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Events, deaths, births,
of MARCH 22
International Day of the Seal
Gastroenterology Nurses' Day

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• US recognizes Russian government... • Teapot Dome trial... • Naval hero dies in duel... • The Arab League... • Studebaker Avanti... • Equal Rights amendment... • Jamestown massacre... • Louis L'Amour is born... • Loyalty checks for US federal employees... • Pre~school teachers indicted... • Jack London asks for payment advice... • La République Helvétique... • ENIAC pioneers quit... • Novell buys WordPerfect and Quattro Pro... • Intel ships Pentium processors... • Change of US commanders in Vietnam... • US provided war gas to South Vietnam... • Improving the lot of mine workers... • Stamp Act irks colonies… • Inadequate UK offer to Gandhi to support war... • Rwanda's President resigns...
^  On a 22 March:
2008 Magdi Allam [22 Apr 1952~], Egyptian-born Italian journalist and writer, non-practicing Muslim, critic of Islamic fanaticism and supporter of Israel, is among seven adults baptized by Pope Benedict XVI.[16 Apr 1927~] during the Easter Vigil. —(080323)
2003 The commanders and some 1500 soldiers of the Iraqi 51st division, which had 8000 soldiers and 200 tanks, surrenders to British and US Marines attacking Basra. The rest breaks up and disappears, mostly unarmed.
B'ZeLeM2001 human rights information center
      The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories B'Tselem publishes Tacit Consent, a report on settler violence against Palestinians and the lack of law enforcement by Israeli authorities. // View SummaryLaw Enforcement Statistics — Download the Report:   448 KB Word 97 format    733 KB Zipped RTF format
2001 El presidente macedonio, Boris Trajkovski, anuncia el objetivo de su Gobierno de "neutralizar y eliminar a los extremistas albaneses" que, semanas atrás, habían iniciado una ofensiva contra el ejército del país y amenazaban con desatar un nuevo conflicto bélico en los Balcanes.
2000 Some 1100 women denied jobs with the now-defunct US Information Agency and its broadcast branch, the Voice of America, won $508 million from the government in the largest-ever settlement of a federal sex discrimination case.
^ 2000 Rwanda's president resigns.
    It is only a few days after he accused parliament and a newly sworn-in Cabinet of disobedience and failing to respect his choice for ministers. President Pasteur Bizimungu, 49, a Hutu, was embroiled in conflict with the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front - a former rebel group that stopped the 1994 genocide of more than 500'000 people, and now a major political power — over corruption and the prosecution of some ministers suspected of graft and mismanagement. "From today, March 23, 2000, I resign from the post of President of the Republic of Rwanda," Bizimungu said in a letter to the president of the Supreme Court. Although former RPF rebel leader Maj. Gen. Paul Kagame, a Tutsi who is both vice president and minister of defense, is the real power in Rwanda, Bizimungu's presidency was significant because of Rwanda's majority Hutu population. Government officials said National Assembly speaker Vincent Biruta will take over as interim president until the 18-member Cabinet and the 70-member parliament decide on the next president.
1999 El secretario general de la OTAN, Javier Solana Madariaga, recibe plenos poderes de la Alianza para intervenir militarmente en Belgrado si el presidente serbio Slobodan Milosevic rechaza el plan de paz de Rambouillet.
1998 La provincia serbia de Kosovo celebra elecciones de forma no autorizada, con una presencia masiva de votantes (85%). Obtiene la victoria la independentista Liga Democrática Kosovar (LDK), liderada por Ibrahim Rugova.
1997 El Parlamento polaco aprueba por mayoría la primera Constitución democrática desde que el país inició su proceso de transformaciones políticas y económicas hace siete años.
1996 Schwab starts its online stock trading system, eSchwab.
1994 Novell buys WordPerfect and Quattro Pro.
      In a belated attempt to battle the popularity of Microsoft's word processing and spreadsheet suite Microsoft Office, software company Novell purchased WordPerfect Corporation, makers of the classic word processing program, and Borland International's spreadsheet business. The previous year, WordPerfect had been the fourth largest PC software supplier. Although the industry seemed optimistic about the purchase, ultimately the strategy failed. The WordPerfect suite declined in popularity, holding only 20% of the office suit market in 1996, and in January 1996, Corel bought WordPerfect Corporation from Novell.
1993 El juez del Tribunal Supremo español Marino Barbero recibe el informe de unos peritos de Hacienda referido al escándalo Filesa, en el que se afirma que esta empresa recibió más de mil millones por informes inexistentes y que al parecer realizó pagos para financiar al PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español).
1993 Intel ships Pentium processors.
      Intel begins shipping production versions of the Pentium processor, both faster and cheaper than the 486 chip introduced in 1989. Computer manufacturers began offering Pentium-based computers later that spring. In November 1994, scientists discovered a bug in certain Pentium chips that could result in computational errors. The computer industry criticized Intel for responding slowly to the problem, and eventually the company agreed to replace all faulty chips.
1990 Anchorage jury finds former tanker captain Joseph Hazelwood innocent of three major charges in connection with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, but convicts him of a minor charge of negligent discharge of oil.
1989 Más de cien mil personas abandonan Beirut, ciudad sometida a continuos bombardeos por parte del Ejército sirio y sus aliados de las facciones musulmanas drusas, en lucha con las fuerzas cristianas del general Michel Aoun.
1987 A garbage barge, carrying 32'000 tons of garbage, leaves Islip, N.Y., on a six-month journey in search of a place to unload. The barge would be turned away by several states and three countries until space is found back in Islip.
1984 Se restablece el estado de emergencia en Chile como consecuencia de los disturbios populares.
^ 1984 Teachers are indicted at the McMartin Pre-School.
      Seven teachers at the McMartin Pre-School in Manhattan Beach, California, are indicted by the Los Angeles County grand jury after hearing testimony from 18 children. Included among the charged are Peggy McMartin Buckey, the head of the school, and her son, Ray Buckey. Seven years and millions of dollars later, the case against the teachers came to a close with no proven evidence of wrongdoing and no convictions. The McMartin Pre-School debacle began on 12 August 1983, when Judy Johnson reported to the police that she believed her two-and-a-half-year-old son had been molested at the McMartin Pre-School. The first major blunder occurred less than a month into the investigation: On 08 September, the Manhattan Beach Police Department sent out a form letter to more than 200 families, alerting them of an investigation into the allegations of child molestation and naming Ray Buckey as a suspect. The letter set off a wave of hysteria in the community. Compounding the problem, virtually every child who attended the school was sent to the Children’s Institute International (CII), an organization that claimed it could get children to reveal abuse even when they didn’t want to talk about it.
      Unfortunately, CII was also capable of easily manipulating children to reveal abuse when it had never actually happened. The allegations that CII produced grew more bizarre every day. They reported that the children had been taken to a cemetery where dead bodies were dug up and hacked to pieces. The local Catholic Church invited an expert on satanic cults to talk to the congregation in the wake of the allegations. Of course, there weren’t any witnesses who could corroborate these wild allegations even though the school often had visitors and guests. The truth or falsity of the allegations mattered little to the community at large. The McMartin Pre-School was burned down in an arson attack, and seven other local pre-schools closed down as people who worked with children began to fear that they would be accused next. Unfortunately for other child-care workers around the nation, the abuse scare of the early 1990s found many victims. More recent research has demonstrated that questioning techniques of children can be easily manipulated so that a child will give the answer that the questioner desires, making the truth more difficult to uncover.
1983 Chaim Herzog elected Israeli (ceremonial) president — Es nombrado presidente de Israel el laborista Haim Herzog.
1981 US first class postage raised to 18 cents from 15 cents
1979 Israeli parliament approves peace treaty with Egypt
1977 Indira Gandhi resigns as PM of India
^ 1972 Equal Rights Amendment is passed by US Congress.
      The Twenty-seventh Amendment to the US Constitution, also known as the Equal Rights Amendment, is passed by the US Senate and sent to the states for ratification.
      First proposed by the National Woman's political party in 1923, the Equal Rights Amendment would provide for the legal equality of the sexes and prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex. Over four decades after it was first proposed, the revival of feminism in the late 1960s and early 1970s led to the introduction of the amendment into Congress.
      Under the leadership of US Representative Bella Abzug of New York and feminists Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem, it won the requisite two-thirds vote from the US House in October 1971. The amendment was approved by the US Senate in March 1972. Hawaii was the first state to ratify the Twenty-seventh Amendment, followed by some thirty other states within a year of its congressional approval.
      However, during the mid-1970s, a conservative backlash against feminism eroded support for the Equal Rights Amendment, which ultimately failed to achieve ratification, even though the deadline was extended to 30 June 1982. It fell three states short of the 38 needed for approval.
      Nonetheless, the federal government and all states have subsequently passed widespread legislation protecting the legal rights of women, even though equality between men and women, with the exception of the equal right to vote, is not protected by the US Constitution. [“Vive la différence!”?]
      The proposed Equal Rights Amendment, in its most recent form, reads, "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex."
1968 Inicio del movimiento que conduciría al " mayo francés", con manifestaciones, huelgas y ocupaciones.
1968 US commander in Vietnam is replaced.
