<< Mar 23|      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY      |Mar 25 >>
Events, deaths, births, of MAR 24
v.8.20
Day of Fasting, Prayer, and Good Works for Missionary Martyrs
While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs)
to start clock: connect to Internet, accept Script and Active-Xs
[For Mar 24 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: Apr 031700s: Apr 041800s: Apr 051900~2099: Apr 06]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” MAR 24   wikipedia
• Germans slaughter Italian civilians... • Oil megaspill... • Jonesboro school shooting... • Boys to become Scottsboro Boys... • Jules Verne dies... • Elizabeth I dies... • NATO bombs Serbia... • Rhode Island is established... • Shannon Lucid enters Mir... • Kuan Yin Day... • Acquitted of letting python kill toddler... • US~Cuba negotiations... • Cat on a Hot Tin Roof opens... • Great poet dies... • Great Western explorer is born... • Archbishop is martyred... • North Vietnamese final assault on Saigon...
^  On a 24 March:
2006 In the first consistory of Pope Benedict XVI [~] (his homily) he makes cardinals:
William Joseph Levada [15 Jun 1936 ~], of the US, Prefect of Doctrine of the Faith;
Franc Rodé CM, [23 Sep 1934~], Prefect of Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Agostino Vallini [17 Apr 1940~] Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Jorge Liberato Urosa Savino [28 Aug 1942~], Archbishop of Caracas;
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales [10 Aug 1932~], Archbishop of Manila;
Jean-Pierre Bernard Ricard [26 Sep 1944~], Archbishop of Bordeaux;
Antonio Cañizares Lloverá [15 Oct 1945~], Archbishop of Toledo {who has the power to make it rain?)
Nicholas Cheong-Jin-Suk [07 Dec 1931~], Archbishop of Seoul;
Sean Patrick O'Malley OFM.Cap [29 Jun 1944~], Archbishop of Boston;
Elian unhappy US will return him to CubaStanislaw Dziwisz [27 Apr 1939~], Archbishop of Kraków;
Carlo Caffara [1 Jun 1938~], Archbishop of Bologna;
Joseph Zen Ze-kiun SDB [13 Jan 1932~], Bishop of Hong Kong.
Ho deciso inoltre di elevare alla dignità cardinalizia tre ecclesiastici di età superiore agli ottant'anni, in considerazione dei servizi da essi resi alla Chiesa con esemplare fedeltà ed ammirevole dedizione. Essi sono:
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo [27 Aug 1925~], Arciprete della Basilica di S. Paolo fuori le Mura;
Peter Proeku Dery [10 May 1918~], Arcivescovo emeritus di Tamale (Ghana);
Albert Vanhoye SJ [23 Jul 1923~], who, unlike the others, is not a bishop, but is “a great exegete” (says the Pope), who has been Rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute and Secretary of the Pontifical Biblical Commission.
These last three, being above the age of 79 and therefore will not have a vote in the election of popes. — (060315)
2005 Faced with mounting peaceful popular demonstrations since the rigged parliamentary elections of 27 February 2005 and 13 March 2005, the president of Kyrgyzstan, Askar Akayev [10 Nov 1944~], flees secretly to Russia after the protesters take over government buildings. In the aftermath looking breaks out in Bishek. The upper house of parliament names as acting president and prime minister Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev [01 Aug 1949~], who was prime minister from 21 December 2000 to 22 May 2002. The supreme court annuls the elections. On 26 March 2005 the parliament announces that a presidential election is to take place on 26 June 2005.
2000 Elián González [06 Dec 1993~] and his cousin Marisleysis González are not smiling as they return home after learning that the US Attorney General is dead set on forcing the prompt return of Elián to Cuba. [photo >]
2000 Los quince países de la Unión Europea (Francia, Gran Bretaña, Italia, Bélgica, Nederlandia, Luxemburgo, España, Portugal, Alemania, Austria, Irlanda, Dinamarca, Suecia, Finlandia, Grecia), reunidos en Lisboa, aprueban un paquete de reformas entre las que se incluye las desregulación inmediata de las telecomunicaciones, lo que permitirá la expansión de Internet como instrumento para desarrollar la economía y crear empleo.
^ 2000 US couple not guilty of letting python kill son.
     A judge acquits a Carlyle, Illinois (about 80 km east of St. Louis. ) couple of charges filed against them after the family's pet python squeezed their 3-year-old son to death.
      Judge Harold Pennock of the Clinton County Circuit Court issues a directed verdict of acquittal at the end of a weeklong trial, just before the case is to have gone to a jury.
      He finds Robert and Melissa Altom not guilty of child endangerment, a charge that could have resulted in a 10-year prison sentence for the couple. To have made the charges stick, prosecutors had to show the couple acted willfully -- something the judge said had not been proven.
python      The couple's 2.1-meter African rock python slithered out of its aquarium in August 1999, killing the couple's son, Jesse, as he slept.
They should have read: When giant snakes such as pythons are kept as "pets" certain precautions must be taken. I strongly recommend the following two articles: Lenny Flank's article on handling large constrictors and the A.F.H. guidelines for keeping large constrictors. Mistakes do happen and the results can be fatal. Be careful and be informed.
[Should there be a Darwin Jr. award for people who remove their offspring from the gene pool?]
^ 1999 NATO starts bombing Serbia to help relieve Kosovo
      The assault includes air and sea-launched cruise missiles and bombing runs by American, German and French airplanes. It is the first time in NATO's 50-year existence that it has ever attacked a sovereign country.
      For months, the Yugoslav government of dictatorial President Slobodan Milosevic had refused to sign a peace plan that would have ended officially sanctioned persecution of the ethnic Albanian majority in its province of Kosovo. The final straw came when Yugoslavia finally promised to sign, then backed off. Yugoslavia was clearly teasing the alliance, and possibly stalling to solidify its air defenses.
     the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) commences air strikes against Yugoslavia with the bombing of Serbian military positions in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo. The NATO offensive came in response to a new wave of ethnic cleansing launched by Serbian forces against the Kosovar Albanians on March 20.
      The Kosovo region was at the heart of the Serbian empire in the late Middle Ages but was lost to the Ottoman Turks in 1389 following Serbia's defeat in the Battle of Kosovo. By the time Serbia regained control of Kosovo from Turkey in 1913, there were few Serbs left in a region that had come to be dominated by ethnic Albanians. In 1918, Kosovo formally became a province of Serbia, and it continued as such after communist leader Josip Broz Tito established the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945, comprising the Balkan states of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Slovenia, and Macedonia. However, Tito eventually gave in to Kosovar demands for greater autonomy, and after 1974 Kosovo existed as independent state in all but name.
      Serbs came to resent Kosovo's autonomy, which allowed it to act against Serbian interests, and in 1987 Slobodan Milosevic was elected leader of Serbia's Communist Party with a promise of restoring Serbian rule to Kosovo. In 1989, Milosevic became president of Serbia and moved quickly to suppress Kosovo, stripping its autonomy and in 1990 sending troops to disband its government. Meanwhile, Serbian nationalism led to the dissolution of the Yugoslav federation in 1991, and in 1992 the Balkan crisis deteriorated into civil war. A new Yugoslav state, consisting only of Serbia and the small state of Montenegro, was created, and Kosovo began four years of nonviolent resistance to Serbian rule.
      The militant Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) emerged in 1996 and began attacking Serbian police in Kosovo. With arms obtained in Albania, the KLA stepped up its attacks in 1997, prompting a major offensive by Serbian troops against the rebel-held Drenica region in February-March 1998. Dozens of civilians were killed, and enlistment in the KLA increased dramatically. In July, the KLA launched an offensive across Kosovo, seizing control of nearly half the province before being routed in a Serbian counteroffensive later that summer. The Serbian troops drove thousands of ethnic Albanians from their homes and were accused of massacring Kosovo civilians.
      In October, NATO threatened Serbia with air strikes, and Milosevic agreed to allow the return of tens of thousands of refugees. Fighting soon resumed, however, and talks between Kosovar Albanians and Serbs in Rambouillet, France, in February 1999 ended in failure. On 18 March, further peace talks in Paris collapsed after the Serbian delegation refused to sign a deal calling for Kosovo autonomy and the deployment of NATO troops to enforce the agreement. Two days later, the Serbian army launched a new offensive in Kosovo. On 24 March, NATO air strikes began.
      In addition to Serbian military positions, the NATO air campaign targeted Serbian government buildings and the country's infrastructure in an effort to destabilize the Milosevic regime. The bombing and continued Serbian offensives drove hundreds of thousands of Kosovar Albanians into neighboring Albania, Macedonia, and Montenegro. Many of these refugees were airlifted to safety in the United States and other NATO nations. On 10 June, the NATO bombardment ended when Serbia agreed to a peace agreement calling for the withdrawal of Serb forces from Kosovo and their replacement by NATO peacekeeping troops.
      With the exception of two US pilots killed in a training mission in Albania, no NATO personnel lost their lives in the 78-day operation. There were some mishaps, however, such as miscalculated bombings that led to the deaths of Kosovar Albanian refugees, KLA members, and Serbian civilians. The most controversial incident was the May 7 bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, which killed three Chinese journalists and caused a diplomatic crisis in US-Chinese relations.
      On 12 June, NATO forces moved into Kosovo from Macedonia. The same day, Russian troops arrived in the Kosovo capital of Pristina and forced NATO into agreeing to a joint occupation. Despite the presence of peacekeeping troops, the returning Kosovar Albanians retaliated against Kosovo's Serbian minority, forcing them to flee into Serbia. Under the NATO occupation, Kosovar autonomy was restored, but the province remained officially part of Serbia. Slobodan Milosevic was ousted from power by a popular revolution in Belgrade in October 2000. He was replaced by the popularly elected Vojislav Kostunica, a moderate Serbian nationalist who promised to reintegrate Serbia into Europe and the world after a decade of isolation.
1996 Hyakutake is the brightest comet to pass by the Earth in two decades.
1996 After two-years and $20 million, Intel abandons its plans to manufacture cable modems.
^ 1996 Shannon Lucid enters Mir
      US astronaut Shannon Lucid safely transfers to the Russian space station Mir from the US space shuttle Atlantis for a planned five-month stay. Lucid, a biochemist who shares Mir with Russian cosmonauts Yuri Onufriyenko and Yuri Usachev, conducts scientific experiments during her stay. She is the first female US astronaut to live in a space station. Beginning in August, her scheduled return to earth is delayed more than six weeks because of last-minute repairs to the booster rockets of the Atlantis and then by a hurricane. Finally, on September 26, 1996, she returns to earth aboard the Atlantis, touching down at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Her 188-day sojourn aboard Mir sets a new space endurance record for an American, and a world endurance record for a woman.
1995 The US House of Representatives passed a welfare reform package calling for the most profound changes in social programs since F. D. Roosevelt's New Deal. President Clinton criticized the bill, saying it was ''weak on work and tough on children.''
^ 1994 Plan for recovery at IBM.
      IBM chairman Lou Gerstner announces a turnaround strategy for the beleaguered company. Gerstner's plan involved reducing dependence on the mainframe business and increasing emphasis on client-server computing. Since 1993, when the company posted its first loss ever, IBM had suffered enormously. Gerstner's plan revitalized the company, bringing it back to profitability and strong stock prices.
1992 Elecciones generales en Corea del Sur. El Partido Liberal Democrático (PLD), del presidente Roh Tae Woo, atrae a un diputado independiente y logra la mayoría.
^ 1989 The Exxon Valdez runs aground
      The worst oil spill to ever occur in US territory begins after the supertanker Exxon Valdez, owned and operated by the Exxon Corporation, runs aground on a reef in Prince William Sound in southern Alaska. 43 million liters of petroleum spill into the water.
      Attempts to contain the massive spill are unsuccessful and wind and currents spread the oil over a hundred miles from its source, eventually affecting over seven hundred miles of coastline. It is estimated that as many as half-a-million birds and animals are severely injured or killed as a result of the environmental disaster. It is later revealed that Joseph J. Hazelwood, the captain of the Valdez, had been drinking at the time of the accident and had allowed an uncertified officer to steer the massive vessel.
      On 29 January 1990 Hazelwood would go on trial in Anchorage, Alaska, and in March 1990 be convicted of misdemeanor negligence, fined $50'000, and ordered to perform one thousand hours of community service. His captain’s license is subsequently suspended.
      Exxon itself is condemned by the National Transportation Safety Board, and, in early 1991, under pressure from environmental groups, the company agrees to pay a penalty of $100'000'000 and provide $1'000'000'000 over a ten-year period for the cost of the cleanup. However, later in the year, both Alaska and Exxon reject the agreement and, on 08 October 1991, Exxon settles the matter by paying an additional $25'000'000, less than 4% of the cleanup aid promised by the oil giant earlier in the year. Finally on 10 July 1992, an Alaska court overturns Hazelwood’s conviction, citing a federal statute that grants freedom from prosecution to those who report an oil spill.
1988 Former national security aides Oliver L. North and John M. Poindexter and businessmen Richard V. Secord and Albert Hakim pleaded innocent to Iran-Contra charges. North and Poindexter were convicted, but had their convictions thrown out; Secord and Hakim received probation after each pleaded guilty to a single count under a plea bargain.
1988 Elecciones legislativas en Gibraltar, con gran afluencia de votantes, que dan el triunfo al dirigente laborista John Joseph “Joe” Bossano.
1988 Greenpeace pone de manifiesto el peligro de degradación de la Antártida, ante las deficiencias de las 60 bases científicas allí instaladas.
1986 US and Libya clash in Gulf of Sidra
1982 Five congregations in the eastern San Francisco Bay area became the first to declare themselves publicly as sanctuary churches, in an effort to help refugees from Central America establish themselves in the US during political and military unrest in their native countries.
^ 1977 United States and Cuba engage in direct negotiations.
      For the first time since severing diplomatic relations in 1961, Cuba and the United States enter into direct negotiations when the two nations discuss fishing rights. The talks marked a dramatic, but short-lived, change in relations between the two Cold War enemies. Fidel Castro had led Cuba farther away from the US orbit and closer to the Soviet bloc since coming to power in 1959. Throughout the 1960s, the United States and Cuba maintained hostility toward one another. By the mid-1970s, the deteriorating state of US-Latin America relations suggested that perhaps the time had come to ease tensions with Castro. Though the Cuban dictator was feared by many in Latin America, he was also a hero to many others for his success in remaining independent from the "colossus of the North"-the United States. When Carter took office in 1977, he indicated to Cuba that the United States was prepared to enter into direct diplomatic negotiations on a number of issues, including fishing rights.
      On 24 March 1977, negotiators from the United States and Cuba meet in New York City to discuss the fishing issue. It is the first time since 1961 that US and Cuban officials talk face to face on any issue. In the months that followed, other breakthroughs occurred. The two nations agreed to establish "interest sections" in the other's country that would operate as de facto embassies pending the restoration of full diplomatic relations. Castro freed some political prisoners and Carter eased travel restrictions to Cuba. These were encouraging signs, but many factors worked together to prevent any progress toward normalized relations. The strong and vocal Cuban-American community in the United States pressured congressmen and the president to back away from closer relations with Castro. Officials within Carter's administration cautioned the president about appearing too "soft" with the communist dictator. When Carter suffered a series of diplomatic setbacks in 1979, such as the fall of the pro-American leaders of Nicaragua and Iran, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, he began to toughen his stance with Cuba. He criticized Cuba for its role in the Angolan civil war, and warned Castro about allowing Soviet troops into Cuba. Castro responded to these new attacks in a novel manner. In early 1980 he encouraged tens of thousand of Cubans, some from jails and asylums, to immigrate to the United States. Over 100'000 Cubans flooded into the United States, causing some serious problems, particularly in south Florida. By the end of 1980, US-Cuban relations were as acrimonious as ever.
1976 A military coup led by general Jorge Rafael Videla Almorzo ousts Argentine President Isabel Martínez de Perón [born María Estrela Martínez Cartas 04 Feb 1931]. This is the beginning of seven years of terror in Argentina, during which some 30'000 people were murdered or disappeared by the military government. The top perpetrators were pardoned their life sentences by president Carlos Menem in 1990, and lower military criminals were given immunity.
^ 1975 North Vietnam orders final attack on Saigon.
      The North Vietnamese "Ho Chi Minh Campaign" begins. Despite the 1973 Paris Peace Accords cease fire, the fighting had continued between South Vietnamese forces and the North Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. In December 1974, the North Vietnamese launched a major attack against the lightly defended province of Phuoc Long, located north of Saigon along the Cambodian border. They successfully overran the provincial capital at Phuoc Binh on January 6, 1975. President Richard Nixon had repeatedly promised South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu that the United States would come to the aid of South Vietnam if the North Vietnamese committed a major violation of the Peace Accords. However, by the time the communists had taken Phuoc Long, Nixon had resigned from office and his successor, Gerald Ford, was unable to convince a hostile Congress to make good on Nixon's promises to Saigon. The North Vietnamese, emboldened by the situation, launched Campaign 275 in March 1975 to take the provincial capital of Ban Me Thuot in the Central Highlands. The South Vietnamese defenders fought very poorly and were quickly overwhelmed by the North Vietnamese attackers. Once again, the United States did nothing. President Thieu, however, ordered his forces in the Highlands to withdraw to more defensible positions to the south. What started out as a reasonably orderly withdrawal degenerated into a panic that spread throughout the South Vietnamese armed forces. They abandoned Pleiku and Kontum in the Highlands with very little fighting and the North Vietnamese pressed the attack from the west and north. In quick succession, Quang Tri, Hue, and Da Nang in the north fell to the communist onslaught. The North Vietnamese continued to attack south along the coast, defeating the South Vietnamese forces one at a time. As the North Vietnamese forces closed on the approaches to Saigon, the Politburo in Hanoi issued an order to Gen. Van Tien Dung to launch the "Ho Chi Minh Campaign," the final assault on Saigon itself. By April 27, the North Vietnamese had completely encircled Saigon and by April 30, the North Vietnamese tanks broke through the gates of the Presidential Palace in Saigon and the Vietnam War came to an end.
1972 Great Britain imposes direct rule over Northern Ireland
1965 The first "teach-in" is conducted at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor; two hundred faculty members participate by holding special anti-Vietnam-War seminars. Regular classes are canceled, and rallies and speeches dominate for 12 hours. On March 26, there would be a similar teach-in at Columbia University in New York City. Teach-ins would spread to many colleges and universities.
1964 Kennedy half-dollar issued
1959 Iraq withdraws from the Baghdad Pact
1949 El mariscal Vasilevski sucede a Nikolay Aleksandrovich Bulganin como ministro del ejército soviético.
1945 El Ejército Rojo inicia la ofensiva en dirección a Viena.
1945 Termina la primera fase del plan de operaciones dirigido por el general Dwight David Eisenhower.
1934 US President Franklin Roosevelt signs a bill granting future independence to the Philippines.
1933 Peter I Island incorporated as a Norwegian dependency
^ 1931 The not-yet-Scottsboro Boys get on a fateful Chattanooga choo-choo
      Roy Wright, 13, Eugene Williams, 13, Andy Wright, 17, Haywood Patterson, 17, Olin Montgomery, 17, Willie Roberson, 17, Ozzie Powell, 16, Charles Weems, 21 and Clarence Norris, 21, independently of each other, hop onto at freight train leaving their home town of Chattanooga, Tennessee, on a trip that will ruin their lives. What they don't yet know is that they will be arrested in Paint Rock, Alabama, falsely accused of rape by two white girls, one an admitted town prostitute, Ruby Bates (who would later recant) and Victoria Price. They would be tried on April 6, in Scottboro, Alabama, and, except for Roy Wright for whom a mistrial was declared, condemned to death on April 9, not surprisingly as they were all negroes (the word used in those days).
     There was national and international outrage, and much legal maneuvering by the Communist party (who found there a good cause to exploit) and the NAACP, in mutual rivalry. The convictions were overturned by the US Supreme court in Norris v. Alabama and in Powell v. Alabama, both on 19321107. A new trial started in Decatur, Alabama on March 28, 1933. The US Supreme Court intervened again on 19350401 in Patterson v. Alabama. The trials would last for several years and eventually charges were dropped against five of the nine (one of the five being Eugene Williams). The other four were retried in 1936 and 1937 and convicted; three were later paroled, and the fourth, Patterson, escaped.
     After the years in prison, the Scottsboro Boys were completely demoralized, and went on to live lives of quiet desperation and of petty crime or worse. The last known surviving member of the group, Clarence Norris, who had fled North after his parole in 1946, lived as a fugitive for 30 years until he obtained a full pardon from Alabama Governor George Wallace in 1976.

