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Events, deaths, births, of MAR 14
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY   ART “4” MAR 14    wikipedia
• “Soldiers of the glorious Finnish army!”... • 6 wrongly imprisoned Irishmen relased... • USSR leader Gorbachev now president too... • The FBI's “10 Most Wanted” list... • Publisher of Ulysses is born... • Max Brand's first novel... • Albert Einstein is born... • More bombing of North Vietnam... • Possibility of withdrawing US troops from Vietnam... • First US War Bonds... • A vote for 2nd Bank of US... • Germans recapture Kharkov... • Death for Kennedy's murderer's murderer... • Heaviest bomb of WW II... • Stalin has fellow Bolshevik executed... • Inventor of Mark I computer dies... • Birth of child who would die of old age at age 7... • Microsoft goes public... • Power Mac computer...
^  On a 14 March:

2008 Qatar's first Catholic church, the Church of the Blessed Mother Mary, is inaugurated in the area of Abu Hamour near Doha, in the presence of. Swiss archbishop Paul Hinder O.F.M. Cap. [22 Apr 1942~], apostolic vicar of Arabia and of Indian cardinal Ivan Dias [14 Apr 1946~], prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. The pastor of the church is Filipino Father Tomasito Veneracion, who for years has celebrated mass for Qatar's 100'000 Catholics, who are among the half of Qatar's 800'000 inhabitants who are immigrant workers, including Christian Indians, Filipinos, Europeans, Arabs, who are, besides Catholics, Orthodox Coptics, Anglicans, and other Protestants. The church's capacity is 2700, the biggest Catholic church in the Arabian peninsula. It is part of a complex containing five other churches of different denominations. The land was donated by Qatar's ruler, sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani [1952~]; the funds for the construction of the church came from contributions by Catholics who live in Qatar. —(080307)
2006 Trial begins in a Califormia federal court for Barry Byron "The Baron" Mills, Tyler Davis “The Hulk” (or “Bull”) Bingham, Edgar Wesley "The Snail" Hevle and Christopher Overton Gibson, leaders of the multi-prison gang Aryan Brotherhood, accused of ordering or participating in 15 murders or attempted murders since 1980. They were indicted in February 2002 (PDF) under the federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization laws together with 36 other gang members, of which one commited suicide and the others are to be subjected to later trials. This case, the result of four years of investigation by numerous agencies, is the biggest US federal death penalty case ever.
     The murders of which they are accused include those of:
1) 20 May 1979: John Marzloff in prison in Atlanta, Georgia (for allegedly cheating AB leader Tommy Silverstein in a drugs deal).
2) 08 June 1980: Robert Hogan in Illinois.
3) 13 February 1983: Richard Barnes in California.
4) 23 September 1983: Gregory Keefer in Illinois.
Rodríguez victorious 14 March 20045) 06 October 1983: Richard Andreasen in California.
6) 15 October 1988: Thomas Lamb in an Illinois prison (hanged to make it look like suicide).
7) 09 August 1989: Arva Lee Ray in Lompoc prison, California.
8) 28 December 1992: William McKinney (by beating with a metal bar in Lompoc prison) in California.
9) 25 August 1995: Charles Leger in Kansas.
10) 07 February 1996: Arthur Ruffo in California.
11) 25 July 1997: Aaron Nash in California.
12) 28 August 1997: Frank Joyner in California and Abdul Salaam in Pennsylvania.
13) 18 May 1999: Terry Walker in Illinois. — (060316)

2004 Elections in Spain to the 350 seat Cortes Generales. Blamed for provoking the 11 March terrorist bombings in Madrid by supporting the US war against Iraq, the governing Partido Popular (PP), which had 183 seats, retains only 148..The Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) goes from 125 seats to 164, so that, with support from at least two minor parties, its leader, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero [< photo], will be able to form the new government. Convergéncia i Unió (CiU) obtains 10 seats, Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) 8, Partido Nacionalista Vasco (PNV) 7, Izquierda Unida (IU) 5, Coalición Canaria (CC) 3, Bloque Nacionalista Galego (BNG) 2, and 1 each for Eusko Alkartasuna (EA), Chunta Aragonesista (CHA), and Nafarroa Bai (Na-Bai)..85 other parties obtain so few votes (from 50 for the Grupo Político Honradez Absoluta Española, GPHAE, to 181'261 for the Partido Andalucista, PA, out of the total of 25'846'620 votes cast, of which 406'789 are blank and 261'590 are invalid) that they get no seat in the Cortes Generales. (complete list of registered Spanish political parties, most of which got no votes at all)(complete PDF list of candidates)

2004 Presidential vote in Russia, won by authoritarian Putin, 51, (with 71%), who has insured his reelection by dominating the news media, pressuring voters, and persecuting opponents. 64% of the electorate voted. Communist candidate Nikolai Kharitonov got 14% of the vote, nationalist candidate Sergei Glazyev 4.1%, liberal candidate Irina Khakamada 3.9%, Oleg Malyshkin 2%, and Sergei Mironov 0.8%. Some 4% of voters checked the box marked "against all."

DZTK price chart2003 The previous day, office supply Daisytek International Corporation (DZTK) announced that its US creditor banks waived the requirement that Daisytek raise $20 million by 15 May 2003. DZTK is upgraded by First Albany from Neutral to Buy. On the NASDAQ 3.1 million of the 18.5 million DZTK shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $1.53 to an intraday high of $2.44 and close at $2.22. They had traded as low as $1.09 on 07 March 2003, and as high as $16.96 as recently as 01 July 2002, after starting trading an $7.66 on 15 May 2000. [3~year price chart >]
2003 The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention annnounces the results of their analysis of more than 97% of all state death certificates issued in the US in 2001. Life expectancy reaches an all-time high of 77.2 years overall, 74.4 years for men, 79.8 years for women. Previous reports mention the expectation that today's US children will become the first generation to have a lower life expectancy than their parents, due to obesity resulting from lack of physical exercise and excess of junk foods.
2003 In Vienna, the Albertina Museum, closed since 1994, reopens after a thorough renovation. — more

2002 Vojislav Kostunica, president of Yugoslavia (consisting of Serbia and Montenegro), and Milo Djukanovic, president of Montenegro, sign an agreement (which must be ratified by both parliaments) to drop the name “Yugoslavia” and replace it by “Serbia and Montenegro” as a loose federation.
2002 In its April issue, National Geographic announces that in March 2001, archaeologist William Saturno serendipously discovered the oldest (approximately 100 AD) intact Maya mural, under a pyramid in a looters' tunnel where he had sought shelter from the heat, near San Bartolo, Petén, Guatemala. Most of the mural is believed to be still buried. [< artist's rendering of the uncovered part of the mural]
2002 The US Senate Judiciary Committee, 10 Democrats to 9 Republicans, rejects President George W. Bush (Jr.)'s nomination of conservative Mississippi judge Charles W. Pickering Sr., 64, to a federal appeals court. Some of Pickering's past actions were anti-Black. For example at a 1994 trial Pickering successfully pressured prosecutors to drop a charge against the one Ku Klux Klan defendant who was convicted, as mandating too severe a sentence.

