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• Great painter of candlelight scenes is born... • One million Jeeps... • A constitution for East Germany... • Balzac play opens to empty house... • Western artist Russell is born... • IBM plans System/360... • More South Korean troops to Vietnam... • National emergency in Cambodia... • Plotter against Hitler is executed... • Argentina tries for the Falklands... • Gambling in Nevada... • First US air combat mission... • First US bank robbery... • Född Johannes Magnus, Sveriges ärkebiskop...
^  On a 19 March:
2006 (Feast of Saint Joseph; 3rd Sunday of Lent) Homily of Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] at his mass for all workers. — (060322)
OCA price chart2005 In Tel Aviv, Israel, Rabin Square is filled with Peace Now members and other peace activists demonstrating to make sure that “Israel Leaves Gaza” and that the Jewish enclave settlements there be dismantled as promised by the Israeli government.

2004 On the eve of Taiwan's presidential election, campaigning President Chen Shui-bian and Vice-President Annette Lu are wounded by shots, Chen in the abdomen and Lu in the right leg. The opposition claims that it is a staged incident to gain sympathy for (who would narrowly win the election).

2003 Late the previous day, Orthodontic Centers of America (OCA) reported 2002 earnings lower than in 2001, particularly for the 4th quarter, attributing the decline to litigation with some of the 364 affiliated practices to which it provides business services. On the New York Stock Exchange, 8 million of the 51 million OCA shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $9.57 to an intraday low of $5.37 and closing at $5.64. They had traded as high as $29.65 as recently as 11 April 2002 and $34.88 on 11 September 2000.. [< 5~year price chart]
2002 The voting of the 900'000 stockholders of the Hewlett-Packard Company is finalized on the proposed $21 billion acquisition of Compaq Computer Corporation, favored by HP management, but opposed by the Hewlett and the Packard families. The close vote ends up approving the acquisition, which would become known only weeks later after careful recounting.
1998 La Guardia Civil española asesta un duro golpe a ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) al detener a once miembros del comando "Araba", uno de los más activos de la organización terrorista, y confiscarles abundante armamento y material explosivo.
1997 El Gobierno italiano decreta el estado de emergencia hasta el 30 de junio para afrontar la llegada masiva de refugiados albaneses.
1990 Latvia's political opposition claimed victory in the republic's first free elections in 50 years.
1987 Jim Bakker, 48, stepped down as head of the PTL ministry amid disclosures of a 1980 sexual liaison with church secretary Jessica Hahn and a related money scandal. (PTL was not intended to mean "Pass The Loot" but "Praise The Lord")
1985 IBM discontinues its junk, chiclet-keyboard PC Jr., of which it had sold only 240'000 during its 16 months on the market. [photo >]
1984 Irak y Jordania firman un tratado de delimitación de fronteras.
1982 Argentina tries to reconquer the Falkland Islands       ^top^
     Following the failure of Argentinean diplomatic efforts to reclaim the Falkland Islands from the British, an Argentine warship lands a party of "scrap dealers" on South Georgia Island, a dependency of the Falkland Islands British crown colony. The Argentine scrap dealers, known as such for their poor economic condition, plant the Argentinean flag on the scarcely populated island and reclaim it from the British.
      The Falklands Islands, known as the Islas Malvinas to South Americans, are located some eight hundred kilometers east of Argentina in the Atlantic Ocean. There are two large islands, East and West Falklands, and some two hundred small ones that make up the Falklands. South Georgia Island is located some 2200 km east of the Falklands. The British have long claimed South Georgia and the Falklands, based on their discovery by British navigator John Davis in 1592, but they have also been claimed and occupied at various times by Spain, France, and Argentina. In 1832, a seizure of the a US vessel near the Falklands led to a US military expedition to the area, and the British responded by formally claiming sovereignty and occupying the Falkland and South Georgia islands.
      In 1981, Argentina petitioned the United Nations for possession of the Falkland Islands, but the U.N. failed to comply, so in March 1982, Argentine dictator General Leopoldo Galtieri sent a party of civilians to South Georgia to reclaim the island. On April 2, this preliminary operation was followed by a full-scale military invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentine forces. When diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict failed, Britain sent a task force of thirty warships with supporting aircraft to the islands, and within six weeks had completely routed the Argentines, who surrendered on June 14, 1982. Some one thousand people died as a result of the Falklands War. In 1989, the approximately 2000 residents of the Falkland Islands reaffirmed their allegiance to Britain by rejecting a pro-Argentina political party.
1973 Dean tells Nixon, "There is a cancer growing on the Presidency"
^ 1970 National emergency declared in Cambodia
      The National Assembly grants "full power" to Premier Lon Nol, declares a state of emergency, and suspends four articles of the constitution, permitting arbitrary arrest and banning public assembly. Lon Nol and First Deputy Premier Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak had conducted a bloodless coup against Prince Norodom Sihanouk the day before and proclaimed the establishment of the Khmer Republic.
      Between 1970 and 1975, Lon Nol and his army, the Forces Armees Nationale Khmer (FANK), with US support and military aid, fought the communist Khmer Rouge for control of Cambodia. When the US forces departed South Vietnam in 1973, both the Cambodians and South Vietnamese found themselves fighting the communists alone. Without US support, Lon Nol's forces succumbed to the Khmer Rouge in April 1975. The victorious Khmer Rouge evacuated Phnom Penh and began reordering Cambodian society, which resulted in a killing spree and the notorious "killing fields." Eventually, hundreds of thousands of Cambodians were murdered or died from exhaustion, hunger, and disease. During the five years of bitter fighting, approximately 10 percent of Cambodia's 7 million people died.
1967 French Somaliland (Djibouti) votes to continue association with France
^ 1966 Seoul agrees to send additional troops to Vietnam War.
      The South Korean Assembly votes to send 20,000 additional troops to Vietnam to join the 21'000 Republic of Korea (ROK) forces already serving in the war zone. The South Korean contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. The effort was also known as the "many flags" program.
      South Korean forces had been in South Vietnam since August 1964, when Seoul sent a liaison unit to Saigon. The first contingent was followed in February 1965 by engineer units and a mobile hospital. Although initially assigned to non-combat duties, they came under fire on April 3. In September 1965, in response to additional pleas from Johnson, the South Korean government greatly expanded its troop commitment to Vietnam and agreed to send combat troops. By the close of 1969, over 47,800 Korean soldiers were actively involved in combat operations in South Vietnam. Seoul began to withdraw its troops in February 1972, following the lead of the United States as it drastically reduced its troop commitment in South Vietnam.
1965 Nicolae Ceausecu is appointed first secretary of Romanian Communist party (= dictator).
^ 1964 IBM approves System/360 project.
      After a grueling two-day session, a team of top IBM executives gave the go-ahead to follow through with an ambitious project, the System/360, a new line of compatible computers. The new product line replaced all of IBM's previous computers, a feat that industry observers compared to the auto industry's scrapping all of its existing car models for one new line of cars. The new line sought to remedy a serious problem facing IBM: Each machine the company made was unique and required its own custom software and programming. System/360 allowed programs from one machine to run on another. The company spent a reported $5 billion developing the line, and in the end, the gamble paid off. In the three years following the System/360's launch, IBM's staff grew by 50% to nearly 250'000 employees. The System/360 line would drive IBM's growth over the next three decades.
1963 Erupciona el volcán Irazú (Costa Rica).
1962 Por los acuerdos de Evián, Francia decide otorgar la independencia a Argelia, proclamada el 03 Jul.
^ 1952 The one millionth Jeep is produced.
      In 1939 the American Bantam Car Company submitted its original design for an all-terrain troop transport vehicle--featuring four-wheel drive, masked fender-mount headlights, and a rifle rack under the dash--to the US Armed Forces. The Army loved Bantam’s design, but the development contract for the vehicle was ultimately awarded to the Willys-Overland Company for its superior production capabilities. Bantam wound up fulfilling a government contract for three thousand vehicles during the war; but the Jeep, as designed by Willys-Overland, would become the primary troop transport of the US Army. Mass production of the Willys Jeep began after the US declaration of war in 1941. The name "Jeep" is reportedly derived from the Army’s request that car manufacturers develop a "General Purpose" vehicle. "Gee Pee" turned to "Jeep" somewhere along the battle lines. Another story maintains that the name came from a character in the Popeye cartoon who, like the vehicle, was capable of incredible feats. The Willys Jeep became a cultural icon in the US during World War II, as images of G.I.’s in "Gee Pees" liberating Europe saturated newsreels in movie theaters across the country. Unlike the Hummer of recent years, the Jeep was not a symbol of technological superiority but rather of the courage of the American spirit--a symbol cartoonist Bill Mauldin captured when he drew a weeping soldier firing a bullet into his broken down Willys Jeep. By 1945, 660'000 Jeeps had rolled off the assembly lines and onto battlefields in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Many remained abroad after the war, where their parts were integrated into other vehicles or their broken bodies were mended with colorful impromptu repairs. Wherever the Jeep roamed, it lived up to its design as a vehicle for general use. During the war, Jeep hoods were used as altars for field burials. Jeeps also were used as ambulances, tractors, and scout cars. After the war, surplus Jeeps found their way into civilian life as snowplows, field plows, and mail carriers. Willys-Overland released its first civilian Jeep model, called the CJ (Civilian Jeep) in 1945. .
^ 1949 Communist bosses of East Germany approve new constitution.
