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AMR price chart^  On an 11 March:

2003
AMR (American Airlines' parent company) is considering bankruptcy. On the New York Stock Exchange, 14 million of the 156 million AMR shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $2.41 to close at the day's low: $1.59. They had traded at $43.75 on 02 January 2001. [5~year price chart >] Because of its low market capitalization, AMR is removed from the S&P 500 index, and is replaced by Apartment Investment & Management (AIV).

Zapatistas arrive in Mexico City2001:
24 Zapatista leaders, accompanied by many sympathizers, arrive at Mexico City's Zocalo after their two-week publicity voyage from Chiapas. [< photo] — Quince días después de abandonar la sierra Lacandona, en el estado mexicano de Chiapas, y tras recorrer más de 3000 kilómetros por las zonas más pobres del país, la caravana zapatista encabezada por el subcomandante Marcos llega la plaza del Zócalo de México D.F.
2001 Al menos 200'000 manifestantes, procedentes en su mayoría de Aragón, recorren las calles de Madrid en protesta por el Plan Hidrológico diseñado por el Gobierno de José María Aznar López.
2001 Beatification of 233 martyrs of the Spanish Civil War.
      Pope John Paul II beatifies José Aparicio Sanz and 232 other martyrs of the Spanish Civil War. Como cabeza de estos nuevos beatos, el Vaticano eligió al sacerdote diocesano de Valencia José Aparicio Sanz. De los 233 beatos, 226 cayeron en la archidiócesis de Valencia, 6 en la de Barcelona y uno en la de Lérida. Almost all of them died in 1936 in the province of Valencia at the hands of leftist forces battling General. Franco insurgency, a few are from Catalonia. This beats the previous record of beatifications in a single ceremony: 206 Japanese martyrs by Pius IX in 1877. John Paul now has beatified 1227 people in more than 100 ceremonies, and since becoming pope in 1978 has raised 477 candidates to sainthood. In comparison, in the previous 400 or so years, a total of 1310 candidates were beatified and 300 raised to sainthood.
     Los 233 mártires españoles de la persecución religiosa de 1936 beatificados por el papa Juan Pablo II en la mayor beatificación de la historia de la Iglesia católica, proceden de 13 comunidades autónomas españolas. No obstante, las causas de 226 de ellos fueron iniciadas en la curia eclesiástica de Valencia al ser el lugar donde desempeñaban su labor pastoral cuando fueron asesinados. De los siete mártires restantes, el Arzobispado de Barcelona ha instruído las causas de seis franciscanos asesinados en su territorio diocesano, mientras que el obispado de Lleida promueve la de un seglar de Acción Católica muerto en esa provincia. Por comunidades autónomas en las que nacieron los mártires que serán beatificados, figura en primer lugar la Comunidad Valenciana, con 135 mártires, seguida por Aragón con 28 y Cataluña, con 26. A continuación se encuentran Castilla-León, con 15 mártires, País Vasco con 8, Andalucía con 6, Galicia con 4 , Cantabria y Navarra con 3 cada una, Madrid con 2 mártires y, finalmente, Baleares, La Rioja y Murcia, con un mártir cada una.
[Lista de 226 de los beatificados, con enlaces a notas biográficas de 220]
2000 Ricardo Lagos is sworn in as president of Chile, the second socialist to take the post since Salvador Allende was (vith CIA complicity) killed in a 1973 coup.
1999 El ministro de Finanzas alemán y presidente del Partido Socialdemócrata, Oskar Lafontaine, dimite de todas sus responsabilidades.
1997 Estados Unidos rechaza la propuesta de la ONU de enviar una fuerza multinacional a Zaire (actual República Democrática del Congo), mientras miles de refugiados tratan de huir de la guerra por el control de Kisangani.
1996 (Monday) The Dow Jones industrial average rises 110.55 to close at 5500.81 following a 171.24 point loss the Friday before.
1996 AOL and Netscape sign deal    ^top^
      America Online agrees to use Netscape as the primary Web browser offered to its subscribers. AOL senior vice president of business affairs David Colburn said the company had resisted Microsoft's browser because the company viewed Microsoft as a direct competitor. He added that Microsoft's inclusion of a Microsoft Network icon on the Windows 95 desktop gave Microsoft an unfair advantage over AOL. In the March 11 deal, Netscape agreed to develop an AOL browser that would work with AOL's software. Meanwhile, Microsoft countered by offering to bundle AOL with Windows 95. AOL accepted the offer and signed an exclusive deal the following day agreeing to feature Internet Explorer, not Netscape, as its primary browser. The two agreements and David Colburn's testimony became important evidence in the Department of Justice's 1998 antitrust case against Microsoft. In 1998, AOL would purchase Netscape, heightening the competition between AOL and Microsoft.
1993 El Parlamento ruso recorta drásticamente los poderes de Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin, lo que inicia una guerra sin cuartel entre el Ejecutivo y el Legislativo.
1993 Janet Reno was unanimously confirmed by the Senate to be the nation's first female attorney general.
1993 North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in a harsh rebuff of Western demands to open suspected nuclear weapons development sites for inspection.
1991 Felipe González Márquez publica la lista de su sexto Gobierno, en la que figura Narcís Serra i Serra como vicepresidente y se incorporan seis nuevos ministros.
1990 The Lithuanian parliament voted to break away from the Soviet Union and restore its independence. — El nuevo Parlamento lituano declara la independencia de la República respecto de la URRS.
1990 Patricio Aylwin toma posesión como Presidente de la República de Chile, ceremonia que marca la reinserción del país andino en la democracia y el fin del régimen militar.
1987 Helmut Kohl es reelegido canciller de la República Federal de Alemania, tras el triunfo de su partido en las elecciones del 25 de enero.
1987 La policía belga desarticula una red de prostitución infantil que canalizaba un funcionario de UNICEF.
1988 Intento frustrado de golpe de Estado en Guatemala.
^ 1985 Gorbachev chosen as ruler of the USSR.
      Capping his rapid rise through the Communist Party hierarchy, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is selected as the new general secretary and leader of the Soviet Union, following the death of Konstantin U. Chernenko the day before. Gorbachev oversaw a radical transformation of Soviet society and foreign policy during the next six years.
      Gorbachev was born on 02 March 1931, the son of peasant farmers, near Stavropol. As a young man he joined the Komsomol. In 1952, he traveled to Moscow to earn his degree in law. Upon his return to his native town of Stavropol, Gorbachev became extremely active in party politics and began a rapid rise through the Communist Party bureaucracy. Part of his success was due to his intelligence, drive, and ability to see and exploit opportunities. He was also aided by his ability to attach himself to important mentors, such as Mikhail Suslov, the leading party ideologue, and Yuri Andropov, the head of the KGB. With Andropov's support, Gorbachev was elected to the Central Committee of the Communist Party in 1971.
      During the next decade and a half, Gorbachev worked hard to promote his own career and to support Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. When Brezhnev died in 1982, Andropov took power. Gorbachev's role in the new government expanded, and then Andropov died in 1984. It was widely assumed that Gorbachev would be his successor, but his youth, combined with suspicions from some old-line Communist Party officials that the young man was too reform-minded, led to the selection of Konstantin Chernenko.
      Gorbachev did not have to wait long for a second chance, however. Chernenko died after less than a year in office. With the rapid-fire deaths of Andropov and Chernenko, Gorbachev had outlived his only serious competition, and he was selected to become the new leader of the Soviet Union on 11 March 1985. During the next six years, Gorbachev led the Soviet Union through a dizzying pace of domestic reforms and foreign policy changes. He relaxed political oppression and led the push for reform of the nation's crumbling economic system. On the foreign policy scene, he worked hard to secure better relations with the United States, and in 1987, he and President Ronald Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, which reduced the number of medium-range missiles each nation kept in Europe.