DRTK price chart2001 Duratek stock plunges.
      At 08:17 ET Duratek postpones release of 4th quarter and year-end results. Its stock (DRTK) falls $3.37 to $3.04. It had traded as high as $19.19 on 22 April 1996 and its previous low in the last 5 years had been $4.50 on 5 April 1999.
      Then at 18:27 ET there is announced an ongoing investigation of Duratek for possible violations of federal securities laws.
     Duratek provides waste treatment solutions for radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and other wastes for commercial and government waste operations. It had acquired Waste Management Nuclear Services. [5–year stock price graph >]
. 2001 First National Heroes Day of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, though the nation does not yet have any officially designated hero. A likely candidate might be Joseph Chatoyer, chief of the so-called Black Carib Afro-Indians who fought British colonialists in the 18th century.
2000 La empresa dependiente del Instituto Roslin de Edimburgo, creadora en 1996 de la oveja clónica Dolly, anuncia el nacimiento de Millie, Christa, Alexis, Carrel y Dotcom, los cinco primeros cerdos clónicos del mundo.
2000 Contemporary painting by Rackstraw Downes [1939~] Cambridge, NY - Autumn is auctioned at Sotheby's, New York, for some $15'000
1995 Thomas Ludger Dupré is appointed Ordinary Bishop of the Diocese of Springfield (in Massachusetts), of which he was appointed Auxiliary Bishop on 07 April 1990, being consecrated a bishop on 31 May 1990. He succeeds Bishop John Aloysius Marshall [26 Apr 1928 – 03 Jul 1994]. Born on 10 November 1933, Dupré was ordained a priest of that same diocese on 23 May 1959. He would resign as Bishop of Springfield on 11 February 2004 “for health reasons”, a day after the Springfield newspaper The Republican publishes allegations that Dupré abused sexually two altar boys in the 1970s. After his retirement, Dupré would be treated at St. Luke Institute, a private Catholic psychiatric hospital in Maryland where the Boston Archdiocese sent many priests for treatment after sexual abuse allegations were made against them. The institute treats priests with emotional, behavioral, and psychological problems. One Dupré's accusers was in 1977 a boy of 12 and a refugee immigrant to the US when his family was befriended by Dupré, who offered to teach the child English. The boy arrived in the United States in 1975 with many family members, but his father was unable to come with them. The family, which was Catholic and sponsored by a parish of the diocese of Springfield, came there from a Pennsylvania refugee center. The accuser says that the abuse included oral and anal sex, and that Father Durpé took him traveling out of state and to Canada. They bought pornography together and the abuse lasted until the boy began dating a girl in high school, he says. The allegations include that this boy introduced Dupré to a friend aged 13 who also was abused; and that Dupré plied the two boys with wine and cognac before raping them; and that when Dupré was about to be appointed auxiliary bishop, he contacted the men and told them he would not accept the position unless they remained quiet. The two men agreed to remain silent, and kept in touch with Dupré after he was appointed Ordinary Bishop. Dupré sent to one oy them birthday and holiday cards, and would occasionally give him money. In December 2003, one of the accusers met with Dupré at a restaurant in Sturbridge, and said he regretted having had sexual relations with the bishop. Dupré did apologize but said that he believed the relationship was consensual, and told the man that he wanted to remain friends. One of the accusers, who is a homosexual, came forward with his claims after hearing Dupré speak out against the legalization of same-sex marriage. Dupré has been criticized for his handling of sex abuse allegations against priest Richard R. Lavigne (laicized on 20 November 2003), a convicted pedophile who is also a suspect in the murder of an altar boy. Lavigne pleaded guilty in 1992 to fondling two altar boys, and was suspected but never charged with crushing with a rock the skull of Danny Croteau, 13, and dumping his body in the Chicopee River on 15 April 1972. The boy's family believes Lavigne abused their son, and killed the child to stop him from reporting it.
1993 An independent UN-sponsored commission released a report blaming the bulk of atrocities
1993 Los andorranos se pronuncian en referéndum a favor (72%) de su primera Constitución, que establece instituciones democráticas.
1992 Soviet newspaper Pravda suspends publication. [and that's the truth]
1991 Emir of Kuwait returns to Kuwait City, after the Iraqis leave
1991 Speakers at a Los Angeles Police Commission hearing demanded the ouster of Chief Daryl F. Gates in the wake of the videotaped police beating of motorist Rodney King.
^ 1991 Six wrongly imprisoned Irishmen are released.
     In the face of overwhelming public questioning of their guilt, British authorities release the so-called "Birmingham Six," six Irish men sent to prison sixteen years earlier after being convicted for the 1974 terrorist bombing of two Birmingham pubs. On November 21, 1974, two Irish Republic Army (IRA) bombs were exploded in two separate Birmingham, England, pubs, killing twenty-one people and injuring hundreds. The bombing attacks were part of an ongoing crisis between the British government and the IRA that escalated in 1969 when British troops were sent to Northern Ireland to suppress Irish nationalist activity. Four days after the Birmingham bombings, the British government outlawed the IRA in all of Great Britain, including Northern Ireland, and authorities rushed to find and convict the IRA members responsible. After a lengthy search for suspects, six Irish suspects were arrested, interrogated, and duly convicted. However, in March of 1991, with people across Britain and Ireland calling for their release, the Birmingham Six were freed after sixteen years in jail. Finally, in 1998, a British court of appeals formally overturned their sentences, citing serious doubts about the legitimacy of the police evidence and the treatment of the suspects during their interrogation. Since 1969, the conflict over Northern Ireland has claimed more than 3000 lives.
1990 Mikhail S Gorbachev becomes president of the Soviet Congress.
^ 1990 USSR ruler Gorbachev now is President too.
      The Congress of People's Deputies elects General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to the USSR's new, powerful presidency, a day after creating the post. . While the election was a victory for Gorbachev, it also revealed serious weaknesses in his power base that would eventually lead to the collapse of his presidency in December 1991. Gorbachev's election in 1990 was far different from other "elections" previously held in the Soviet Union.
      Since coming to power in 1985, Gorbachev had worked hard to open up the political process in the Soviet Union, pushing through legislation that eliminated the Communist Party's monopoly on power and establishing the Congress of People's Deputies. The public at large elected the Congress by secret ballot. By 1990, however, Gorbachev was facing criticism from both reformers and communist hard-liners. The reformers, such as Boris Yeltsin, criticized Gorbachev for the slow pace of his reform agenda. Communist hard-liners, on the other hand, were appalled by what they saw as Gorbachev's retreat from Marxist principles. In an attempt to push forward his reform program, Gorbachev led a movement that amended the Soviet constitution, including writing a section establishing a new and more powerful presidency, a position that had previously been largely symbolic.
      On 14 March, 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies elected Gorbachev to a five-year term as president. While this was certainly a victory for Gorbachev, the election also vividly demonstrated the problems he faced in trying to formulate a domestic consensus supporting his political reform program. Gorbachev had worked assiduously to make sure that the Congress gave him the necessary two-thirds majority, including making repeated threats to resign if the majority was not achieved. Had he not received the necessary votes, he would have had to campaign in a general election against other candidates. Gorbachev believed that a general election would result in chaos in an already unsteady Russia; others in the Soviet Union attributed his actions to fear that he might lose such an election. The final vote in the Congress was extremely close, and Gorbachev achieved his two-thirds majority by a slim 46 votes. Gorbachev won the presidency, but by 1991 his domestic critics were pillorying him for the nation's terrible economic performance and faltering control over the Soviet empire. In December 1991 he resigned as president, and the Soviet Union dissolved. Despite the criticism he received, Gorbachev is credited for instituting a dizzying number of reforms that loosened the tight grip of communism on the Soviet people.
1986 European Space Agency's Giotto flies by Halley's Comet (605 km)
^ 1986 Microsoft goes public.
      Microsoft completes a successful initial public, closing the day at twenty-eight dollars a share, up seven dollars from the offering price. The offering, dubbed "the IPO of the year" by industry analysts, created a slew of instant tycoons as young Microsoft employees found their stock options suddenly worth something. Microsoft was founded in the mid-1970s, when high school friends and fellow computer nerds Paul Allen and Bill Gates read a Popular Electronics article about a new microcomputer called the Altair 8800. The two had been programming computers since high school, where they developed a system called Traff-o-Data for analyzing traffic data, as well as a registration system that reportedly placed the two in the classes of the most attractive girls. Allen and Gates quickly developed a version of BASIC, a computer language, and licensed it to MITS, maker of the Altair. The two formed a company called Micro-Soft (they later dropped the hyphen). For the next five years, Microsoft concentrated on developing computer languages that would run on the variety of home computers that flooded the market in the late 1970s. Microsoft's lucky break came when operating system guru Gary Kildall of Digital Research missed a meeting with IBM executives because he was out flying his plane: Instead, IBM asked Microsoft for an operating system. Gates quickly purchased the rights to Seattle Computer Products' "Quick and Dirty Operating System" (QDOS), which became MS-DOS, the operating system powering the IBM PC, introduced in 1981.
1983 OPEC cut oil prices for first time in 23 years
1969 Nixon discusses the possibility of US troop withdrawals from Vietnam
      At a news conference, President Richard Nixon says there is no prospect for a US troop reduction in the foreseeable future because of the ongoing enemy offensive. Nixon stated that the prospects for withdrawal would hinge on the level of enemy activity, progress in the Paris peace talks, and the ability of the South Vietnamese to defend themselves. Despite these public comments, Nixon and his advisers were secretly discussing US troop withdrawals. On June 8, at a conference on Midway Island with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu, Nixon formally announced a new policy that included intensified efforts to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces so that US forces could be gradually withdrawn. This program became known as "Vietnamization." The first US troop withdrawals occurred in the fall of 1969 with the departure of the headquarters and a brigade from the 9th Infantry Division.
1968 CBS TV suspends Radio Free Europe free advertising because RFE doesn't make it clear it is sponsored by the CIA
^ 1965 Second wave of bombing of North Vietnam.
      Twenty-four South Vietnamese Air Force planes, led by Vice-Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky and supported by US jets, bomb the barracks and depots on Con Co ("Tiger") Island, 30 km off the coast of North Vietnam. The next day, 100 US Air Force jets and carrier-based bombers struck the ammunition depot at Phu Qui, 160 km south of Hanoi. This was the second set of raids in Operation Rolling Thunder and the first in which US planes used napalm. Operation Rolling Thunder was a result of President Lyndon B. Johnson's decision in February to undertake the sustained bombing of North Vietnam that he and his advisers had been contemplating for a year. The operation was designed to interdict North Vietnamese transportation routes in the southern part of North Vietnam and slow infiltration of personnel and supplies into South Vietnam. In July 1966, Rolling Thunder was expanded to include the bombing of North Vietnamese ammunition dumps and oil storage facilities, and in the spring of 1967, it was further expanded to include power plants, factories, and airfields in the Hanoi-Haiphong area. The White House closely controlled operation Rolling Thunder and President Johnson sometimes personally selected the targets. From 1965 to 1968, about 643,000 tons of bombs were dropped on North Vietnam. A total of nearly 900 US aircraft were lost during Operation Rolling Thunder. The operation continued, with occasional suspensions, until President Johnson, under increasing domestic political pressure, halted it on 31 October 1968.
^ 1964 Kennedy's murderer's murderer sentenced to death
     Jack Ruby, the Dallas nightclub owner who killed Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President John F. Kennedy, is sentenced to die in the electric chair for his "murder with malice" of Oswald. It is the first courtroom verdict to ever be televised in US history. On 24 November 1963, two days after President Kennedy was fatally shot while riding in an open-car motorcade through the streets of Dallas, Texas, Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin, was shot to death by Jack Ruby in the basement of the Dallas police station.
      Oswald, a former US marine and accused Soviet sympathizer, was arrested several hours after Kennedy’s death on a charge of murdering Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit in a separate incident. The next day, he was also charged with the murder of President Kennedy. Early the next afternoon, while television cameras were rolling, Ruby emerged from the crowd of law enforcement officers and media representatives watching the transfer of Oswald to a county jail, and shot him dead. Millions of Americans witnessed the murder on live television. Jack Ruby, originally known as Jacob Rubenstein, operated nightclubs and dance halls in Dallas, and had at least minor connections to organized crime. In 1964, Ruby, who was apprehended immediately after the shooting, was put on trial in Dallas for murder and in March, was found guilty and sentenced to death. However, in October of 1966, a Texas appeals court overturned the conviction on the grounds that Ruby could not have received a fair trial in Dallas.
      On 03 January 1967, Ruby died in a hospital of apparently natural causes while awaiting a second trial. Although some suspect that Ruby was part of a larger conspiracy in the assassination of Kennedy, such as the charge that he was hired by the mob or the CIA to silence Oswald, the official Warren Commission report of 1964 concluded that neither Oswald nor Ruby were part of a larger conspiracy, either domestic or foreign, to assassinate President Kennedy. However, the report failed to silence conspiracy theories surrounding the event, and in 1979, the House Assassination’s Committee concluded that Kennedy likely was killed as part of a larger conspiracy that may have included members of organized crime, although many government officials disputed these findings.
1959 Aldo Moro accede a la secretaría general de la Democracia Cristiana, en Italia.
1951 During Korean War, UN forces recapture Seoul.
^ 1950 The FBI posts its "10 Most Wanted" list
      The Federal Bureau of Investigation institutes the "10 Most Wanted Fugitives" list in an effort to publicize particularly dangerous fugitives. The decision arose out of a wire-service news story in 1949 about the "toughest guys" the FBI wanted to capture. The story drew so much public attention that J. Edgar Hoover agreed to the 10 Most Wanted list the following year. From March 1950 to May 1998, 454 fugitives appeared on the 10 Most Wanted list; 130 of those fugitives have been captured. The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) of the FBI requests that all 56 field offices submit candidates for inclusion on the list. The CID, in association with the Office of Public and Congressional Affairs, then proposes finalists for approval of by the FBI’s Deputy Director. The criteria for selection are simple: the criminal must have a lengthy record and current pending charges that make him or her particularly dangerous. The FBI must also believe that the publicity that accompanies placement on the list will assist in the apprehension of the fugitive. Generally, the only way to get off the list is to die or to be captured. There have only been a handful of cases where fugitives have been removed from the list because they no longer were a menace to society. Only seven women have appeared on the 10 Most Wanted list. Ruth Eisemann-Schier was the first in 1968 after she kidnapped and placed a woman underground in a coffin-like box. The FBI also works closely with the Fox television show, America’s Most Wanted, to further publicize the effort to capture dangerous felons.
1949 Unos 450'000 mineros estadounidenses comienzan una huelga por exigencias salariales.
1947 El Senado estadounidense aprueba el Plan Marshall.
1945 The heaviest bomb of Word War II
     During World War II, the 617 Dambuster Squadron of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) drops the heaviest bomb of the war on the Bielefeld railway viaduct in Germany. Known as the "Grand Slam," the 10-ton bomb, which was designed by Sir Barnes Wallis, is dropped from an Avro Lancaster flown by RAF Squadron Leader C.C. Calder. The bomb destroys two full spans of viaduct on the busy railroad, and shock waves from its impact can be felt hundreds of miles away. In its singular destructive power, the Grand Slam is only surpassed by the two US atomic bombs dropped on Japan later in the year. Although "Little Boy" and "Fat Man," as these two bombs are known, are less than half as heavy as the Grand Slam, their explosive power reduces the so-called "earthquake" bomb to insignificance.
1944 Regresan a España, en medio de general indiferencia, los miembros de la Legión Española de Voluntarios, los últimos de la "División Azul", que combatía al lado de los Nazis contra los soviéticos..
^ 1943 Germans recapture Kharkov.
      German troops re-enter Kharkov, the second largest city in the Ukraine, which had changed hands several times in the battle between the USSR and the invading German forces. Kharkov was a high-priority target for the Germans when they invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, as the city was a railroad and industrial center, and had coal and iron mines nearby. Among the most important industries for Stalin's war needs was the Kharkov Tanks Works, which he moved out of Kharkov in December 1941 into the Ural Mountains. In fact, Joseph Stalin was so desperate to protect Kharkov that he rendered a "no retreat" order to his troops, which produced massive casualties within the Red Army over time.
      Hitler's troops first entered Kharkov in October 1941. In May 1942, the Soviets launched an effective surprise attack on the Germans just south of Kharkov, enabling the Red Army to advance closer to the occupied city, and finally re-enter it on 16 February 1943. Hitler began planning an immediate recapture as early as 21 February — Red Army Day — hoping that success there would reverse the Soviet momentum of the previous three months. On 10 March German troops launched their major offensive; the Soviets had already suffered the loss of 23'000 soldiers and 634 tanks in the recapture and defense of Kharkov and were forced to rely on 1000 Czech soldiers for aid. On 14 March, the tide in Kharkov turned again, and the Germans took the city once more. "We have shown the Ivans we can withstand their terrible winter. It can hold no fear for us again," wrote an SS officer. This proved to be a meaningless boast when the Red Army liberated the city that summer, and untrue, as the brutal Soviet winter actually did take a terrifying toll on German troops.
^ 1940
DAY 1 OF THE BITTER PEACE

