Applewhite and thirty-eight of his followers overdosed on phenobarbital and died over several days, hoping to leave their bodily containers, enter the alien spacecraft, and pass through Heaven’s Gate into a higher existence.
     On 22 March 1997, the day on which the comet was in its closest proximity to Earth, they started the process. Everyone dressed identically in black long-sleeved shirts and black sweat pants, with new black-and-white Nike tennis shoes. On their left shirtsleeves were armband patches on which the words "Heaven's Gate Away Team" were stitched. The members of Heaven's Gate each packed a small overnight bag with clothing, lip balm, and spiral notebooks, and they placed these bags at the foot end of their beds. They also put three quarters and a five-dollar bill into their shirt pockets, a habit they had developed whenever they went out so they would always have cab fare or change for the phone. The Nike slogan at the time was "just do it," which could explain why they all wore Nike shoes.
      They worked in three teams. The first team of 15 received the barbiturate phenobarbital mixed into pudding or applesauce. They then drank vodka to wash it down. A lethal dose was some 50 to 100 pills. After consuming this, they lied down on their beds with plastic bags over their heads until they passed out. Those who still lived removed the bags and covered their bodies with purple shrouds. On 23 March 1997, the next team of fifteen followed. Finally there were seven on 24 March 1997, and the last two on 25 March 1997. These final two, both women, were not shrouded but they had placed plastic bags over their heads to assist them in dying.
      Wayne Cooke, 56, a former cult member known as Justin, whose wife was one of the 39 suicides, felt so bad about having missed the departure for the comet, that on 06 May 1997, he and another former member, Chuck Humphrey, 55, both dressed in dark clothes, packed a bag, pocketed five dollars and three quarters, and used the same drugs to take their lives in a hotel room in Encinitas. Cooke succeeded, but Humphrey survived.

1991 Marcel François Lefebvre, born on 29 November 1905, archbishop, rebellious conservative schismatic, excommunicated from the Catholic Church, dies in Martigny, Switzerland.

Faisal1990 Ricardo Carballo Calero, filósofo y escritor español.

1990:: 87 persons, from fire at the locked unlicensed Happy Land Social Club in the Bronx NY. Most of the victims are ethnic Hondurans celebrating Carnival. The fire was started by Julio Gonzalez [1954–], after being ejected from the club drunk and belligerent.—(070308)

1975 Faisal ibn 'Abd al-'Azis ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sa'ud, king of Saudi Arabia (from 02 Nov 1964), born in 1906 [on 06 Jan 1975 Time cover, as 1974 Person of the Year >], shot by a nephew with a history of mental illness, Prince Faisal ibn Musad 'Abd al-'Aziz as-Sa'ud. (The nephew would be beheaded the following June.). The city of Lyallpur in Pakistan would be renamed Faisalabad in 1979 in honor of King Faisal.

1973 Edward J. Steichen, US painter turned photographer; born on 27 March 1879. — more with links to images.

1969 Max F. Eastman, 86, US critic, essayist (Love & Revolution).

1965 Viola Gregg Liuzzo, born on 11 March 1925. A member of the First Unitarian Universalist Church of Detroit, she went to Selma, Alabama, to participate in a civil rights march to protest the murder of activist Jimmy Lee Jackson [16 Dec 1938 – 26 Feb 1965] by a policeman. She is murdered by the Ku Klux Klan as she drives along the highway between Selma and Montgomery.

1954 Gertrud Bäumer, writer.

1947: 111 die in coal mine explosion, Centralia, Illinois.

1946 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhine, ajedrecista soviético nacionalizado francés.

1937 John Drinkwater, 54, English poet/playwright (Bird in Hand)

1937 Georges Valmier, French artist born on 10 April 1885.

1918 Claude A. Debussy, 55, French composer (Iberia/La mer), in Paris.

1914 Frédéric Mistral, French poet (Nobel-1904) — poeta franco-provenzal, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1904.