1924 Greece becomes a republic
1903 EE.UU. y el Reino Unido deciden formar una comisión mixta para fijar las fronteras de Alaska.
1903 Firma de un tratado entre Bolivia y Brasil que establece un modus vivendi respecto al litigio de Acre.
^ 1900 Andrew Carnegie's Steel Trust
      Andrew Carnegie disregards the all-but-impotent Sherman Anti-Trust Law and incorporates his Carnegie Steel Company. Much to the chagrin of trust-conscious legislators, the New Jersey-based behemoth towered above the rest of America's steel industry. Initially worth $160 million, Carnegie Steel earned $40 million in profits during its first year as a corporation. Though $25 million of that money went straight into Carnegie's pockets, the Scottish-born industrialist soon put his company on the selling block.
      In 1901, J.P. Morgan's freshly formed United States Steel Corporation, which again flew in the face of anti-trust laws, paid $250 million for Carnegie Steel. The deal made Carnegie the wealthiest man of the gilded age and prompted his retirement from the corporate sector. While Carnegie headed back to his native Scotland to pursue philanthropic endeavors, the giant US Steel Corporation dominated the steel field and burst into the record books as the first, but hardly last, US company to be worth over one billion dollars.
1890 The US Supreme Court stirred controversy, handing down what some deemed a "surprise" decision in Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad v. Minnesota. The case revolved around the question of whether or not a state held the right to impose fees that would cap a company's "reasonable profits." Based on the decision that such a cap violated a "person's" rights under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Court ruled in favor of the midwestern railroad. The conflation of a company with a person, a position spearheaded by Arthur Conkling, was only part of the flap that surrounded the case. People howled that the Court had effectively installed itself as the lone judge of what constituted a "reasonable profit." In essence, the Supreme Court had overstepped its bounds and thus imperiled the "delicate balance" between the judiciary, executive, and legislative branches of the government.
1882 German scientist Robert Koch announces in Berlin that he has discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis.
1875 En el transcurso de las Guerras carlistas, Alfonso XII se pone al frente del Ejército del Norte.
1863 Union Steele's Bayou, Mississippi amphibious expedition skirmishes with Confederates at Deer Creek
1862 Riot at abolition meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio
1832 Mormon Joseph Smith beaten, tarred and feathered in Ohio.
1814 Fernando VII entra en España para hacerse cargo del Gobierno tras la Guerra de la Independencia española.
1813 Le pape Pie VII se rétracte du semblant de concordat en onze articles, que Napoléon lui a fait signer le 25 janvier 1813 à Fontainebleau. Dès le lendemain, en manière de riposte, Napoléon nomme douze évêques.
1808 Fernando VII es acogido con entusiasmo como nuevo monarca por el pueblo de Madrid, puesto que con él acababa el gobierno de Manuel de Godoy y Alvarez de Faria (una sola persona con demasiados apellidos).
1794 LASCOMBES Françoise, domiciliée à Toulouse, département de la Haute Garonne, condamnée à mort le 4 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme émigrée.
1794 LATREILLE Marie Anne Catherine, femme Guetineau, âgée de 34 ans, née à Montreuil-Bellay, près de Saumur, domiciliée à Paris, département de la Seine, condamnée à mort le 4 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de la conspiration d'Hébert, Vincent, Ronsin et Autres, tendante à dissoudre la convention nationale, à assassiner ses membres et les patriotes et détruire le gouvernement Républicain.
1794 LAUMIER Michel, général de brigade, ci-devant, lieutenant colonel de la marine, âgé de 63 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort, le 4 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'une conspiration contre la liberté et la sûreté du Peuple français, tendante à Troubler l'état par une guerre civile, en armant les citoyens les uns contre les autres et contre l'exercice de l'autorité légitime, par suite de laquelle des conjurés devaient dissoudre la Représentation nationale, assassiner ses membres et les patriotes, détruire le gouvernement républicain, s'emparer de la souveraineté du peuple, et donner un tyran à l'état.
1765 Britain enacts the Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to provide temporary housing to British soldiers.
^ 1644 Rhode Island colony established
      In London, Roger Williams, an important American religious leader and the founder of the Providence settlement, is awarded a royal charter by Parliament to formally establish the Rhode Island Colony. In 1631, Williams arrived at Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony from England. Williams, a Puritan, worked as a teacher before serving briefly as a colorful pastor at Plymouth and then at Salem. However, within a few years of his arrival, he alarmed the Puritan oligarchy of Massachusetts by speaking out against the right of civil authorities to hand out punishment for religious offenses and opposing the practice of doling out land that belonged to Indians. In October 1635, he was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony by the General Court.
      After leaving Massachusetts, Williams, with the assistance of the Narragansett Native American tribe, established a settlement at the junction of two rivers near Narragansett Bay, located within present-day Rhode Island. Williams declared the settlement open to those seeking freedom of conscience and the removal of the church from civil matters. Taking the success of the venture as a sign from God, Williams named the first community in history boasting complete religious freedom Providence. Among those who found a haven in the religious and political refuge of the settlement were Anne Hutchinson, who was exiled from Massachusetts for theological reasons, some of the first Jews to settle in North America, and the Quakers. In 1643, Williams traveled back to England to win a formal colonial charter that would help Rhode Island secure a legal position from which to fight against hostile New England colonies. Parliament grants the charter on 24 March 1644, praising Rhode Island’s spirit of religious tolerance. Roger Williams also founded the first Baptist church in America and edited the first dictionary of Native American languages.
0818 El omeya de al-Andalus Al-Hakam I ordena reprimir duramente un motín producido en el arrabal de Córdoba.
TO THE TOP
< 23 Mar 25 Mar >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 24 March:

Sanders2006 Frank G. Mosely, 69, and his son, Larry Brooks Mosely, 29, in an exchange of gunfire with police who had stopped their car on Peyton Road, about 8 km east of Coldwater, Mississippi. The two men were wanted for questioning concerning the brutal murder of James Smith, 22, and his 21-year-old wife, Stephanie, some time between 15 March, when they were last seen, and 23 March when their bodies were found in the attic of the Midtown Memphis duplex of the uncle of James Smith, next to his. —(060324)
2006 Walter Earl Perry, 24, shot at 00:15 (05:15 UT) in his car next to the apartment building at 1073 N. Highland Avenue in Jackson, Tennessee, to where he was returning to a friend's apartment. —(060324)

2003 US Army Spc. Gregory P. Sanders, 19 [photo >], of the 3rd Battalion, 69th Armored Division, killed in action in Iraq. —(070331)
2003 US Marine Cpl. Evan James, 20, drowns in a canal in Iraq, during the US-led attack.
2003 Lance Cpl. Thomas A. Blair, 24, US Marine, in combat in Iraq.
2003 Britons Sgt. Steven Mark Roberts and Lance Cpl. Barry Stephen, in combat in Iraq.
2003 Ahmed Abahreh, 15, Palestinian, by an Israeli bullet to the head, in Jenin, West Bank. Another Palestinian youngster is wounded in the leg.
2003:: 24 upper-caste Hindus, including 2 children and 11 women, shot by more than 15 gunmen in Nadimarg, Indian-occupied Kashmir.

2002 Esther Kleiman, 23, Israeli of Neve Tzuf, in a shooting attack northwest of Ramallah, West Bank, while traveling to work in a armored Egged bus.
2002 Avi Sabag, 24, Israeli of Otniel was killed in a shooting attack south of Hebron, West Bank.

2001 Dos personas por un seísmo de 6,4 grados en la escala Richter, con un epicentro localizado en las costas del sur de Hiroshima, que afecta seriamente a varias ciudades japonesas. Más de un centenar de personas sufren heridas de diversa consideración.

1999: 39 people, by fire in the Mont Blanc tunnel in France. It burns for two days. — Cuarenta personas mueren carbonizadas como consecuencia de la explosión en cadena de los depósitos de 20 camiones y 11 turismos que se hallaban en el Túnel del Mont Blanc, que une Francia e Italia a través de los Alpes."

Brittheny Varner^ 1998 Brittheny R. Varner, 11; Natalie Brooks, 12; Stephanie Johnson, 12; Paige Ann Herring, 12; Shannon Wright, 32, [photos in that order >]
shot by Mitchell Johnson [11 Aug 1984~], and Andrew Golden, 11, at Westside school in Jonesboro, Ark.

      That morning, Mitch and Drew skip the school-bus ride and first period. Mitch had commandeered his stepfather's gray van, which contained food, camouflage netting, ammunition, hunting knives and survival gear. They drive to Andrew's parents' home and, unable to force his father's steel gun vault with a hammer and torch, they steal a .38-cal. derringer, a .38-cal. snub-nose and a .357 Magnum that had been left unsecured. Then they drive to Andrew's grandfather's home and break in through a basement door, using a crowbar. They took four handguns and three rifles, including Doug Golden's favorite, "deadly accurate" deer rifle.
Natalie Brooks      About 100 yds. from the wall of Westside Middle School's gym is Cole Hill, an elevation surrounded by gravel and blacktop roads. It was near here that Mitch and Drew found a site to park the van. They had a clear view of the school's playground, enclosed by chain-link fence, a hundred meters or so up the road. Meter-high sage grass, kudzu vines and an array of sapling oaks, sweet gums and acorn trees provided cover. For Mitch and Drew, the spot was perfect.

      At 12:35 p.m., during fifth period, Andrew Golden, pulls a fire alarm inside Westside Elementary, then joins Mitchell Johnson in the woods Alisha Golden, 12, hears the fire alarm sound and wonders why her math teacher looks surprised. Then someones say it is Drew Golden (who is no relation to Alisha) who pulled the alarm. Despite fleeting suspicions that it was a false alarm, the exercise proceeded, and Alisha kept moving, lining up at the side exits as prescribed by the drill. Students and teachers go out the side entrance into the open area. The doors lock behind them.
      The two boys open fire from their position in the woods 100 meters Some kids laughed--mistaking the volley for firecrackers, a joke or maybe the drama students acting out a play. "When people started falling to the ground, I thought it was all made up," said Alisha. "I saw Natalie [Brooks] and Paige [Ann Herring] fall to the ground, and Natalie had blood coming out of her head, but the blood just didn't look real. When Paige fell, I thought she was just diving to the ground."
      As Candace Porter, 11, collapsed against one of the cinder-block walls of the building, another student shouted, "Don't worry, don't worry, it's all fake!"--to which the bleeding Candace responded, "No it's not! I just got shot!" Whitney Coker ran for cover as one of her pals was hit, then went back to drag her out of the line of fire.
      Brittheny Varner, 11, is hit as she tugs at the sweatshirt of her best friend, another girl named Whitney. The bullet passes through Brittheny's back, killing her, and wounds Whitney Irving in the abdomen.
      English teacher Shannon Wright, 32, steps forward to shield one of her sixth-graders, saving the girl and losing her own life. "This guy was aiming at Emma [Pittman]," said Amber Vanoven, 11. "He was fixing to shoot her and Mrs. Wright moved in front of her. She got shot. She did. I watched her."
      At 12:38 p.m. the first 911 call is received. "There's been blood loss," reports the caller "People with blood loss." Michael Barnes, 12, sees he could not get back into the school whose doors have locked. So he crawls to the gymnasium. Police arrive in three to four minute
.
      Armed with three rifles and seven guns, the shooters get off 22 shots in about four minutes. They
kill four girls and one female teacher and wound one female teacher, eight girls and one boy (Drew's cousin Tristan McGowan). Mitchell and Drew try to beat a fast retreat, but construction workers on the roof point to police the spot where they saw smoke from the firing guns. Two officers chase the boys as they head toward their van. Within 15 minutes of the shooting the boys are disarmed, offering little resistance. The two boys stay silent for the entire drive to the Craighead County sheriff's office.