AFTER 105 DAYS OF THE WINTER WAR IN WHICH
HEROIC FINLAND FOUGHT SOVIET AGGRESSION
After an incredible 105 days of heroic resistance by the extremely outnumbered Finns, the Winter War ended yesterday.  
Mannerheim issues Order of the Day Nr. 34.
  General Headquarters, 14 March 1940
      
Soldiers of the glorious Finnish army!
      Peace has been concluded between Finland and Soviet Russia, a harsh peace in which Soviet Russia has been ceded nearly every battlefield on which you have shed your blood on behalf of everything we hold sacred and dear.
      You did not want war; you loved peace, work and progress; but you were forced into a struggle in which you have achieved great deeds, deeds that will shine for centuries in the annals of history.
      Soldiers!
      I have fought on many a battlefield, but never have I seen such warriors as you. I am as proud of you as if you were my own children; I am as proud of the man from the northern fells as of the son of Ostrobothnia's plains, of the Karelian forests, the hills of Savo, the fertile fields of Häme and Satakunta, the leafy glades of Uusimaa and Varsinais-Suomi. I am equally proud of the sacrifice of the factory worker and the poor crofter as of that of the wealthy.
      With joy and pride my thoughts dwell on the women of the Lotta Svärd — on their spirit of self-sacrifice and untiring work in myriad fields, work which has freed thousands of men to fight at the front. Their noble spirit has given inspiration and support to the army, and they have thoroughly earned our gratitude and respect.
      A place of honor has also been earned by the thousands of workers who, often as volunteers and during air raids, have worked on their machines to provide the army with vital supplies, and those, too, who have labored unflinchingly under fire to strengthen our defensive positions. On behalf of our native land, I thank you all..