      In a precursor to the establishment of a separate, Soviet-dominated East Germany, the People's Council of the Soviet Zone of Occupation approves a new constitution. This action, together with the US policy of pursuing an independent pathway in regards to West Germany, contributed to the permanent division of Germany. The postwar status of Germany had become a bone of contention between the United States and the Soviet Union even before World War II ended. The Soviet Union wanted assurances that Germany would be permanently disarmed and demanded huge reparations from the postwar German government. The United States, however, was hesitant to commit to these demands. By 1945, many US officials began to see the Soviet Union as a potential adversary in the postwar world and viewed a reunified-and pro-West-Germany as valuable to the defense of Europe. When the war ended in May 1945, Russian forces occupied a large portion of Germany, including Berlin. Negotiations between the United States, Russia, Britain, and France resulted in the establishment of occupation zones for each nation. Berlin was also divided in zones of occupation. While both the United States and Russia publicly called for a reunified Germany, both nations were coming to the conclusion that a permanently divided Germany might be advantageous. For the United States, West Germany, with its powerful economy and potential military strength, would make for a crucial ally in the developing Cold War. The Soviets came to much the same conclusion in regards to East Germany. When, in 1949, the United States proposed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (a military and political alliance between America and several European states) and began to discuss the possible inclusion of a remilitarized West Germany in NATO, the Soviets reacted quickly. The new constitution for East Germany, approved by the People's Council of the Soviet Zone of Occupation (a puppet legislative body dominated by the Soviets), made clear that the Russians were going to establish a separate and independent East Germany. In October 1949, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was declared. Months earlier, in May, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) had been formally proclaimed. Germany remained a divided nation until the collapse of the communist government in East Germany and reunification in 1990.
1946 French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion become overseas departements.
1945 Adolf Hitler issues his so-called "Nero Decree," ordering the destruction of German facilities that could fall into Allied hands.
1944 II Guerra mundial: los alemanes ocupan Hungría.
1942 FDR orders men between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty.
1938 Guerra civil española: el Gobierno de Burgos concede a la ciudad de Teruel los títulos de "abnegada y mártir".
1937 Pius XI declares in the encyclical Divini redemptoris: 'There would be neither Socialism nor Communism today if the rulers of the nations had not scorned the teachings and material warnings of the Church.
1934 La Cámara de Representantes de los EE.UU. aprueba la concesión de la independencia a las islas Filipinas.
1931 Se crea el partido político Esquerra Republicana de Cataluña durante la Conferencia d'Esquerra.
^ 1931 Nevada legalizes gambling
     In an attempt to lift the state from the hard times of the Great Depression, the Nevada state legislature votes to legalize gambling. Set in the Great Basin desert, Nevada was one of the most barren states in the United States. It was not until 1859 that the discovery of the "Comstock Lode" precious metal reserves spurred the first substantial number of settlers into Nevada to exploit the territory’s mining opportunities. Five years later, during the Civil War, Nevada was hastily made the thirty-sixth state to strengthen the Union. At the beginning of the Great Depression, Nevada’s mines were in decline and its economy was in shambles.
      On 17 March 1931, the Nevada state legislature responded to population flight by taking the drastic measure of legalizing gambling, and, later in the year, divorce. Las Vegas, Nevada, established in 1905, has since become the gambling and entertainment capital of the world, world-famous for its casinos, nightclubs, and sporting events. In the first few decades after the legalization of gambling, organized crime flourished in Las Vegas. Today, state gambling taxes account for over 40 percent of Nevada’s overall tax revenues.
1920 US Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles for 2nd time refusing to ratify League of Nations' covenant (maintaining isolation policy), by a vote of 49-35, falling short of the two-thirds majority needed for approval.
1918 The US Congress authorizes time zones and approves daylight saving time
1917 The US Supreme Court upholds the eight-hour work day for railroads.
^ 1916 First US air combat mission begins
     Eight Curtiss "Jenny" planes of the First Aero Squadron take off from Columbus, Mexico, in the first combat air mission in US history. The First Aero Squadron, organized in 1914 after the outbreak of World War I, was on a support mission for the 7000 US soldiers who invaded Mexico to capture Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa. On 09 March 1916, Villa, who opposed the US support of Mexican President Venustiano Carranza, led a band of several hundred guerillas across the border and raided the town of Columbus, New Mexico, killing seventeen US citizens. On 15 March, under orders from President Woodrow Wilson, US Brigadier General John J. Pershing launched a punitive expedition into Mexico to capture Villa. Four days later, the First Aero Squadron was sent into Mexico to scout and relay messages for General Pershing. Despite numerous mechanical and navigational problems, the US flyers flew hundreds of missions for Pershing, and gained important experience that would later be used by the pilots over the battlefields of Europe. However, during the eleven-month mission, US forces failed to capture the elusive revolutionary and Mexican resentment over the US intrusion into their territory led to a diplomatic crisis. On 28 January 1917, with President Wilson under pressure from the Mexican government and more concerned with the war overseas, the US troops were ordered home.
1915 Pluto photographed for first time (although unknown at the time)
1913 Ocupación de Tetuán por las tropas españolas, durante la guerra de Marruecos.
1873 Se produce un terremoto en San Salvador.
1865 Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, begins — Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
1863 Marriage of Princess Alexandra Oldenburg of Denmark [01 Dec 1844 – 20 Nov 1925] to the future Edward VII [09 Nov 1841 – 06 May 1910] — about a commemorative painting.
^ 1853 Nankin tombe aux mains de rebelles.
      Une troupe de «rebelles aux cheveux longs» s'empare de Nankin, capitale de la Chine du sud. Ces hommes rejettent le port de la natte, imposé par les empereurs mandchous, et veulent instaurer en Chine une société plus juste et plus égalitaire. Ils appartiennent r la secte T'ai P'ing, ou secte de la Grande pureté, fondée par Hung Xiuquan. Ce fils de paysan a échoué aux examens pour devenir mandarin (énarque en quelque sorte). Il s'est consolé en tirant de la Bible la conviction qu'il est... le frère de Jésus Christ. A ses disciples, il promet l'avènement d'un «Royaume céleste de la Grande Paix» destiné à durer mille ans. Après la prise de Nankin, la rébellion des T'ai P'ing s'étend à toutes les provinces chinoises et fait vaciller le pouvoir.
      On pourrait s'attendre à l'émergence d'une nouvelle dynastie. Mais c'est compter sans les Occidentaux. Inquiets pour la bonne marche de leurs affaires, ces derniers vont apporter un soutien actif aux Mandchous. Face à cette alliance incongrue, les chefs des T'ai P'ing, incompétents et divisés, ne vont pas faire le poids. Le 19 juillet 1864, Nankin est reprise par les armées impériales. Les rebelles sont massacrés tandis que leur chef se suicide. La révolte aura fait environ 20 millions de victimes sans réussir r rénover l'empire. Les dirigeants de la Chine actuelle, confrontés r la secte Falun Gong, craignent qu'elle ne réédite (avec plus de succcs) les exploits des T'ai P'ing.
^ 1831 First US bank robbery
     The City Bank in downtown New York, New York, is robbed, marking the first recorded bank robbery in American history. The bank, located on New York’s newly booming Wall Street, lost $245'000 in the heist, which was considered to be a tremendous amount of money at the time. Fortunately, the thief, English immigrant Edward Smith, was quickly caught and much of the money was recovered. Smith was convicted and sentenced to five years of hard labor at Sing Sing Prison.
      Smith’s lack of success is rather common for bank robbers. The FBI reports that between 70-80 percent of bank robberies are solved. Bank robberies have typically been the province of professional thieves. However, beginning in the 1980s, banks became a target of drug addicts. Bank robberies hit an all-time high in the early 1990s; In Los Angeles alone, there were an astonishing 2641 attempts in 1992. Of course, most were amateur attempts. In fact, statistics show that the average bank robber doesn’t even carry a gun and a significant percentage never leave the bank with any money at all. Bank robbery is primarily a man’s crime. In 1995, women carried out only four percent of the robbery attempts on banks, although this figure doubled by the end of the century. The oldest bank robber on record was an 87-year-old man caught in Florida in October 1999.
     In the first recorded bank heist in US history, the doors of the City Bank on New York City’s Wall Street are opened by duplicate keys on a Saturday morning, and the perpetrator escapes with $245'000. In the criminal investigation of the obvious inside job, an Englishman named Edward Smith, but also known as Edward Jones and James Honeyman, is arrested and charged with the crime. He is subsequently convicted, and, on May 11, is sentenced to five years of hard labor at New York’s Sing Sing Prison. Some $185'000 of the loot is eventually recovered. Thirty-five years later, the "James Gang," America’s first well-organized robbery gang, holds up its first bank in Liberty, Missouri, and escapes with some $60'000 in gold and silver coins, paper money, and government securities. The James Gang, led by Jesse James and made up of ex-Confederate guerillas, becomes America’s most notorious outlaws over the next two decades--robbing banks, trains, stagecoaches, stores, and individuals of a total of some $300'000.
1823 Gracias a la rebelión de Santa Anna, el emperador de México Agustín I se ve obligado a abdicar y se instaura la República.
1822 Boston, Mass incorporated as a city.
1818 Acción de Cancha Rayada, por la independencia de Chile: dos mil españoles, mandados por Osorio, ponen en fuga a 13'000 soldados y diez mil caballos de las tropas de San Martín y O'Higgins.
1775 El sultán de Marruecos levanta el sitio que había puesto a Melilla.
1775 4 people buried by avalanche for 37 days, 3 survive (Italy)
1812 Se promulga la Constitución de 1812, primera en la historia de España.
1808 Carlos IV, rey de España, abdica y deja la corona a su hijo Fernando VII.
1641 A General Court ended which declared the Colony of Rhode Island a democracy. The Court also adopted a constitution granting religious freedom to all its citizens.
1565 La expedición del navegante y conquistador español Miguel López de Legazpi a Filipinas descubre la isla de Bohol, de la que aquél toma posesión en nombre de Felipe II.
1563 The Edict of Amboise granted a limited amount of freedom to French Protestants, thereby ending the First Huguenot War. — Se firma la paz de Amboise, por la que se pone fin a la primera guerra de religión entre los hugonotes y los católicos franceses.
1179 Se pone fin al Tercer Concilio de Letrán, tercer concilio ecuménico (universal) celebrado por la Iglesia de Occidente.
--721 -BC- first recorded lunar eclipse. Location, Babylon
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< 18 Mar 20 Mar >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 19 March:

2007 Ian Malcolm Robertson and 109 other persons, after a methane gas explosion in the Ulyanovskaya coal mine in Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo region, Siberia, belonging to the Yuzhkuzbassugol coal company, a subsidiary of the steel and mining conglomerate Evraz. The other 93 inside the mine are rescued. Among the dead are 20 members of the mine's senior management, including the head engineer and the head mechanic, accomparying Robertson, a British project manager of the British-based mine auditing firm IMC, who was visiting to evaluate coal reserves in the mine, in preparation for a stock exchange listing, and Robertson's translator. A new British degasification security system was to be installed on this day. —(070320)

2005 Jon Adams, 55, and suicide car bomber Omar Ahmad Abdullah Ali, an Egyptian oil worker, in Qatar, in the evening, at the Doha Players Theater, where Adams, a British teacher, had been directing a performance of Twelfth Night by Shakespeare.

2005 Geoffrey Brazier, 26, killed by a 6-meter-long shark while snorkelling at the Abrolhos Islands, 60 km west of Geraldton, Western Australia, during a stop of the ship of which he was the skipper, the 24-meter-long, six-cabin luxury catamaran Matrix, which was headed from Perth to the Kimberley region.

2005 Some 50 persons, by terrorist bomb of the “Baluchistan Liberation Army” at 22:30 (17:30 UT), outside the shrine of 19th century Shiite saint Pir Rakhel Shah, at Darbar Fateh Pur in Gandhawa municipality of district Jhal Magsi, near the town of Naseerabad, Baluchistan, Pakistan, as food was being distributed to pilgrims. Some 100 persons are injured

2005 Sixty-eight coal miners, after a 12:15 (04:15 UT) explosion in Pinglu district of the Shuozhou municipality, Shanxi Province, China, at the Xishui mine, in which 49 of the miners got trapped underground, while the other 19 were in a neighboring pit at the Kangjiayao mine, from which another 2 miners are pulled out alive. The Xishui mine was operating in defiance of a November 2004 order to shut down because of safety problems.
George Khouri
2004 George Elias Khouri, 20 [photo >], in the evening as he jogged in Jerusalem's French Hill district, near Hebrew University, was shot in drive-by militants of al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, and dies soon afterwards. George Khouri, an economics student at Hebrew University, was the son of prominent Israeli-Arab lawyer Elias Khouri, a well known activist for the Palestinian cause, who has often represented Palestinian militants jailed by Israel, and whose father was among 14 people killed in a Palestinian bomb attack Zion Square in central Jerusalem in 1975. The next day the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades announce: “"The fighters thought that he was a settler jogging in an area full of settlers. It was a mistake and we extend our apology to his family" and "We will consider him as a martyr like hundreds of Palestinians killed by Israeli occupation forces."
Lt. Tzemach2004 Ali al-Khatib, from wounds sustained the previous day when he was shot from behind by US troops manning a checkpoint in central Baghdad, Iraq, as the car in which he was drove away. He was a correspondent for Dubai-based satellite television channel Al Arabiya, whose cameraman Ali Abdelaziz, in the same car, was killed immediately.
2003 Zion Boshirian, 50, Israeli, shot in the head, in the afternoon, by gunmen of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, near Jenin, between the West Bank enclave settlements and Shaked and Movo Dotan, to which he was driving home alone, from his place of work as a tax adviser in Hadera.
2002 Tal Tzemach, 20 [< photo], Israeli lieutenant, and Ahmad Atik and Salah Kamil, of the military arm of Hamas, from nearby Jenin, who, in the early morning, fire their Kalashnikov rifles from a distance of about 30 meters at Tzemach (who is from Kibbutz Hulda) and 14 other Israeli soldiers from an elite (?!) unit camped out for the third night in the same spot of Hamam al-Malih area in the northern Jordan Valley, without adequate sentries. Within 10 minutes, Israeli reinforcements start arriving, then kill the assailants. The Israeli brigade headquarters had received specific warnings about the infiltration of two terrorists in this area several hours before the attack, but this information did not reach the soldiers in the field.
2002 Amjad al-Alami, 22, Palestinian journalist, shot by Israeli troops while standing outside his photography shop in Beit Omar, north of Hebron, West Bank.
Biagi2002 Marco Biagi, 51 [photo >], shot by two gunmen on a motorcycle as he arrived at his Bologna home on his bicycle at about 20:30. An economist and law professor at the University of Modena, he was an advisor to the Italian center-right government's labor minister, Roberto Maroni, of the anti-immigrant Northern League. The previous week, the cabinet had approved Biagi's proposals to amend the current labor law, to make it easier to fire workers. His last editorial, headlined "Chi frena le riforme è contro l'Europa," was published the very same day in Milan's Il Sole 24 Ore. Previously, other Italian government economy advisers have been the victims of attacks. To mention only two that were fatal: Ezio Tarantelli, professore di Economia del lavoro alla Sapienza e sindacalista della Cisl, fu ucciso nella notte tra il 26 e il 27 marzo 1985 in un attentato rivendicato dalle Brigate Rosse. Il 20 May 1999 Massimo D'Antona, 51 anni, fu freddato da due killer con tre colpi di pistola al torace. D'Antona, docente di diritto del lavoro all'Università La Sapienza, era stato sottosegretario ai Trasporti nel Governo Dini e aveva collaborato con il ministro del Lavoro Treu. Bassolino gli aveva affidato l'incarico di coordinare sia la commissione di esperti per la riforma degli ammortizzatori sociali sia il comitato consultivo per la riforma della legislazione del lavoro. L'omicidio D'Antona fu rivendicato dalle Brigate Rosse–Partito Comunista Combattente, e D'Antona era indicato come uno dei protagonisti della politica economica del Governo.
2002 Khattab, Saudi Chechen Resistance leader, by the Russian secret service by means of a poisoned letter.
2002 Suzanne Bartlett, 39, beaten with an iron pestle and strangled with a computer cord by her husband Lt. Col. David Bartlett Jr., 46, branch chief of the operations research group at the Center for Strategic Leadership at the US Army War College, as the was harassing him, calling him insulting names, and shoving him, after several days of quarelling about his viewing pornography on the Internet. At his court martial on 30 September 2002 he would, in a plea agreement, plead guilty to unpremeditated murder and be sentenced in October 2002 to prison for life without the possibility of parole..
2001 Baruch Cohen, 58, Israeli resident of the West Bank enclave settlement of Efrat, near Bethlehem, shot as he was driving. Since the beginning of the al-Aqsa intifada, 430 people have been killed, including 352 Palestinians, 59 Israeli Jews, and 19 others.
2001 Charles K. Johnson, 76, a retired aircraft mechanic for Pan Am, president of the Flat Earth Society (the Earth is a disk with the North Pole at the center and ice along the circumference, no Antarctica) [July 1980 article on his beliefs].[critical quoting of some Flat Earth vituperations]
Salamon, 1922
2000 George Salamon [15 Apr 1896–] O.M.I. [1922 photo, in Lebret >>>], Catholic priest of the Manitoba province of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, who made his vows on 02 August 1916 and was ordained a priest on 17 December 1921. At his death he was the oldest Oblate of Mary Immaculate in the world. —(080118)

1999 Al menos 60 personas por una bomba
que explota en el mercado central de Vladikavkaz, capital de la república rusa de Osetia del Norte. Causa heridas a más de 100 personas.
1999 José Agustín Goytisolo, poeta español.