      The pace of change, however, might have been too rapid. By the late-1980s, the Soviet Union was cracking to pieces. Eastern European satellites were breaking free, various Russian republics were pushing for independence, and the economy was on a downward spiral. In December 1991, Gorbachev resigned as president and the Soviet Union formally ceased to exist.
1985 Son liberados 200 presos políticos en Uruguay, entre ellos Raúl Sendic, jefe de los tupamaros.
1981 Auto de procesamiento contra el general español Alfonso Armada Comyns por su participación en el intento de golpe de Estado del 23 febrero, por el que fue condenado.
1981 Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte inicia una segunda etapa en la dictadura: asume la Presidencia de la República de Chile por un período de ocho años y jura la nueva Constitución, que es proclamada parcialmente.
1978 Aprobadas las preautonomías para Galicia, la Comunidad Valenciana, Aragón y Canarias.
1977 El Gobierno español, presidido por Adolfo Suárez González, aprueba una amnistía total.
1977 More than 130 hostages held in Washington by Hanafi Muslims are freed after ambassadors from three Islamic nations joined the negotiations.
1975 Acusado de una supuesta conjura militar, el general portugués António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola busca refugio político en Brasil.
1969 Rafael Antonio Caldera toma posesión como nuevo presidente de Venezuela.
1967 Fierce fighting around Tay Ninh province in Vietnam.
      US 1st Infantry Division troops engage in one of the heaviest battles of Operation Junction City. The fierce fighting resulted in 210 reported North Vietnamese casualties. Operation Junction City was an effort to smash the communist stronghold in Tay Ninh Province and surrounding areas along the Cambodian border northwest of Saigon. The purpose of the operation was to drive the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops away from populated areas and into the open, where superior American firepower could be more effectively used. Junction City was the largest operation of the war to date, involving more than 25'000 soldiers. The first day's operation was supported by 575 aircraft sorties, a record number for a single day in South Vietnam. The operation was marked by one of the largest airmobile assaults in history when 240 troop-carrying helicopters descended on the battlefield. In one of the few airborne operations of the war, 778 "Sky Soldiers" parachuted into the Junction City area of operations 45 km north of Tay Ninh City. There were 2728 enemy casualties by the end of the operation on 17 March.
1966 Military coup led by Indonesian Gen Suharto breaks out.
1961 Tropas marroquíes apresan a técnicos petroleros de diversas nacionalidades, entre ellos cinco españoles que trabajan en la provincia española del Sáhara Occidental.
1954 The US Army charges that Wisconsin Senator Joseph R. (“Red Scare”) McCarthy and his House Unamerican Affairs subcommittee's chief counsel, Roy Cohn, have exerted pressure to obtain favored treatment for Pvt. G. David Schine, a former consultant to the subcommittee.
1953 An American B-47 accidentally drops a nuclear bomb on South Carolina, the bomb doesn't go off due to 6 safety catches
1948 Jewish Agency of Jerusalem bombed
^ 1942 General MacArthur leaves the Philippines, saying: “I shall return.”
      After struggling against great odds, made worse by his disregard of War Department orders, to save the Philippines from Japanese conquest, US General Douglas MacArthur [26 Jan 1880 – 05 Apr 1964] abandons the island fortress of Corregidor under orders from President Franklin Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945]. Left behind at Corregidor and on the Bataan Peninsula were 90'000 US and Filipino soldiers, who, lacking food, supplies, and support, would soon succumb to the Japanese offensive.
      The Philippines had been part of the US commonwealth since Spain ceded it at the close of the Spanish-US War, and the US refused to grant independence. When the Japanese invaded China in 1937 and signed the Tripartite Pact with fascist nations Germany and Italy in 1940, the United States responded by, among other things, strengthening the defense of the Philippines. General MacArthur was called out of retirement and took command of 10'000 US Army soldiers, 12'000 Filipino enlisted men who fought as part of the US Army, and 100'000 Filipino army soldiers, who were poorly trained and prepared. MacArthur radically overestimated his strength and underestimated Japan's. The Rainbow War Plan, a defensive strategy for US interests in the Pacific drawn up and refined by the War Department, required that MacArthur withdraw his troops into the mountains of the Bataan Peninsula and await better-trained and equipped American reinforcements. Instead, MacArthur decided to take the Japanese head on-and never recovered.
      07 December 1941, the day of the Pearl Harbor bombing, also saw the Japanese destruction of almost half of the American aircraft based in the Philippines. Amphibious landings of Japanese troops along the Luzon coast followed. By late December, MacArthur had to pull his forces back defensively to the Bataan Peninsula-the original strategy belatedly pursued. By 02 January 1942, the Philippine capital, Manila, fell to the Japanese. President Roosevelt had to admit to himself (if not to the US people, who believed the Americans were winning the battle with the Japanese in the Philippines), that the prospects for the US forces were not good--and that he could not afford to have General MacArthur fall captive to the Japanese. A message arrived at Corregidor on 20 February, ordering MacArthur to leave immediately for Mindanao, then on to Melbourne, Australia, where he was to assume command of all United States troops. MacArthur balked; he was fully prepared to fight alongside his men to the death, if necessary. MacArthur finally obeys the president's order on 11 March.
      After leaving Corregidor, MacArthur and his family traveled by boat 900 km to the Philippine island of Mindanao, braving mines, rough seas, and the Japanese Navy. At the end of the hair-raising 35-hour journey, MacArthur told the boat commander, John D. Bulkeley, "You've taken me out of the jaws of death, and I won't forget it." On 17 March, the general and his family boarded a B-17 Flying Fortress for Northern Australia. He then took another aircraft and a long train ride down to Melbourne. During this journey, he was informed that there were far fewer Allied troops in Australia than he had hoped. Relief of his forces trapped in the Philippines would not be forthcoming. Deeply disappointed, he issued a statement to the press in which he promised his men and the people of the Philippines, "I shall return." The promise would become his mantra during the next two and a half years, and he would repeat it often in public appearances. For his valiant defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor and celebrated as "America's First Soldier."
      Put in command of Allied forces in the Southwestern Pacific, his first duty was conducting the defense of Australia. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, Bataan fell in April, and the 70'000 US and Filipino soldiers captured there were forced to undertake a death march in which at least 7000 perished. Then, in May, Corregidor surrendered, and 15'000 more US and Filipino soldiers were captured. The Philippines, MacArthur's adopted home, were lost, and the US Joint Chiefs of Staff had no immediate plans for their liberation. After the US victory at the Battle of Midway in June 1942, most Allied resources in the Pacific went to US Admiral Chester Nimitz [24 Feb 1885 – 20 Feb 1966], who as commander of the Pacific Fleet planned a more direct route to Japan than via the Philippines. Unperturbed, MacArthur launched a major offensive in New Guinea, winning a string of victories with his limited forces. By September 1944, he was poised to launch an invasion of the Philippines, but he needed the support of Nimitz's Pacific Fleet. After a period of indecision about whether to invade the Philippines or Formosa, the Joint Chiefs put their support behind MacArthur's plan, which logistically could be carried out sooner than a Formosa invasion.