     US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces the appointment of Gen. William Westmoreland as Army Chief of Staff; Gen. Creighton Abrams replaced him as commander of US forces in Vietnam. Westmoreland had first assumed command of US Military Assistance Command Vietnam in June 1964, and in that capacity was in charge of all American military forces in Vietnam. One of the war's most controversial figures, General Westmoreland was given many honors when the fighting was going well, but when the war turned sour, many Americans blamed him for problems in Vietnam. Negative feeling about Westmoreland grew particularly strong following the Tet Offensive of 1968. As Westmoreland's successor, Abrams faced the difficult task of implementing the Vietnamization program instituted by the Nixon administration. This included the gradual reduction of American forces in Vietnam while attempting to increase the combat capabilities of the South Vietnamese armed forces.
^ 1965 Confirmed: US gave gas to South Vietnam for war.
      The State Department acknowledges that the United States had supplied the South Vietnamese armed forces with a "non-lethal gas which disables temporarily" for use "in tactical situations in which the Viet Cong intermingle with or take refuge among non-combatants, rather than use artillery or aerial bombardment." This announcement triggered a storm of criticism worldwide. The North Vietnamese and the Soviets loudly protested the introduction of "poison gas" into the war. Secretary of State Dean Rusk insisted at a news conference on 24 March that the United States was "not embarking upon gas warfare," but was merely employing "a gas which has been commonly adopted by the police forces of the world as riot-control agents."
First sketch of Avanti car1961 Idea for Avanti car is sketched.
     Iindustrial designer Raymond Loewy made this sketch of a futuristic sports car at the request of Sherwood Egbert, the recently appointed president of the ailing Studebaker Corporation. Egbert charged Loewy to design a new car bold enough to capture the popular imagination and boost the company's sagging fortunes. Loewy and his team of designers produced a prototype in record time, and the Avanti debuted in the spring of 1962 to rave reviews.
^ 1957 Indian National Calendar starts: today is Saka Era 1879, Caitra 1.
     Alongside the Gregorian calendar, India puts into effect its National Calendar, a formalized lunisolar calendar in which leap years coincide with those of the Gregorian calendar. However, the initial epoch is the Saka Era, a traditional epoch of Indian chronology. Months are named after the traditional Indian months and are offset from the beginning of Gregorian months.
      Years are counted from the Saka Era; 1 Saka is considered to begin with the vernal equinox of 79 AD, which is supposedly the date on which Kaniska became king and established the Saka era. Kaniska was the greatest king of the Kushan dynasty that ruled over the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, and possibly regions north of Kashmir in Central Asia. He is, however, chiefly remembered as a great patron of Buddhism. .
       Normal years have 365 days; leap years have 366. In a leap year, an intercalary day is added to the end of Caitra. A leap year is one which starts during a Gregorian year (Saka + 78) which is a leap year.
Indian Month Days  Correlation of Indian   with Gregorian
1. Caitra 30* Caitra 1 March 22*
2. Vaisakha 31 Vaisakha 1 April 21
3. Jyaistha 31 Jyaistha 1 May 22
4. Asadha 31 Asadha 1 June 22
5. Sravana 31 Sravana 1 July 23
6. Bhadra 31 Bhadra 1 August 23
7. Asvina 30 Asvina 1 September 23 
8. Kartika 30 Kartika 1 October 23
9. Agrahayana  30 Agrahayana 1 November 22
10. Pausa 30 Pausa 1 December 22
11. Magha 30 Magha 1 January 21
12. Phalguna 30 Phalguna 1 February 20
* In a leap year, Caitra has 31 days and Caitra 1 coincides with March 21.
^ 1947 Truman orders loyalty checks of US federal employees.
      In response to public fears and Congressional investigations into communism in the United States, President Harry S. Truman issues an executive decree establishing a sweeping loyalty investigation of federal employees. As the Cold War began to develop after World War II, fears concerning communist activity in the United States, particularly in the federal government, increased. Congress had already launched investigations of communist influence in Hollywood, and laws banning communists from teaching positions were being instituted in several states. Of most concern to the Truman administration, however, were persistent charges that Communists were operating in federal offices.
      In response to these fears and concerns, Truman issued an executive order on 21 March 1947, which set up a program to check the loyalty of federal employees. In announcing his order, Truman indicated that he expected all federal workers to demonstrate "complete and unswerving loyalty" the United States. Anything less, he declared, "constitutes a threat to our democratic processes." The basic elements of Truman's order established the framework for a wide-ranging and powerful government apparatus to perform loyalty checks. Loyalty boards were to be set up in every department and agency of the federal government. Using lists of "totalitarian, fascist, communist, or subversive" organizations provided by the attorney general, and relying on investigations by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, these boards were to review every employee. If there existed "reasonable grounds" to doubt an employee's loyalty, he or she would be dismissed. A Loyalty Review Board was set up under the Civil Service Commission to deal with employees' appeals.
      Truman's loyalty program resulted in the discovery of only a few employees whose loyalty could be "reasonably" doubted. Nevertheless, for a time his order did quiet some of the criticism that his administration was "soft" on communism. Matters changed dramatically in 1949-1950. The Soviets developed an atomic bomb, China fell to the communists, and Senator Joseph McCarthy made the famous speech in which he declared that there were over 200 "known Communists" in the Department of State. Once again, charges were leveled that the Truman administration was "coddling" communists, and in response, the Red Scare went into full swing.
1946 The British mandate in Transjordan came to an end. Jordan becomes independent.
1946 first US rocket to leave the Earth's atmosphere (80 km up)
1946 ENIAC computer pioneers quit over patent issues.
      J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly left the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School, where they had developed ENIAC, the first digital computer. Their abrupt departure resulted from haggles over intellectual property rights to ENIAC. The Moore School's new head of research, Irven Travis, had requested that all engineers relinquish patent claims to equipment developed at the school. Eckert and Mauchly, who had worked on ENIAC since 1943, refused to sign and subsequently left the school. The two then proceeded to develop UNIVAC, the first general purpose business computer. As a result of the firings, the University of Pennsylvania lost its leading role in the development of computer science: In the future, MIT, Carnegie-Melon, Stanford, and the University of California at Berkeley assumed the lead.
1945 Constituída la Liga de los Estados Arabes, en El Cairo, tras una Conferencia en la que se redactó el llamado Pacto de la Liga Árabe, que firmaron Arabia Saudita, Egipto, Irak, Transjordania (actual Jordania), Líbano, Siria y Yemen.
^ 1942 UK wants Gandhi's support for war, but offers nothing in return.
      Sir Stanford Cripps, British statesman, arrives in India for talks with Mohandas Gandhi on Indian independence, in what will become known as the Cripps Mission. Cripps was a gifted student with a background in such diverse disciplines as chemistry and law. Always of weak health, he was deemed unfit for military service during World War I; instead, he worked in a government factory. After the war, Cripps was made a King's Counsel (1927). Shortly thereafter, he was knighted, and in 1931 was elected to Parliament as a Labour Party member for Bristol East. Cripps' politics were left of even the Labour Party, and when he advocated a united front with the Communists in 1938 against a growing European fascism, he was expelled from the party.
      Once World War II erupted, Cripps was made ambassador to the Soviet Union. In 1942, he joined the War Cabinet and ventured to India to begin discussing two pressing issues: Japan's threat to India, and India's independence from Britain. The first meetings of the Cripps Mission took place on March 22, 1942. The first item on the agenda was India's defense against a growing Japanese empire. Cripps wanted to rally the Indian National Congress behind the cause.
      The leader of the Congress was Mohandas K. Gandhi. Nicknamed Mahatma, the "Great-Souled," Gandhi was at the center of India's quest for independence from British colonial rule. His use of nonviolent protest both in South Africa, where he practiced law, and in India made him a model and icon for later social-protest movements. Gandhi deemed the negotiations made with the British government through the Cripps Mission unsatisfactory. It did not guarantee Indian independence--never mind the immediate autonomy that the Congress demanded--and threatened to "divide and keep conquered" by playing Hindu Indians against Muslim Indians. Consequently, though Gandhi hated fascism, he could not promise unqualified Indian support of the British during the war. The Cripps Mission failed; Cripps returned to Britain and was eventually transferred to the Ministry of Aircraft Production. Gandhi was arrested as a "threat" to Indian security. He was interned for two years before health issues forced his release.
1933 During Prohibition, US President Roosevelt signs a measure to make wine and beer containing up to 3.2% alcohol legal.
^ 1930 Oil baron on trial in Teapot Dome scandal
      In Washington DC, Edward L. Doheny of the Pan-American Petroleum and Transport Company goes on trial for bribing former Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall to obtain leases to valuable naval oil reserves.
      As a member of President Warren G. Harding’s corruption-ridden cabinet in the early 1920s, Hall accepted a $100'000 interest-free "loan" from Doheny, who wanted the secretary of the interior to grant his firm a valuable oil lease in the Elk Hills naval oil reserve in California. The site, along with the Teapot Dome naval oil reserve in Wyoming, had been previously transferred to the department of the interior from the navy on the urging of Fall, who evidently realized the personal gains he could achieve by leasing the land to private corporations.