1997 Willem de Kooning, 92, in East Hampton, NY, Dutch US Abstract Expressionist painter born on 24 April 1904. MORE ON DE KOONING AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.

1996 Three persons including Mom Luang Sarida Chakraband, 18, a distant relative of King Bhumibol Adulyadej [05 Dec 1927~] of Thailand; after the boat in which they were traveling is struck by a barge; on the Chao Phraya River, in Thailand. The girl's mother and father survive.

1994 José Coronel Urtecho, poeta nicaragüense.

1988 Two British soldiers, shot after they were dragged from a car and beaten by mourners attending an Irish Republican Army funeral in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1987 Louis de Broglie, 94, French mathematician, physicist (Nobel 1929) — Premio Nobel de Física 1929 por sus investigaciones acerca del comportamiento ondulatorio del electrón.

1984 Un supuesto agente de los GAL (Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación) es destrozado en Biarritz al estallar un coche-bomba.

1978 Gaston Julia, mathematician
.
1945 Some 800 killed in Kamikaze attack of USS Franklin off Japan The ship is saved.
^ 1945 Friedrich Fromm, general executed for plot against Hitler.
      The commander of the German Home Army, Gen. Friedrich Fromm, is shot by a firing squad for his part in the July plot to assassinate the Fuhrer. The fact that Fromm's participation was half-hearted did not save him. By 1945, many high-ranking German officials had made up their minds that Hitler must die. He was leading Germany in a suicidal war on two fronts, and they believed that assassination was the only way to stop him. According to the plan, coup d'etat would follow the assassination, and a new government in Berlin would save Germany from complete destruction at the hands of the Allies. All did not go according to plan, however. Col. Claus von Stauffenberg was given the task of planting a bomb during a conference that was to be held at Hitler's holiday retreat, Berchtesgaden (but was later moved to Hitler's headquarters at Rastenburg). Stauffenberg was chief of staff to Gen. Friedrich Fromm. Fromm, chief of the Home Army (composed of reservists who remained behind the front lines to preserve order at home), was inclined to the conspirators' plot, but agreed to cooperate actively in the coup only if the assassination was successful.
      On the night of 20 July, Stauffenberg planted an explosive-filled briefcase under a table in the conference room at Rastenburg. Hitler was studying a map of the Eastern Front as Colonel Heinz Brandt, trying to get a better look at the map, moved the briefcase out of place, farther away from where the Fuhrer was standing. At 12:42 the bomb went off. When the smoke cleared, Hitler was wounded, charred, and even suffered the temporary paralysis of one arm-but was very much alive. Meanwhile, Stauffenberg had made his way to Berlin to meet with his co-conspirators to carry out Operation Valkyrie, the overthrow of the central government. Once in the capital, General Fromm, who had been informed by phone that Hitler was wounded but still alive, ordered Stauffenberg and his men arrested, but Fromm was located and locked in an office by Nazi police. Stauffenberg and Gen. Friedrich Olbricht began issuing orders for the commandeering of various government buildings.
      Then the news came through from Herman Goering that Hitler was alive. Fromm, released from confinement by officers still loyal to Hitler, and anxious to have his own association with the conspirators covered up quickly, ordered the conspirators, including two Stauffenberg aides, shot for high treason that same day. (Gen. Ludwig Beck, one of the conspiracy leaders and an older man, was allowed the "dignity" of committing suicide.) Fromm's last-ditch effort to distance himself from the plot failed. Within the next few days, on order of Heinrich Himmler, who was now the new head of the Home Army, Fromm was arrested. In February 1945, he was tried before the People's Court and denigrated for his cowardice in refusing to stand up to the plotters. But because he went so far as to execute Stauffenberg and his partners on the night of 20 July, he was spared the worst punishment afforded convicted conspirators-strangulation on a meat hook. He is shot by a firing squad on 19 March.
1942 José Díaz Ramos, secretario general del PCE.
1930 Arthur James Balfour, 81, British Foreign Secretary.
1922 Mathews, mathematician.
1918 Edward William Stott, British artist born in 1859. — link to images.
1896 George Richmond, English painter born on 28 March 1809. MORE ON RICHMOND AT ART “4” MARCH 28 with links to images.
1862 Wilhelm Friedrich Schadow, German artist born on 06 September 1862. — more with link to an image.
1687 Robert Cavelier [LaSalle] French explorer murdered in what is now TX
1685 Sluze, mathematician.
1677 Anthonie van Borssom (or Borssum), Dutch artist born in 1631.
< 18 Mar 20 Mar >
^  Births which occurred on a 19 March:

click for more about LTK2003 Licensed to Kill Inc., receives its corporate certification from the Virginia State Corporation Commission, which says that it is required to accept any application for incorporation as long as the application meets certain basic requirements, the proposed name isn't already used by another company, and the applicant pays the filing fee. The consumer activist group Essential Action made the application just to show how easy it is to incorporate a company in the US and how the government has literally given corporations a license to do whatever they want, regardless of the threats to public health and safety. It chose Virginia because the state is biased in favor of the tobacco industry. According to the filing, Licensed to Kill was created expressly for "the manufacture and marketing of tobacco products in a way that each year kills over 400'000 Americans and 4.5 million other persons worldwide." The Web site features a message purporting to be from Licensed to Kill's chairman and chief executive, Rich Fromdeth, and touts the company's cigarette brands, including Global Massacre, Genocide, Serial Killer, WOMD (short for Weapon of Mass Destruction), and, “coming soon”: Throat Hole, Chemo, Grim Reaper, Morgue. — LTK Articles of Incorporation (PDF)
2001 The Pentium 3 microprocessor for notebook computers is introduced by Intel, their fastest (1 Ghz) mobile microprocessor to date. At this time, their fastest microprocessor for desktops, the Pentium 4, runs at 1.5 Ghz.
1951 The Caine Mutiny, war novel by Herman Wouk [27 May 1915~], is published. —(080603)
1943 Mario Molina, químico y físico estadounidense de origen mexicano de origen, Premio Nobel de Química 1995, por sus investigaciones sobre la capa de ozono.
1933 Philip Roth, US novelist. —(080603)
1928 Hans Kung, Swiss Catholic priest, theologian, and author. —(080703)
1923 Henry Morgentaler, guilty of the crime of being born a Jew in Poland, who would become a Holocaust survivor, an anti-Zionist, a physician, a Canadian immigrant, and a prominent promotor and participant of another, even more repugnant Holocaust, that of children guilty of the crime of not yet having been born. —(080603)
1918 Eduardo Mendoza Varela, poeta y periodista colombiano.
1916 José Cepeda Adán, historiador español.
1913 Hernán Siles Zuazo, presidente de Bolivia.
1910 Jacob Wolfowitz, mathematician.
1908 Michael Rothenstein, English painter, maker of reliefs, lithographer, and designer, who died 06 July 1993. — links to images.
1906 Adolf Eichman Ruhr Germany, Nazi Gestapo officer, criminal against humanity. Israel would kidnap him in South America where he was hiding after WW II, judge him, and, on 31 May 1962, hang him.
1905 Albert Speer, German Nazi minister for war production. He would be sentenced to 20 years in prison at the Nuremberg war crimes trial, and die on 01 September 1981.
1904 John J. Sirica, United States district court judge; presided at trial of Watergate burglars (1973). He died on 14 August 1992.
1903 La Verdad, periódico de Murcia, que sigue publicándose en la actualidad, publica su primer número.
1900 Frederic Joliot-Curie, French Nobel Prize-winning physicist; shared prize with his wife, Irene. He died on 14 August 1958. Named after them is the curie unit of measurement of radioactivity. In modern nuclear physics it is precisely defined as the amount of a substance in which 37 billion atoms per second undergo radioactive disintegration. A curie was originally defined as the amount of radon in equilibrium with 1 g of radium, or the amount of any radioactive substance that undergoes the same number of radioactive disintegrations in the same time as 1 g of radium. So defined, the unit is still used as a measure of radiation dosage in medicine. In the International System of Units, (SI) the becquerel is the preferred unit of measure for radioactivity. One curie equals 3.7 x 10^10 becquerels.
1892 James Van Fleet, US commander who led troops in Normandy on D-Day (06 June 1944) in World War II. He died on 23 September 1992.
1891 Earl Warren Cal, (Gov-R-Cal) / 14th US Supreme Court chief justice (05 October 1953 – 23 June 1969). He died on 09 July 1974.
1891 Joseph Sima, French artist who died on 24 July 1971.
1864 Charles Marion Russell
, US painter who died on 28 March 1917.. MORE ON RUSSELL AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1862 Kneser, mathematician.
1862 Ruggero Panerai, Italian artist who died on 26 October 1923.
1860 William Jennings Bryan , Democratic and Populist leader, "The Great Commoner" orator/statesman, gifted orator and three-time presidential candidate was born in Salem, Illinois. Trained as a lawyer, Bryan never abandoned his Midwestern values. His deeply held religious beliefs and his consistent defense of the ordinary American earned him the moniker "the Great Commoner." Defense lawyer Clarence Darrow made a monkey of him in the “Monkey Trial” in which Brian, as prosecutor, attacked the theory of evolution. He died shortly afterwards on 26 July 1925.
1851 Roque Saenz Peña, president of Argentina (1910-1914)
1849 Alfred von Tirpitz, German admiral and chief builder of German navy before World War I. He died on 06 March 1930. A powerful German battleship was named after him and commissioned in February 1941. The Tirpitz spent its last year in repairs and being subject to Allied bombing, which finally destroyed it on 12 November 1944.
1848 Wyatt Earp, US frontiersman; became lawman and gambler. He died on 13 January 1929.
1847 Albert Pinkham Ryder, US painter who died on 28 Mar 1917. MORE ON RYDER AT ART “4” MARCH 28 with links to images.
1843 Joseph Wopfner, Austrian artist who died on 23 July 1927.
^ 1842 Les Ressources de Quinola, play by Balzac, opens to empty house.
      French writer Honoré de Balzac's play Les Ressources de Quinola opens to an empty house thanks to a failed publicity stunt. Hoping to create a buzz for the play, the writer circulated a rumor that tickets were sold out. Unfortunately, most of his fans stayed home. By this time, Balzac was already a well-known literary figure.
      Born in Tours, France, on 20 May 1799, Balzac was educated in Paris, where he started writing plays at the age of 20 while working as a lawyer's apprentice. His plays bombed, and he took to writing thrillers under an assumed name. Needing money, he launched disastrous ventures in printing and silver mining and went bankrupt. While struggling under his debts, he resumed writing, and by 1829 he was publishing under his own name, convinced that he was a genius. By 1830, he had become a celebrated writer who frequented literary salons. Balzac drove himself ruthlessly, working 14 to 16 hours at a stretch, aided by some 50 cups of coffee a day. He completed 90 novels, all part of a single series, La Comédie Humaine, and died in Paris in on 18 August 1850 at age 51. He helped to establish the orthodox classical novel and is generally considered to be one of the greatest fiction writers of all time.
BALZAC ONLINE:
Balzac
  • La Comédie humaine
  • Le Chef d'Oeuvre inconnu
  • Le Colonel Chabert
  • · Le Colonel Chabert