Ylipäällikkö marsalkka Mannerheimin päiväkäskystä n:o 34. Päämaja, 14.maaliskuuta.1940
       
Suomen kunniakkaan armeijan sotilaat!
      Rauha on solmittu maamme ja Neuvosto-Venäjän välillä, ankara rauha, joka on Neuvosto-Venäjälle luovuttanut melkeinpä jokaisen taistelukentän, millä Te olette vuodattaneet vertanne kaiken sen puolesta, mitä me pidämme kalliina ja pyhänä.
      Te ette tahtoneet sotaa, Te rakastitte rauhaa, työtä ja kehitystä, mutta Teidät pakotettiin taisteluun, jossa olette tehneet suurtöitä, tekoja, jotka vuosisatoja tulevat loistamaan historian lehdillä.
      Sotilaat!
      Olen taistellut monilla tantereilla, mutta en ole vielä nähnyt vertaisianne sotureita. Olen ylpeä Teistä kuin olisitte omia lapsiani, yhtä ylpeä tunturien miehestä Pohjolassa kuin Pohjanmaan lakeuksien, Karjalan metsien, Savon kumpujen, Hämeen ja Satakunnan viljavien vainioiden, Uudenmaan ja Varsinais-Suomen lauhojen lehtojen pojista. Olen ylpeä uhrista, jonka tarjoaa tehdastyöläinen ja köyhän majan poika siinä kuin rikaskin.
      Ilolla ja ylpeydellä ajattelen Suomen lottia ja heidän osuuttaan sodassa — heidän uhrimieltään ja uupumatonta työtään eri aloilla, mikä on vapauttanut tuhansia miehiä tulilinjoille. Heidän jalo henkensä on kannustanut ja tukenut armeijaa, jonka kiitollisuuden ja arvonannon he ovat täysin saavuttaneet.
      Kunniapaikalla ovat myös sodan ankarana aikana seisoneet ne tuhannet työläiset, jotka, usein vapaaehtoisina, ilmahyökkäystenkin aikana ovat tehneet työtä koneittensa ääressä valmistaen armeijalle sen tarpeita, sekä ne, jotka herpaantumatta vihollisen tulessa ovat työskennelleet asemien varustamisessa. -Kiitän heitä isänmaan puolesta.

Ur överbefälhavare, marskalk Mannerheims dagorder nr. 34 Huvudstaben den 14 mars 1940
      Soldater av Finlands ärorika armé!
      Fred har slutits mellan vårt land och Sovjet-Ryssland, en hård fred som till Sovjet utlämnat så gott som varje slagfält, på vilket ni gjutit ert blod för allt vad vi skatta dyrt och heligt.
      Ni ville ej kriget, ni älskade freden, arbetet och framåtskridandet, men kampen blev er påtvingad. I den har ni uträttat storverk, som för sekler framåt skall stråla på hävdens blad.
      Soldater!
      Jag har kämpat på många slagfält, men jag har ännu ej sett er like som krigsmän. Jag är stolt över er som om ni vore mina egna barn, lika stolt över mannen från tundrorna i norr som över sönerna från Österbottens vida slätter, Karelens skogar, Savolax leende bygder, Tavastlands och Satakundas rika gårdar, Nylands och Egentliga Finlands björkomsusade hagar. Jag är lika stolt över fabriksarbetaren och den fattiga stugans son som över den rike mannens insats av lem och liv.
      Med glädje och stolthet tänker jag på Finlands lottor och deras insats i kriget — deras offervilja och oförtrutna arbete på olika områden, vilket frigjort tusentals män till stridslinjerna. De har med sin upphöjda anda sporrat och stött armén, vars tacksamhet och uppskattning de till fullo förvärvat.
      En hederspost har de tusentals arbetare beklätt, vilka under krigets bittra tid troget och ofta som frivilliga under flyganfall stått vid sina maskiner förfärdigande material för arméns behov, samt de vilka oförtrutet under fiendens eld arbetat vid befästningsarbeten.Jag tackar er alla på fosterlandets vägnar.

      THE WINTER WAR, also called Russo-Finnish War (30 Nov 1939 – 12 March 1940), war waged by the Soviet Union against Finland at the beginning of World War II, following the conclusion of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (24 Aug 1939). After Finland had refused to grant the Soviets a naval base and other concessions in the fall of 1939, Soviet troops totaling about one million men attacked Finland on several fronts.
     The heavily outnumbered Finns put up a skillful and effective defense that winter, and the Red Army made little progress. In February 1940, however, the Soviets used massive artillery bombardments to breach the Mannerheim Line (the Finns' southern defensive barrier stretching across the Karelian Isthmus), after which they streamed northward across the isthmus to the Finnish city of Viipuri (Vyborg). Unable to secure help from Britain and France, the exhausted Finns made peace on Soviet terms on 12 March 1940, agreeing to the cession of western Karelia and to the construction of a Soviet naval base on the Hanko Peninsula.
1939 Nazis dismember the republic of Czechoslovakia. — Tras la entrada de tropas alemanas en Checoslovaquia, se proclama la “independencia” de Eslovaquia.
1937 Pio XI se pronuncia contra el nazismo en su encíclica Mit brenender Sorge (En mi angustiosa inquietud).
1936 Detención en Madrid de José Antonio Primo de Rivera, por "quebrantamiento de clausura gubernativa" del local de Falange.
1933 Civilian Conservation Corp, begins tree conservation.
1916 I Guerra Mundial: Los alemanes toman por asalto las alturas del "Mort-Homme", frente a Verdún.
1912 El rey de Italia es herido en Roma por un anarquista.
1900 US Congress ratifies the Gold Standard Act.
1863 Confederate batteries at Port Hudson, Louisiana fire on a Union squadron sinking USS Mississippi but USS Albatross and USS Hartford run the Port Hudson gantlet
1862 New Bern, North Carolina captured
1862 Union forces capture New Madrid, Missouri.
1861 La Cámara de Diputados italiana, reunida en Turín, proclama el Estado Unitario de Italia.
1816 US House of Representatives votes for 2nd Bank of US.
       The US House of Representatives, as heeded President John C. Calhoun's call for a bank-based remedy to the nation's fiscal woes and voted to establish the Second Bank of the United States. The legislation soon made its way through the Senate and by the dawn of 1817, the Second Bank, complete with a twenty-year charter and $35 million in federal funding, was up and running in Philadelphia. However, this moment of glory was short lived: the Bank floundered under the lead of its first chief, William Jones. An inept fiscal manager, Jones's policies exacerbated the wounds that the United States' economy had suffered in the wake of the War of 1812.
1815 Escapado Napoleón de la isla de Elba, el general Ney, que debía cortarle el paso, se pone a sus órdenes y recibe el mando del Segundo Cuerpo de Ejército.
^ 1812 US Congress authorizes the first War Bonds.
      By the end of 1811, the United States government had tired of seeing the nation's merchant ships suffer at the hands of the French and, especially, of the British. Having already tried to retaliate through an embargo that only served to hurt US businesses, the government was on the verge of committing its military to what would be later known as the War of 1812. So President James Madison asked Congress to provide funds. Congress approves the issue of the $11 million of war bonds. Over the next three years of the war against Britain, Congress would authorize six more war bonds, and also raise tariffs on imports
1812 Congress authorizes war bonds to finance War of 1812.
1713 Se firma el Tratado de Rastadt, acuerdo entre España, Inglaterra y Austria que pone fin a la guerra de Sucesión española.
1644 England grants patent for Providence Plantations (now Rhode Island)
1629 Royal charter granted Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1519 Hernán Cortés desembarca en las costas del Golfo de México con 700 hombres para emprender la conquista del país.
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< 13 Mar 15 Mar >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 14 March:

^ 2008 Silvia “Chiara” Lubich [22 Jan 1920–], Italian mystic, best selling author, founder and president of the Focolare Movement.
      2008, Italian Catholic activist and leader and founder of the Focolare Movement. —(080314)
     Focolare (“hearth”) has become an international network modeled on small communities whose members, whether married or single, are devoted to the ideal of unity between all nations, religions and races. By 2008 it has spread to more than 180 countries, and has 140'000 members as well as 2.1 million affiliates, including Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox believers, as well as members of other religions. Deeply influenced by the ravages of the Second World War, Focolare was one of the “new Catholic movements” that reinvigorated the Church during the pontificate of John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] and continued under Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~].
     She was brought up with the traditional Catholic piety of her mother but was equally strongly influenced by her father's socialist and anti-fascist views. She joined the Franciscan Third Order. Silvia Lubich was a primary school teacher when, alone on 07 December 1943, she dedicated herself to God, decided to change her name to Chiara, and thought of starting Focolare. She was soon joined, first by Natalia Dallapiccola [27 Jun 1924 – 01 Apr 2008], and then by a group of young women, some of them former students of hers. The fledgling organization had a revolutionary impact on the stagnating Catholicism of its time. Many of its innovations (a reassessment of the importance of the laity, a return to scripture, a joyful liturgy using popular tunes of the day, an emphasis on the key gospel message of love and unity) anticipated the direction that the Second Vatican Council would take 20 years later.
      In the final years of the Second World War, Trento, still under German occupation, endured heavy Allied bombing. Lubich and her disciples felt the urgency of penetrating to the heart of the Christian message by closely studying the gospels. By candlelight in a makeshift air-raid shelter, they discovered the biblical phrase that was to be their inspiration for the next 60 years: “That all may be one” (John 17:21). Unity, achieved through mutual love, became the watchword of the group from that day on. Not surprisingly, the practice of reading the New Testament drew accusations of Protestantism and the predilection for the word “unity” aroused suspicions of communism.
     Early followers were amazed that the movement could achieve unity between members from Trento and the nearby city of Bolzano: this was an improbable achievement in a country famous for its campanilismo (local chauvinism). But already Lubich had set her sights on a far more ambitious goal. For her, “That all may be one” could mean nothing less than the unity of all mankind. It was this vision and single mindedness that propelled the astonishing growth of the nascent community. By the end of the 1940s Focolare had spread throughout Italy; in the next decade it fanned out across Europe and by the end of the 1960s it had reached every continent. But Lubich never saw her movement as of a purely religious nature. As early as 1948, when she moved the Focolare headquarters to Rome, she visited the Italian parliament where she met Igino Giordani [24 Sep 1894 – 18 Apr 1980], a founding member of the Christian Democrat Party. Giordani, who had a lifelong fascination with St Catherine of Siena, saw in this young provincial woman a 20th-century Catherine, whose ideas would influence not only the Church but also the political and social fields. Then in his fifties, the veteran politician became Lubich's most devoted follower and was regarded by her as a co-founder of the movement.
      The Italian Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi [03 Apr 1881 – 19 Aug 1954], another Trentino and one of the founding fathers of the European Union, was also impressed, becoming a disciple. Much later this aspect of Lubich's activities resulted in a new school of economics - the Economy of Communion, which applied the movement's practice of sharing material goods to business enterprises - and the International Political Movement for Unity, which encouraged cross-party collaboration and drew such political luminaries as Romano Prodi, who collaborated with Lubich on a number of projects.
      After examination by the pre-conciliar Holy Office, much of it directed at Lubich herself by the conservative Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani [29 Oct 1890 – 03 Aug 1979], Focolare was granted official Vatican approval in the mid-1960s. In this period Lubich was founding new branches for priests, religious, seminarians, young people, professionals, families, ... even toddlers had their own special section. She had begun to establish model towns intended to serve as laboratories for the reconstruction of society, by 2008 there are 33 of them around the globe; Lubich envisaged there should eventually be a thousand. As early as the 1950s Lubich enthusiastically took up the cause of ecumenism, then almost unthinkable in Catholic circles. Relations with German Lutherans began in 1959, while in the early 1960s the first contacts were established with Anglicans in the UK. The close personal rapport between Lubich and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople [25 Mar 1886 – 07 Jul 1972] led to Lubich acting as something of an emissary between the Orthodox leader and Pope Paul VI [26 Sep 1897 – 06 Aug 1978].
      Later she became involved in multi-faith dialogue and in 1994 was appointed an honorary president of the World Conference for Religion and Peace. She was the first Christian and the first woman to preach in the Malcolm X Mosque in Harlem, New York, where in May 1997 she addressed 3000 Black Muslims. By special permission of the Vatican, Focolare was the first Catholic organization to admit members of other Christian churches and other faiths to its communities.
      In Lubich's late eighties, her activities, particularly outside the movement, increased and she received numerous civic awards and honorary degrees. To mark her 80th birthday, in a 13 January 2000 letter Pope John Paul II, who considered her and “a great Catholic” and had made a practice of calling her personally each year on the 11 August feast of Saint Clare of Assisi [16 Jul 1194 – 11 Aug 1253], hailed her as “a messenger of unity and mercy among many brothers and sisters in every corner of the world”. Although in the 1940s and 1950s her movement had been in the vanguard of Catholicism, by the end of the 1990s, it was doctrinally firmly in the Church's conservative camp, not unlike the evolution of Opus Dei, which it resembles in many ways. In spite of her innovations, her work for ecumenism and interfaith understanding, Lubich was at heart a traditionalist, inspired as much by Catholicism's illustrious past as the possibilities for its future. — Wikipedia article
—(090314)

Manezh fire
2006 Eight persons after the failure of 150 m of the private earthen Kaloko Reservoir dam (13 m high, 270 m wide), on Kauai Island, Hawaii, after days of heavy rains. One million cubic meters of water pour out and engulf two houses. — (060315)

2005 Three prison guards: Edgardo Dajay, 50; Rogelio "Juan" dela Cruz; and Amadeo Salapati; and two of the Abu Sayyaf prisoners at Camp Bagong Diwa in Bicutan, Taguig, Manila, the Philippines, who, at 06:30 (22:30 UT 13 March) take weapons from guards and attempt an escape, which fails, but they take over the prison until the next day, when a police assault kills 22 of the prisoners, mostly Abu Sayyaf members.

2004 Two of the firemen fighting a fire that broke out in the Manezh in Moscow, Russia, minutes after polls closed in the presidential election. [< photo]. The low, colonnaded Manezh, an equestrian school for military officers that was opened in 1817, is just outside the Kremlin's western wall. It is used for frequent exhibitions and trade fairs and is considered one of Moscow's most precious historic monuments.

2004 A number of Palestinian victims of missiles fired from Israeli helicopters in Gaza City.

2004:: 10 Israelis and suicide bombers Nabil Saoud, 17, and Mohammed Salem, 17, at the port of Ashdod, Israel. One of the explosions is just outside the main gate at 17:00 (15:00 UT), the second at a workshop inside the port at 17:10 (15:10 UT). At least 14 persons are wounded. If the explosions had been next to tanks of bromide or other dangerous chemicals stored in the port, the casualties would have been much more numerous. The bombers, sent by Fatah and by Iz a Din al-Kassam (the Hamas fighters), were classmates in eleventh grade at a high school in the Jabalya refugee camp in the Gaza Strip.

Lagardère in 19952003 Ed Murphy, 46, at 23:50 struck by propeller of Cessna 172 while he was removing the block from under the nose wheel, at the Richmond International Airport in Virginia. He was a sports reporter for The News Journal in Wilmington, Delaware, and was about to leave as a passenger on the private plane piloted by News Journal photographer Gary Emeigh.
2003 Jean-Luc[ien] Lagardère [1995 photo >], French, of a rare neurological disease affecting the immune system. Born on 10 February 1928, he built up one of France's largest conglomerates, Groupe Lagardère, which has been headed since 2001 by his only son, Arnaud.
2003 Deputy Superintendent of Police Manjeet Singh, and head constable Manohar Lal, after being hit at about 14:45 by bullets from three or four Muslim terrorists holed up in a hotel in Poonch town, Indian-occupied Kashmir, who are fighting with besieging police since 11:25.
Amanda Davis2003 Amanda Davis, 32 [< photo], her mother Francie Davis, 59, and her father, Dr. James Davis, 63, who was piloting the Cessna 177 Cardinal plane which crashes into a mountain 29 km from Asheville NC, while taking Amanda on a publicity tour for her first novel, Wonder When You'll Miss Me (18 Feb 2003), first-person narrative of a young woman, Faith Duckle, who makes a difficult journey from schoolyard outcast to trapeze artist in a circus. Her other writings include Circling the Drain (1999), a collection of 15 short stories, mostly concerning young women dealing with loss.
2002 Israelis St.-Sgt. Matan Biderman, 21, of Carmiel; St.-Sgt. Ala Hubeishi, 21, of Julis; and Sgt. Rotem Shani, 19, of Hod Hasharon, on the Karni-Netzarim road in the Gaza Strip, by an explosive charge detonated by remote-control from a nearby mosque beneath their tank escorting a civilian convoy. Two Israeli soldiers are injured.
2001 Aleobiga Aberima, 23, shot at his request to check the effectiveness of the bulletproofing treatment by a herb concoction which he and some 15 others had applied for two weeks, as prescribed by the jujuman of their village of Lambu, Ghana. The villagers then beat up the jujuman until a village elder rescues him.
1995 William Alfred Fowler, US nuclear astrophysicist, born on 09 August 1911, who, with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar [19 Oct 1910 – 21 Aug 1995], won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 for his role in formulating a widely accepted theory of element generation.
1992 Steven Brian Pennell, 34, first executed in Delaware in 45 years
1989 Más de 50 muertos y unos 150 heridos es una de las jornadas más sangrientas de la guerra civil en el Líbano.
1980 All 87 persons aboard a Polish airliner which crashes while making an emergency landing near Warsaw. The dead include 22 members of a US amateur boxing team.
^ 1973 Howard Hathaway Aiken, inventor of the Mark I.  
      Howard Hathaway Aiken, born on 09 March 1900, a Harvard researcher, developed a large-scale digital calculator to solve nonlinear differential equations for his thesis work. Previously, complex calculations were performed by dozens of human calculators — usually women-paid to do math problems all day. Aiken, with the support of IBM, developed the first fully automatic calculating machine: The Mark I was 15.5-m-long and 60cm wide, and it was powered by a fifteem-meter-long mechanical shaft attached to a five-horsepower electric motor. The machine included more than half a million parts and hundreds of kilometers of wiring. It could store seventy numbers and perform three additions or subtractions per second, and it weighed five tons. Aiken's work was heavily influenced by the theories and proposals of English mathematician Charles Babbage [26 Dec 1791 – 18 Oct 1871] and the writings of Babbage's protégé, Ada Lovelace [10 Dec 1815 – 27 Nov 1852], daughter of the poet Byron [22 Jan 1788 – 19 Apr 1824].
1969 Benjamin Shahn, US painter and graphic artist born on 12 September 1898 in Lithuania. MORE ON SHAHN AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
^ 1953 Klement Gottwald, born on 23 November 1896, Czechoslovak Communist politician and journalist, successively deputy premier (1945–1946), premier (1946–1948), and president (1948–1953) of Czechoslovakia.
      The illegitimate son of a peasant, Gottwald was sent to Vienna at the age of 12 to become an apprentice carpenter and cabinetmaker. By the age of 16 he had become a socialist. During World War I he served in the Austro-Hungarian army, deserting, however, to the Russians before the end of the war. When he returned to the new state of Czechoslovakia in 1918, he joined the left wing of the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party, the wing that in 1921 became the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Komunistická Strana Ceskoslovenska;KSC); Gottwald was a charter member. Soon he was editor of the party newspaper in Bratislava, Hlas Ludu (“Voice of the People”), and later of Pravda (“Truth”). In 1925 he was elected to the central committee of the KSC and moved to Prague, and in 1927 he became the party's secretary-general. From 1929 he was a member of the Czechoslovak parliament
      After the Munich Agreement of October 1938, Gottwald went to Moscow, where he later made several broadcasts to the Czechoslovak underground movement. In 1945 he became deputy premier in a provisional government appointed by President Eduard Beneš with the approval of Moscow. In March 1946 he became chairman of the KSC, and on 03 July he became the nation's premier. On 14 June 1948, after Beneš's resignation under threat and pressure, Gottwald was inaugurated as president of the republic.
      Gottwald quickly consolidated his position. Czechoslovakia was compelled to adopt a Soviet and Stalinist model of government; the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia substituted itself for the state. Political purges began in 1950, resulting in the judicial executions of about 180 party officials, including the party's first secretary, Gottwald's rival Rudolf Slánský.
      Gottwald caught a chill the 09 March 1953 funeral of Joseph Stalin [21 Dec 1879 – 05 Mar 1953] and succumbed to pneumonia five days later.