Stephanie Johnson      The next day, Drew remained silent throughout the preliminary hearing, even as he listened to the recitation of his and Mitchell's crimes: five counts of capital murder, 10 counts of first-degree battery [not to speak of truancy, burglary, vehicle theft, driving without a license, trespassing, illegal parking, and causing a false fire alarm]. Mitch wept and appeared remorseful. But a single night of jail found the boys outwardly changed. Upon waking, Mitchell requested a Bible, a minister and "some Scripture thought," according to Sheriff Dale Haas. Both boys asked for pizza for lunch. The request was denied, and Drew began to cry in his holding cell, begging for his mother. Said the sheriff: "He wants his Mama, and he wants to go home now."
      Drew's mother Pat Golden, postmaster in a nearby town, was at work on the day of the shooting. That afternoon, she had her son on her mind, having just learned that there had been a shooting at the school. Pat withdrew quietly to a back room, where a friend heard her crying softly, worried for Drew's safety. Her husband Dennis called to say authorities didn't know the whereabouts of their son. "Then," recalls Joyce Prater, a friend and former colleague who had stopped by for stamps, "the phone rang again. Pat let out a terrible, terrible scream, as though someone had died. I will never forget it as long as I live. By the time I ran back to see her, another employee said, 'She's already gone.' She just tore out of there." Prater was especially worried about her friend making the 40-km drive to Jonesboro alone because she had suffered a seizure in 1997 and had only recently returned to driving. Drew was the child of Pat's change of heart. Pat was married before and after two children she did'nt want any more. But her second husband Dennis Golden had never had children. So the had Drew. That child was the center of their world." Pat and her husband worked long hours to provide for the boy. His grandfather Doug Golden insists that "Drew understood law and order." In a statement from the family, read by the public defender who appointed himself Drew's lawyer, Pat and Dennis Golden said they "would like to explain the situation and make it clear for everyone and to take away the pain for everyone, but they simply cannot. They, too, cannot understand, and they, too, are asking why Andrew, their 11-year-old baby, is allegedly involved." Mitch Johnson's parents were equally bewildered and devastated.

Paige Herring      Mitchell Johnson found God at a Baptist youth revival meeting in September 1997. He made a profession of faith and decided to accept Jesus Christ as his savior. Mitchell had been in Jonesboro barely two years, and looking to fit in. A classmate brought him to Central Baptist, and the church, for a while at least, seemed to provide a haven. He became an upstanding member of the congregation, delighting many of the adults with his choirboy gentility. "Yes, sir" was the way he addressed the men, and he was wont to say "Ma'am" when he held out a chair for a lady. He'd been raised right, most folks thought. Only two weeks before the shooting, Mitchell Johnson joined up with another youth group to sing and minister at a nursing home.
      Mitch was originally from Spring Valley, Minn. (pop. 2460), and he was floundering by the time he and his mother and brother left, first for Kentucky and then for Arkansas. The amiably goofy kid was upset by the 1994 divorce of his parents, Scott and Gretchen. Close friends and young relatives had watched his behavior deteriorate. "Since they split, he's gone downhill," says his cousin Mike Niemeyer, 17. "He'd get into fights, some physical, some verbal. He was easily pissed off." The fine manners that he shared with his brother Monte, 11, were still on display, but he would exhibit troubling, attention-getting antics.
      In the summer of 1997, when he returned to Spring Valley to visit with relatives during vacation, he began obsessing over twin passions: girls and gangs. "He said he'd give anything to be in a gang," says Niemeyer. "He'd kill anyone to be in a gang." Schoolmates in Jonesboro say Mitch began wearing red to signal his membership in the Bloods, a ruse that they saw straight through. A wannabe, most of them concluded. The slightly paunchy boy also fancied himself a Romeo and, with an intuitive sense of drama, vowed suicide when a Minnesota Juliet wanted nothing to do with him. "He was crying a lot," recalls his buddy Andrew O'Rourke, 13. "He showed me the gun and the rope he could use. I said there are other girls as good as her, but he said, 'No. She's one of a kind.'" After 45 minutes, though, O'Rourke convinced his friend to lay down his gun.
     Among the debris discovered by authorities was Mitchell Johnson's hunter-education card. It was all part of fitting in. "Everybody at Westside knows how to shoot a gun," says seventh-grader Michelle Wagner.

     Under existing laws, a minor, whatever the crime, can only be sentenced to detention in a juvenile prison until he is 18. Johnson was then kept in prison under gun charges, but had to be released on his 21st birthday, 11 August 2005.

Shannon Wright     Of the gun lovers at Westside, few were as proficient and prominent as Andrew Golden. Despite his tender age, he had a reputation among his classmates for being "mean-spirited." Even though he was only 11 years old, Drew seemed to embody a toughness that Mitchell was looking for. On Royale Drive, where Golden's parents lived in a one-story stone bungalow, neighbors had reluctantly grown used to the sight of Drew biking in military fatigues. "He was always wearing camo clothing and talking about hunting and shooting targets," said neighbor Debbie Wilson. Hunting gear isn't uncommon in Jonesboro, but some parents were nevertheless wary of Drew, who was known to horse around with a hunting knife strapped to his side. "I didn't allow my Jenna to play with him," said neighbor Lloyd Brooks. "He was too rowdy."
      Santa gave Drew Golden a shotgun when he was six. The home video of Drew as a tot, rushing to the backyard shooting range, has been played again and again, serving as metaphor and explanation, the macho little-boy equivalent of the dolled-up kindergarten beauty queen. Frontiersboy Drew learned to bait hooks and scope out prey with his father and grandfather, developing a taste for the chili cooked up after a successful deer hunt. He had a keen eye, improving his marksmanship at a shooting range and his reflexes at the video consoles of Wal-Mart and the local bowling alley. "He played video games with guns," said his grandfather Doug Golden, standing off a dining room framed by deer antlers and a vast gun collection. "There's no limit to who can play those. You're shooting the enemy, or you're gonna get shot."
      Drew wasn't shy about defending himself: in third grade he pushed a girl who slapped him, and a year later took up karate for a time. He gave up the martial art when no other kids were interested in practicing with him.
      His grandparents Doug and Jackie attested to a softer, kindlier side to Drew. He was a trumpet player in the school band. "He couldn't wait for concerts," says Doug. "He'd get a grin and look straight out to us and give a thumbs up." And many mornings Drew would get dropped off by his parents at their home to chat and sip hot chocolate while he waited for the bus. Just days before the incident at Westside Middle School, Jackie says he was on his best behavior, accompanying her to the hair salon and earning plaudits for his demeanor from the astonished stylists.

     Mitchell Johnson, 13, and Andrew Golden, 11, shoot their classmates and teachers in Jonesboro, Arkansas. Golden asked to be excused from his class, pulled a fire alarm and then ran to join Johnson in a wooded area 100 yards away from the school’s gym. As the students streamed out of the building, Johnson and Golden opened fire and killed four students and a teacher. Ten other children were wounded. The two boys were caught soon after. In their possession were 13 fully loaded firearms, including three semi-automatic rifles, and 200 rounds of ammunition. Their stolen van had a stockpile of supplies, as well as a crossbow and several hunting knives, all of which had been taken from the Golden family’s personal arsenal. Both of the boys had been raised with guns. They belonged to gun clubs, and even participated in practical shooting competitions, which involve firing at moving simulated human targets. Golden had reportedly shot several dogs in preparation for the actual shooting.
      Because of their ages, Johnson and Golden could not be charged as adults in Arkansas. They were both adjudicated as delinquent and sent to reform institutes. They are supposed to be released when they turn 18 due to the fact that state law prohibits adults from being housed with minors, and also those adjudicated as delinquent from being imprisoned. However, Arkansas bought a facility in 1999 that will enable the state to keep the boys in custody until their 21st birthdays. Arkansas changed its laws following the Jonesboro tragedy so that child murderers can be imprisoned past 21. School shootings were highly publicized in the media during the late 1990s, with the supposed epidemic frequently ascribed to violent movies, television, and video games. However, evidence supports the fact that violence against students in school actually went down significantly in the late 1990s, throwing into the question the entire theory.