  • Le Colonel Chabert
  • Le Colonel Chabert
  • Le Colonel Chabert
  • Les Chouans
  • El Verdugo
  • Eugénie Grandet
  • Histoire des treize ; Ferragus ; La Duchesse de Langeais ; La fille aux yeux d’or
  • Jésus-Christ en Flandres
  • L'Elixir de Longue Vie
  • L’envers de l’histoire contemporaine -- Les précepteurs en Dieu
  • L’illustre Gaudissart ; La muse du département
  • Melmoth réconcilié
  • Sarrasine
  • La cousine Bette
  • La femme de trente ans
  • La Fille aux Yeux d'Or
  • La peau de chagrin
  • Le cabinet des antiques
  • Le cousin Pons
  • Le père Goriot
  • Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes
    Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 1,
  • Traité des Excitants modernes
  • Une Passion dans le Désert
  • Albert Savarus
  • Le bal de Sceaux
  • La maison du chat-qui-pelote
  • La bourse
  • La vendetta
  • Madame Firmiani
  • Une double famille
  • La paix du ménage
  • La fausse maîtresse
  • Etude de femme
    Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 2,
  • Mémoires de deux jeunes mariées
  • Une fille d'Eve
  • La femme abandonnée
  • La grenadière
  • Le message
  • Gobseck
  • Autre étude de femme
    Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 3,
  • Clic pour La femme de trente ans
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    Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 3-4,
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    Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 4,
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    Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 1,
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    Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 2,
  • Clic pour Les célibataires : le curé de Tours
  • Clic pour Les parisiens en province : L'illustre Gaudissart
  • Clic pour Les célibataires : un ménage de garçon
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    Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 3,
  • Clic pour Les rivalités. 1, La vieille fille
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    Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 4,
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    Etudes de moeurs. 3e livre, Scènes de la vie parisienne. T. 1,
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    Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes.
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    Etudes de moeurs. 3e-4e livres, Scènes de la vie parisienne et scènes de la vie politique. T. XII (sic),
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  • Etudes de moeurs. 5e livre, Scènes de la vie militaire et scènes de la vie de campagne.
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    Etudes de moeurs. 6e livre, Scènes de la vie militaire et scènes de la vie de campagne.
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    Etudes philosophiques. T. 1,
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    Etudes philosophiques.
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    Etudes philosophiques et études analytiques.
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    Etudes de moeurs. 3e livre, Scènes de la vie parisienne. Les parents pauvres. 1,
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    Scènes de la vie parisienne. Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. 4,
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    Scènes de la vie politique. L'envers de l'histoire contemporaine.
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    Scènes de la vie de campagne.
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    Etudes analytiques.
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    Scènes de la vie parisienne. Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. 4,
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    IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
  • Albert Savarus
  • The Alkahest,
  • The Atheist's Mass
  • Beatrix,
  • The Brotherhood of Consolation,
  • Bureaucracy,
  • Catherine de' Medici,
  • The Chouans,
  • Christ in Flanders
  • Colonel Chabert
  • The Country Doctor
  • Cousin Betty
  • Cousin Pons
  • A Daughter of Eve,
  • The Deputy of Arcis,
  • A Distinguished Provincial at Paris
  • Droll Stories, vol.1
  • Droll Stories, vol.2
  • Droll Stories vol.3
  • The Duchesse de Langeais
  • Eugenie Grandet,
  • Facino Cane
  • Father Goriot
  • Ferragus,
  • Gambara,
  • The Girl with the Golden Eyes,
  • Gobseck
  • An Historical Mystery,
  • The Human Comedy (complete),
  • The Lesser Bourgeoisie,
  • The Lily of the Valley,
  • Lost Illusions Part 1 (The Two Poets)
  • Lost Illusions Part 2 (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris)
  • Lost Illusions Part 3 (Eve and David)
  • Louis Lambert,
  • The Magic Skin
  • Maitre Cornelius,
  • Maitre Cornelius,
  • The Marriage Contract,
  • Massimilla Doni,
  • Modeste Mignon,
  • An Old Maid,
  • A Passion in the Desert
  • Pierrette,
  • The Rise and Fall of Cesar Birotteau,
  • Sarrasine
  • Scenes from a Courtesan's Life
  • Secrets of the Princesse de Cadignan,
  • Seraphita,
  • Sons of the Soil,
  • The Two Brothers,
  • Ursula,
  • The Vicar of Tours,
  • The Village Rector
    Auf Deutsch:
  • Die schöne Imperia
  • Wie der Seneschall mit der Jungfernschaft seiner Frau zu kämpfen hatte
  • 1821 Sir Richard Burton, (in Trieste to expatriate English parents) English scholar, Orientalist, explorer, writer, and translator. He was the first European to discover Lake Tanganyika and to go into hitherto forbidden Muslim cities. He wrote 43 books about his explorations and almost 30 of translations, including an unexpurgated Arabian Nights. Burton died on 20 October 1890. — Not to be confused with the unrelated British actor “Richard Burton” (real name Richard Walter Jenkins Jr., 10 Nov 1925 – 05 Aug 1984) — BURTON ONLINE: The Jew, the Gypsy, and El Islam The Kasidah of Haji Abdu El-Yezdi — (Translator of:) The Arabian NightsThe Arabian Nights — Catullus's CarminaVikram and the Vampire: Classic Hindu Tales of Adventure, Magic, and RomanceVikram and the Vampire: Classic Hindu Tales of Adventure, Magic, and Romance — (Co-translator of:) Priapeia (with the Latin)
    1813 David Livingstone, Scottish missionary, writer, translator, explorer: the Livingstone of "Dr. Livingstone, I presume," spoken by Henry M. Stanley who found Livingstone in Africa after a two year search. Livingstone ceased living in this world on 01 May 1873. — LIVINGSTONE ONLINE: Missionary Travels and Researches in South AfricaA Popular Account of Dr. Livingstone's Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Tributaries, and of the Discovery of Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858-1864
    1809 (Julian date: go to 31 March Gregorian) Nicolay Vasilyevich Gogol.
    1807 Louis Pierre Verwee, Belgian artist who died in November 1877.
    1803 Felice Schiavoni, Italian artist who died on 30 January 1881.
    1803 Christine Marie Lovmand, Danish artist who died on 10 April 1872.