1948 Giuseppina “María Josefina de Jesús Crucificado” Catanea [18 Feb 1896–], holy Italian Discalced Carmelite nun. —(080522)
1946 José Antonio Saldías, novelista y dramaturgo argentino.
^ 1938 Nikolay Ivanovich Bukharin, executed In Stalin’s purges
     Bukharin is executed at the end of one of the most notorious show trials of the twentieth century, in which he was falsely accused of counter-revolutionary activities and espionage. [Interrogation, Evening 05 March 1938Interrogation, Morning 07 March 1938Last Plea, Evening 12 March 1938] . In the Gorbachev era, Bukharin was rehabilitated and posthumously reinstated (1988) as a party member.
      Bukharin’s execution comes near the end of the purges of Soviet society initiated by Joseph Stalin in late 1934. On 01 December 1934, Sergey Kirov, another leading Bolshevik, was assassinated in his Leningrad office at the instigation of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Much as Nazi leader Adolf Hitler had used the burning of the Reichstag parliament building as a pretext for eliminating his political rivals in Germany, Stalin used the Kirov assassination as an opportunity to do away with his many opponents in the Communist party, the government, the armed forces, and the intelligentsia. Although Kirov was believed to have been shot to death by Leonid Nikolayev, a Stalin ally, the murder served as the basis for seven separate trials and the arrest and execution of hundreds of notable figures in Soviet political, military, and cultural life. Each trial contradicted the others in fundamental details, and different individuals were found guilty of organizing the murder of Kirov by different means and for different political motives. The Kirov assassination trials marked the beginning of Stalin’s massive four-year purge of Soviet society, in which several hundred thousand people were imprisoned, exiled, or killed.
     Born on 09 October (27 Sep Julian) 1888, Bukharin studied economics. He became a Bolshevik in 1908. He was arrested in 1911, but escaped to Western Europe, where he met Bolshevik leader Lenin, with whom he collaborated on the newspaper Pravda. Bukharin returned to Russia in 1917 after the February revolution. In August 1917 he was elected to the party's central committee. After the Bolshevik October Revolution, he became editor of Pravda. In 1918 Bukharin opposed Lenin signing the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty. Bukharin wanted instead to spread the revolution to all Europe. Bukharin then published The Economics of the Transitional Period (1920), The ABC of Communism (with Yevgeny Preobrazhensky, 1921), The Theory of Historical Materialis - a System of Sociology (1921).
     After Lenin's 1924 death, Bukharin became a full member of the Politburo. He supported Lenin's 1921 New Economic Policy (of gradual change), as did Stalin to undermine his rivals Lev Trotsky, Grigory Zinovyev, Lev Kamenev. But, after Stalin defeated them, he adopted their policy of enforced collectivization and attacked Bukharin, who was expelled from the Politburo in November 1929, recanted his views and was partially reinstated. But he was secretly arrested in January 1937 and expelled from the Communist Party for being a Trotskyite.
— other works of BUKHARIN ONLINE (English translations): Imperialism and World Economy (1917) — The Russian Revolution and Its Significance (1917) — Church and School in the Soviet Republic (1919) — The Red Army and The Counter-Revolution (1919) — Theory and Practice From The Standpoint of Dialectical Materialism (1931) — Marx's Teaching and its Historical Importance (1933) — Poetry, Poetics and the Problems of Poetry in the U.S.S.R. (1934)
1887 Gustave Achille Guillaumet, French artist born on 26 March 1840.
1883 Karl Heinrich Marx, in London, German author of "The Communist Manifesto", born on 05 May 1818.
1877 Juan Manuel de Rosas, born on 30 March 1793, military and political leader of Argentina, who was governor (1835–1852) of Buenos Aires with dictatorial powers.
1752 Charles-Antoine Coypel, French artist born on 11 July 1694. MORE ON COYPEL AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1730 Gaspar Peeter Verbruggen II, Flemish artist born on 04 April 1664.
1702 The victims of an earthquake in Benevento, Italy, which already has suffered the earthquake of 05 June 1688, and is the see of the diocese of which Cardinal Pietro Francesco Orsini [02 Feb 1649 – 23 Feb 1730] is the bishop since 1686. On 29 May 1724 he would become Pope Benedict XIII. —(080923)
^ 1698 Lodowick Muggleton, English Puritan religious leader and anti-Trinitarian heretic born in July 1609. His followers, the Muggletonians, believed he was a prophet.
      After claiming to have had spiritual revelations, beginning in 1651, Muggleton and his cousin John Reeve announced themselves as the two prophetic witnesses referred to in Revelations 11:3. Their book, A Transcendent Spiritual Treatise upon Several Heavenly Doctrines, was published in 1652. They further expounded their beliefs in A Divine Looking-Glass (1656), maintaining that the traditional distinction between the three Persons of the Triune God is purely nominal, that God has a real human body, and that he left the Old Testament Hebrew prophet Elijah, who had ascended to heaven, as his vice regent when he himself descended to die on the Cross.
      According to Muggleton and Reeve, the unforgivable sin was disbelief in them as true prophets. Although some notable men became Muggletonians, the group's notions provoked much opposition. Muggleton was imprisoned for blasphemy in 1653, and his own followers temporarily repudiated him in 1660 and again in 1670. His attack on the Quakers led their leader, William Penn [14 Oct 1644 – 30 Jul 1718], to write The New Witnesses Proved Old Hereticks (1672). Tried for blasphemy in 1677, Muggleton was convicted and fined £500. His sect survived until the early 20th century. The last Muggletonian, Phillip Noakes of Matfield, Kent, died in 1979.
1682 (burial) Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael, Dutch painter specialized in landscapes born in 1628 or 1629. MORE ON RUISDAEL AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1671 Willem Eversdyck, Dutch artist.
1410 Luca Aretino Nicolo de Piero Lorenzo Spinelli, Italian artist born between 1330 and 1346.
0968 Santa Matilde.
 