1995 Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham, English biochemist and sinologist born on 09 Dec 1900. Principal author of Science and Civilization in China. —(060219)
^ 1990 An Wang, founder of Wang Labs.
      Born in Shanghai on 07 February 1920, An Wang immigrated to the US in 1945 and later attended Harvard University, where in 1948 he earned a Ph.D in applied physics and engineering. In 1948, he invented the magnetic memory core, laying the foundation for all computer memory until the invention of the microchip. In 1951, he founded Wang Laboratories, which manufactured desktop calculators and later office computers. Wang was also instrumental in the development of word processing systems. He held about 40 patents in all.
^ 1980 Oscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez [15 Aug 1917–], archbishop of San Salvador, El Salvador's leading human rights activist.
      He is assassinated by a sniper, at 18:30 ( UT) while celebrating mass in a hospital chapel. Born poor, Romero became a carpenter's apprentice and then entered the seminary, completing his theological studies at the Gregorian University in Rome, where he was ordained a priest on 04 April 1942 He was consecrated a bishop on 29 June 1970, as auxiliary of San Salvador. On 15 October 1974 Romero was appointed bishop of Santiago de María in El Salvador. He was appointed archbishop of San Salvador on 03 February 1977, amid growing social and political tension in El Salvador. During his tenure as archbishop, Romero evolved from an apolitical compromise choice for the church to an outspoken voice of the lower class. _ This date is observed every year as the Day of Fasting, Prayer, and Good Works for Missionary Martyrs. —(080322)
1980 Oscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez ,
1976 Bernard L. Montgomery, 88, British general, who defeated Rommel.
1962 Auguste Piccard, born on 28 January 1884, Swiss-born Belgian physicist, mechanic and engineer, famous for exploring the upper stratosphere in his balloon (to 16'916 m in 1932) and the ocean depths in his bathyscaphe suspended from a gasoline-filled “balloon” (down to 3150 m in August 1953).
1956 Hamill, mathematician.
1956 Whittaker, mathematician.
^ 1944: 335 Italian civilians, shot in reprisal by German troops.
      German occupiers shoot more than 300 Italian civilians as a reprisal for an Italian partisan attack on an SS unit. Since the Italian surrender in the summer of 1943, German troops had occupied wider swaths of the peninsula to prevent the Allies from using Italy as a base of operations against German strongholds elsewhere, such as the Balkans. An Allied occupation of Italy would also put into their hands Italian airbases, further threatening German air power. Italian partisans (antifascist guerrilla fighters) aided the Allied battle against the Germans. The Italian Resistance had been fighting underground against the fascist government of Mussolini long before its surrender, and now it fought against German fascism.
      The main weapon of a guerrilla, defined roughly as a member of a small-scale "irregular" fighting force that relies on limited and quick engagements of a conventional fighting force, is sabotage. Aside from killing enemy soldiers, the destruction of communication lines, transportation centers, and supply lines are essential guerrilla tactics. On 23 March 1944, Italian Communist partisans operating in Rome threw a bomb at an SS unit marching on Via Rasella, killing 33 soldiers.
      The very next day, the Germans round up 335 Italian civilians and took them to the Ardeatine caves. They were all shot dead as revenge for the SS soldiers. Of the civilian victims, 253 were Catholic, 70 were Jewish and the remaining 12 were unidentified. Despite such setbacks, the partisans proved extremely effective in aiding the Allies; by the summer of 1944, resistance fighters had immobilized eight of the 26 German divisions in northern Italy. By war's end, Italian guerrillas controlled Venice, Milan, and Genoa, but at considerable cost. All told, the Resistance lost some 50'000 fighters — but won its republic.
     In 1998, for this deed, SS major Karl Hass would be sentenced in 1998 to life in “prison”, in a rest home where he would die at age 92 on 21 April 2004; and, in a separate trial, SS Hauptsturmfuehrer Erich Priebke [born in 1913] would also be sentenced to life in “prison“ (house arrest).. At their trials they argued that they had to follow orders, which came from Hitler and were relayed by the head of the Gestapo in Rome, SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer Herbert Kappler, who was sentenced to life in prison in 1948 and died of cancer 7 months after escaping in 1977..
     Il 23 marzo 1944 in un’azione di guerra a Roma in via Rasella, un gruppo di partigiani dei Gap uccideva 33 soldati del battaglione Bozen e ne feriva 38 facendo scoppiare una carica esplosiva e attaccando la colonna nemica con armi automatiche e il lancio di bombe da mortaioleggere. Accuratamente preparata, l’azione colpiva uno dei battaglioni specializzati in azioni di rappresaglia e faceva seguito a una serie di massacri perpetrati nei mesi precedenti dai tedeschi nelle zone intorno alla capitale ai danni di persone innocenti, spesso donne, vecchi e bambini: 18 vittime a Canale Monterano, 32 a Saturnia, 14 a Blera, 40 a San Martino, 14 a Velletri ecc.
      In seguito all’azione partigiana Hitler comunicò che Roma doveva essere interamente distrutta e tutta la popolazione deportata, ma subito dopo rettificò che per la vendetta sarebbe stato sufficiente radere al suolo l’intero quartiere nel quale si era svolta l’azione. Infine Kesselring e il comandante della piazza di Roma, Kurt Maeltzer, stabilirono le modalità della rappresaglia: dieci italiani per ogni soldato tedesco ucciso. Leccidio avvenne immediatamente e fu affidato al colonnello Herbert Kappler, coadiuvato dal capitano Priebke: il giorno dopo l’azione partigiana, 335 uomini furono uccisi alle fosse Ardeatine, ciascuno con un colpo alla nuca. La maggior parte delle vittime venne prelevata dal carcere di Regina Coeli e dal comando di via Tasso, cinquanta furono scelte e consegnate dal questore fascista Caruso.
more
1921 Marcus C. Stone, British painter born in July 1840. — more with links to images.
^ 1918 César Antonovich Cui, Russian composer of operas, songs, and piano music. He was a music critic and military engineer who, with Aleksandr Borodin [12 Nov 1833 – 27 Feb 1887], Mily Balakirev [02 Jan 1837 – 29 May 1910], Modest Mussorgsky [21 Mar 1839 – 28 Mar 1881], and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov [18 Mar 1844 – 21 Jun 1908], made up the group known as The Five.
      Cui was the son of a French officer, taken prisoner during Napoléon's disastrous campaign of 1812, who remained in Russia after the war; his mother was Lithuanian. Cui began to compose while he was still a boy, imitating the style of Frédéric Chopin [01 Mar 1810 – 17 Oct 1849], and received lessons in composition. But in 1851 he was sent to St. Petersburg, where he entered the school of engineering and, in 1855, the academy of military engineering, becoming a lecturer there in 1857. In 1878 he became a professor of fortification. His students included General M.D. Skobelev [29 Sep 1843 – 07 Jul 1882], a hero of the Russo-Turkish war, and Tsar Nicholas II [18 May 1868 – 16 Jul 1918]. Cui retired with the rank of lieutenant general.
      Cui's friendship with Balakirev and another nationalist composer, Aleksandr Dargomyzhsky [14 Feb 1813 – 17 Jan 1869], developed his musical interests: he began to compose copiously and, although he had no Russian ancestry, became a pugnacious journalistic champion of Russian nationalism. From 1864 to 1877 he was music critic for the St. Peterburgskiye vedomosti, and later he became a successful propagandist of Russian music in Belgium and France, notably with his La Musique en Russie (1881). Cui's own music has little Russian flavor, and of his 10 operas only the first, The Prisoner of the Caucasus (begun 1857, produced 1883); the last, The Captain's Daughter (performed 1911); and the one-act Feast in the Time of the Plague (performed 1901) are on Russian subjects, taken from Aleksandr Pushkin's writings. He turned more readily to French sources, Victor Hugo, Jean Richepin, Alexandre Dumas père, Guy de Maupassant, and Prosper Mérimée; and his only moderately successful operas are based on Heinrich Heine's William Ratcliff (performed 1869) and Maupassant's Mademoiselle Fifi (performed 1903). Cui is at his best in the miniature forms, notably his short piano compositions and his songs.

1916 Fifty persons aboard the French cross-channel ferry Sussex of 1350 tons, on its way to Dieppe, torpedoed by the German submarine UB-29, mistaking it for a minelayer. The Sussex does not sink and manages to limp into the port of Boulogne. No US person is killed, but 25 are among the 30 persons injured. US President Wilson addresses the Congress on 19 April 1916, declaring “that unless the Imperial German Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present method of warfare against passenger and freight carrying vessels this Government can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the Government of the German Empire altogether”. Germany responds on 04 May 1916 with the "Sussex Pledge" to end the sinking of passenger ships, to search merchant ships for contraband and to make provision for passengers and crews before sinking merchant ships. The Germans generally keep their pledge until they announce on 31 January 1917 that unrestricted submarine warfare will resume the next day. On 03 February the US would sever diplomatic relations with Germany and a German U-boat would sink the US liner Housatonic. The US would declare war on Germany on 06 April 1917.
     One of the dead is Enrique Granados, Spanish pianist and composer, born on 27 July 1867, who was returning from the New York City premiere of an opera based on his Goyescas. He was a leader of the movement toward nationalism in late 19th-century Spanish music. Granados made his debut as a pianist at 16. He studied composition in Barcelona under Felipe Pedrell, the father of Spanish nationalism in music. He studied piano in Paris in 1887. Returning to Barcelona in 1889, he established himself as a pianist of the front rank, and his 12 Danzas españolas achieved great popularity. The first of his seven operas, María del Carmen, was produced in 1898. In 1900 Granados founded a short-lived classical-concerts society and his own piano school, which produced a number of distinguished players. His interest in the 18th century is reflected in his tonadillas, songs written “in the ancient style.” He wrote extensively and fluently for the piano, in a somewhat diffuse, Romantic style. His masterpieces, the Goyescas (1911–13), are reflections on the paintings and tapestries of Francisco de Goya [30 Mar 1746 – 16 Apr 1828].
1912 Felipe Angulo político colombiano.
^ 1905 Jules Verne, 77, the founding father of science fiction with H.G. Wells.
      Jules Verne was born in Nantes, France, on 08 February 1828. His stories caught the enterprising spirit of the 19th century, its uncritical fascination about scientific progress and inventions. His works were often written in the form of a travel book, which took the readers on a voyage to the moon in From the Earth to the Moon (1865) or to another direction as in A Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864). Many of Verne's ideas have been hailed as prophetic, for example of , including space travel and television. Among his best-known books are Around the World in Eighty Days (1873) and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. Verne died on 24 March 1905.
     Cet écrivain français, auteur de quelque quatre-vingts romans, fut, au XIXe siècle, un précurseur de la science-fiction. Né à Nantes, il fut destiné par les siens à reprendre l'étude d'avoué de son père. À l'âge de onze ans, ayant acheté l'engagement d'un mousse, il s'embarqua secrètement sur un long courrier en partance pour les Indes. Son père le rattrapa de justesse à Paimbœuf. Remis dans le droit chemin, il fut envoyé à Paris pour faire ses études de droit (1848). Il entreprit dès lors d'écrire clandestinement ses premières œuvres des sonnets et une tragédie en vers. Un de ses principaux mérites est d'être parvenu, grâce à son sens de la documentation, à adapter au roman les conquêtes et les découvertes des savants de son époque, tout en les mettant au service d'une imagination foisonnante, qui, bien souvent, fit de lui un visionnaire. Ainsi, le célèbre Nautilus de Vingt Mille Lieues Sous les Mers préfigure de dix ans les sous-marins de l'ingénieur Laubeuf. Jules Verne devint véritablement célèbre avec la publication, dans les années 1863-1865, de ses trois premiers grands romans : Cinq semaines en ballon, Voyage au centre de la Terre, De la terre à la lune. Durant quarante années, à travers la série des Voyages Extraordinaires, Jules Verne explora le temps et l'espace. Ses romans les plus connus sont : Les enfants du Capitaine Grant (1867), Vingt Mille Lieues Sous les Mers (1869), Le tour du monde en 80 jours (1873),L'île mystérieuse (1874), Michel Strogoff (1876), Un capitaine de quinze ans (1878), Les Tribulations d'un Chinois en Chine (1879), Le Rayon vert (1882), L'Archipel en feu (1884), Robur le conquérant (1886), Deux Ans de vacances (1888), Le Château des Caparthes (1892), Le Superbe Orénoque (1898)