      In October 1923, the Senate Public Lands Committee launched an investigation that revealed not only the $100,000 bribe that Fall received from Doheny, but also that Harry Sinclair, president of Mammoth Oil, had given Doheny some $300'000 in government bonds and cash in exchange for use of the Teapot Dome oil reserve in Wyoming. In 1927, the oil fields were restored to the US government by a Supreme Court decision, and, in 1929, Fall was convicted of accepting a bribe while in office and sentenced to one year in prison and a fine of $100'000. He was the first individual to ever be convicted of a crime committed while serving as a presidential cabinet member. Doheny escaped conviction, but Sinclair was imprisoned for contempt of Congress and jury tampering.
1929 US Coast Guard vessel sinks Canadian schooner suspected of carrying liquor.
1928 España se reincorpora a la Sociedad de Naciones.
1919 Proclamación de la República soviética de Hungría.
^ 1917 US recognizes new Russian government
      One week after socialist revolutionaries forced Russian Czar Nicholas II to abdicate, the United States becomes the first government in the world to recognize Russia’s provincial government.
      In early March, the Russian army garrison at Petrograd had joined with striking workers in demanding the overthrow of the czarist government. After Nicholas’s abdication, a provisional government composed mainly of moderates was established, and the Soviet--a coalition of workers’ and soldiers’ committees--called for an end to violent revolutionary activity.
      Meanwhile, Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik revolutionary party, left his exile in Switzerland and crossed German enemy lines to arrive at Petrograd on 16 April 1917. The Bolshevik Party, founded in 1903, was a militant group of professional revolutionaries who sought to overthrow the czarist government of Russia and set up a Marxist government in its place.
      On 06 November 1917 (Gregorian calendar), the Bolsheviks seized control of the Russian state in the October (Julian calendar) Revolution, and Lenin became virtual dictator of all areas controlled by his revolutionaries. The US government declined to recognize the new Bolshevik government of Russia, and soon joined with British, France, and other former World War I allies of Russia in providing aid to Russia’s counterrevolutionary forces.
      In March 1918, Russia made a separate peace with Germany, and, one month later, the first British and French troops landed at Russia’s port on the Sea of Japan to oppose Lenin’s Red Guards. In May, British troops landed in northwestern Russia, and the North Russia Expeditionary Force was soon joined by French, Italian, and Serbian troops.
      On 11 September 1918, over four thousand US troops arrived in northwestern Russia to join the opposition to the Bolsheviks. When the Allied efforts to oppose the Bolsheviks were finally called off in 1920, some two hundred men from the US had been killed as a result of their participation in the Russian Civil War.
Jack London ^ 1913 Jack London writes authors asking for payment advice.
      Author Jack London, 37, writes letters to H.G. Wells, George Bernard Shaw, and Winston Churchill, asking how much they are paid for their writing.
      Born John Griffith Chaney, on 12 January 1876 in San Francisco, he was the child of an unmarried mother who had come from a once wealthy family that had fallen on hard times. It is believed that his father was William Chaney, an itinerant journalist and lawyer whose main claim to fame was his role in popularizing the American study of astrology. However, Jack took the name of John London, a partially disabled Civil War veteran his mother married in 1876, the year Jack was born. Growing up in poverty, London nonetheless had a colorful adolescence filled with adventure and excitement.
      From an early age, London struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller. He also spent time as a hobo, riding trains. During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers and later spent a month in jail for vagrancy. After his prison term, the 17-year-old London resolved to further his education. He completed an entire high school equivalency course in one year and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. He dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush in the Alaskan Klondike. While in Alaska, London began writing stories about the region. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in Northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
      Before he reached the age of 19, London sailed the Pacific on a whaling boat, hoboed around the countryside, and joined Kelly's Army of unemployed protestors against American economic inequality. When he was 19, he crammed a four-year high school course into one year of intensive studies and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley. He quit college after only one year to join the Klondike gold rush, but remained a voracious reader and student throughout his life.
      Although his lasting claim to fame came from his stories of the Alaskan gold frontier, London only spent a brief time in the Klondike in the winter of 1897 searching for his fortune. Like most gold seekers, London's prospecting efforts failed. However, he returned to California with a trove of stories and tall tales that eventually proved even more valuable. London published his first stories of the Alaskan frontier in 1899, and he eventually produced over 50 volumes of short stories, novels, and political essays. His 1903 novel about a domestic dog who joins an Alaskan wolf pack, The Call of the Wild, brought him lasting fame and reflected his beliefs in Social Darwinism. Interestingly, despite his identification with rugged individualism and fierce competition, London was a committed socialist and supporter of the American labor movement. Although his writing was lucrative, London spent piles of money on an enormous house and ranching operation in California; to pay for these, he wrote throughout his life. Plagued by illnesses from an early age, London developed a kidney disease of unknown origin and died on 22 November 1916 at only 40 years old. Recent scholarship has discredited claims made by earlier biographers that London was an alcoholic womanizer who took his own life.
      Jack London's father, an astrologer surnamed Chaney, abandoned the family, and his unwed mother, a spiritualist and music teacher, married a Mr. London, whose last name. Jack assumed. From the age of 14, London dropped out of school and struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller.
      During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers. He was jailed for vagrancy for a month, during which time he decided to go to college. The 17-year-old London completed a high school equivalency course and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. However, he dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush.
      While in the Klondike, London began submitting stories to magazines. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. He sailed a ketch to the South Pacific, telling of his adventures in The Cruise of the Snark (1911). During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
     The optimism and energy with which he attacked his task are best conveyed in his autobiographical novel Martin Eden (1909), perhaps his most enduring work. He wrote two other autobiographical novels of considerable interest: The Road (1907) and John Barleycorn (1913).
     Although Jack London became the highest-paid writer in the United States, his earnings never matched his expenditures, so that his hastily written output is of uneven quality. His Alaskan stories The Call of the Wild (1903), White Fang (1906), and Burning Daylight (1910), in which he dramatized in turn atavism, adaptability, and the appeal of the wilderness, are outstanding. Other important works are The Sea-Wolf (1904), which features a Nietzschean superman hero, and The Iron Heel (1907), a fantasy of the future that is a terrifying anticipation of fascism.
  • The Acorn-Planter (1916) A play about the Nishinam tribe and their encounter with explorers.
  • Adventure
  • Before Adam (1907) Modern narrator dreams visit to a prehistoric community.
  • Burning Daylight (1910) Klondike Goldrush, corruption from sudden wealth.
  • The Call of the Wild (1903) Sled dog's journey of transformation. [summary]
  • Children of the Frost (1902) Klondike stories, including The Law of Life and Nam-Bok, the Liar.
  • The Cruise of the Snark
  • Dutch Courage and Other Stories (1922) Early stories published posthumously.
  • The Faith of Men and Other Stories (1904) from the north, including The story of Jees Uck and The One Thousand Dozen.
  • The Game (1905) About boxing
  • The God of His Fathers: Tales of the Klondyke (1901), including The Scorn of Women and A Daughter of the Aurora.
  • The House of Pride and Other Tales of Hawaii 1912), including Koloau the Leper and The Sheriff of Kona.
  • The Human Drift (1917) Stories like Small-Boat Sailing, essays such as The Human Drift, etc.
  • The Iron Heel Futuristic: fascist tyranny and socialist revolution.
  • Island Tales
  • Jerry of the Islands (1917)
  • John Barleycorn autobiographical nonfiction dealing with the debilitating effects of alcohol.
  • his journalism Non-fiction newspaper and magazine articles.
  • Lost Face (1910) Stories, including To Build a Fire.
  • Love of Life, and Other Stories (1907) Stories, including Brown Wolf and The Story of Keesh.
  • Martin Eden (1913) Seaman pursues dreams of education and literary fame.
  • Michael, Brother of Jerry (1917) A dog story.
  • Moon-Face, and Other Stories (1906) including All Gold Canyon and Planchette
  • The Mutiny of the Elsinore
  • The Night-Born (1913) Stories including War, The Mexican, and To Kill a Man.
  • On the Makaloa Mat (1919) Best Hawaii stories, including Shin Bones and The Water Baby.
  • The People of the Abyss His nonfiction observations of the slums of London.
  • The Red One (1918) Title novella, and stories.
  • Revolution, and Other Essays (1909) and stories, socialist.
  • The Road Nonfiction, his days as a hobo
  • The Sea-Wolf (1904) Voyages of a ship with a ruthless skipper.
  • Selected Works
  • Smoke Bellew (1912)
  • A Son of the Sun (1912) South Pacific stories.
  • The Son of the Wolf (1900) Klondike stories, including The White Silence.
  • South Sea Tales (1911), including Mauki and The Terrible Solomans.
  • The Star Rover (1915) Great reincarnation novel.
  • The Strength of the Strong (1914) Stories including The Dream of Debs, South of the Slot, and The Unparalleled Invasion.
  • Tales of the Fish Patrol (1905) based on his youthful experiences, including A Raid on the Oyster Pirates.
  • The Turtles of Tasman (1916) Stories, including Told in the Drooling Ward.
  • The Valley of the Moon (1913)
  • War of the Classes Nonfiction, mainly his socialist speeches
  • When God Laughs, and Other Stories (1911), including The Apostate, Just Meat, A Piece of Steak, and Chinago.
  • White Fang (1906) Taming of a wild dog.
  • Uncollected Stories, including A Thousand Deaths.