    1775 Ramsay Richard Reinagle, British painter who died on 17 November 1862.more with link to images.
    1769 Jacques François José Schwebach Desfontaines, French artist who died on 10 December 1823.
    1748 Elias Hicks, US Quaker minister; advocated the abolition of slavery He died on 27 February 1830.
    1712 or 1711 Carl Gustav Pilo, Swedish artist who died on 02 March 1792. — more with links to images.
    1681 Hendrik van Limborch (or Limborgh), Dutch artist who died on 03 February 1759.
    ^ 1629 (09 Mar Julian) Aleksey Mikhaylovich, Moscow Russian in full who would grow up to be tsar of Russia from 1645 to his death on 08 February (29 Jan Julian) 1676.
          The son of Michael, the first Romanov monarch of Russia (reigned 1613–1645), Alexis received a superficial education from his tutor Boris Ivanovich Morozov [1590 – 11 Nov 1661] before acceding to the throne at the age of 16. Morozov, who was also Alexis' brother-in-law, initially took charge of state affairs, but in 1648 a popular uprising in Moscow forced Alexis to exile Morozov. Alexis bowed to the rebels' demands and convened a land assembly (zemski sobor), which in 1649 produced a new Russian code of laws (Sobornoye Ulozheniye), which legally defined serfdom. Morozov's place as the court favorite was taken first by Prince N.I. Odoyevsky and then by the patriarch Nikon [1605 – 27 Aug 1681].
          Russia accepted sovereignty over the Dnieper Cossacks in January 1654 and, in the following May, entered into a drawn-out war with Poland. This also involved a conflict with Sweden from 1656 to 1661. By the Treaty of Andrusovo (09 February 1667), which ended the Polish war, Russia won possession of Smolensk, Kiev, and the section of Ukraine lying east of the Dnieper River. A notable event of Alexis' reign was the schism in the Russian Orthodox church. The tsar backed Nikon's efforts to revise Russian liturgical books and certain rituals that during the preceding century had departed from their Greek models. Although before long he became estranged from Nikon, whose violent temper and authoritarian inclinations had earned him many enemies, the revisions that Nikon initiated were retained, and the opponents of the reform were excommunicated. After the disgrace of Nikon, Afanasy Lavrentyevich Ordyn-Nashchokin [1605-1681] was the tsar's principal adviser until Artamon Sergeyevich Matveyev [1625 – 25 May 1682] took his place in 1671.
          During the reign of Alexis the peasants were tied to the land and to the landlord and were thus finally enserfed; the land assemblies were allowed to fall into gradual disuse; and the professional bureaucracy and regular army grew in importance. Because of Alexis' encouragement of trade with the West, foreign influences also began to crack the hitherto fairly solid wall separating Russia from its European neighbours. Dissatisfaction with his reign centred in the cities (which chafed under the economic competition of foreigners) and among the peasantry (which was deprived of the last vestiges of freedom). This social dissatisfaction expressed itself in frequent rebellions, the most savage of which was the peasant uprising on the eastern borderlands led by Stenka Razin [1630 – 16 Jun 1671] from 1667 to 1671. Virtually all the sources agree that Alexis was a gentle, warmhearted, and popular ruler. His main fault was weakness; throughout most of his reign, matters of state were handled by favorites, some of whom were incompetent or outright fools. He was married twice, first to Mariya Ilinichna Miloslavskaya (with whom he had two sons, the future tsars Fyodor III [09 Jun 1661 – 07 May 1682] and Ivan V [06 Sep 1666 – 08 Feb 1896], as well as several daughters), then to Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina, whose son became Peter I the Great [09 Jun 1672 – 08 Feb 1725].
    1627 Alexander (Alart) Coosemans, Flemish artist born who died on 28 August 1689.
    1604 Juan IV, rey de Portugal.
    1601 Alonso Cano, Granada, Spain, painter, sculptor, architect who died on 03 September 1667. — MORE ON CANO AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1593 Georges de La Tour, French painter who died on 30 January 1652. MORE ON DE LA TOUR AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1591 Dirk Hals, Dutch painter who died on 17 May 1656. — MORE ON HALS AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    Johannes Magnus1488 Johannes Magnus.    ^top^
          He would be a Swedish Roman Catholic archbishop and historian, and die on 22 March 1544. [image >]
          Johannes Magnus, Sveriges siste katolske ärkebiskop, historieskrif vare. Född i Linköping den 19 mars 1488. Föräldrar: Magnus Pederson Store och Kristina Kruse.
    — Johannes Magnus, det senare namnet latinska öfversättning af släktnamnet Store, hade studerat i Tyskland, Holland och Frankrike och af Sten Sture d. y. blifvit skickad som sändebud till Rom samt, efter riksföreståndarens död, där vistats som enskild man.
          I mars 1523 sändes han af d. v. påfven Hadrianus VI till Sverige för att motarbeta det där öfverhandtagande kåtteriet och å påfvens vägnar vaka öfver kyrkans angelägenheter. Här mottogs han på det vänligaste af Gustaf I och valdes i sept. s. å. till ärkebiskop. Just som han stod färdig att ånyo begifva sig till Rom för att erhålla påfvens konfirmation så väl på sitt eget som några andra biskopars utväljande, anlände ett bref från den under tiden aflidne Hadrianus VI:s efterträdare, Klemens VII, som under hotelse med kyrkans strängaste straff befallde, att den landsflyktige Gustaf Trolle genast skulle mottagas i Sverige och insättas i sitt ämbete. Den nyvalde ärkebiskopens broder, Olaus Magnus, afsändes därför till Rom för att erhålla den påfliga stadfästelsen. Men hans värf misslyckades och allt hvad han kunde vinna var, att Johannes M. förordnades att förestå ärkestiftet, tills domen öfver Gustaf Trolle blifvit upphäfd.
         1524 företog ärkebiskopen en visitationsresa kring sitt stift omgifven af tvåhundra följesmän, med all den medeltidsståt, en ärkebiskop kunde utveckla. Detta väckte Gustafs missnöje, hvilken vid hans återkomst gaf honom en skarp tillrättavisning och anbefallde honom, att, i stället för att sysselsätta sig med världslig prål, själf eller med andras hjälp öfversätta bibeln. M. uppdrog åfven 1525 åt domkapitlen att verkställa en sådan. M., som i grund och botten var en mild och svag man, började emellertid i hemlighet motarbeta den reformatoriska rörelsen i Sverige, hvarigenom han blef ovän med konungen, kvilken sände ärkebiskopen i diplomatiska uppdrag till Ryssland och Polen 1526. M. aktade sig sedan för att återvända hem.
          1533 blef han konfirmerad och vigd till ärkebiskop i Uppsala.
          1537 vistades han i Venedig, sysselsatt med historieskrifaing, och bosatte sig 1541 i Rom, där han afled d. 22 mars 1544.
    M:s skrifter Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus och Historia metropolitanæ ecclesiæ Upsaliensis innehålla åtskilligt af vikt för svenska historien, men också en mängd från andra författare okritiskt tagna uppgifter och afsiktlig dikt.