      On 20 October 1944, a few hours after his troops landed, MacArthur waded ashore onto the Philippine island of Leyte. That day, he made a radio broadcast in which he declared, "People of the Philippines, I have returned!" In January 1945, his forces invaded the main Japanese island of Luzon. In February, Japanese forces at Bataan were cut off, and Corregidor was captured. Manila, the Philippine capital, fell in March, and in June MacArthur announced his offensive operations on Luzon to be at an end; although scattered Japanese resistance continued until the end of the war in August. Only one-third of the men MacArthur left behind on 11 March 1942, survived to see his return. "I'm a little late," he told them, "but we finally came."
^ 1941 Lend-Lease makes US “the Great Arsenal of Democracy”.
      By early 1941, the Germans had made significant inroads in their campaign to conquer Europe, which put US President Franklin Roosevelt in something of a bind. Although he increasingly wanted to aid Great Britain in the war effort against what he perceived as the "unholy alliance" of the Axis powers, Roosevelt's actions were constrained by public opinion. Sizable pockets of the country considered the nation's involvement in World War I to have been a mistake, and thus hewed to the belief that the US should stay neutral in the face of the mounting crisis in Europe. Roosevelt devised a fiscal and barter-based solution to this problem, which he laid out in a fireside chat in 1940; the US would serve as "the great arsenal of democracy" and thus provide Great Britain with the money and military machinery necessary to battle back the Axis. Roosevelt called on Congress to rapidly pass lend-lease legislation that would sanction this system. Legislators heeded the president's words and shot the bill through the Senate and House.
      On 11 March, Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, paving the way for an initial aid package worth roughly $7 billion. Although the US would enter the war upon being attacked by Japan on 07 December 1941, the Lend-Lease program kept going until 1946. In all, the US sent $50.6 billion worth of Lend-Lease aid to the Allies during the war, the majority of which went to Great Britain and the USSR (the latter hardly a democracy).
     The Lend-Lease program was devised by Roosevelt as a means of aiding Great Britain in its war effort against the Germans, by giving the chief executive the power to "sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of" any military resources the president deemed ultimately in the interest of the defense of the United States. The reasoning was that if a neighbor was successful in defending his home, the security of your home would be enhanced. It also served to bolster British morale by giving them the sense that they were no longer alone in their struggle against Hitler.
      The program was finally authorized by Congress and signed into effect on 11 March 1941. By November, after much heated debate, Congress extended the terms of Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union, even though the USSR had already been the recipient of American military weapons and had been promised $1 billion in financial aid. By the end of the war, more than $50 billion in funds, weapons, aircraft, and ships had been distributed to 44 countries. After the war, the Lend-Lease program morphed into the Marshall Plan, which allocated funds for the revitalization of "friendly" democratic nations-even if they were former enemies.
^ 1938 Anschluss
       German term designating the incorporation of Austria into Germany in the 1930s. Anschluss was first advocated by Austrian Social Democrats. The 1919 peace treaty of Saint-Germain prohibited Anschluss, to prevent a resurgence of a strong Germany. After Hitler's rise to power the Nazis took over the idea. In 1938, Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg was forced to agree to Hitler's demands for Anschluss, but reneged, calling for a plebiscite. After the Chancellor's forced resignation, the Austrian President refused to name an Austrian Nazi, Seyss-Inquart, to replace him, and the German agent in Vienna telegrammed for German troops. The troops of Adolf Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945] occupied Austria on 11 March 1938, and, to popular approval, annexed it as the province of Ostmark. In the Moscow Declaration (1943) the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union annulled the Anschluss, recognizing Austria's right to independence; an independent government was not established until the end of World War II.
     (German: "Union"), political union of Austria with Germany, achieved through annexation by Adolf Hitler in 1938. Mooted in 1919 by Austria, Anschluss with Germany remained a hope (chiefly with Austrian Social Democrats) during 1919-33, after which Hitler's rise to power made it less attractive. In July 1934 Austrian and German Nazis together attempted a coup but were unsuccessful. An authoritarian right-wing government then took power in Austria and kept perhaps half the population from voicing legitimate dissent; that cleavage prevented concerted resistance to the developments of 1938.
      In February 1938 Hitler invited the Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg [14 Dec 1897 – 18 Nov 1977] to Germany and forced him to agree to give the Austrian Nazis virtually a free hand. Schuschnigg later repudiated the agreement and announced a plebiscite on the Anschluss question. He was bullied into canceling the plebiscite, and he obediently resigned, ordering the Austrian Army not to resist the Germans. President Wilhelm Miklas [15 Oct 1872 – 20 Mar 1956] of Austria refused to appoint the Austrian Nazi leader Arthur Seyss-Inquart [22 July 1892 – 16 Oct 1946] as chancellor. The German Nazi minister Hermann Göring [12 Jan 1893 – 15 Oct 1946,] ordered Seyss-Inquart to send a telegram requesting German military aid, but he refused, and the telegram was sent by a German agent in Vienna. On 12 March Germany invaded, and the enthusiasm that followed persuaded Hitler to annex Austria outright on 13 March. A rigged plebiscite of 10 April gave a 99.7% approval.
     On 09 March 1938, the Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg announced a plebiscite on the independence of Austria. Adolf Hitler took this as an opportunity to take action against the Austrian State. Schuschnigg was pressed to resign. The National Socialist Arthur Seyss-Inquart took over the chancellorship and formed a new government. The Austrian National Socialists took power in Austria. On the morning of 12 March 1938, troops of the German Wehrmacht and the SS crossed the German-Austrian border. On 13 March 1938, Hitler announced in Linz the legislation on the “Anschluss” (Annexation) of Austria into the German Reich. During the great celebrations in all of Austria, many potential opponents of the regime were arrested, as well as the Jews who were expropriated and deprived of civil rights. National Socialist rule was established now in Austria through propaganda, terror and enticements.
THE "PLEBISCITE"
      After the “Anschluss” in March 1938, the Austrian army was incorporated into the German Wehrmacht. German laws came into force without delay. A “Plebiscite” was set for 10th April on the annexation of Austria to the German Reich, which was only a mockery. Austrian citizens who were of Jewish descent were excluded from the election. People who were of other political opinions were arrested. Despite this, many Austrian intellectuals and known personalities from all areas publicly supported Hitler’s annexation. The former Chancellor Karl Renner [14 Dec 1870 – 31 Dec 1950] who had founded the First Republic and the Austrian bishops did their best to convince the many who had remained sceptical. A free democratic election was not possible on 10 April: Election publicity was present in front of and in the election booth, the votes were surveyed and the voting papers were manipulated. Despite the complete lack of choice that the voters had, the former National Socialist Mayor of the City of Linz, Franz Langoth, voiced his opinion in 1951 (!) “that the election on 10 April 1938 in Austria had been an example of a true, democratic plebiscite and would be recorded as a pure and clean vote in future history”.
1938 In hopes of combating the Great Depression, the US Congress passes the Revenue Act, calling for a series of corporate tax cuts. But it was controversial and President Franklin Roosevelt refused to signature it. Congress would override Roosevelt's veto later that spring.
^ 1926 De Valera Resigns as Sinn Fein President.