Triangle company fire1911 Mary Goldstein, 11, and at least 145 others in fire of locked garment factory.       ^top^
young Rose Freedman      The Triangle Shirtwaist Company was typical of the garment shops that packed New York City's Lower East Side in the early 1900s: staffed primarily by young, female immigrants, the factory lacked basic safety measures like fire escapes and working exit doors. These conditions, clearly ripe for disaster, did indeed lead to trouble on this day in 1911. During the afternoon, a pile of rags in the shop burst into flames; the fire quickly, and tragically, engulfed the factory. Effectively trapped inside the flaming building, many of the workers either expired from asphyxiation or leapt from windows, a fatal, ten-story fall. The blaze, which lasted less than an hour, claimed 146 lives, marking one of the worst fire-related industrial disasters in America's history. The Triangle Shirtwaist tragedy shed a harsh light on the hazardous conditions that factory owners had allowed to exist in the name of industrial capitalism. It also galvanized various portions of the public, as reformers, workers, and survivors of the fire banded together to push for factory reform. The state government heeded this call and passed a set of laws aimed at safeguarding workers' health and safety. Along with this landmark legislation, workers also won a modicum of justice: the owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist were eventually found guilty on charges of manslaughter.
old Rose Freedman     The last survivor, Rose Freedman, died on 15 February 2001, at age 107. She had survived the fire by running up one flight of stairs, to the top floor. That's where the company executives worked, and she figured they would have a way to escape. She was right. Rather than unlocking any of the doors below to save the women, the executives had fled to the roof, from which they were rescued. The tenth floor of the factory housed the offices of company executives, the switchboard, 40 garment pressers and the packing and shipping room. After receiving a warning call from the 8th floor most were able to escape over the roof to the adjacent New York University building with the aid of faculty members and students. Of the 70 people on that floor, all were saved but 1. [photos of Rose Freedman>]
     Paqualina Russo, 19, also made it to the rooftop and jumped to safety onto another building. Sarah Dubow (Sorenson) was even luckier: she had the day off.
     But the 240 employees sewing shirtwaists on the ninth floor had their escape blocked by back-to-back chairs and workbaskets in the aisles. The 25-meter-long paired sewing machine tables obstructed essential access to the windows, stairs, and elevators.
     In the ensuing years, Rose Freedman spoke out about the conditions that led to the fire. Company executives tried to buy her silence; she refused. Freedman went on to attend college, get married, and raise a family. After almost a century, she found herself back in the spotlight as the oldest survivor of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. She gave speeches and granted interviews and was featured in a documentary about her life that aired on many US public television stations in early 2001.
     Here is the list of those who died, most of them at the scene, the severely injured were taken to hospitals, were some of them died after a few hours, and one died the next day at St. Vincent's Hospital: Sara Kupla, who had a fractured right leg (plus probably some internal injuries). With her, the list totals 154 fatalities, possibly due in part to some inadvertent duplications (Sara and Serafina Saracino #115 and 116, Sprunt and Gussie Spunt #130 and 131 ?).
  1. Aberstein, Julia, 30
  2. Adler, Lizzie, 24
  3. Altman, Anna, 16
  4. Ardito, Anna, 25
  5. Astrowsky, Becky, 20
  6. Bassino, Rosie, 31
  7. Belatta, Vincenza, 16
  8. Benenti, Vincenza, 22
  9. Bernstein, Essie, 19
  10. Bernstein, Jacob, 28
  11. Bernstein, Morris, 19
  12. Bernstein, Moses,
  13. Bierman, Gussie, 22
  14. Binevitz, Abraham, 20
  15. Brenman, Rosie,
  16. Brenman, Surka (Sarah),
  17. Brodsky, Ida, 16
  18. Brodsky, Sarah, 21
  19. Brooks, Ida, 18
  20. Brunette, Laura, 17
  21. Caputta, 17
  22. Carlisi, Josephina, 31
  23. Caruso, Albina, 20
  24. Carutto, Frances, 17
  25. Castello, Josie, 21
  26. Cirrito, Rosie,
  27. Cohen, Anna, 25
  28. Colletti, Antonia (Annie), 30
  29. Costello, Della,
  30. Crepo, Rose, 19, Italian