     
    Feasts which occur on a 19 March:
    (earliest possible date for Holy Thursday)
    — 2972 Holy Thursday
    — 2505 Holy Thursday
    — 2437 Holy Thursday
    — 2353 Holy Thursday
    — 2285 Holy Thursday
    — 1818 Holy Thursday
    — 1761 Holy Thursday
    — 1693 Holy Thursday
    — 1598 Holy Thursday

     
    Feasts of every 19 March:
    Saint Joseph, honnête charpentier à Nazareth, a été désigné par l'Eglise catholique comme le patron des artisans. Il fut l'époux de Marie et le père nourricier du Christ. Il apparaît dans l'iconographie religieuse comme un solide chef de famille, veillant sur l'enfant et sa mère, les amenant en Egypte pour fuir la jalousie infanticide du roi Hérode, et, après la mort de celui-ci, retournant avec eux à Nazareth. (férié en Italie, Espagne, Iles Canaries)
    — San Marcos
    — Australia: Canberra Day
     

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Il faut battre son frère tant qu'il est chaud.”
    — Balzac [20 May 1799 – 18 Aug 1850]
    “Où finit l'employé commence le fonctionnaire, où finit le fonctionnaire commence l'homme d'Etat.” — Balzac
    “No one can earn a million dollars honestly.” — William Jennings Bryan [19 Mar 1860 – 26 Jul 1925] — {depending on when he said that, it could be the equivalent of from ten to twenty million dollars of 2007} — See Inflation Conversion Factors for Years 1665 to estimated 2013]

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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4mar/h4mar19.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4mar/h4mar19.html
    http://www.geocities.com/quermaz/history/h4mar/h4mar19.html
    updated Monday 16-Feb-2009 16:50 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.00 Friday 18-Jan-2008 14:16 UT
    v.7.21 Tuesday 20-Mar-2007 15:46 UT
    v.6.20 Thursday 23-Mar-2006 2:58 UT
    Monday 21-Mar-2005 4:15 UT
    Saturday 20-Mar-2004 19:40 UT

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