< 13 Mar 15 Mar >
^  Births which occurred on a 14 March:


^ 1994 Apple PowerMac computer
      The PowerMac is introduced at Lincoln Center. The PowerPC chip that drove the PowerMac resulted from a joint effort between Apple and IBM to create a chip based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) technology. The PowerMac was designed to accommodate telephony, voice recognition, multimedia, and other cutting edge technologies.
1958 Alberto Grimaldi, príncipe de Mónaco y marqués de Baux.
1943 Elson Bakili Muluzi, político malauiano.
1937 Baltasar Porcel Pujol, escritor español.
Tettamanzi^ 1934 Dionigi Tettamanzi
      He was ordained a priest on 28 June 1957 by the then archbishop of Milan, Giovanni Montini [26 Sep 1897 – 06 Aug 1978] (who became Pope Paul VI on 21 June 1963), consecrated a bishop on 23 September 1989, appointed archbishop of Genoa on 20 April 1995, made a cardinal on 21 February 1998, appointed archbishop of Milan on 11 July 2002.
      Something he said in 1999:
“Our most serious missionary problem is not the non-Christians or the un-baptized; those same Christians must be helped to believe more in the Lord Jesus. In Europe today, the priority does not lie in ‘baptizing the converted’ but in ‘converting the baptized.’… Following from this: … [is] the secondary and subordinate characteristic of any ecclesial organization, no matter how important, to thus give a more true picture of the church, less preoccupied with herself and her pastoral efficiency … willing to reform her structures and to live as seed and leaven in the world that the primacy of the gospel may shine.”
1931 First theater designed for rear projector, the Trans-Lux Theater opens in Manhattan, the first theater specifically designed and built to show movies that were rear-projected.
1929 Jordi Nadal Oller, historiador, profesor y escritor español.
1928 Frank Borman Gary Ind, astronaut (Gemini 7, Apollo 8), Eastern Airline president.
1920 Hank Ketcham, cartoonist ("Dennis the Menace").
^1919 The Untamed, first novel of Max Brand, is published
      Max Brand, perhaps the most prolific writer of western stories, publishes his first novel, The Untamed. Max Brand was one of 21 pen names used by the Seattle-born author Frederick Faust. When he was still a young boy, Faust's family moved to the San Joaquin Valley of California, where he grew up in poverty and enjoyed few educational advantages. Early on, though, Faust developed a passionate love for reading. He was especially fond of traditional poetic writers like Milton and Shakespeare, and he initially tried his hand at writing serious poetry. Faust's poetry was forgettable at best, and it held little potential for providing him with a living. Reluctantly, Faust began to write short adventure stories. Editors who had previously rejected his serious work eagerly snapped up his popular fiction and encouraged him to write more. Motivated primarily by the considerable money he could make writing for popular magazines, in 1917 Faust began to churn out a prodigious number of short stories, from spy thrillers to medical dramas to Westerns. Embarrassed by his "lowbrow" stories, he never appended his real name to any of his popular works.
      Faust claimed to dislike the US West, and he spent most of his adult life in Europe. Nonetheless, he wrote more stories and novels in the Western genre than in any other, many of them dispatched from his luxurious Italian villa. He published his first Western, a fast-paced adventure called The Untamed, in serial form in 1918. The serial was so popular that the Putnam Publishing Company brought out a hardcover edition of the story on this day in 1919. Unlike many western authors, Faust made no pretense to historical accuracy in his works. His novels concerned a mythic West of his imagination, and he rarely provided any identifiable geographical details or demonstrated any mastery of the minutiae of western life. His strength was his ability to tell a compelling story, and he had a keen sense of style. In The Untamed, Faust created the hugely popular Dan Barry, a peaceable man who avoided trouble whenever possible. However, when Barry or those he cares about were attacked, he was transformed and was capable of wreaking violent vengeance on wrongdoers. Faust continued Barry's story in two bestselling sequels. Besides gaining fame and fortune as the author of Max Brand westerns, Faust also created the character of Dr. Kildare for his medical thrillers. Faust died in 1944, having written an estimated 30 million words, including more than 500 western serials or short stories.
1912 Francis Gruber, French painter who died on 01 December 1948. — more with links to images.
1905 Raymond Aron, French sociologist, historian and political commentator who died on 17 October 1983.
1903 Adolph Gottlieb, US Abstract Expressionist painter who died on 04 March 1974. estadounidense.
1892 John Fulton “Jack” Folinsbee, US artist who died on 10 May 1972. MORE ON FOLINSBEE AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1889 Arturo Capdevila
, poeta e historiador argentino.
^1887 Sylvia Beach, in Baltimore, bookstore owner and publisher of Ulysses.
      Beach moved to Paris at the age of 14, when her father, a Presbyterian minister, was sent to France. She fell in love with the city. In 1919, she opened her bookstore, Shakespeare and Co., which became a gathering place for US writers in Paris in the 1920s, including F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. Beach was a strong supporter of writer James Joyce, who lived in Paris from 1920 to 1940. The Irish writer had achieved fame with his 1915 novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and had started publishing his masterwork Ulysses in serial form in an American magazine called the Little Review. However, the serialization was halted in December 1920, after the US Post Office brought a charge of obscenity against Joyce's work. Beach published the book herself in July 1922. It wasn't until 1933 that a US judge permitted Ulysses to be distributed in the US
^1879 Albert Einstein, son of a Jewish electrical engineer in Ulm, Germany.
     Einstein's revolutionary theories introduced entirely new ways of thinking about time, space, and gravity, and he profoundly affected the way scientific inquiry occurred. A citizen of the world, Einstein was born in Germany, grew up partly in Milan, studied and taught in Switzerland, returned to Germany, and fled to the United States before World War II. An avid pacifist, he nevertheless put into motion the invention of the hydrogen and atomic bombs with a letter to President Roosevelt, urging him to beware the possibility of Germany's building an atom bomb. Decades later, the specter of a nuclear attack capable of knocking out communications across the country was one of the factors leading to the development of the Internet.
      Einstein's theories of special and general relativity drastically altered man's view of the universe, and his work in particle and energy theory helped make possible quantum mechanics and, ultimately, the atomic bomb. After a childhood in Germany and Italy, Einstein studied physics and mathematics at the Federal Polytechnic Academy in Zürich, Switzerland. He became a Swiss citizen and in 1905 was awarded a Ph.D. from the University of Zürich while working at the Swiss patent office in Bern.
      That year, which historians of Einstein's career call the annus mirabilis--the "miracle year"--he published five theoretical papers that were to have a profound effect on the development of modern physics. In the first of these, titled "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light," Einstein theorized that light is made up of individual quanta (photons) that demonstrate particle-like properties while collectively behaving like a wave. The hypothesis, an important step in the development of quantum theory, was arrived at through Einstein's examination of the photoelectric effect, a phenomenon in which some solids emit electrically charged particles when struck by light. This work would later earn him the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.
      In the second paper, he devised a new method of counting and determining the size of the atoms and molecules in a given space, and in the third he offered a mathematical explanation for the constant erratic movement of particles suspended in a fluid, known as Brownian motion. These two papers provided indisputable evidence of the existence of atoms, which at the time was still disputed by a few scientists. Einstein's fourth groundbreaking scientific work of 1905 addressed what he termed his special theory of relativity. In special relativity, time and space are not absolute, but relative to the motion of the observer. Thus, two observers traveling at great speeds in regard to each other would not necessarily observe simultaneous events in time at the same moment, nor necessarily agree in their measurements of space. In Einstein's theory, the speed of light, which is the limiting speed of any body having mass, is constant in all frames of reference.
      In the fifth paper that year, an exploration of the mathematics of special relativity, Einstein announced that mass and energy were equivalent and could be calculated with an equation, E=mc^2. Although the public was not quick to embrace his revolutionary science, Einstein was welcomed into the circle of Europe's most eminent physicists and given professorships in Zürich, Prague, and Berlin.
      In 1916, he published "The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity," which proposed that gravity, as well as motion, can affect the intervals of time and of space. According to Einstein, gravitation is not a force, as Isaac Newton had argued, but a curved field in the space-time continuum, created by the presence of mass. An object of very large gravitational mass, such as the sun, would therefore appear to warp space and time around it, which could be demonstrated by observing starlight as it skirted the sun on its way to earth. In 1919, astronomers studying a solar eclipse verified predictions Einstein made in the general theory of relativity, and he became an overnight celebrity. Later, other predictions of general relativity, such as a shift in the orbit of the planet Mercury and the probable existence of black holes, were confirmed by scientists. During the next decade, Einstein made continued contributions to quantum theory and began work on a unified field theory, which he hoped would encompass quantum mechanics and his own relativity theory as a grand explanation of the workings of the universe.