  31. Denent, Grances, 20
  32. Dichtenhultz (Fichtenhultz), Yetta , 18
  33. Dockman (Dochman), Dora (Clara) , 19
  34. Dorman, K., man
  35. Downic, Kalman, 24
  36. Eisenberg, Celia, 17
  37. Feibush, Rose,
  38. Feicisch(Feibish), Rebecca, 17, Russian, jumped from window, burns on body, at St. Vincent's, died at New York Hospital
  39. Feltzer, 40, man
  1. Fitze, Mrs. Dosie Lopez, 24, jumped from 10th story window; fractured pelvis, left arm/head injuries; New York Hospital
  2. Forrester, May, 25
  3. Franco, Jennie, 16
  4. Frank, Tina, 17
  5. Gallo, Mrs. Mary, 23
  6. Geib, Bertha, 25
  7. Gernstein, Molly, 17
  8. Gittlin, Celina, 17
  9. Goldfield, Esther,
  10. Goldstein, Esther, Bellevue Hospital
  11. Goldstein, Lena, 22
  12. Goldstein, Mary, 11
  13. Goldstein, Yetta, 20
  14. Gorfield, Esther, 22
  15. Grameattassio, Mrs. Irene, 24
  16. Harris, Esther, 21 broken back coming down elevator chute
  17. Herman, Mary, 40
  18. Jakobowski, Ida,
  19. Kaplan, 20, woman
  20. Kenowitch, Ida, 18
  21. Keober, 30
  22. Kessler, Becky,
  23. Klein, Jacob, 23
  24. Launswold, Fannie, 24
  25. Lefkowitz, Nettie, 28
  26. Lehrer, Max, 19
  27. Lehrer, Sam,
  28. Leone, Kate, 14
  29. Lermack, Rosie D. , 19
  30. Leventhal, Mary, 22
  31. Levin, Jennie , 19
  32. Levine, Abe,
  33. Levine, Max,
  34. Levine, Pauline, 19
  35. Maltese, Catherine,
  36. Maltese, Lucia, 20
  37. Maltese, Rosalie(Rosari), 14
  38. Manara, Mrs. Maria, 27
  39. Manofsky, Rose, 22, multiple injuries; Bellevue Hospital
  1. Marciano, Mrs. Michela, 25
  2. Meyers, Yetta, 19
  3. Mayer, Minnie
  4. Miale, Bettina, 18
  5. Miale, Frances, 21
  6. Midolo, Gaetana, 16
  7. Nebrerer, Becky, 19, operator,fractured right leg and arm, burned body; New York Hospital
  8. Nicholas, Annie, 18, died; New York Hospital
  9. Nicolose, Nicolina (Michelina), 22
  10. Novobritsky, Annie, 20
  11. Nussbaum (Nausbaum), Sadie, 18
  12. Oberstein, Julia, 19
  13. Oringer, Rose, died; St. Vincent's Hospital
  14. Ozzo, Carrie, 22, died of multiple injuries; Bellevue Hospital
  15. Pack, Annie, 18
  16. Panno, Mrs. Providenza, 48
  17. Pasqualicca, Antonietta, 16
  18. Pearl, Ida, 20
  19. Pildescu, Jennie, 18
  20. Pinello, Vincenza, 30
  21. Poliny, Jennie, 20
  22. Prato, Millie, 21
  23. Reivers, Becky, 19
  24. Rootstein, Emma,
  25. Robinowitz, Abraham, jumped from 8th story; crushed to death
  26. Rosen, Israel, 17
  27. Rosen, Julia(widow), 35
  28. Rosen, Mrs. Leob, 38
  29. Rosenbaum, Yetta, 22
  30. Rosenberg, Jennie, 21
  31. Rosenfeld, Gussie, 22
  32. Rosenthal, Nettie, 21
  33. Rother, R, 25
  34. Rother, Theodore, 22
  35. Sabasowitz, Sarah, 17
  36. Salemi, Sophie, 24
  37. Saracino, Sara ,
  1. Saracino, Serafina, 25
  2. Saracino, Tessie, 20
  3. Schiffman, Gussie, 18
  4. Schmidt, Mrs. Theresa, 32
  5. Schneider, Mrs. Ethel,
  6. Schochep, Violet, 21
  7. Schwartz, Margaret,
  8. Selzer, Jacob, 33
  9. Semmilio, Mrs. Annie, 30
  10. Shapiro, Rosie, 17
  11. Shena, Catherine, 30
  12. Sklaver, Berel (Sklawer, Bennie), 25
  13. Sorkin, Rosie, 18
  14. Spear, man
  15. Sprunt
  16. Spunt, Gussie, 19
  17. Starr, Mrs. Annie, 30
  18. Stein, Jennie, 18
  19. Stellino, Jennie, 16
  20. Stiglitz, Jennie, 22
  21. Tabick, Samuel, 18
  22. Terdanova (Terranova), Clotilde, 22
  23. Tortorella, Isabella, 17
  24. Ullo, Mary, 20
  25. Utal, Meyer, 23
  26. Velakowsky(Vilakowsky), Freda(Freida), 20, fracture of right leg and arm; New York Hospital
  27. Vivlania, Bessie, 15
  28. Vovobritsky, Annie, 20
  29. Weinduff, Sally, 17
  30. Weiner, Rose, 23
  31. Weintraub, Sally (Sarah?), 17
  32. Weintraub, Celia,
  33. Welfowitz, Dora, 21
  34. Wilson, Joseph, 21
  35. Wisner, Tessie, 27
  36. Wisotsky, Sonia, 17
  37. Wondross, Bertha, right leg broken, internal injuries; St. Vincent Hospital
  38. Zeltner, 30
1910 Kálmán Mikszáth, 63, Hungarian author (Szent Péter Esernyöje)
1880 Valentín Carderera y Solano, pintor, arqueólogo y escritor español.
1874 Hermania Sigvardine Neegard, Danish artist born on 12 August 1799.
1873 Wilhelm Marstrand, Danish artist born on 24 December 1810. — more with links to images.
1865 Some 400, as the SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire and sinks.
^ 1843 William Eastland, Henry Whaling, and 14 other Texan POWs, executed by Mexico.