      Eamon De Valera [14 Oct 1882 – 29 Aug 1975], the US-born leader of the Irish independence movement, resigns as leader of the Sinn Fein, a political party dedicated to achieving an unified and independent Ireland. De Valera's father, who was Spanish, died when the boy, born in New York, was two. He was then sent to his mother's family in County Limerick, Ireland. De Valera joined the Easter Rebellion against British rule in 1916. Saved from execution because of his US citizenship, he was released under a general amnesty in 1917. The same year, he became leader of Sinn Fein, which achieved an electoral majority in Ireland in 1919. Imprisoned by the British, he escaped and fled to the United States in the next year. During his exile, he was elected president of Ireland by the Dail Eireann, a revolutionary parliament that proclaimed Irish independence. When he returned to Ireland in the next year, Sinn Fein and the Irish volunteers were engaged in a widespread and effective guerrilla campaign against British forces. In 1921, a cease-fire was declared and in 1922, Arthur Griffith [31 March 1871 – 12 Aug 1922] and other former Sinn Fein leaders broke with De Valera in signing a treaty with Britain, calling for the partition of Ireland, with the south becoming autonomous and the six northern counties of the island remaining in Great Britain. De Valera deplored the period of civil war that followed but maintained his opposition to the British government. In 1926, he left Sinn Fein, which had become the unofficial political wing of the underground movement for Northern independence, and entered Irish Free State politics. He formed the Fianna Fail political party, and in 1932, he was elected Irish president as his party gained control of the Irish Free State government. For the next sixteen years, President De Valera pursued a policy of complete political separation from Great Britain, including the introduction of a new constitution declaring Ireland a fully sovereign state and a policy of neutrality during World War II. In 1948, he narrowly lost a reelection vote and was forced to resign, but in 1951 he returned as Irish prime minister, and in 1959 as president of the republic. He retired from Irish politics in 1973.
1920 El Gobierno soviético reconoce Letonia como independiente.
1917 Los ingleses se apoderan de Bagdad en el transcurso de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
^ 1917 Petrograd troops shoot at strikers but have second thoughts (on 26 February Julian = 11 March Gregorian)
     On 08 March (23 February Julian) thousands of women textile workers in Petrograd shut down their factories, partly in commemoration of International Women's Day but mainly to protest bread shortages, thus adding to the already large number of men and women on strike. Strikers marched through the streets shouting "Give us bread" (Daite khleb and Khleba, khleba). Crowds headed toward the city center. Demonstrators -- who were in a nasty mood -- broke store windows, halted street-cars, and forced other workers to join them. During the next two days, encouraged by hundreds of experienced rank-and-file socialist activists, workers in factories and shops throughout the capital went on strike.
     By 10 March, virtually every industrial enterprise in Petrograd is shut down, as are many commercial and service enterprises. The demands, visible on banners and audible in the shouts of demonstrators and in speeches at rallies, escalate, again with the encouragement of activists, from demands for bread to appeals to end the war and abolish the autocracy.
      Demonstrators march and protest all the more boldly when police and cossacks, under orders to show restraint, hesitate to stop them. Students, white-collar workers, and teachers join workers in the streets and at public meetings. Although the protests and meetings are generally peaceful, the potential for mass violence is barely contained: some workers carry sticks, nuts, bolts, screws, pieces of metal, and, occasionally, pistols; crowds smash shop windows, especially the windows of food and bread stores; looters become more common; demonstrators attack and beat police officers, fatally on a couple of occasions. Although socialist activists condemn the violence and vandalism, the outbreaks become more frequent. Meanwhile, liberal and socialist deputies in the Duma shrilly denounce the current government and again demand a responsible cabinet of ministers.
      Tsar Nicholas II [18 May 1868 – 16 July 1918] receives ambiguous information about the seriousness of events. Reports are also partially overshadowed by news that his children have been stricken with measles just after he left Tsarskoe Selo. On 09 and 10 March, word of the disturbances reached him at Headquarters -- in letters from tsarina Alexandra [06 June 1872 – 16 July 1918] and in telegrams from War Minister Mikhail Beliaev, Minister of Internal Affairs Protopopov, and the military commander of Petrograd, General Sergei Khabalov. Alexandra discounts the disturbances: "Its a hooligan movement, young boys and girls running about and screaming that they have no bread, only to excite -- and then the workmen preventing others from work -- if it were very cold they would. probably stay indoors. But this will all pass and quiet down -- if the Duma would only behave itself".
      Although the official reports are more thorough in describing the scale of the disturbances -- the spreading strikes, the demands for bread, the mass demonstrations on Nevsky Prospect (Petrograd's main throughfare and the symbol of its urbanity), and the attacks on police officers -- they also assure Nicholas that the police and the army are having no difficulty in controlling the disorders. This is far from accurate.
      About 21:00 on 10 March, General Khabalov receives a telegram from Nicholas that would transform the unrest into revolution: "I command you tomorrow to stop the disorders in the capital, which are unacceptable in the difficult time of war with Germany and Austria." Meeting with his unit commanders an hour later, Khabalov ordered them to use all necessary force to disperse crowds, including firing at demonstrators, and he issued a proclamation to the population, posted the next morning, banning demonstrations and warning that this order would be enforced with arms. He also publicly warned strikers that they would be conscripted and sent to the front if they did not return to work by 13 March. In the evening of 10 March, the Council of Ministers is informed of the tsar's command to use military force to restore order. A majority of the ministers dismiss Protopopov's sanguine assurances that all would be well and suggest forming a new cabinet in consultation with the Duma as the only way to end the disorders. They delegate two members to begin negotiations with the Duma.
     On 11 March, as demonstrators again pour into the streets of Petrograd, police and soldiers, as commanded, fire systematically into the crowds, wounding and killing many. The show of force convinces many socialist leaders that the regime is determined and able to restore order. It also convinced the Council of Ministers to abandon efforts to achieve a political compromise with the Duma, that no longer seemed necessary. Instead, the council recommends to Nicholas that he again prorogue the Duma, which he does. After the confident and effective use of force, the telegram from the chairman of the Duma to Nicholas on the night of 11 March, insisting that "state authority is totally paralyzed and utterly unable to reimpose order" seems to conflict with the facts, and thus the pleas for a cabinet responsible to the Duma hardly seems worth answering. Indeed, Nicholas dismisses the warning: "That fat Rodzianko has written all sorts of nonsense to me, to which I will not even reply." That night Rodzianko is handed the order proroguing the Duma. But the tsar's confidence is premature. Leaders of the rebellion and of the government both underestimate the psychological and moral effect on the soldiers themselves of the order that they shoot at demonstrating civilians. Most obeyed the order on the 26th. But as they returned to their barracks, they thought and talked about whether to follow orders or their consciences the following day. The next day the answer would soon emerge in regiment after regiment: mutiny
     Four days later, the Petrograd insurgents have taken over the capital and Tsar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate.
      A provisional government composed mainly of moderates is established, and the Soviet--a coalition of workers’ and soldiers’ committees--calls for an end to violent revolutionary activity. Meanwhile, Vladimir Lenin [22 Apr 1870 – 21 Jan 1924], leader of the Bolshevik revolutionary party, leaves his exile in Switzerland and crosses German enemy lines to arrive at Petrograd on 16 April 1917. The Bolshevik Party, founded in 1903, was a militant group of professional revolutionaries who sought to overthrow the czarist government of Russia and set up a Marxist government in its place.
      On 06 November 1917, the Bolsheviks seize control of the Russian state in the October Revolution, and Lenin becomes virtual dictator of the country. However, civil war and foreign intervention delay complete Bolshevik control of Russian until 1920. Lenin’s Soviet government nationalizes industry and distributes land, and on 30 December 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is established.
      In the USSR, the Communist Party controls all levels of government, and the Party’s politburo, with its increasingly powerful general secretary, effectively rules the country. Soviet industry is owned and managed by the state, and agricultural land is divided into state-run collective farms. In the decades after its establishment, the Russian-dominated Soviet Union grows into one of the world’s most powerful and influential states, and eventually encompasses fifteen republics: Russia, the Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.