      As a world-renowned public figure, he became increasingly political, taking up the cause of Zionism and speaking out against militarism and rearmament. In his native Germany, this made him an unpopular figure, and after Nazi leader Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933 Einstein renounced his German citizenship and left the country. He later settled in the United States, where he accepted a post at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He would remain there for the rest of his life, working on his unified field theory and relaxing by sailing on a local lake or playing his violin. He became an American citizen in 1940.
      In 1939, despite his lifelong pacifist beliefs, he agreed to write to President Franklin D. Roosevelt on behalf of a group of scientists who were concerned with American inaction in the field of atomic-weapons research. Like the other scientists, he feared sole German possession of such a weapon. He played no role, however, in the subsequent Manhattan Project and later deplored the use of atomic bombs against Japan. After the war, he called for the establishment of a world government that would control nuclear technology and prevent future armed conflict. In 1950, he published his unified field theory, which was quietly criticized as a failure. A unified explanation of gravitation, subatomic phenomena, and electromagnetism remains elusive today. Albert Einstein, one of the most creative minds in human history, died in Princeton on 18 April 1955.
Casey's accident1869 Algernon Blackwood, British mystery writer who died on 10 December 1951.
1864 Kürschák, mathematician.
1864 John Luther “Casey” Jones, US railroad engineer (nicknamed from Cayce, Kentucky, where he had lived). He died after a loose bolt hit him in the neck at 03:52 on 30 April 1900 one hand on the brake control and the other on the whistle's of his locomotive, in a collision with a stopped freight train which extended past the siding into the main track, after telling his fireman Simon Webb to jump.[diagram >]. This was made famous in ballads (not particularly accurate) [the real story in detail]..
1862 Vilhelm Bjerknes, mathematician.
1854 Thomas Riley Marshall (D) 28th VP (1913-21)
1854 Paul Ehrlich Germany, bacteriologist (1908 Nobel prize for medicine; founded chemotherapy, discovered Salvarsan - a remedy for syphilis, developed antitoxin for diphtheria). He died on 20 August 1915.
1853 Ferdinand Hodler, Swiss Art Nouveau painter, who died on 19 May 1918. MORE ON HODLER AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1836 Jules-Joseph Lefebvre, French Academic painter who died on 24 February 1911. MORE ON LEFEBVRE AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
1835 Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli, Italian astronomer and senator who died on 04 July 1910. On 05 September 1877, Mars came to a perihelic opposition approaching to within 56 million km of Earth.. Starting to observe Mars soon after that, at the Brera Observatory in Milan, Schiaparelli, using a telescope only 22 cm in diameter, made a map of Mars and named many previously unobserved features. He thought he glimpsed fine, straight lines visible when Earth's atmosphere was unusually still. When he reported his discovery, he used the Italian word canali (“channels”). But the word was translated into English as “canals,” artificially dug channels, and the "canals of Mars" were born. Many astronomers could not see the canals, whereas others drew maps showing hundreds. In the decades that followed Schiaparelli's discovery, many people assumed that the canals were real water courses built by an intelligent race on Mars to carry water from the polar caps to the lower latitudes. Much of this excitement was generated by Percival Lowell, a wealthy Bostonian who founded Lowell Observatory in 1894, principally for the study of Mars. He not only mapped hundreds of canals but also publicized his results. [See online book: The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery, particularly Chapter 5]
^1829 Charles Charlesworth, who would die at 7, of old age, in England.
Extremely premature aging.
     It is variously named: Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome, Gilford Syndrome, HGPS, Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome, Premature Senility Syndrome, Progeria of Childhood, Souques-Charcot Syndrome.
      Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is a rare progressive disorder that typically becomes apparent during the first year or two of life. The most striking feature of the disorder is extremely accelerated aging (progeria). In most cases, affected infants appear to develop normally until approximately six months of age. They may then begin to experience profound growth delays, resulting in short stature and low weight. Affected children also develop a distinctive facial appearance characterized by a disproportionately small face in comparison to the head; an underdeveloped jaw (micrognathia); malformation and crowding of the teeth; abnormally prominent eyes; a small, "beak-like" nose; and absent earlobes. In addition, by the second year of life, the scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes are lost (alopecia), and the scalp hair may be replaced by small, downy, white or blond hairs.
      Additional characteristic features include unusually prominent veins of the scalp, loss of the layer of fat beneath the skin (subcutaneous adipose tissue), defects of the nails, joint stiffness, skeletal defects, and/or other abnormalities. According to reports in the medical literature, individuals with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome develop premature, widespread thickening and loss of elasticity of artery walls (arteriosclerosis), potentially resulting in life-threatening complications during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood.
      In most patients, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is caused by new genetic changes that occur randomly for unknown reasons (sporadic). These mutations are thought to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait
     It is not to be confused with Werner's Syndrome form of progeria, which is less infrequent and which leads to a somewhat later death [see also].
1820 Victor Emmanuel II, king of Sardinia-Piedmont and first king of united Italy. He died on 09 January 1878.
1814 Ferdinand Konrad Bellermann, German artist who died on 11 August 1889.
1804 Johann Strauss the Elder, Viennese violinist, composer (waltzes, Radetzky March). He died on 24 September 1849.
1794 Cotton gin is patented by Eli Whitney, it would revolutionize the US cotton industry.
^1782 Thomas Hart Benton "Old Bullion", US writer and Democratic Party leader who died on 10 April 1858. He championed agrarian interests and westward expansion during his 30-year tenure as a senator from Missouri.
      After military service in the War of 1812, Benton settled in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1815 and became editor of the St. Louis Enquirer (1818–1820). Vigorously asserting that the West must“share in the destinies of this Republic,” he appealed to a mixture of agrarian, commercial, and slaveholding interests and was elected a US senator in 1820, an office he held until 1851.
      Building an electoral base among small farmers and traders in the mid-1820s, Benton became a crusader for the distribution of public lands to settlers. His views on many issues grew to coincide with those of President Andrew Jackson [15 Mar 1767 – 08 Jun 1845], and he was soon acknowledged as the chief spokesman for the Democratic Party in the Senate. In the 1830s he led in Congress Jackson's successful fight to dissolve the Bank of the United States. Benton also eschewed wildcat state banks as economically unsound; rather, he advocated a federal independent treasury and a hard-money policy.
      Although he was generally considered proslavery and pro-Southern and was an early supporter of statehood for Missouri without restriction on bondage, in the 1840s he came to oppose the extension of slavery into the territories on the grounds that it inhibited the national growth and was a menace both to the Union and to his vision of the freeholder's Arcadia. This steadfast antislavery position, applied repeatedly to emotionally charged sectional issues, finally cost him his Senate seat in 1851. He continued his opposition in the House of Representatives, however, from 1853 to 1855. Unlike many other antislavery Democrats, he rejected the newly formed Republican Party, and he went so far as to oppose his own son-in-law, John C. Frémont [21 Jan 1813 – 13 Jul 1890], as Republican presidential nominee (1856).
      Benton's imposing memoir-history of his years in the Senate, Thirty Years' View (2 vol.,1854–1856), was eloquent with agrarian and Jacksonian Democratic faith, opposition to slavery extension, and concern for the imperiled Union. He produced a learned Examination of the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision in 1858 (which reaffirmed that the status of slaves, as property, could not be affected by federal legislation), and his 16-volume Abridgement of the Debates of Congress through 1850 is still useful.
1752 Jean Frédéric Schall (or Challe), French artist who died on 24 March 1825. [Shall Schall ever have his work shown on the internet? I can find no examples of it now.]
1752 Paul Christiaen van Pol, Dutch artist who died on 21 May 1813.
1681 Georg Philipp Telemann Magdeburg, Germany, late baroque composer, who wrote both sacred and secular music but was most admired for his church compositions, which ranged from small cantatas to large-scale works for soloists, chorus, and orchestra. He died on 25 June 1767 in Hamburg.
 
Feasts of every 14 March:
— Santo Afrodisio
— Santo Arnaldo
— San León; s
— Santa Matilde.
 

DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: tonalité: le malade de ta famille.
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Thoughts for the day:
“He who falls in love with himself will have no rivals.” {nor any children}
“Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.” — Albert Einstein [14 March 1879 – 18 Apr 1955] — {Dhey ot tu aplay dhat to Inglish speling, emong odher thingz}
“Common sense is nothing more than a deposit of prejudices laid down in the mind before you reach eighteen.”
— Albert Einstein
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Dog Heaven
Mom was trying to console Susie, whose dog had recently died. “You know, it's not your fault that the dog died. I'm sure God took him up into heaven and right now is having a grand old time with him.” Susie, still crying, said “What would God want with a dead dog?”
PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4mar/h4mar14.html
http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4mar/h4mar14.html
http://www.geocities.com/quermaz/history/h4mar/h4mar14.html
updated Saturday 14-Mar-2009 16:45 UT
principal updates:
v.8.30 Monday 07-Apr-2008 17:55 UT
v.7.20 Friday 16-Mar-2007 1:52 UT
Thursday 16-Mar-2006 15:35 UT
v.5.30 Tuesday 19-Apr-2005 18:26 UT
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