     In 1842, Mexico had made some military incursions into the Republic of Texas, independent since 1836. President Houston ordered a retaliatory raid into Mexico. When its commander found it necessary to turn back, a group of the soldiers decided on their own to continue the attack on Mexico. They were captured by the Mexicans, who considered them not as prisoners of war but as bandits. The Texans escaped but were recaptured.
    Chained in pairs and looking like sun-blistered scarecrows, the Texans lurched into Saltillo on 1 March 1843, unaware that an angry Santa Anna had ordered the execution of the entire band. The commander charged with carrying out the executions, General Francisco Mejía, defiantly declared “that he would be murderer for no man or government,” and during the next three weeks, British and American diplomats protested to the Mexican president. Santa Anna grudgingly retracted his original order, resolving instead to shoot one tenth of the prisoners.
      On March 25, Colonel Domingo Huerta was waiting for the Texans when they trudged back under guard into the familiar courtyard of Salado. That afternoon the 176 debilitated prisoners received the grim, unexpected news that every tenth man would be shot at sunset. To determine who among them would face the firing squad, the Texans were to draw beans from a small earthen jar. Those who drew a white bean would live; those who drew a black one would die.
      A jar filled with 159 white and 17 black beans was brought forward. Mexican troops posted on the surrounding walls turned occasionally to watch the proceedings. Some, one prisoner remembered, seemed deeply moved, while others watched “as though they had heavy wagers upon the result.” Physically and mentally drained by their long ordeal, most of the Texans took their turns at the jar with stoic resignation. After the seventeenth fatal black bean had been drawn, the condemned men were allowed a final visit with their officers, to whom they gave their last requests.
      As the sun slowly set, nine of the condemned Texans, bound with cords and blindfolded, were made to sit on a log in front of a wall, staring blindly toward the red-capped firing squad. For seconds that seemed like an eternity, silence filled the courtyard. Then the curt command to fire shattered the stillness, and the first salvo tore into the Texans, knocking them from the log. It took the sloppy-shooting Mexican troops several volleys to quiet the anguished cries of the dying men.
      The remaining eight prisoners were then led to the place of execution, and the process was repeated. When the muskets fell silent ten minutes later, one man, Henry Whaling, remained alive, despite twelve wounds, cursing his tormentors with his remaining breath. Colonel Huerta approached him and, placing his pistol against the contemptuous Texan's head, pulled the trigger, sending Whaling to join his comrades in death.
      The detail sent to cart away the ravaged corpses for burial the following morning found only 16 bodies. Seventeen-year-old James Shepherd, his cheek and arm shattered by musket balls, had only pretended to be dead, then crawled away from the ranch during the night. Four days later, however, the luckless boy was captured outside Saltillo and immediately put to death.
1825 Raphael Peale, US painter, specialized in Still Life and Trompe L'Oeil, born on 17 February 1774. — more with links to images.
1818 Wessel, mathematician.
1801 Friedrich Leopold, (Freiherr) von Hardenberg “Novalis”, of tuberculosis, born on 02 May 1772, early German Romantic poet and theorist who greatly influenced later Romantic thought. Author of Hymnen an die Nacht (1797), Glauben und Liebe oder der König und die Königin (1798), Die Christenheit oder Europa (1799), Geistliche Lieder (1802), Heinrich von Ofterdingen (1802), and other writings.
1751 Frederik of Hesse-Kassel, born on 17 Apil 1676, first king of Sweden to reign (1720-1751), almost powerless, during the 18th-century Age of Freedom, a period of parliamentary government. He devoted his time to hunting and to extra-marital love affairs.
1697 Hendrik Casimir II, King of Nassau-Dietzstadhouder.
1669 Some 20'000 in eruption of Mount Etna, which destroys Nicolosi in Sicily.
1635 Jacques Callot, French engraver born in 1592. MORE ON CALLOT AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1583 Juan de Garay, conquistador vasco, en una emboscada en el Río de la Plata.
1458 Inigo López de Mendoza, Spanish marquis of Santillana, poet. — poeta y prosista renacentista español,.fallece en Guadalajara (España).
1223 Afonso II, 36, 3rd King of Portugal (1211-1123).
< 24 Mar 26 Mar >
^  Births which occurred on a 25 March:

1989 Chicken Kentucky (chicken), 1st partial birth in space
^ 1957 The European Common Market is created by the Treaty of Rome.
      France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg sign a treaty in Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the Common Market. The EEC, which came into operation in January 1958, was a major step in Europe's movement toward economic and political union. By 1950, it was apparent that centuries of Western European world supremacy was at an end. The national markets of Europe, isolated from each other by archaic trade laws, were no match for the giant market enjoyed by the United States. And looming over Europe from the east was the Soviet Union, whose communist leaders commanded vast territory and economic resources under a single system. Many European leaders also feared the resumption of conflict between traditional European antagonists such as France and Germany, which would only diminish the European economies further.
      As a means of improving Europe's economic climate and preventing war, some influential statesman and political theorists suggested economic integration. The first major step in this direction was taken in 1951, when France and West Germany formed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), integrating their coal and steel industries. French leaders proposed the organization primarily as a means of monitoring German industry, and West German leaders immediately agreed, to allay fears of German militarization. To supervise the ECSC, several supranational bodies were established, including an executive authority, a council of ministers, an advisory assembly, and a court of justice to settle disputes. Italy and the three nations of the Benelux Economic Union--Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg--soon joined. The groundwork for the EEC was laid.
      On 25 March 1957, representatives of six European nations signed two treaties in Rome. One created the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for the common and peaceful development of Europe's nuclear resources. The other created the EEC. In the Common Market, trade barriers between member nations were gradually eliminated, and common policies regarding transportation, agriculture, and economic relations with nonmember countries were implemented. Eventually, labor and capital were permitted to move freely within the boundaries of the community. The EEC, the ECSC, and Euratom were served by a single council of ministers, representative assembly, and court of justice. In 1967, the three organizations were fully merged as the European Community (EC). Britain and other European nations initially declined to join the Common Market and established the weaker European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1960 as an alternative.
      By the early 1960s, however, the Common Market nations showed signs of significant economic growth, and Britain changed its mind. Because of its close ties to the United States, however, French President Charles de Gaulle twice vetoed British admission, and Britain did not join the EC until January 1973, when Ireland and Denmark also became EC members. Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain in 1986, and the former East Germany as part of reunified Germany in 1990. In early 1990s, the European Community became the basis for the European Union (EU), which was established in 1993 following ratification of the Maastricht Treaty. The treaty called for a strengthened European parliament, the creation of a central European bank and common currency, and a common defense policy. In addition to a single European common market, member states would also participate in a larger common market, called the European Economic Area. Austria, Finland, and Sweden became members of the EU in 1995.
^ 1957 Le Traîté de Rome
      Rome, les représentants de six pays jettent les bases de l'Union européenne actuelle. Ce succès résulte de la volonté de paix affichée par les dirigeants de l'après-guerre. En 1949 était né le Conseil de l'Europe. Il comptait 10 pays européens mais ses pouvoirs étaient dérisoires et l'Allemagne n'en faisait pas partie. Jean Monnet, le «Père de l'Europe», propose alors d'asseoir l'intégration européenne sur des réalisations concrètes. Il crée en 1950-1951 la CECA (Communauté Européenne du Charbon et de l'Acier avec le soutien de trois leaders démocrates chrétiens: Robert Schuman, Konrad Adenauer et Alcide de Gasperi. C'est la première administration supranationale. La Grande-Bretagne s'en tient à l'écart. Le succès de la CECA suscite un projet d'armée européenne sous le nom de Communauté Européenne de Défense. Mais son échec, en 1954, refroidit les enthousiasmes.