  • Adventure
  • Before Adam
  • Burning Daylight
  • The Call of the Wild
  • The Game
  • The God of His Fathers: Tales of the Klondyke
  • The House of Pride and Other Tales of Hawaii
  • The Human Drift
  • The Iron Heel
  • Jerry of the Islands
  • John Barleycorn
  • Lost Face
  • Love of Life, and Other Stories
  • Martin Eden
  • Michael, Brother of Jerry
  • Moon-Face, and Other Stories
  • The Night-Born
  • On the Makaloa Mat
  • The People of the Abyss
  • The Red One
  • The Sea-Wolf
  • A Son of the Sun
  • The Son of the Wolf
  • South Sea Tales
  • Tales of the Fish Patrol
  • The Valley of the Moon
  • War of the Classes
  • When God Laughs, and Other Stories
  • White Fang


  • The Call of the Wild
  • The Sea-Wolf
  • White Fang -- Summary
         Two men are out in the wild of the north. Their dogs disappear as they are lured by a she-wolf and eaten by the pack. They only have three bullets left and Bill, one of the men, uses them to try to save one of their dogs; he misses and is eaten with the dog. Only Henry and two dogs are left; he makes a fire, trying to drive away the wolves. They draw in close and he is almost eaten, saved only by a company of men who were traveling nearby.
          The wolves are in the midst of a famine. They continue on, lead by several wolves alongside the she-wolf, and when they finally find food the pack starts to split up. The she-wolf mates with one of the wolves and has a litter of pups. Only one survives after several more famines, and he grows strong and is a feisty pup.
          They come to an Indian village where the she-wolf's (who is actually half-wolf, half-dog) master is. He catches her again and White Fang, her pup, stays nearby. Soon, she is sold to another Indian, while White Fang stays with Gray Beaver, her master. The other dogs of the village terrorize White Fang, especially one named Lip-lip.
          White Fang becomes more and more vicious, encouraged by his master. He kills other dogs. Gray Beaver goes to Fort Yukon to trade and discovers whiskey. White Fang is passed into the hands of Beauty Smith, a monster of a man. He fights other dogs until he meets his match in a bulldog and is saved only by a man named Scott.
          Scott tames White Fang and takes him back to California with him. There White Fang learns to love his master and his master's family and even saves Scott's father from a criminal that escaped from the nearby prison. White Fang has puppies with Collie, one of the master's dogs, and lives a happy life.
    1904 El periódico estadounidense Daily Ilustrated Mirror publica por primera vez en la historia una fotografía en colores.
    ^ 1903 Commission makes recommendations for mines and workers.
          In May 1902, 140'000 frustrated members of the United Mine Workers (UMW) walked off the job to protest their low-pay and management's heavy reliance on domineering tactics. The strike quickly turned ugly. Mine owners steadfastly refused to negotiate with the UMW, causing the walk-off to drag well into the fall. The strikers only returned to work after President Teddy Roosevelt intervened and established a commission to examine operations at the nation's mines. On 22 March 1903, the commission wrapped up their probe and offered a detailed set of suggestions for improving conditions for workers. The commission called for a ten-cent wage hike, shorter hours, and recommended that the mine owners recognize the bargaining power of the union. Along with these provisions, the commission also made a push for establishing an "open shop," which ostensibly would grant workers the freedom to join, or stay separate from, a union. Though the open shop helped the UMW's fight against the mine owners, it proved in the long run to be a detriment to the labor movement, as management frequently invoked the principle of the open shop to prevent unions from taking hold at their factories.
    1895 Louis and August Lumière give the first public demonstration of the cinematograph. The French brothers patented the combination movie camera/projector in February. The brothers later produced the first film newsreels and what some consider the world's first movie, "Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory." — Los hermanos Lumière proyectan en público la primera película que se realizó en el mundo: "La sortie den ouvriers de l'usine Lumière".
    1882 US Congress outlaws polygamy (again); bad news for Mormons (but they will eventually get a convenient concurring divine revelation)..
    1873 Slavery is abolished in Puerto Rico.
    1864 US Civil War fighting at Bald Spring Cañon on Eel River, California.
    1862 San Marino and Italy conclude treaty of friendship and cooperation.
    1832 Aparición del cólera en París, que ocasionó un gran número de víctimas.
    ^ 1798 La République Helvétique.
          Les révolutionnaires français transforment la Suisse en une «République Helvétique» unitaire sur le modèle de la France. La Suisse est issue de l'alliance, au Moyen Âge, de cantons montagnards désireux de tirer parti du commerce à travers le col du Saint-Gothard. A la veille de la Révolution, elle compte 13 cantons jaloux de leurs prérogatives, habilités à lever l’impôt, armer des troupes et frapper monnaie. L’accès à la condition de bourgeois est très réglementé. Dans le canton de Berne, les membres du Petit Conseil se font appeler «nobles, illustres, puissants et souverains Seigneurs» ou plus simplement «leurs Excellences».
          En 1789, les idées nouvelles trouvent en Suisse un écho favorable chez les paysans et dans les villes où la censure est la règle. Des feuilles circulent sous le manteau et des clubs révolutionnaires se constituent sur le modèle français. Une République Lémanique est proclamée à Lausanne le 23 janvier 1798. Attiré par le «trésor de Berne», le Directoire en faillite financière envoie ses armées soumettre les Bernois. C'en est fini de l’Ancien régime en Suisse. Le nouvel État se veut une République «Une et indivisible», avec drapeau tricolore (vert, rouge et jaune), nationalité suisse, monnaie unique,... De nouveaux cantons sont créés et les anciens statuts supprimés.
          De 1800 à 1802, pas moins de quatre coups d’État ébranlent la jeune République, aux institutions trop éloignées des traditions helvétiques. Le Premier Consul Napoléon Bonaparte met un terme à cette expérience unitaire. Par l'Acte de médiation, il institue une Confédération dont l'essentiel a survécu jusqu'à nos jours.
    1790 Thomas Jefferson becomes the first US Secretary of State.
    1778 Capt Cook sights Cape Flattery, in Washington state
    ^ 1765 Britain antagonizes colonies with Stamp Act.
          Hoping to scrounge up funds to maintain a military presence in the colonies, the British government passes the notorious Stamp Act, which levies a direct tax on all materials printed for commercial and legal use in the colonies, including everything from broadsides and insurance policies to playing cards and dice. Though the Stamp Act was a common fundraising vehicle in England, it stirred a storm of protest in the colonies. The colonists' anger was partially grounded in fears that the Stamp Act would open the gates to a flood of taxes. They also felt that, as English citizens, their consent, as meted out through representative assemblies, was mandatory for the passage of tax legislation. In response, the colonists rioted, staged demonstrations, and refused to comply with the tax. Under pressure from British business interests, Parliament repealed the legislation in 1766. However, the fracas over the Stamp Act had helped plant seeds for a far larger movement against the British government—the struggle for independence.
    1638 Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    1621 In colonial Massachusetts, the Plymouth Colony (Pilgrims) makes with the neighboring Indians led by Massasoit a treaty which both sides keep for fifty years.
    1618 El papa Paulo V concede el capelo cardenalicio a Francisco Sandoval y Rojas duque de Lerma, que lo había solicitado como protección ante el juicio por el asesinato de Francisco Juara por Rodrigo Calderón, confidente de Lerma.
    1594 París, baluarte de la Liga Católica y ocupada dos años antes por las tropas españolas, se entrega y Henri IV hace su entrada triunfal.
    1518 El navegante portugués Fernando Magallanes firma unas capitulaciones en Valladolid por las que es nombrado capitán general de la Armada y gobernador de las tierras que se descubran.
    1508 Fernando el Católico nombra a Américo Vespucio piloto mayor de Castilla.
    1312 The dissolution of the Order of Knights Templars, founded in 1118, is decreed by Pope Clement V [1264 – 20 Apr 1314], under pressure from king Philippe le Bel of France [1268 – 29 Nov 1314] who, wanting to take for himself the wealth of the Order, had all its members in France arrested on 13 October 1307 and then tortured (or threatened with torture) until they confessed to fabricated crimes, such as spitting upon the Cross, denying Christ, permitting sodomy, worshipping an idol (some died under torture). When the Grand Master Jacques de Molai [1244 – 18 Mar 1314] and 38 other Templars later recanted their false confessions, Philip le Bel declared them relapsed heretics and had them burned at the stake.
    ^ 0079 Year 1 of Saka Era, Caitra 1: Kaniska becomes king (traditional date).
          Most of what is known about Kaniska (or Kanishka) derives from Chinese sources, particularly Buddhist writings. When Kaniska, the greatest king of the Kushan dynasty, came to the throne is uncertain. His accession has been estimated as occurring between 78 AD and 144 AD; his reign is believed to have lasted 23 years. 22 March 79 is the first day of the Saka era, a system of dating that Kaniska might have initiated, and which gave its numbering of the years to the National Calendar of India, started in 1957.
          Kaniska was preceeeded by king Vima, son of the Yüeh-chih chief Kujula Kadphises, who conquered northern India in the 1st century AD. To this inheritance Kaniska added conquered territories, so that his kingdom covered an area extending from Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan) in the west to Patna in the Ganges Valley in the east, and from the Pamirs (now in Tajikistan) in the north to central India in the south. His capital probably was Purusapura (Peshawar, now in Pakistan). He may have crossed the Pamirs and subjugated the kings of the city-states of Khotan, Kashgar, and Yarkand (now in Chinese Turkistan), who had previously been tributaries of the Han emperors of China. Contact between Kaniska and the Chinese in Central Asia may have inspired the transmission of Indian ideas, particularly Buddhism, to China. Buddhism first appeared in China in the 2nd century AD.
          As a patron of Buddhism Kaniska is chiefly noted for having convened in Kashmir the fourth great Buddhist council, which gave rise to Mahayana Buddhism. At the council, according to Chinese sources, authorized commentaries on the Buddhist canon were prepared and engraved on copper plates. These texts have survived only in Chinese translations and adaptations. Kaniska was a tolerant king and his coins show that he honored the Zoroastrian, Greek, and Brahmanic deities as well as the Buddha. During his reign contacts with the Roman Empire led to a significant increase in trade and the exchange of ideas; perhaps the most remarkable example of the fusion of eastern and western influences in his reign was the Gandhara school of art, in which Greco-Roman classical lines are seen in images of the Buddha [example >].
    Gandhara BuddhaGandhara Buddha