1901 El Reino Unido se niega a acceder a las reivindicaciones estadounidenses sobre el canal de Panamá.
1888 Great blizzard of '88 strikes NE US.
1875 El general carlista Ramón Cabrera y Griño firma en París su acta de adhesión al rey de España Alfonso XII [28 Nov – 25 Nov 1885].
1867 Great Mauna Loa eruption (Hawaiian volcano)
1865 General Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville NC
1863 Abraham Lincoln relieves George B. McClellan from his position as General-in-Chief of the Federal Armies.
1862 Siege of New Madrid, Missouri continues.
1862 Confederates check Union amphibious forces descending the Tallahassee River at Fort Pemberton, Mississippi.
^ 1861 Confederate Constitution is adopted
      In Montgomery, Alabama, delegates from South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas adopt the Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America. The constitution resembles the Constitution of the United States, even repeating much of its language, but is actually more comparable to the Articles of Confederation--the first post-Revolutionary War US constitution--in its delegation of extensive power to the states.
      The constitution also contains substantial differences from the US Constitution in its protection of the institution of American slavery, which is "recognized and protected" in slave states and territories. However, in congruence with US policy since the beginning of the nineteenth century, the foreign slave trade is prohibited. The document also provides for six-year terms for the president and vice president, and the president is ineligible for successive terms.
      Although a presidential item veto is granted, the power of the central Confederate government is sharply limited by its constitutional dependence on state consent for the use of any funds and resources. After some initial problems, the government of Jefferson Davis, the first president of the Confederacy, grows stronger as he learns to use executive power to secure control of the armed forces and the use of manpower.
      However, some Southern state governments resist Davis’s centralization and deprive him of needed resources, especially after the Civil War begins to turn against the Confederacy.
      Although Britain and France both briefly consider entering the Civil War on the side of the South, the Confederate States of America never wins foreign recognition as an independent government.
1824 US War Dept creates the Bureau of Indian Affair
1779 US army Corps of Engineers established (first time)
1702 first London daily newspaper
1665 New York's English Deputies approved a new legal code, which guaranteed all Protestants the right to practice their religious observances unhindered. (There were currently a host of Protestant groups thriving within this now_English colony, acquired only seven months earlier from the Dutch.)
1649 Se firma en Francia la Paz de Rueil, por la que la reina Anne d'Autriche concede el perdón a los rebeldes que defendían la Primera Fronda o Fronda Parlamentaria.
^ 1649 Fin de la Fronde.
      Anne d'Autriche [22 Sep 1601 – 20 Jan 1666] et Mazarin [14 Jul 1602 – 09 Mar 1661] liquident la Fronde parlementaire. Les magistrats renoncent à limiter en France le pouvoir du roi. En 1648, la France est gouvernée par Anne d'Autriche, mère de Louis XIV [05 Sep 1638 – 01 Sep 1715]. La régente bénéficie des utiles conseils de Mazarin. Elle doit mener une guerre difficile contre les Espagnols et cet effort nécessite d'augmenter les impôts. Il n'en faut pas plus pour entraîner les magistrats dans une révolte. Issus de la bourgeoisie, les magistrats achètent leur charge, ce qui les met normalement à l'abri des sanctions (le roi ne peut pas déposséder un magistrat de sa charge). Le Parlement de Paris convie ses collègues de province à s'unir à lui pour réformer les abus de l'État.
      Anne d'Autriche fait arrêter le chef des frondeurs, Pierre Broussel, auquel son intégrité vaut une immense popularité. Face à la révolte des Parisiens, elle doit presque aussitôt le faire libérer. Mais la fin victorieuse de la guerre donne les mains libres à Mazarin et à la régente pour en finir avec les frondeurs.
      Le 05 janvier 1649, le roi fuit Paris pour Saint-Germain-en-Laye tandis que son armée, commandée par le Grand Condé [08 1621 – 11 Dec 1686], fait le siège de la capitale. Les magistrats, qui jouissent de nombreux privilèges, n'ont pas vraiment envie d'une Révolution. Ils rendent les armes. Après ce succès, Mazarin et la régente devront combattre la Fronde des Princes, plus brouillonne et bagarreuse.
      La monarchie française va sortir renforcée de ces épreuves tandis qu'à la même époque, l'Angleterre fait l'expérience de la République après avoir exécuté son roi Charles I [29 Nov 1600 – 09 Feb 1649; Gregorian dates]. C'est ainsi que la France va évoluer vers une monarchie absolue et l'Angleterre vers une monarchie constitutionnelle.
1482 Tomás de Torquemada [1420 – 16 Sep 1498] es nombrado Inquisidor de España.
0537 Goths lay siege to Rome
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^  Deaths which occurred on an 11 March:

2007 Gift Tandare, 31, woman shot by the police of Zimbabwe's dictator Robert Mugabe [21 Feb 1924~], which is brutally breaking up a prayer meeting of the Movement For Democratic Change in Highfield, a western township of Harare. MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai [10 Mar 1952~], 12 other senior members, and more than 100 others are arrested and severely injured by beatings with clubs and iron bars. —(070328)
2007 Five policemen, guards at Dena Bank in New Delhi (India), shot (and one of them axed) by Nari Lepcha, a fellow policeman guard, after they tried to sodomize him. —(070312)
2006 Slobodan Miloševic, born on 20 August 1941, criminal against humanity, former President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia, dies of a heart attack, in prison during trial at the international tribunal at The Hague. — (060312)
^ 2005 (Saturday) Harold Diekmeier; 74; Bart Oliver, 15; James Gregory, 16; Gloria Critari; 55; killed instantly; and Randy L. Gregory, 50; Richard Reeves, 58; Gerald A. Miller, 44; mortally wounded; shot at random by Terry Ratzmann, 44, who then kills himself with the same 9mm Beretta handgun (which he reloaded once), some 25 minutes after the beginning of the 12:30 service of the Living Church of God, attended by about 80 persons, held at the Sheraton hotel at 375 S. Moorland Road in Brookfield, Wisconsin. Four persons are injured: Matthew P. Kaulbach, 21; a girl, Lindsay, 10; girl Angel M. Varichak, 19; and, critically, Marjean Gregory, 52, the wife of Randy Gregory, who was the pastor and the father of James Gregory.
      The Living Church of God sect is descended from the Radio Church of God founded in 1952 by Herbert W. Armstrong [1892 – 16 Jan 1986], who, in 1968, renamed it Worldwide Church of God. The Living Church of God is led by one of the first evangelists ordained by Armstrong (Dec 1952), Roderick C. Meredith, who, after Armstrong's death, disagreed with some doctrinal changes and was fired. Meredith then founded the Global Church of God in 1992, which fired him in November 1998. 80% of the member left with him as he founded the Living Church of God, which, in 2005, claimed 6300 members in more than 200 congregations in all continents.
      According to its Statement of Fundamental Beliefs, (PDF) “Church members today view themselves as the spiritual heirs of the original Jerusalem Church of New Testament time.” The members must not participate in military service, jury duty or politics, or recognize homosexual relationships. “Love and deep respect should be shown to people of all ethnicities” but “The Anglo-American peoples are the possessors of the birthright promises and accompanying blessings of Abraham's descendants.”
     Ratzman was depressed and upset about a taped Meredith sermon he had heard a few weeks earlier. {text of the sermon}
A few quotes from Meredith:
— “Truth after truth, prophecy after prophecy has come to be clearly REVEALED by Almighty God to His servants in this Work.” ("The Inside Story of the World Tomorrow Broadcast", p.17).