      Jean Monnet revient à la charge avec le belge Paul-Henri Spaak. Ensemble, ils suggèrent une intégration de l'atome civil et une suppression progressive des barrières douanières. C'est ainsi que l'Allemagne, la France, l'Italie, le Pays-Bas, la Belgique et le Luxembourg signent à Rome le traité Euratom et le traité sur la création d'une Communauté Économique Européenne (CEE). Le premier traité va s'étioler sans laisser de regret. Le second traité, au contraire, va conduire pas à pas à l'intégration économique et politique de l'Europe de l'ouest. Son entrée en vigueur est effective le 01 janvier 1958. Il instaure un Parlement dont le siège est d'abord fixé à Bruxelles et une Cour de Justice établie à Luxembourg. Le pouvoir exécutif est confié au Conseil des ministres des pays membres. Mais la mise au point des décisions est déléguée à une Commission Européenne permanente, sise à Bruxelles, et dont l'influence ne va cesser de croître jusqu'à nos jours.
1948 Luis Landero, escritor español.
1942 Jacqueline Lichtenberg, US, sci-fi author (Star Trek Lives!, Dreamspy)
1934 Gloria Steinem, feminist author.
1926 Fernando Morán, político socialista español, ministro de Asuntos Exteriores.
1925 Flannery O'Connor, Georgia, novelist (A Good Man Is Hard to Find)
1914 Norman E. Borlaug, US agriculture scientist (Nobel 1970) — genetista estadounidense, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1970 por sus investigaciones en cereales para luchar contra la pobreza en el Tercer Mundo.
1911 Jacob Rubenstein, who would use the name Jack Ruby, and, on 24 Novemebr 1963, murder the murderer of president Kennedy, Lee Harvey Oswald, and be murdered himself in prison.
1900 US Socialist Party is formed at Indianapolis.
1899 Jacques Audiberti, French poet (Race of Men)
1888 Gerald Clery Murphy, US painter, stage designer, and businessman, who died on 17 October 1964. — more with links to images.
1887 Josef Capek, Czechoslovakian painter / author / critic (Kulhavy Poutník)
1885 Veit Valentin, German / US, historian (Deutsche Revolution)
1881 Béla Bartók, Hungary, composer, pianist (Concerto for Orchestra)
1880 Eva Aubert (future Mme. Jourdan), in France. She would die on 06 May 1992.
1876 Alson Skinner Clark, US artist who died in 1949. — links to images.
1867 John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum, sculptor who in 1927 started carving Mount Rushmore into a colossal monument to Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and T. Roosevelt. He died on 06 March 1941, with the work almost completed. — a bit MORE ON BORGLUM AT ART “4” MARCH with a photo of Mount Rushmore.
1859 Shatunovsky, mathematician.
1849 Alexander Pope, US artist who died in 1924.
1808 José de Espronceda y Delgado, Spanish revolutionary, poet (Cortes) — poeta romántico español.
1800 Paulin Paris, French historian.
1798 Gudermann, mathematician.
1797 Louis Adolphe Thiers, político francés.
1767 Joachim Murat, marshal of France / King of Naples (1808-15). — Le futur maréchal d'Empire Joachim Murat naît à Labastide (Quercy). Il deviendra un éphémère roi de Naples avant d'être fusillé à la chute de Napoléon.
1614 Don Juan Carreño de Miranda, Spanish artist who died in September 1685. — pintor de Cámara de Carlos II. — MORE ON CARREÑO AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1538 Christopher Clavius, mathematician.
1500 Antón Martín, discípulo y sucesor de san Juan de Dios.
1133 Henry II, King of England (1154-1189)
Feasts which occur on a 25 March:
2294 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2283 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2221 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2210 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2153 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2142 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2131 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2114 Third Sunday of Lent
2108 Palm Sunday