    < 21 Mar 23 Mar >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 March:

    2006 Ludie Montgomery Gaines, 84, of McKenzie, Tennessee, when she drives into the path of a pickup truck in Jackson, Tennessee, where she was on her way to visit her diabetic son, Ben Gaines Jr., at Jackson-Madison County General Hospital. —(060324)
    2006 Matthew Winkler, 31, shot in his bedroom in Selmer, Tennessee, by his wife Mary Winkler, 32, who flees in the family minivan (a 2006 gray Toyota Sienna, license plate NDX288) with their three daughters, Breanna Winkler, 1, Mary Alice Winkler, 6, and Patricia Winkler, 8, and is arrested the next day in Alabama. Matthew Winkler was the pastor of the Fourth Street Church of Christ. —(060324)
    2004 Two Iraqi civilians and a suicide car bomber, near Balad, Iraq. 25 Iraqi civilians and 8 members of the US-trained Iraqi Civil Defense Corps are wounded.
    2004 Seppo Haapanen, and Jorma Toronen, Finnish businessmen shot near a highway underpass in west Baghdad, Iraq, as they were being driven to the Ministry of Electricity to make business contacts. Their Iraqi driver is unhurt. Haapanen, an employee of Entso, a Finnish company that specializes in electricity and power networks; and Toronen, of Air-Ix, which builds railways, were part of a nine-person Finnish technological delegation visiting Baghdad.
    Ahmed Yassin2004 A Palestinian man, 34, in Hebron, West Bank, shot by Israeli troops as he is throwing stones while participating in a demonstration protesting the assassination of sheik Yassin.
    2004 Three Palestinians, including a 13-year-old boy, as Israeli soldiers at a roadblock, near the Neveh Dekalim enclave settlement, west of the Khan Yunis refugee camp in the Gaza Strip, fire at hundreds of demonstrators, mostly schoolchildren, protesting the assassination of sheik Yassin, some of them throwing stones.
    2004 Mohammed Abu Khalimi, 22, reporter for Al Najah University radio, shot by Israeli troops entering the Balata refugee camp in Nablus, West Bank, just after he broadcast a report about them. He was standing near a group of youths protesting the assassination of sheik Yassin, some of them throwing stones. The Israelis claim that Abu Khalimi was a Hamas militant and was firing at them. Palestinians say that he was an unarmed non-violent Hamas supporter.
    2004 sheik Ahmed Yassin, 68, and 9 others, including his son-in-law and some bodyguards, at 05:00 (03:00 UT) as Israeli helicopters fire three missiles at the car in which they are leaving a mosque near his house in Gaza City. Two of Yassin's sons and 15 other persons are wounded. Wheelchair-bound, quadriplegic (since age 12) Yassin [11 Jan 2004 photo >] was the spiritual leader of Hamas (an acronym for Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyya = Islamic Resistance Movement). In 1983, Yassin was arrested by the Israeli occupation forces in Gaza and was sentenced to 13 years in prison for forming (in 1979) the underground organization Majd al-Mujahidin and possessing weapons. He was released two years later as part of a prisoner swap. In 1987, he founded Hamas; he was at the time the Gaza-based leader of the Muslim Brotherhood. He was again arrested and sentenced to 40 years in prison in 1989, this time charged with inciting violence and ordering the killing of an Israeli soldier. But Israel released him in 1997 as a goodwill gesture to Jordan's King Hussein after a failed Israeli attempt to assassinate Hamas leader Khaled Mashal in Amman. On 06 September 2003, an Israeli F-16 fighter jet fired several missiles at a home in Gaza city where Yassin and other Hamas leaders were meeting, but Yassin escaped with just a small wound to his hand. Anticipating but also aggravating Palestinian angry vengefulness, Israel closes to Palestinians all border crossings and increases its heavy-handed interdiction of movement within the Palestinian territory. The regime of criminal Israeli Prime Minister Sharon (mis)calculates (against the advice of Shin Bet chief Avi Dichter) that the beheading of Hamas is well worth the increased risk of terrorism. Yassin had said in an interview: “If I am killed there will arise a thousand like me.”
    2004 Bassem Kadih, 38, and Sanaa Kadih, 33, his wife, by an explosion as they flee from Israeli troops who shoot at them, in Abassan, near Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, which the Israelis attacked at 03:00 (01:00 UT) with tanks, armored vehicles and bulldozers. The Israelis say that the explosion may have been that of an explosive belt that Bassem Kadih, a Hamas fighter, was most likely wearing. The couple's seven children lose not only their parents, but also their home which the Israelis destroy, as well as a metal workshop in the backyard which the Israelis say was used to make weapons.
    2004 Abdel Rahman al-Dardisi, 25, Thaer Kadih, 23, and Rafet Abu-Toameh, 20, Palestinians shot before 03:00 in the Gaza Strip near the Kissufim crossing point at the Israeli border by Israeli troops on their way to attack the town Abassan. Al-Dardisi and Kadih were armed Hamas fighters. Abu-Toameh was an innocent woman bystander.