— Plain Truth, August, 1957, page 5:
“We will soon find that hoof-and-mouth disease will spread COMPLETELY OUT OF CONTROL! These things are not far off. They are here and NOW! DISEASE EPIDEMICS are prophesied to begin soon! America, WAKE UP! After 1965, we are destined to run into increased trouble with the Gentile nations. America and Britain will begin to suffer from trade embargoes....We will begin to experience the pangs of starvation and of scarcity of goods!”
— Plain Truth, June, 1963, page 46: “This coming, revived Holy Roman Empire which is prophesied to arise in Europe and CONQUER America and Britain within the next ten to twelve years.”

Barnes2005 Court reporter Julie Brandau, 46, and Rowland Barnes, 64, a Superior Court judge [06 Feb 2005 photo >], shot on the 8th floor of the Fulton County Courthouse in Atlanta, Georgia, at 09:10 (14:10 UT), by Brian Nichols [10 Dec 1971~], who assaulted Cynthia Hall, the sheriff's deputy who was taking him to the courtroom, critically injuring her head and taking her gun. Nichols was on trial for an August 2004 rape and false imprisonment. He flees, killing, just outside the courthouse, Hoyt Teasley, 43, a sheriff's deputy who was chasing him, and beating up reporter Don O'Briant. Later Nichols kills David Wilhelm, a US customs agent, who is found dead early the next morning, minus his pickup truck, his gun, and his badge. Later that morning Nichols is found and arrested. —(070322)

2004:: 195 persons (including one not yet born #69a), by the explosion of 10 terrorist backpack bombs in four Renge commuter trains on line C-2 of the network Cercanías de Madrid, Spain; in the history of Spain the most deadly terrorist attack, by far (and in the history of Europe surpassed only by the 270 killed by the downing of an airplane at Lockerbie, Scotland). At 07:39, 3 bombs kill 30 persons on a train in the Puerta de Atocha station (hub of that network). At 07:44, 4 bombs kill 59 persons near Calle Téllez on a train which had just left the Atocha station. At 07:49, one bomb kills 17 persons on a train entering Santa Eugenia station, 15 km from Atocha. At 07:54, two bombs kill 67 persons on a double-decker train in the station of El Pozo del Tío Raimundo, 10 km from Atocha. [a small section of one of the crime scenes >] More than 1800 persons are injured, 3 of whom die this same day (included in the number 195), and a few more of whom die in the following days, 7 of them by the very next day, including 7-month-old Polish girl, Patricia Rzaca, the youngest of those killed, whose father is killed this day and whose mother, Yolanda Rzaca, is severely injured. Police discover three delayed-action booby-trap backpack bombs, two in Atocha, one in El Pozo, and explode them harmlessly at 10:00. All Spanish political parties cancel the remainder of their campaign for the parliamentary elections of 14 March 2004.— These 130 persons of the first list, + 4 listed later, are among the dead (some ages in parentheses):
+ ZOOM IN *1. Abad Quijada, Eva Belén 2. Abril Alegre, Oscar 3. Aguado Rojano, Florencio (60) 4. Alonso Rodríguez, Juan Alberto 5. Alvarez González, María Josefa 6. Aparicio Somolinos, María Nuria 7. Arenas Barroso, Alberto 8. Astocóndor Masgo, Neil Hebe, peruano. 9. Avila Jiménez, Ana Isabel 10.Badajoz Cano, Miguel Angel 11.Ballesteros Ibarra, Susana 12.Barahona Imedio, Javier 13.Barajas Diaz, Gonzalo 14.Bedoya Gloria, Inés 15.Benito Samaniego, Rodolfo 16.Bogdan, Livia 17.Brasero Murga, Florencio 18.Bryk Alina, María 19.Cabrejas Burillo, María Pilar (36) 20.Cabrero Pérez, Rodrigo 21.Cano Martínez, Alicia 22.Carrillero Baeza, José María (39) 23.Carrion Franco, Alvaro 24.Casas Torresano, Francisco Javier 25.Castillo Muñoz, Cipriano 26.Castillo Sevillano, María Inmaculada 27.Centenera Montalvo, Sara 28.Cisneros Villacis, Oswaldo Manuel 29.de Benito Caboblanco, Esteban Martin 30.de las Heras Correa, Sergio 31.de Luna Ocaña, Miguel 32.de Miguel Jiménez, Alvaro (26) 33.del Amo, María Fernanda 34.del Amo Aguado, Juan Carlos 35.del Río Menéndez, Marta (38) 36.del Río Menéndez, Nuria 37.Díez Hernández, Beatriz 38.Djoco, Sam 39.Duran Santiago, María Dolores (34) 40.el Amrati, Osama 41.Encinas Soriano, Sara 42.Fernandez Dávila, Carlos Marino, peruano. 43.Ferrer Reymado, Rex 44.Figueroa Bravo, Héctor Manuel 45.Gallardo Olmo, José (33), cabo primero en el regimiento militar número 1 del Rey. 46.Gallego Triguero, José Raúl 47.Gamiz Torres, María Pilar 48.García Alfageme, Abel 49.García Arnáiz, Juan Luis 50.García Fernández, Beatriz 51.García García-Moniño, María de las Nieves (46) 52.García González, Enrique 53.García Sánchez, José (46) 54.Garrote Plaza, Javier 55.Gil Pérez Ana Isabel (29) 56.Gomez Gudiña, Oscar 57.González Gago, Félix (51), subteniente del Ejército del Aire. 58.González García, Angelica 59.González Grande, Teresa 60.González Roque, Elías 61.Gracia García, Juan Miguel 62.Gutiérrez García, Berta María (39) 63.Hermida Martín, Pedro 64.Iglesias López, Alejandra (28) 65.Izquierdo Asanza, Pablo 66.Jaro Narrillos, María Teresa 67.Laforga Bajón, Laura Isabel (28) 68.Leon Moyano, María Victoria 69.Lominchar Alonso, María del Carmen (34) and 131. her baby due to be born in September 2004. 70.López Menchero Moraga, José María (44) 71.López Ramos, Ma. Cristina 72.Mancebo Zaforas, Francisco Javier (38) 73.Marín Chiva, Vicente 74.Marín Mora, Antonio 132. Martín Fernández, Ana (43) 75.Martín Pacheco, Luis Andrés 76.Martín Rejas, María Pilar 77.Martínez Rodríguez, Carmen Mónica 78.Melguizo Martínez, Mirian 79.Mengibar Jiménez, Javier 80.Michell Rodríguez, Michael 81.Mopocita Mopocita, Segundo Víctor 82.Mora Donoso, Encarnación (62) 83.Mora Valero, Ma. Teresa 133. Moral García, Julia (53) 84.Moreno Isarch, José Ramón 85.Moreno Santiago, Eugenio 86.Moris Crespo, Juan Pablo 87.Muñoz Lara, Juan 88.Narváez de la Rosa, Francisco José 89.Nogales Guerrero, Ismael 90.Novellón Martínez, Inés 91.Orgaz Orgaz, Miguel Angel 92.Pastor Pérez, Juan Francisco 93.Pedraza Pino, Josefa 94.Pedraza Rivero, Mirian 95.Pinel Alonso, Felipe 96.Plasencia Hernández, Martha Scarlett 97.Polo Remartínez, María Luisa (50) 98.Prieto Humanes, Miguel Angel 99.Quesada Bueno, Francisco Antonio 100.Ramirez Bedoya, John Jairo 101.Ramos Lozano, Laura 102.Rodríguez Casanova, Jorge (22) 103.Rodríguez Castell, Luis 104.Rodríguez Sánchez, Francisco Javier 105.Rogado Escribano, Ambrosio 106.Romero Sánchez, Cristina 107.Sabalete Sánchez, Antonio 108.Sánchez López, Sergio 109.Sánchez Quispe, Juan Antonio, peruano 110.Sánchez-Dehesa, Francés Balbina 111.Santamaría García, David 112.Sanz Morales, Juan Carlos 113.Sanz Pérez, Eduardo 114.Senent Pallarola, Guillermo 115.Serrano Lastra, Miguel Antonio 116.Serrano López, Rafael 117.Sierra Serón, Federico Miguel (38), Comandante de Infantería del Estado Mayor. 118.Simón González, Donino 119.Soler Iniesta, Susana 120.Soto Arránz, Carlos (34) 121.Subervielle, Marion Cintia 122.Szpila Danuta, Teresa 123.Tenesaca Betancourt, José Luis 124.Toribio Pascual, Iris 125.Tortosa García, Carlos (31) 126.Utrilla Escribano, Jesús 127.Valderrama López, José Miguel (25), economista en el Departamento de Inmuebles de Cajamadrid. 128.Valdés Ruiz, Saúl 129.Viilela Fernández, David 130.Zamora Gutiérrez, Juan Ramón 134 Rzaca (family name of a Polish man).— (updated list of dead) — (list of most of the wounded) (wounded list update)more images (Flash format)

2004 US Staff Sgt. Joe L. Dunigan Jr., 37, and Spc. Christopher K. Hill, 26, of the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, when their vehicle detonates a roadside bomb in Fallujah, Iraq.