2103 Easter Sunday
2100 Holy Thursday
2096 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2091 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2085 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2074 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2068 Third Sunday of Lent
2063 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2057 Third Sunday of Lent
2046 Easter Sunday
2040 Palm Sunday
2035 Easter Sunday
2032 Holy Thursday
2029 Palm Sunday
2027 Holy Thursday
2018 Palm Sunday
2016 Good Friday
2012 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2007 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2005 Good Friday
2001 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1990 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1984 Third Sunday of Lent
1979 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1973 Third Sunday of Lent
1962 Third Sunday of Lent
1956 Palm Sunday
1951 Easter Sunday
1948 Holy Thursday
1945 Palm Sunday
1937 Holy Thursday
1934 Palm Sunday
1932 Good Friday
1928 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1923 Palm Sunday
1921 Good Friday
1917 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1910 Good Friday
1906 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1900 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1894 Easter Sunday
1888 Palm Sunday
1883 Easter Sunday
1880 Holy Thursday
1877 Palm Sunday
1875 Holy Thursday
1838 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1827 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1781 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1770 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1759 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1483 Fifth Sunday of Lent

Feasts of every 25 March:
— Saint Margaret Clitherow, English martyr
— Saint Lucy Filippini, Italian educator
— San Dimas
— San Quirino
— Santo Irineo.
Annunciation (If 25 March is a Sunday, the Annunciation is celebrated on Monday 26 March. If 25 March is within Holy Week or Easter Week, the Annunciation is celebrated on the Monday after the octave of Easter):
      Neuf mois avant Noël et la naissance du Christ, l'Église catholique commémore normalement l'Annonciation, autrement dit l'annonce faite à Marie de la conception de son fils Jésus. En 2002, l'Annonciation coïncidait avec la Semaine Sainte qui rappelle la Passion du Christ. Sa célébration fut reportée au 08 Apr.
— England : New Year's Day 1155-1752 (OS)
— Independence Day of Greece (1821)
— Maryland Day (1634)
— Pecan Day in the US

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Thoughts for the day:
“Every anarchist is a baffled dictator.”
“Every dictator is a baffled anarchist.”
“Every statement about dictators and anarchists is baffling.”
“Every dictator was an anarchist when someone else was dictator.”
“The death penalty should by applied only to successful suicide bombers.”

updated Thursday 25-Mar-2010 22:24 UT
principal updates:
v.8.20 Monday 24-Mar-2008 2:01 UT
v.7.20 Monday 26-Mar-2007 13:20 UT
Friday 24-Mar-2006 19:28 UT
v.5.20 Friday 25-Mar-2005 0:12 UT
Thursday 25-Mar-2004 1:53 UT

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