VERNE ONLINE:
  • L'île mystérieuse
  • Le tour du monde en 80 jours
  • Le tour du monde en 80 jours
  • Le tour du monde en 80 jours
  • Cinq semaines en ballon
  • Les forceurs de blocus
  • Robur le Conquérant
  • De la terre à la lune
  • Les enfants du Capitaine Grant
  • Vingt Mille Lieues Sous les Mers
  • Les Révoltés de la "Bounty"
  • Les cinq cents millions de la Begum
  • 1897 Juan Pablo Sanz-García Correa, arquitecto, pintor y tipógrafo ecuatoriano.
    1888 Charles-Théodore Frère “ frère Bey”, French painter specializes in Orientalism, born on 21 June 1814.. MORE ON FRÈRE AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    ^ 1882 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, America's most popular 19th century poet.
          Longfellow was born on 27 February 1807. He was associated with New England all his life, the area was the setting for some of his most popular narrative poems. Longfellow attended Bowdoin College, a classmate of Nathaniel Hawthorne's, and graduated in 1825. After traveling abroad for several years, he became a professor of languages at his alma mater and later at Harvard College in Cambridge. In 1835, he spent time in Heidelberg, Germany, and when he returned he published his romantic novel Hyperion and a collection of poems called Voices of the Night. In an age without television, narrative poetry was a popular form of entertainment, and Longfellow's work swept the nation, especially poems like The Wreck of the Hesperus (1841), which caught the public's imagination. His other popular hits included Evangeline, Hiawatha, and Paul Revere's Ride, which was included in his collection Tales of a Wayside Inn, modeled after Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. In 1854, Longfellow retired from teaching to write full time.
    LONGFELLOW ONLINE:
  • Complete Poetical Works
  • Selected Works.
  • Tales of a Wayside Inn
  • The Courtship of Miles Standish
  • The Courtship of Miles Standish and Other Poems
  • Evangeline
  • Evangeline
  • Kavanagh: A Tale
  • Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea, volume 1volume 2
  • Paul Revere's Ride
  • The Song of Hiawatha
  • The Song of Hiawatha
  • Norse Ballads
  • PAGE IMAGES:
  • The Song of Hiawatha
  • In the Harbor: Ultima Thule
  • Keramos, and Other Poems
  • The Golden Legend
  • Hyperion: A Romance
  • The Courtship of Miles Standish, and Other Poems
  • Aftermath
  • The Building of the Ship, and Other Poems
  • The Poetical Works
  • Twenty Poems
  • Voices of the Night, Ballads and Other Poems

  • translator of Dante's
  • The Divine Comedy
  • The Divine Comedy

    co-translator of Dante's
  • The Divine Comedy
  • The Divine Comedy (also in Italian)
  • 1882 Joe Nichols, in the evening, hit on the head with a 15-kg piece of timber by his father-in-law Robert Flannigan, with whom he had been quarreling about the price of some chairs produced in the chair factory in which they were partners, about two miles from Wells’ Mill, on Nine Mile Creek, in the first district of Blount County, Tennessee.
    1872 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German painter born on 26 March 1794. — LINKS
    1859 James Stark, English painter born on 19 November 1794. — more with links to two images.
    1825 Jean Frédéric Schall, French artist born on 14 March 1752. — more
    ^ 1603 Queen Elizabeth I, 69.
          After forty-four years of rule, Queen Elizabeth I of England dies and King James VI of Scotland ascends to the throne, uniting England, Scotland, and Ireland under a single British monarch.
          On 15 January 1559, two months after the death of her half-sister, Queen Mary I of England, Elizabeth Tudor, the twenty-five-year-old daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, was crowned Queen Elizabeth I at Westminster Abbey in London.
          The two half-sisters, both daughters of Henry VIII, had a stormy relationship during Mary’s five-year reign. Mary, who was brought up as a Catholic, enacted pro-Catholic legislation and made efforts to restore papal supremacy in England. A Protestant rebellion ensued, and Queen Mary imprisoned Elizabeth, a Protestant, in the Tower of London on suspicion of complicity.
          Although Elizabeth suffered several Catholic plots against her after Mary’s death, her ascension to the throne was greeted with general approval by most of England’s lords, who hoped for greater religious tolerance under a Protestant queen. Under the early guidance of Secretary of State Sir William Cecil, Elizabeth repealed Mary’s Catholic legislation, established a permanent Protestant Church of England, and encouraged the Calvinist reformers in Scotland.
          In foreign affairs, Elizabeth practiced a policy of strengthening England’s Protestant allies and dividing her foes. In 1588, Elizabeth’s unabashed hostility toward Spain led to a failed Spanish invasion, and the Spanish Armada, the greatest naval force in the world at the time, was destroyed by storms and a persistent English navy.
          With increasing English domination at sea, Elizabeth encouraged voyages of discovery, such as Sir Francis Drake’s circumnavigation of the world, and Sir Walter Raleigh’s expeditions to the North American coast.
          The long reign of Elizabeth, who became known as the "Virgin Queen" for her reluctance to endanger her authority through marriage, also coincided with the flowering of the English Renaissance, associated with such renowned authors as William Shakespeare.
          By her death in 1603, England had become a major world power in every respect, and Queen Elizabeth I passed into history as one of England’s greatest monarchs.
    1583 Hubert Goltzius, Flemish artist born in 1526.
    1476 (or 24 April 1484, or in 1496) Antonio Vivarini da Murena, Italian painter born in 1415. MORE ON VIVARINI AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1471 Sir Thomas Malory, 55, author (Le Morte d'Arthur)
    0809 Harun al-Rashid caliph (786-809) of the Arabian Nights.
     
    < 23 Mar 25 Mar >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 24 March:

    triplet lambs and mom1999 Triplet lambs, two male, one female, born to the ewe Dolly Finn Dorset [05 Jul 1996 – 14 Feb 2003], the first cloned mammal, and the ram David Welsh Mountain, who are already the parents of Bonnie [13 Apr 1998~]. [photo: the triplets and Dolly >]
    Dolly's triplets now older



    [< the same, some time later]