2003 Spec. Lucas V. Tripp, 23; Sgt. John L. Eichenlaub Jr., 24; and 9 others of the 13 soldiers of the 10th Mountain Division aboard a US army Black Hawk UH-60 helicopter returning from training in loading and unloading a sling beneath the helicopter, which crashes at 14:00 (19:00 UT) in the 433-square-kilometer army base Fort Drum NY. Severely injured are the two survivors: Spec. Dmitri Petrov and Spec. Edwin A. Mejia.
2003 Two persons after bomb explodes in a market in a Hindu-dominated section of Rajouri town, Indian-occupied Kashmir. Eight persons are injured.
2002 Cardinal Franjo Kuharic, 83, archbishop of Zagreb from 1970 until his resignation in 1997.
2001 Yuri Vlasov, 43, and Dmitry Gruzdev, 30, are found, early in the morning, in a room of Vlasov's apartment, tortured before having been strangled with a kitchen towel, and Gruzdev also stabbed four times. Vlasov was the chief of the Moscow region justice department and Gruzdev was his driver.
2000 Laureano López Rodó, abogado y político español.
2001 Eugenio Jofra Bofarull, "Eugenio", humorista español.
1997 Francisco Javier Gómez Elósegui, psicólogo de la cárcel donostiarra de Martutene, asesinado por un miembro de la banda terrorista ETA.
1992 Richard Brooks, escritor y cineasta estadounidense.
1978: 34 Israelis, killed by Palestinian guerrillas went on a rampage on the Tel Aviv – Haifa highway, killing 34 Israelis.
1973 Manuel Rojas, escritor chileno.
1972 Benjamín Subercaseaux, escritor chileno.
^ 1971 Philo T. Farnsworth, television pioneer.
      Born on 19 August 1906, Philo T. Farnsworth first imagined the principles of television during high school and later began researching image transmission at Brigham Young University. In 1927, at the age of twenty-one, he transmitted the first television image-ironically, a dollar sign-made up of sixty horizontal lines. He went on to patent 165 devices pertaining to the television, including cathode-ray tubes, amplifiers, vacuum tubes, and electrical scanners. In 1926, he cofounded Crocker Research Labs, which became Farnsworth Television in 1929 and later Farnsworth Radio and Television Corporation.
^ 1970 Erle Stanley Gardner, born on 17 July 1889, US author and lawyer who wrote nearly 100 detective and mystery novels that sold more than 1'000'000 copies each, making him easily the best-selling US writer of his time.
      His best-known works feature the lawyer-detective Perry Mason. The son of a mining engineer, Gardner traveled extensively with his family throughout childhood. He dropped out of Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, after a brief time and settled in California, where he worked as a typist in a law firm. After three years he was admitted to the California bar (1911) and began defending poor Chinese and Mexicans as well as other clients. His interest in the friendless and unjustly accused was lifelong and led to his founding of The Court of Last Resort in the 1940s, an organization dedicated to helping men imprisoned unjustly.
      While practicing trial law in Ventura, California, he began writing for the pulp magazines popular at that time, creating accurate courtroom scenes and brilliant legal maneuvers resembling his own legal tactics. By 1932 he was writing more than 200'000 words a month while still working two days a week in his law practice. With the successful publication of the first Perry Mason detective stories, The Case of the Velvet Claws (1933) and The Case of the Sulky Girl (1933), however, he gave up the law. Eighty Perry Mason novels followed.
      Gardner later supervised the adaptation of the Perry Mason stories for radio, television, and motion pictures. A second series of books, built around Doug Selby, a virtuous crusading district attorney, all had titles beginning “The D.A. . . .”: The D.A. Calls It Murder (1937) and The D.A. Goes to Trial (1940). A third series, written under the pseudonym A.A. Fair, dealt with the adventures of the fat, middle-aged, greedy private detective Bertha Cool and the knowledgeable legalist Donald Lam.
Dempster in 19351967 Shewhart, mathematician.
1965 Rev. James J. Reeb, born on 01 January 1927, a White minister from Boston. He had joined many Unitarian Universalist ministers who answered the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s call to come to Selma, Alabama, in the wake of "Bloody Sunday." He dies from the beating on the streets by White assailants, which he suffered on 09 March 1965. These events prompted US President Lyndon Johnson to address a joint session of Congress to call for the passage of the Voting Rights Act.
1957 Richard Evelyn Byrd, born on 25 October 1888, US naval officer, pioneer aviator, and polar explorer best known for his explorations of Antarctica using airplanes and other modern technical resources.
1955 Alexander Fleming, born on 06 August 1881, Scottish bacteriologist whose discovery of penicillin (1928) prepared the way for the highly effective practice of antibiotic therapy for infectious diseases. Fleming shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain [19 Jun 1906 – 12 Aug 1979] and Howard Walter Florey [24 Sep 1898 – 21 Feb 1968], who both (from 1939) carried Fleming's basic discovery further in the isolation, purification, testing, and quantity production of penicillin.
1953 Manuel de Góngora y Ayustante, poeta, dramaturgo y periodista español.

1950 Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
[1935 photo >], born in Toronto on 14 August 1886, physics professor at the University of Chicago, discoverer (in 1935) of uranium 235.
^ 1940 Day 103 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Government ready to accept Soviet peace terms.
Heavy fighting in Vilajoki, Tali and Vuosalmi.

      The Finnish press publishes a bulletin from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs telling the public for the first time of the peace talks being conducted in Moscow.
      The Finnish Government is ready to accept the Soviet Union's peace terms. Thirteen members of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Finnish Parliament vote in favor of accepting the peace terms, while four vote against acceptance. Those who voted against were Kaarlo Kares of the Patriotic People's Movement, Urho Kekkonen and Kalle Kämäräinen of the Agrarian Party and Ville Komu of the Social Democratic Party.
      News of the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee's readiness to accept the Soviet Union's terms leaks into the Swedish evening papers.
      The Finnish delegation to the Moscow peace talks meets for the third time in the Kremlin at 18:00. today. The news leaked to the Swedish press has already reached Moscow; the Soviet Union sees no reason to soften its stance.
       The Soviet troops in the centre of the Karelian Isthmus launch an offensive across the Vuoksi with supporting artillery and other fire.