    Adrian O'Neill Robinson2003 Henry Robinson, 56, by 16 shots from two rifles by his son, Adrian O'Neill Robinson, 25 [< photo], who had accused him of sexually assaulting him. The murder takes place in their home in Hamilton, Georgia. Then Adrian walks 5 km to a church and breaks into the mobile home of two Sisters of the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, Lucie Kristofik, 72, and Philomena Fogarty, 64, who are not there. When they return on 23 March, he takes $900, binds and gags them, puts them in their car and drives to Norfolk, Virginia, to a hotel, where, on 25 March he leaves Sister Lucie, unharmed, while he takes Sister Philomena, kills her, cuts off her head, hands, and feet, and dumps her body in an office parking lot in Virginia Beach. Police find the car early on 26 March, but Adrian flees on foot and is arrested 22 hours later after a Burger King worker recognizes him. Adrian Robinson was wanted in Norfolk on a 1998 forgery charge.

    2003 Terence Ellis “Terry” Lloyd [21 Nov 1952–], Frédéric Nérac, 43, and Hussein Othman, 28, in and after an exchange of gunfire between the invading US troops and Iraqi forces, near Bassorah, Iraq. British reporter Lloyd, French cameraman Nérac and his Lebanese driver-interpereter Othman were employed by the British ITV News, as is Belgian cameraman Daniel Demoustier, who is wounded. — (051020)

    2003 Lt. Thomas Mullen Adams, USN, 27, and British Lieutenants Philip Green, Marc Lawrence, Antony King, Philip West, Andrew Wilson, and James Williams, in the collision and crash of two British Navy helicopters over the northern Persian Gulf, near Iraq.

    2003 US Army Reserve Spc. Brandon S. Tobler, 19, in a vehicle accident ; and Marine Lance Cpl. Eric J. Orlowski, 26, in a machine gun accident; die in Iraq during the US-lead attack.

    2003 Nayef Shedakh, a senior member of the Iraqi Ba'ath Party, in fighting between Iraqi and US-led troops near Najaf, Iraq.

    2003 At least 28 of the 87 miners working underground in the Mengnanzhuang Coal Mine in Xiaoyi city, Shanxi province, China, when there is a gas explosion.