    1955 Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, play by Tennessee Williams, opens on Broadway
          Tennessee Williams' play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof opens in New York, two days before his 44th birthday. The play would win Williams his second Pulitzer Prize. Williams had been an award-winning playwright since 1945, when his first hit play, The Glass Menagerie, opened, winning the Drama Critics Circle Award. Two years later, he won his first Pulitzer Prize, for A Streetcar Named Desire.
          Williams led a colorful and tragic life. Born in 1911 in Columbia, Mississippi, he was a sickly child terrorized by his violent traveling-salesman father. When he was seven, the family moved to St. Louis, where his father became manager of a shoe company. Persecuted and taunted by his father, he took refuge in reading and writing and in a close relationship with his beloved sister Rose. At 14, he won a prize in a national writing competition and three years later sold a short story to Weird Tales magazine.
          Williams studied at the University of Missouri at Columbia but left to work in his father's shoe warehouse for three years. He later attended Washington University in St. Louis and finally graduated from the University of Iowa at age 27. Sadly, his sister Rose, who suffered severe mental disturbances that Williams blamed on his father's violence, was lobotomized during this time.
          Williams started writing plays during college and continued when he moved to New Orleans in the 1930s, where he changed his name from Thomas to Tennessee. In 1939, he won an award for a small production of his one-act collection American Blues. He worked briefly in Hollywood as a screenwriter and later turned a failed screenplay into The Glass Menagerie. The play launched Williams to critical success, which he maintained until the 1960s, when the critics turned on him. However, he continued writing until his death in 1983, when he choked on a medicine-bottle cap.
    ^ 1954 American Motors Corporation formed by merger.
          Stockholders of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company approve the proposed merger of the two firms. The companies would form the American Motors Corporation (AMC). AMC is recognized as the most successful post-war independent manufacturer of cars. It owed its success in large part to its remarkable president George Romney. Born to Mormon missionary parents on a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico, Romney grew up poor. His grandfather Miles Romney, who had been born in Nauvoo, Illinois, the original site of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, had four wives and sired thirty children. Unlike most of the great figures of the American automotive industry, Romney had little experience actually building cars. He had made his mark as a spokesman and advocate during stints as a lobbyist. His first car-related job was the director position of the Automobile Manufacturers Association.
          He joined the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation in 1948 as the special assistant to then company chairman George Mason. Romney learned the business side of the automobile industry and his exceptional skills as a negotiator propelled him to the upper echelons of the company. By 1953 he was an executive vice-president and a member of the board of directors. A few months after the merger that formed AMC, Goerge Mason, company president, died and the board elected Mason’s protégé, George Romney, to succeed him. As head of AMC, Romney emphasized the independents’ need to avoid direct competition with the Big Three. The company developed the Rambler and Romney coined the term "compact car" to promote it. Romney is also credited with coining the term "gas-guzzling dinosaur" to describe the Big Three’s extravagant 1950s models. AMC recorded profits by 1958, and George Romney was rewarded for his remarkable achievement with name recognition. Still a devout Mormon, Romney used his recognition for social improvement. He led a campaign against the monopoly held by Detroit’s Big Three. Romney argued that no car manufacturer should be allowed to maintain more than 35% market share. He termed his business philosophy "competitive cooperative consumerism" and argued that monopoly "either by labor or by industry, is bad for America." Romney’s views, perhaps ahead of their time, were never fully taken seriously due in part to his tendency to change his stance. His career as a car manufacturer was followed by a political career during which Romney served as governor of Michigan and ran for the Republican nomination for president.
    1952 Quim Monzó, escritor español.
    1948 Chang, mathematician.
    1937 Lloyd Erskine Sandiford, político de Barbados.
    1934 José Antonio Ferrer Benimeli, historiador español.
    1926 , dramaturgo italiano, Premio Nobel de Literatura en 1997.
    ^ 1926 Dario Fo, Italian avant-garde playwright, manager-director, and actor-mime. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1997. A theatrical caricaturist with a flair for social agitation, he often faced government censure.
          Fo's first theatrical experience was collaborating on satirical revues for small cabarets and theatres. He and his wife, the actress Franca Rame, founded the Campagnia Dario Fo–Franca Rame in 1959, and their humorous sketches on the television show “Canzonissima” soon made them popular public personalities. They gradually developed an agitprop theatre of politics, often blasphemous and scatological, but rooted in the tradition of commedia dell'arte and blended with what Fo called “unofficial leftism.”
          In 1968 Fo and Rame founded another acting group, Nuova Scena, with ties to the Italian Communist Party, and in 1970 they started the Collettivo Teatrale La Comune and began to tourfactories, parks, and gymnasiums.
          Fo wrote about 70 plays, coauthoring some of them with Rame. Among his most popular plays are Morte accidentale di un anarchico (1974) and Non si paga, non si paga! (1974). As a performer, Fo is best known for his solo tour de force Mistero Buffo (1973), based on medieval mystery plays but so topical that the shows changed with each audience.
          His later works, some of which were written with Rame, include Tutta casa, letto e chiesa (1978; Adult Orgasm Escapes from the Zoo), Female Parts (1981), Coppia aperta (1983; —Wide Open Even), L'uomo nudo e l'uomo in frak (1985), and Il papa e la strega (1989).
    1902 Thomas E. Dewey, Ohio, Governor of New York (1943-1955); first Catholic US Presidential candidate 1944, 1948 (R). He died on 16 March 1971.
    1897 Wilhelm Reich, Austrian psychologist who died on 03 November 1957.
    1892 Morse, mathematician.
    1886 Edward Weston, US photographer who died on 01 January 1958. — LINKS
    1874 Erich Weisz “Harry Houdini”, in Budapest, magician and escape artist. Author of Miracle Mongers and their Methods: A Complete Exposé, Miracle Mongers and their Methods: A Complete Exposé (1920), A Magician Among the Spirits (1924), The Unmasking of Robert-Houdin (1908). He died on 31 October 1926, from peritonitis following an appendectomy, after he had been unexpectedly struck in the abdomen when boasting of his ability to sustain blows.
    1869 Émile Fabre, French playwright and administrator of the Comédie-Française. He died on 25 September 1955.
    1862 Frank Weston Benson, US Impressionist painter, who died on 15 November 1951. MORE ON BENSON AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1855 Andrew Mellon, US financier, philanthropist and secretary of the treasury who died on 26 August 1937.
    1848 Jules Tannery, French mathematician who died on 11 December 1910.
    1835 Josef Stefan, mathematician.
    ^ 1834 William Morris.
          William Morris would be an English designer, craftsman, poet, and early Socialist whose designs for furniture, fabrics, stained glass, wallpaper, etc., generated the Arts and Crafts Movement in England and revolutionized Victorian taste. He died on 03 October 1896.
         William Morris was born on at Elm House, Walthamstow, London. His family were prosperous merchants. In 1852 he entered Exeter College, Oxford, where he acquired an interest in the Middle Ages and its art. Together with Burne-Jones, he also studied English Gothic, theology, and medieval poetry. After a trip to France to see the splendour of the French Gothic cathedrals, he decided to become an architect. He resumed his studies and wrote for The Oxford and Cambridge Magazine but, like Burne-Jones, at Rossetti's bidding he turned to painting and adopted the beliefs of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
          In 1857, at Oxford, he painted The Defense of Guenevere, the only known canvas to bear his signature. His talents, however, inclined toward the decorative arts, and he designed and created stained glass, wallpaper, rugs, and textiles, often in collaboration with Walter Crane.
          Returning to literature in 1865, he composed a series of poems that met with success, and he translated a number of Icelandic sagas. From 1877 to 1889 he was involved almost exclusively in politics, contributing money, delivering speeches, and writing articles and verses on behalf of various social reform movements. In the latter years of his life, the poet-artist-social reformer again returned to art and literature. Among his varied pursuits he designed printing typefaces and ornaments.
          But William Morris must be considered, first and foremost, an innovator in the industrial arts; in the field of textile design, he was pre-eminent. His art work for books, too, was notable. In a totally different direction, he was universally acclaimed for his efforts as initiator of press reforms. Morris died in Hammersmith, London.
    — William Morris Pre-Raphaelite writer and designer ART LINKSWilliam Morris and His Circle
    Garden of DelightSummer QuinceGuinevere (1858) _ Also known as 'La Belle Iseult'. This is William Morris' only existing oil painting. He abandoned it and it was eventually completed by Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown. The painting shows Jane Burden (who was to marry Morris in 1859) in the guise of King Arthur's consort. She stands before a crumpled bed that alludes to her adulterous love affair with Sir Lancelot. Morris is said to have written on the back of the painting: 'I cannot paint you, but I love you'.
    — MORRIS ONLINE:
  • Art and Socialism
  • Chants for Socialists
  • Hopes and Fears for Art
  • The House of the Wolfings
  • How I Became a Socialist
  • Poems by the Way
  • Signs of Change
  • The Pilgrims of Hope
  • Child Christopher and Goldilind the Fair
  • A Dream of John Ball and a King's Lesson
  • How We Live and How We Might Live
  • The Story of the Glittering Plain, or, The Land of Living Men
  • News from Nowhere
  • News from Nowhere
  • The Well at the World's End
  • The Wood Beyond the World
  • co-translator of::
  • The Story of Gunnlaug the Worm-Tongue and Raven the Skald (PDF)
  • The Story of the Ere-Dwellers (Erybyggja Saga)
  • The Story of the Heath-Slayers (Heitharviga Saga), Of Which Only a Part is Left
  • The Story of the Volsungs (Volsunga Saga), With Excerpts from the Poetic Edda
  • The Story of the Volsungs (Volsunga Saga), With Excerpts from the Poetic Edda
  • The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer now newly imprinted (front page image of artistic edition)
  • ^ 1834 John Wesley Powell, great western explorer and conservationist, near Palmyra, New York.
          The son of a Methodist minister, Powell imbibed his father's theology as a boy. However, he was introduced to an alternative point of view when the elderly naturalist George Crookham taught him basic natural science. For much of his youth, though, Powell had little time to contemplate either God or nature. As the eldest son, he took on much of the backbreaking work necessary to support his seven brothers and sisters on newly cleared farms, first in Wisconsin and then Illinois. When he was 16, Powell struck out on his own.
          In 1852, he began teaching elementary school, which gave him time to improve his own education. During the next seven years, Powell took courses in natural science at Illinois, Wheaton, and Oberlin Colleges. He became a local expert on mollusks, attracting the approval of the Illinois Natural History Society. By the time the Civil War broke out, Illinois natural scientists knew him well. An ardent abolitionist, Powell enlisted in the Union Army shortly after the attack on Fort Sumter. With characteristic discipline and determination, he rose quickly in the ranks and eventually became a major in command of a battery of artillery. During the Battle of Shiloh, Powell was badly wounded and lost his right arm below the elbow. After a few months recuperating, Powell returned to the Union Army and served out the rest of the war with distinction.
          Returning to civilian life, Powell became a science teacher at several Illinois colleges. However, the quiet academic life did not suit him, and he began making a series of western expeditions to explore the geology of the Rocky Mountains. In 1869, Powell led 10 men in four small boats down the Green and Colorado Rivers, becoming the first Anglo to explore the cavernous depths of the Grand Canyon. Regarded as only a serious amateur by some professional scientists, Powell was determined to demonstrate his ability.
          In 1871, he won a government grant to map the Colorado Plateau. His subsequent geological descriptions of that region introduced an entire new branch of geology called geomorphology. By 1876, Powell's theories of the role of stream flows in wearing down mountains and creating river valleys had established him as a nationally recognized geologist. Powell's growing scientific prestige, as well as his uncanny ability to cultivate relationships with important politicians, made him a natural choice as the second director of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in 1881. (The first director, Clarence King, had served less than two years).
          Under Powell's guidance, the USGS became one of the most important federal scientific bureaus of the day. Powell's insistence on putting truth before politics eventually earned him powerful enemies. Some western politicians, eager to exploit the natural resources of the West, objected to Powell's insistence on understanding the natural science of the region before developing it. His enemies finally succeeded in pushing Powell out of the USGS in 1894. He continued his scientific work within the Bureau of American Ethnology, another important scientific agency Powell had nurtured. When he died in 1902, he was widely honored as a man of tremendous and varied talents. A soldier, teacher, explorer, geologist, and anthropologist, Powell played a pivotal role in the settlement and development of the US West.
    1823 Thomas Spencer Baynes, English editor of 9th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica. He died on 31 May 1887.
    1809 Joseph Liouville , mathematician. In 1836 Liouville founded Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées. Liouville's mathematical work was extremely wide ranging, from mathematical physics to astronomy to pure mathematics. He created the fractional calculus, defined differential operators of arbitrary order, that did not have to be an integer, but could be even a complex number. Liouville investigated the general problem of integration of algebraic functions in finite terms. Liouville worked on transcendental numbers, giving as an example the “Liouvillian number” 0.1100010000000000000000010000... where there is a 1 in place n! and 0 elsewhere. With Sturm, he developed the Sturm-Liouville theory which is used in solving integral differential equations. Liouville contributed to differential geometry studying conformal transformations. He proved a major theorem concerning the measure preserving property of Hamiltonian dynamics. The result is of fundamental importance in statistical mechanics and measure theory. Liouville died on 08 September 1882.
    click for photo of bust1809 Mariano José de Larra y Sánchez de Castro, escritor español.
    1767 Jacques-Laurent Agasse, Swiss painter specialized in animals who died on 27 December 1849. . MORE ON AGASSE AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1622 Osias Beert II (or Beet II), Flemish artist who died in 1678.
    1607 Michiel Adriaanzoon de Ruyter [click image for photo of 1677 bust by Verhulst >], great Dutch admiral, whose brilliant naval victories in the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars enabled the United Provinces to maintain a balance of power with England. De Ruyter died on 29 April 1676, from mortal wounds received while fighting the French off Sicily.
    1494 Georgius Agricola, German scholar and scientist known as the "father of mineralogy". He died on 21 November 1555. De Re Metallica (posthumous, 1556) is Agricola's best known work. It is a systematic examination of mining and metallurgy as practiced in the sixteenth-century mining center of Joachimsthal in Czechoslovakia. Agricola was a medical doctor there and observed at first hand the mining operations commonly used as well as the ill effects on miners. Agricola described all mining operations in great detail including prospecting, administration, the use of water power and the transport of ores. He described for the first time the preparation of nitric acid and saltpeter. Illustrated with 292 large woodcut illustrations, De Re Metallica exerted great influence on geology, chemistry, mining technology and metallurgy. It was frequently reprinted and remained a standard work for more than 100 years. Agricola also wrote De natural fossilium (1546) and De peste (1554).— {One would have imagined him better as making advances in agriculture...}{A nadie le hubiera parecido deseable una bebida sin dulce llamada “Agri-Cola”.}
    Kuan Yin^ Kuan Yin Day
    Kuan Shih Yin      Kuan Yin is the compassionate Saviouress of the East. Throughout the Orient altars dedicated to this Mother of Mercy can be found in temples, homes and wayside grottoes and prayers to her Presence and her Flame are incessantly on the lips of devotees as they seek her guidance and succor in every area of life. She is one of Taiwan’s patron protective deities. Her birthday is celebrated in major temples throughout Taiwan.
              Still very much a part of Eastern culture, Kuan Yin has awakened interest in her path and teaching among a growing number of Western devotees who recognize the powerful presence of "the Goddess of Mercy," along with that of the Virgin Mary, as an illuminator and intercessor of the Seventh Age of Aquarius.
              The long history of devotion to Kuan Yin provides insight into the character and example of this Lightbearer who has not only laid down her life for her friends but taken it again and again as intercessor and burdenbearer. For centuries, Kuan Yin has epitomized the great ideal of Mahayana Buddhism in her role as " bodhisattva (Chinese "p'u-sa)--literally "a being of bodhi, or enlightenment," who is destined to become a Buddha but has foregone the bliss of Nirvana with a vow to save all children of God.
              The name Kuan Shih Yin, as she is often called, means literally "the one who regards, looks on, or hears the sounds of the world." According to legend, Kuan Yin was about to enter heaven but paused on the threshold as the cries of the world reached her ears.
              There is still much scholarly debate regarding the origin of devotion to the female bodhisattva Kuan Yin. Kuan Yin is considered to be the feminine form of Avalokitesvara (Sanskrit), the bodhisattva of compassion of Indian Buddhism whose worship was introduced into China in the third century.
              Scholars believe that the Buddhist monk and translator Kumarajiva was the first to refer to the female form of Kuan Yin in his Chinese translation of the Lotus Sutra in 406 A.D. Of the thirty-three appearances of the bodhisattva referred to in his translation, seven are female. (Devoted Chinese and Japanese Buddhists have since come to associate the number thirty-three with Kuan Yin.)
              Although Kuan Yin was still being portrayed as a male as late as the tenth century, with the introduction of Tantric Buddhism into China in the eighth century during the T'ang dynasty, the image of the celestial bodhisattva as a beautiful white-robed goddess was predominant and the devotional cult surrounding her became increasingly popular. By the ninth century there was a statue of Kuan Yin in every Buddhist monastery in China.
              Despite the controversy over the origins of Kuan Yin as a feminine being, the depiction of a bodhisattva as both 'god' and 'goddess' is not inconsistent with Buddhist doctrine. The scriptures explain that a bodhisattva has the power to embody in any form--male, female, child, even animal—depending on the type of being he is seeking to save. As the Lotus Sutra relates, the bodhisattva Kuan Shih Yin, "by resort to a variety of shapes, travels in the world, conveying the beings to salvation."
    lotus          The twelfth-century legend of the Buddhist saint Miao Shan, the Chinese princess who lived in about 700 B.C. and is widely believed to have been Kuan Yin, reinforced the image of the bodhisattva as a female. During the twelfth century Buddhist monks settled on P'u-t'o Shan--the sacred island-mountain in the Chusan Archipelago off the coast of Chekiang where Miao Shan is said to have lived for nine years, healing and saving sailors from shipwreck--and devotion to Kuan Yin spread throughout northern China.
              This picturesque island became the chief center of worship of the compassionate Saviouress; crowds of pilgrims would journey from the remotest places in China and even from Manchuria, Mongolia and Tibet to attend stately services there. At one time there were more than a hundred temples on the island and over one thousand monks. The lore surrounding P'u-t'o island recounts numerous appearances and miracles performed by Kuan Yin, who, it is believed, reveals herself to the faithful in a certain cave on the island.
              In the Pure Land sect of Buddhism, Kuan Yin forms part of a ruling triad that is often depicted in temples and is a popular theme in Buddhist art. In the center is the Buddha of Boundless Light, Amitabha (Chinese, A-mi-t'o Fo; Japanese, Amida). To his right is the bodhisattva of strength or power, Mahasthamaprapta, and to his left is Kuan Yin, personifying his endless mercy.
              In Buddhist theology Kuan Yin is sometimes depicted as the captain of the "Bark of Salvation," guiding souls to Amitabha's Western Paradise, or Pure Land--the land of bliss where souls may be reborn to receive continued instruction toward the goal of enlightenment and perfection. The journey to Pure Land is frequently represented in woodcuts showing boats full of Amitabha's followers under Kuan Yin's captainship.
    Kuan Yin lotus         Amitabha, a beloved figure in the eyes of Buddhists desiring to be reborn in his Western Paradise and to obtain freedom from the wheel of rebirth, is said to be, in a mystical or spiritual sense, the father of Kuan Yin. Legends of the Mahayana School recount that Avalokitesvara was 'born' from a ray of white light which Amitabha emitted from his right eye as he was lost in ecstasy.
              Thus Avalokitesvara, or Kuan Yin, is regarded as the "reflex" of Amitabha—a further emanation or embodiment of "maha karuna (great compassion), the quality which Amitabha himself embodies in the highest sense. Many figures of Kuan Yin can be identified by the presence of a small image of Amitabha in her crown. It is believed that as the merciful redemptress Kuan Yin expresses Amitabha's compassion in a more direct and personal way and prayers to her are answered more quickly.
              The iconography of Kuan Yin depicts her in many forms, each one revealing a unique aspect of her merciful presence. As the sublime Goddess of Mercy whose beauty, grace and compassion have come to represent the ideal of womanhood in the East, she is frequently portrayed as a slender woman in flowing white robes who carries in her left hand a white lotus, symbol of purity. Ornaments may adorn her form, symbolizing her attainment as a bodhisattva, or she may be pictured without them as a sign of her great virtue.
              Kuan Yin's presence is widespread through her images as the "bestower of children" which are found in homes and temples. A great white veil covers her entire form and she may be seated on a lotus. She is often portrayed with a child in her arms, near her feet, or on her knees, or with several children about her. In this role, she is also referred to as the "white-robed honored one." Sometimes to her right and left are her two attendants, Shan-ts’ai Tung-tsi, the "young man of excellent capacities," and Lung-wang Nu, the "daughter of the Dragon-king."
              Kuan Yin is also known as patron bodhisattva of P'u-t'o Shan, mistress of the Southern Sea and patroness of fishermen. As such she is shown crossing the sea seated or standing on a lotus or with her feet on the head of a dragon.
              Like Avalokitesvara she is also depicted with a thousand arms and varying numbers of eyes, hands and heads, sometimes with an eye in the palm of each hand, and is commonly called "the thousand-arms, thousand-eyes" bodhisattva. In this form she represents the omnipresent mother, looking in all directions simultaneously, sensing the afflictions of humanity and extending her many arms to alleviate them with infinite expressions of her mercy.
              Symbols characteristically associated with Kuan Yin are a willow branch, with which she sprinkles the divine nectar of life; a precious vase symbolizing the nectar of compassion and wisdom, the hallmarks of a bodhisattva; a dove, representing fecundity; a book or scroll of prayers which she holds in her hand, representing the dharma (teaching) of the Buddha or the sutra (Buddhist text) which Miao Shan is said to have constantly recited; and a rosary adorning her neck with which she calls upon the Buddhas for succor.
     lotus         Images of Avalokitesvara often show him holding a rosary; descriptions of his birth say he was born with a white crystal rosary in his right hand and a white lotus in his left. It is taught that the beads represent all living beings and the turning of the beads symbolizes that Avalokitesvara is leading them out of their state of misery and repeated rounds of rebirth into nirvana.
    Kuan Yin          Today Kuan Yin is worshipped by Taoists as well as Mahayana Buddhists--especially in Taiwan, Japan, Korea and once again in her homeland of China, where the practice of Buddhism had been suppressed by the Communists during the Cultural Revolution (1966-69). She is the protectress of women, sailors, merchants, craftsmen, and those under criminal prosecution, and is invoked particularly by those desiring progeny. Beloved as a mother figure and divine mediatrix who is very close to the daily affairs of her devotees, Kuan Yin's role as Buddhist Madonna has been compared to that of Mary the mother of Jesus in the West.
              There is an implicit trust in Kuan Yin's saving grace and healing powers. Many believe that even the simple recitation of her name will bring her instantly to the scene. One of the most famous texts associated with the bodhisattva, the ancient Lotus Sutra whose twenty-fifth chapter, dedicated to Kuan Yin, is known as the "Kuan Yin sutra," describes thirteen cases of impending disaster--from shipwreck to fire, imprisonment, robbers, demons, fatal poisons and karmic woes--in which the devotee will be rescued if his thoughts dwell on the power of Kuan Yin. The text is recited many times daily by those who wish to receive the benefits it promises.
              Devotees also invoke the bodhisattva's power and merciful intercession with the mantra OM MANI PADME HUM-- "Hail to the jewel in the lotus!" or, as it has also been interpreted, "Hail to Avalokitesvara, who is the jewel in the heart of the lotus of the devotee's heart!" Throughout Tibet and Ladakh, Buddhists have inscribed OM MANI PADME HUM on flat prayer stones called "mani-stones" as votive offerings in praise of Avalokitesvara. Thousands of these stones have been used to build mani-walls that line the roads entering villages and monasteries.
              It is believed that Kuan Yin frequently appears in the sky or on the waves to save those who call upon her when in danger. Personal stories can be heard in Taiwan, for instance, from those who report that during World War II when the United States bombed the Japanese-occupied Taiwan, she appeared in the sky as a young maiden, catching the bombs and covering them with her white garments so they would not explode.
    lotus          Thus altars dedicated to the Goddess of Mercy are found everywhere--shops, restaurants, even taxicab dashboards. In the home she is worshipped with the traditional "pai pai," a prayer ritual using incense, as well as the use of prayer charts--sheets of paper designed with pictures of Kuan Yin, lotus flowers, or pagodas and outlined with hundreds of little circles. With each set of prayers recited or sutras read in a novena for a relative, friend, or oneself, another circle is filled in. This chart has been described as a "Ship of Salvation" whereby departed souls are saved from the dangers of hell and the faithful safely conveyed to Amitabha's heaven. In addition to elaborate services with litanies and prayers, devotion to Kuan Yin is expressed in the popular literature of the people in poems and hymns of praise.
              Devout followers of Kuan Yin may frequent local temples and make pilgrimages to larger temples on important occasions or when they are burdened with a special problem. The three yearly festivals held in her honor are on the nineteenth day of the second month (celebrated as her birthday), of the sixth month, and of the ninth month based on the Chinese lunar calendar.
              In the tradition of the Great White Brotherhood Kuan Yin is known as the Ascended Lady Master who bears the office and title of "Goddess of Mercy" because she ensouls the God qualities of the law of mercy, compassion and forgiveness. She had numerous embodiments prior to her ascension thousands of years ago and has taken the vow of the bodhisattva to teach the unascended children of God how to balance their karma and fulfill their divine plan by loving service to life and the application of the violet flame through the science of the spoken Word.
              Kuan Yin preceded the Ascended Master Saint Germain as Chohan (Lord) of the Seventh Ray of Freedom, Transmutation, Mercy and Justice and she is one of seven Ascended Masters who serve on the Karmic Board, a council of justice that mediates the karma of earth's evolutions--dispensing opportunity, mercy and the true and righteous judgments of the Lord to each lifestream on earth. She is hierarch of the etheric Temple of Mercy over Peking, China, where she focuses the light of the Divine Mother on behalf of the children of the ancient land of China, the souls of humanity, and the sons and daughters of God.
    Holidays Laos : Army Day US : Agriculture Day
    Santos Agapito, Timoteo, Dionisio, Rómulo, Segundo y Simeón.
    Easter Sunday in 1940 (and no other year, at least from 1875 to 2124).

    click click

    Thought for the day:
    On 24 March 1881 US statesman Henry Clay wrote: “All religions united with government are more or less inimical to liberty. All separated from government are compatible with liberty.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4mar/h4mar24.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4mar/h4mar24.html
    http://www.geocities.com/quermaz/history/h4mar/h4mar24.html
    updated Saturday 22-Mar-2008 19:11 UT
    principal updates:
    v.7.21 Saturday 31-Mar-2007 15:09 UT
    v.6.21 Monday 27-Mar-2006 21:36 UT
    Friday 12-Aug-2005 14:08 UT
    Thursday 22-Apr-2004 16:23 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site