    ^ 2001 Praskovia Valiskerov, 82, hammered by her husband, Haim, 90.
         The murder takes place in the Neve Oranim nursing home in Gedera, Israel. Haim said afterwards that he was angry over her failure to take care of him "like a woman should." The elderly couple had immigrated from the former Soviet Union seven years earlier, and according to the nursing home staff, seemed to have a good relationship. Yesterday, however, a quarrel broke out when Haim charged that Praskovia was not feeding him properly. He grabbed a hammer and beat her to death, then fled the site. Nursing home employees noticed the bloodstains in the doorway, and upon finding Praskovia dead, searched for her husband. They found him a few hundred meters away, where he had collapsed, and brought him to the police. He has confessed to the murder and reenacted it.
    ^ 2001 Olga Korol, 39, stabbed by her ex-boyfriend, Shliko Hundashvili, 52.
          The murder took place at around 05:30, in Ashdod, Israel, in full view of a neighbor. Eliyahu Cohen, 70, said he watched the entire incident from his balcony, but was unable to summon the police because he does not have a telephone. Eventually, his screams roused other neighbors, and they called the police. When the police arrived, Korol, who had been stabbed in the chest, was lying in the parking lot of her apartment building, still alive. She died of her wounds in hospital. Korol's murder aroused a public storm because of the feeling that it could have been prevented: Korol, a divorcée, had complained to the police about her ex-boyfriend in the past, but they were not able to locate him. When she announced that she was leaving him, on 01 February 2001, he beat her and warned her not to leave, after which Korol complained to the police. She withdrew the complaint 4 days later, saying her walkout had been accomplished. Then, on 08 March, Hundashvili called and asked to meet her. When she refused to let him into her apartment, he beat her again. She then filed another complaint with the police, and they said they have been looking for him since. Yesterday, the police found Hundashvili in the vicinity of Korol's apartment shortly after the murder. They arrested him, and he confessed and reenacted the murder. At his remand, Hundashvili claimed he had not intended to kill her. The knife was a joke, he said, but Korol became frightened and tried to take it away, and in the course of a struggle, the knife entered her chest.
    1994 Walter Lantz, dibujante estadounidense, creador del "Pájaro Loco".
    1987 Guinand, mathematician.
    1984 El Diario de Barcelona, decano de la prensa diaria española, deja de editarse.
    1978 Jesús Haddad, director general de prisiones de España, asesinado en Madrid por tres jóvenes terroristas de los GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre).
    1978 Karl Wallenda, 73, patriarch of "The Flying Wallendas" high-wire act, by fall while walking on a cable strung between two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    1973 Hilda Geiringer, mathematician.
    1934 Some 1500 in fire which destroys Hakodate, Japan. 1000 are injured.
    1926 Neuberg, mathematician.
    1923 Benjamin “Williams Leader”, British painter born on 12 March 1831. MORE ON LEADER  AT ART “4” MARCH 12 with links to images.
    1918 Spencer Evans, Black, lynched in Taliaferro County, Georgia, accused of the rape of a White woman.
    1912 Elizabeth Adela (Amstrong, Stanhope, Alexander) Forbes, British artist born on 29 December 1859. MORE ON FORBES  AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1890 Sim Martin, Black, lynched in Johnson County, Georgia, accused of the murder of a White.
    1878 George Clarkson Stanfield, British artist born on 01 May 1828.
    1861 Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, político mexicano nacido el 06 julio de 1812. De ideología liberal, fue ministro de Hacienda (1856-1857) de Comonfort [10 Mar 1812 – 13 Nov 1863] y promulgó la ley de desamortización (“Ley Lerdo”). Nuevamente ministro de Hacienda con Juárez [21 Mar 1806 – 18 Jul 1872] al finalizar la guerra de Reforma, renunció al decidirse la suspensión del pago de la deuda externa (1861). Escribió Comercio exterior de México desde la conquista hasta hoy (1853). His brother Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada [25 Apr 1827 – 21 April 1889] was president of Mexico from the death of Juárez until forced into exile in 1876.
    1840 Bobillier, mathematician.
    with Com James Barron, near Washington, DC
    click for portrait by Kiprensky^ 1832 click for portrait by TischbeinJohann Wolfgang von Goethe, in Weimar, Germany.
         Born on 28 August 1749, Goethe was a poet, playwright, novelist, and social philosopher, the greatest figure of the German Romantic period, best known for Faust.
    — C'est à Francfort sur le Main que nait l'un des plus grands poètes allemands. Il fut aussi géologe, botaniste et naturaliste. Il découvrit l'os intermaxillaire. Parlant sept langues, musicien, Il a excercé une grande influence sur la littérature européenne. Son oeuvre capitale, Faust, est mondialement connue.
    — 1787 Portrait of Goethe by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. — 1823 Portrait of Goethe by Orest Kiprensky.
    Faust. Der Tragödie zweiter Teil in fünf AktenHermann und DorotheaDas Märchen (1795) — Novelle (1826)
    (in English translations):
    Egmont _ Egmont FaustHermann and Dorothea _ Hermann and Dorothea The Poems of Goethe The Sorrows of Young WertherDas Märchen – A Fairy Tale (1795) — Novella (1826)
    ^ 1820 Stephen Decatur, US naval hero, in a duel.
         US Navy officer Stephen Decatur, 41, hero of the Barbary Wars, is mortally wounded in a duel with disgraced Navy Commodore James Barron at Bladensburg, Maryland. Although once friends, Decatur sat on the court-martial that suspended Barron from the Navy for five years in 1808 and later opposed his reinstatement, leading to a fatal quarrel between the two men.
          Born in Maryland in 1779, Stephen Decatur was reared in the traditions of the sea and in 1789 joined the United States Navy as a midshipman aboard the new frigate, United States. That year, he saw action in the so-called quasi-war with France and in 1799 was commissioned a lieutenant. Five years later, during the Tripolitan War, he became the most lauded US naval hero since John Paul Jones.
          In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson ordered US Navy vessels to the Mediterranean Sea in protest of continuing raids against US ships by pirates from the Barbary states--Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripolitania. Sustained action began in June 1803, and in October the US frigate Philadelphia ran aground near Tripoli and was captured by Tripolitan gunboats. The Americans feared that the well-constructed warship would be used as a model for building future Tripolitan frigates, and on 16 February 1804, Stephen Decatur led a daring expedition into Tripoli harbor to destroy the captured vessel.
          After disguising himself and his men as Maltese sailors, Decatur's force stole into Tripoli harbor and boarded the Philadelphia, which was guarded by Tripolitans quickly overpowered by the US troops. After setting fire to the frigate, Decatur and his men escaped without the loss of a single American. The Philadelphia subsequently exploded when its gunpowder reserve was lit by the spreading fire. Famed British Admiral Horatio Nelson hailed the exploit as the "most bold and daring act of the age," and Decatur was promoted to captain. In August 1804, Decatur returned to Tripoli Harbor as part of a larger US offensive and emerged as a hero again during the Battle of the Gunboats, which saw hand-to-hand combat between the Americans and the Tripolitans.
          In 1807, Commodore James Barron, who fought alongside Decatur in the Tripolitan War, aroused considerable controversy when he failed to resist a British attack on his flagship, the Chesapeake. Decatur sat on the court-martial that passed a verdict expelling Barron from the Navy for five years. This began the dispute between Decatur and Barron that would end 13 years later on the dueling grounds in Maryland.
          In the War of 1812, Decatur distinguished himself again when, as commander of the USS United States, he captured the British ship of war Macedonian off the Madeira Islands. Barron, meanwhile, was overseas when his Navy expulsion ended in 1813 and did not return to the United States to fight in the ongoing war with England. This led to fresh criticism of Barron from Decatur, who later used his influence to prevent Barron's reinstatement in the Navy.
          In June 1815, Decatur returned to the Mediterranean to lead US forces in the Algerian War, the second Barbary conflict. By December, Decatur forced the dey (military ruler) of Algiers to sign a peace treaty that ended American tribute to Algeria. Upon his return to the United States, he was honored at a banquet in which he made a very famous toast: "Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country, right or wrong!"
          Appointed to the Navy Board of Commissioners, Decatur arrived in Washington in 1816, where he became a prominent citizen and lived a satisfying life politically, economically, and socially. In 1818, however, dark clouds began to gather when he vocally opposed Barron's reinstatement into the Navy. The already strained relations between the two men deteriorated, and in March 1822 Decatur agreed to Barron's request to meet for a duel. Dueling, though generally frowned on, was still acceptable among Navy men.
          On 22 March, at Bladensburg in Maryland, Decatur and Barron lift their guns, fire, and each man hits his target. Decatur would die several hours later in Washington, and the US mourn the loss of the great naval hero. Barron recovered from his wounds and was reinstated into the Navy in 1821 with diminished rank.
    1762 Maximilien Joseph Schinagl, German artist born on 28 April 1697.
    ^ 1622:  347 Jamestown settlers are massacred
         In the first major massacre of European colonists by Amerindians, Algonquians led by Opechancanough, chief of the Pamunkey, slaughter 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia--nearly a third of the settlement’s total population.
          On 13 May 1607, approximately one hundred colonists settled along the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America. Within two weeks, the first warriors from the local Algonquian Indian confederacy attacked the settlement, but were repulsed by the armed settlers. In December of the same year, Captain John Smith, an English adventurer, and two colonists were captured by Algonquians while searching for provisions in the Virginia wilderness. His companions were killed, but he was spared, according to Smith, because of the intercession of Pocahontas, Chief Powhatan’s daughter. Over the next two years, disease, starvation, and more Native American attacks wiped out most of the colony, but the London Company continually sent more settlers and supplies.
          The severe winter of 1609 to 1610, which the colonists referred to as the "starving time," killed most of the Jamestown colonists, leading the survivors to plan a return to England in the spring. However, on 10 June, Thomas West De La Warr, the newly appointed governor of Virginia, arrived with supplies and convinced the settlers to remain at Jamestown. In 1612, John Rolfe cultivated the first tobacco at Jamestown, introducing a successful source of livelihood, and, on 05 April 1614, he married Pocahontas, thus assuring a temporary peace with Chief Powhatan and the Algonquians.
          However, in 1618, Powhatan died, and Opechancanough, chief of the Pamunkey, became the key leader in the Algonquian Confederacy. On 22 March 1622, Opechancanough organizes an attack that nearly wipes out the settlements surrounding Jamestown, although the heavily fortified town is saved. The English would engage in violent reprisals against the Algonquians, but there was no further large-scale fighting until 1644, when Opechancanough led his last uprising, and was captured and executed at Jamestown. In 1646, the Algonquian Confederacy agreed to give up much of its territory, and, beginning in 1665, its chiefs were appointed by the governor of Virginia.
    1369 Pedro I, rey de Castilla y León, matado por su hermano Enrique de Trastámara (futuro Enrique II), ayudado por el guerrero francés Bertrand du Guesclin.
    1349 Townspeople of Fulda Germany massacre Jews (blamed for black death)
    1282 San Bienvenido, religioso italiano.
    0337 Constantine, 47, Emperor of Rome.
    < 21 Mar 23 Mar >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 22 March:

    1945 Arab League forms, by the adoption of a charter, in Cairo, Egypt.
    ^ 1945 Arab League is formed.
          Representatives from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Yemen meet in Cairo to adopt a charter for the Arab League, a regional organization of Arab states. Formed to foster economic growth in the region, resolve disputes between its members, and coordinate political aims, members of the Arab League formed a council, with each state receiving one vote. When the State of Israel was created in 1948, the league countries jointly attacked but were repulsed by the Israelis. Two years later, Arab League nations signed a mutual defense treaty. Fifteen more Arab nations eventually joined the organization, which established a common market in 1965.
    1941 Grand Coulee Dam in Washington goes into operation
    1930 Pat Robertson televangelist (R-Pres candidate-1989)
    1934 Orrin Hatch (Sen-R-Ut)
    1923 Marcel Marceau (Mangel) (mime: famous quote from Marceau "!"; spoke in Silent Movie — the only speaking part in the film) (Barbarella)
    1917 Irving Kaplansky, mathematician.
    1912 Agnes Bernice Martin, Canadian-born US minimalist painter, who died on 16 December 2004. — more with link to images.
    ^ 1908 Louis Dearborn LaMoore “Louis l'Amour.
         In Jamestown, North Dakota, is born the seventh and youngest child of Louis Charles and Emily Dearborn LaMoore, both of whom schooled L'Amour in family and western lore, unknowingly laying the foundation for his literary career. Louis Charles LaMoore held various types of jobs, including police chief, veterinarian, political leader and Sunday school teacher. Mrs. LaMoore, herself a skilled storyteller, was trained as a teacher before her marriage, and so the environment was a great one for the children to learn and grow in intellectually. In 1923, when L'Amour was fifteen, his parents moved to Oklahoma. It was then that L'Amour decided to end his formal education to pursue self-education by way of work and travel. He would hold a wide variety of jobs from this point, much of it hard, physical labor. He worked as a longshoreman, lumberjack, elephant handler, hay shocker, miner, and cattle skinner, all richly adding to his knowledge and well of experience which he would draw from later in his writing career. He also boxed professionally in preliminary events, his father having taught him the sport.
          His love of traveling took him up and down the west coast, and soon he embarked on a sailing trip to the Orient. One well circulated story claims that he used the proceeds from a sunken treasure he discovered in Macao to pay his way to Paris and other European cities. L'Amour's writing was greatly influenced by these early years of freedom and wandering. He of course gained great knowledge as a result, but as well, his male hero's would often have conflicting feelings towards settling down. In the late 1930's L'Amour returned to Oklahoma to pursue the writing career which he had always intended to do. He published a book of poetry in 1939, but then his career was interrupted by World War II. In 1942 he entered the army, serving as an officer in tank destroying and transportation units in France and Germany. Upon the end of the war he resumed his writing pursuits, and published stories in pulp magazines of all types, from detective and adventure magazines to sports. Initially he did not plan to focus on westerns, but he began to write mainly in that genre as he sold more work to Western magazines than the others. In 1953 he published his first novel, Hondo, and thereafter L'Amour consistently produced three novels a year until his death in 1988. He gained steady popularity throughout his career, to the point where hundreds of millions of copies of his books were sold.
          Although L'Amour is best know for his westerns, he did step out of that field occasionally, writing books such as The Walking Drum, (1984) which is set in medieval Europe, and The Haunted Mesa. Never did he lose his passion for travel and researching his books firsthand. He would search out people who knew the area he was interested in the best, and delve into their knowledge of it. L'Amour was the only novelist in the US to receive the Congressional Gold Medal, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom, both of which were awarded to him by US President Ronald Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004]. L'Amour (a non-smoker) died in Los Angeles, California, on 10 June 1988 of lung cancer.
    1894 Osvaldo Licini, Italian painter who died on 11 October 1958. — more with link to images.
    1891 Swain, mathematician.
    1887 Leonard Martin “Chico” Marx, NYC, comedian, the first of the Marx Brothers to be born, and the first one to die (11 Oct 1961). He was the one who wore the hat (Animal Crackers, A Day at the Races, Duck Soup).
    1882 El Espectador, diario colombiano, se funda. — EL ESPECTADOR ONLINE
    1880 (or 28 Mar) Abraham Walkowitz, US painter who died in 1965. — more with links to images.
    1875 Richard Emil Miller, US Impressionist painter who died in 1943. MORE ON MILLER  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1869 Paul Michel Dupuy, French artist who died on 02 November 1949.
    1868 Robert A. Millikan, US physicist (photoelectric effect; Nobel 1923). He died on 19 December 1953.
    1846 Randolph Caldecott, England, illustrator (Caldecott Medal namesake)
    1835 Don Álvaro o la fuerza del sino, del Duque de Rivas, se estrena en el Teatro del Príncipe en Madrid, lo que supuso el triunfo definitivo del Romanticismo.
    1819 Gourlay Steell, Scottish artist who died on 31 January 1894.
    1816 Pieter Lodewijk Franciscus Kluyver, Dutch artist who died on 04 January 1900.
    1814 Thomas Crawford, US sculptor of Armed Freedom figure on top of the Capitol dome. He died on 10 October 1857. — more with image and link to images.
    1803 Antonie Waldorp, Dutch painter who died on 12 October 1866. — link to an image.
    1797 Kaiser Wilhelm I German emperor (1871-88)
    1790 Jan-Baptist van der Hulst, Belgian artist who died on 16 May 1862.
    1732 Claude-Joseph Fraichot II, French artist who died in 1803.
    1728 Anton Raphaël Mengs, greatest early German Neoclassical painter, who died on 29 June 1779. MORE ON MENGS  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1709 Giuseppe Zais, Italian artist who died in 1784.
    1684 William Pulteney Bath, English Whig politician; opposed Sir Robert Walpole. Bath died on 07 July 1764.
    1599 Anton van Dyck, Flemish painter specialized in portraits, who died on 09 December 1641. — MORE ON VAN DYCK AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1459 Maximilian I, Austrian archduke, German king and Holy Roman emperor (1493-1519). He died on 12 January 1519.
    Feasts which occur on a 22 March:
    (earliest possible date for Easter Sunday)
    2972 Easter Sunday
    2961 Palm Sunday
    2950 Palm Sunday
    2939 Palm Sunday
    2893 Palm Sunday
    2882 Palm Sunday
    2871 Palm Sunday
    2809 Palm Sunday
    2798 Palm Sunday
    2787 Palm Sunday
    2714 Palm Sunday
    2708 Palm Sunday
    2703 Palm Sunday
    2657 Palm Sunday
    2646 Palm Sunday
    2635 Palm Sunday
    2589 Palm Sunday
    2578 Palm Sunday
    2567 Palm Sunday
    2505 Easter Sunday
    2499 Palm Sunday
    2437 Easter Sunday
    2426 Palm Sunday
    2415 Palm Sunday
    2353 Easter Sunday
    2342 Palm Sunday
    2331 Palm Sunday
    2285 Easter Sunday
    2274 Palm Sunday
    2263 Palm Sunday
    2195 Palm Sunday
    2122 Palm Sunday
    2116 Palm Sunday
    2111 Palm Sunday
    2105 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2099 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    2093 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    2082 Third Sunday of Lent
    2076 Third Sunday of Lent
    2071 Third Sunday of Lent
    2065 Palm Sunday
    2054 Palm Sunday
    2048 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2043 Palm Sunday
    2037 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2026 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2020 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    2015 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2009 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1998 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1992 Third Sunday of Lent
    1987 Third Sunday of Lent
    1981 Third Sunday of Lent
    1970 Palm Sunday
    1964 Palm Sunday
    1959 Palm Sunday
    1953 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1942 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1936 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1931 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1925 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1914 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1908 Third Sunday of Lent
    1903 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1896 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1891 Palm Sunday
    1885 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1818 Easter Sunday
    1812 Palm Sunday
    1807 Palm Sunday
    1761 Easter Sunday
    1750 Palm Sunday
    1739 Palm Sunday
    1693 Easter Sunday
    1682 Palm Sunday
    1671 Palm Sunday
    1598 Easter Sunday
    1592 Palm Sunday
    1587 Palm Sunday

    Feasts of every 22 March:
    — Saint Isidore the Farm-Laborer, confessor
    — Commemoration of Jonathan Edwards, teacher and missionary (Lutheran)
    — Commemoration of James De Koven, priest (Anglican)
    — San Pablo
    — San Deogracias
    — San Bienvenido
    — San Saturnino
    — Sainte Léa:: Cette veuve romaine suivit avec passion les conférences sur les Saintes Ecritures que fit saint Jérôme dans la Ville éternelle. Elle mourut paisiblement à Ostie en 384.
    —    Jordan, Lebanon : Arab League Day (1945)
    — Puerto Rico : Emancipation Day (1873)

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    Thought for the day:
    “La bonté c'est aimer les gens plus qu'ils ne le méritent.” — Joseph Joubert, French moralist [1754-1824].
    updated Friday 15-May-2009 20:22 UT
    principal updates:
    v.8.20 Sunday 23-Mar-2008 17:08 UT
    v.7.20 Wednesday 28-Mar-2007 2:57 UT
    v.6.20 Friday 24-Mar-2006 17:18 UT
    Monday 21-Mar-2005 22:43 UT
    Tuesday 23-Mar-2004 0:01 UT

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