      The fighting continues with the Soviet troops fiercely attacking the Finnish defences in Viipuri. The enemy breaks through into the suburbs of Viipuri. By early evening the vanguard of five enemy tanks has reached Tammisuo station to the northeast of the city. Three of the tanks are subsequently destroyed.
      At 14.45 the enemy achieve a 500 m breakthrough to the northwest of Vasikkasaari, but the defending Finnish troops manage to contain it.
      During the night, the Finnish troops in Vuosalmi withdraw from Vitsaari after heavy fighting.
      Troops from the Coastal Group withdraw to new positions at Vilajoki.
      In the vicinity of Tali-Portinhoikka, Red Army tanks support a breakthrough into the area around the Portinhoikka crossroads. The defending Finnish regiment has suffered enormous losses and is utterly exhausted.
      In Kollaa, the 69th Infantry Regiment just doesn't have the strength left to retake the advance strongholds.
      Staff Sergeant Diego Manzochi, an Italian volunteer in the Finnish Air Force attached to Squadron 26, is killed in a forced landing in Iitti, to the west of Kouvola, caused probably by his plane running out of fuel. Manzochi had flown his own Fiat fighter to Finland back in December.
^ Suomen hallitus on valmis hyväksymään rauhanehdot Talvisodan 103. päivä, 11.maaliskuuta.1940
      Suomen lehdistö julkaisee ulkoministeriön tiedotteen, jossa kerrotaan ensimmäisen kerran Suomen ja Neuvostoliiton käyneen rauhanneuvotteluja Moskovassa.
      Suomen hallitus on valmis hyväksymään rauhanehdot. Eduskunnan ulkoasiain-valiokunnassa 13 jäsentä äänestää rauhanehtojen hyväksymisen puolesta ja 4 vastaan. Vastaan äänestävät Isänmaallisen Kansanrintaman Kares, maalaisliiton Kekkonen ja Kämäräinen sekä sosiaalidemokraattien Komu.
      Uutinen eduskunnan ulkoasiainvaliokunnan suostumisesta Neuvostoliiton rauhanehtoihin vuotaa ruotsalaisiin iltapäivälehtiin.
     Neuvotteluvaltuuskunta kokoontuu Moskovan Kremlissä kolmannen kerran klo 18. Tieto uutisvuodosta on ehtinyt jo Moskovaan: Neuvostoliitto ei näe mitään syytä Suomea koskeviin myönnytyksiin.
       Neuvostojoukot aloittavat ankaran tykistö- ym. tulen tukemana hyökkäyksen Vuoksen yli.
      Taistelut jatkuvat, neuvostojoukot hyökkäävät rajusti Viipuria puolustavia suomalaisjoukkoja vastaan. Vihollinen tunkeutuu Viipurin esikaupunkeihin. Vihollisen viiden vaunun panssarikärki saavuttaa illansuussa Tammisuon aseman. Vaunuista tuhotaan yöllä kolme.
      Klo 14.45 syntyy Vasikkasaaresta luoteeseen 500 metrin sisäänmurto, jota rajoitetaan.
      Suomalaiset luopuvat yöllä ankarien taistelujen jälkeen Vitsaaresta Vuosalmella.
      Rannikkoryhmän joukot vetäytyvät uuteen asemaan Vilajoella.
      Talin-Portinhoikan alueella puna-armeija murtautuu panssareiden tukemana Portinhoikan tienhaara-alueelle. Puolustautuva suomalaisrykmentti on äärimmäisen väsynyt ja kärsinyt suuria tappioita.
      Kollaalla JR 69:n voimat eivät enää riitä etummaisten tukikohtien takaisinvaltaamiseen.
      Lentolaivue 26:ssa palveleva italialainen vapaaehtoinen ylikersantti Diego Manzochi saa surmansa todennäköisesti polttoaineen vähäisyyden vuoksi tekemässään pakkolaskussa Iitissä. Manzochi lensi Suomeen joulukuussa Fiat-hävittäjän.
^ Finlands regering redo att godkänna fredsvillkoren Vinterkrigets 103 dag, den 11 mars 1940
      Den finska pressen publicerar utrikesministeriets meddelande där man för första gången berättar att Finland och Sovjetunionen har förhandlat om fred i Moskva.
      Finlands regering är redo att godkänna fredsvillkoren. Av medlemmarna i riksdagens utrikesutskott röstar 13 för godkännandet av villkoren och 4 emot. Emot röstar Kares (Isänmaallinen Kansanrintama), Kekkonen och Kämäräinen (agrarförbundet) och Komu (socialdemokraterna).
      Nyheten om att riksdagens utrikesutskott har beslutat godkänna Sovjetunionens fredsvillkor läcker ut till de svenska eftermiddagstidningarna.
      Fredsdelegationen samlas i Kreml i Moskva för tredje gången kl. 18. Information om nyhetsläckan har redan nått Moskva. Sovjetunionen anser det inte finnas något skäl till eftergifter gentemot Finland.
       Finlands regering redo att godkänna fredsvillkoren Sovjettrupperna går till angrepp med stöd av häftig artillerield och annan eld över Vuoksen.
      Striderna fortsätter, de ryska trupperna anfaller vilt de finska styrkorna som försvarar Viborg.
      Fienden tränger in i Viborgs förstäder. En fientlig pansartät på fem vagnar når mot kvällen stationen i Tammisuo. Tre av vagnarna likvideras under natten.
      Kl. 14.45 uppstår en inbrytning på 500 m nordväst om Vasikkasaari. Inbrytningen begränsas.
      Finnarna överger Vitsaari i Vuosalmi efter häftiga strider på natten. Kustgruppens trupper retirerar till den nya ställningen i Vilajoki.
      På sektorn Tali-Portinhoikka bryter Röda Armén in på området kring Portinhoikka vägskäl med stöd av pansarvagnar. Det försvarande finska regementet är oerhört trött och har lidit stora förluster.
      I Kollaa räcker JR 69:s krafter inte längre till för att återerövra de främsta baserna.
      Den frivillige italienska översergeanten Diego Manzochi som tjänat i flygdivision 26 dödas när han troligen till följd av bränslebrist tvingas nödlanda i Itis. Manzochi flög i december ett Fiat-jaktplan till Finland.
1924 Helge Koch, mathematician.
1897 Lodewijk-Johannes Kleyn, Dutch artist born on 14 August 1817.
1893 Francisco Robles García, político ecuatoriano.
1895 Meissel, mathematician.
1888 Some 400 in the "Blizzard of '88" which strikes the northeastern US.
1874 Charles Sumner, 63, White civil rights leader.
1857 Manuel José Quintana, en Madrid, poeta y político español.
1849 Louis Richard, mathematician.
1845 John Chapman [Johnny Appleseed], in Allen County, Indiana (celebrated as Johnny Appleseed Day)
1820 Benjamin West, US Neoclassical painter born on 10 October 1738. MORE ON WEST  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1666 Jacob Fopsen ( or Foppeus) van Es, Flemish artist born in 1596. — more with links to images.
 
< 10 Mar 12 Mar >
^  Births which occurred on an 11 March:

1959 A Raisin in the Sun, drama by Lorraine Hansberry, opens at New York's Ethel Barrymore Theater.
1936 Antonin Scalia, US Supreme Court Justice.
1931 Keith Rupert Murdoch Australian-born newspaper publisher and media entrepreneur, founder and head of the global media holding company the News Corporation Ltd., which governed News Limited (Australia), News International (UK), and News America Holdings Inc. (US). Murdoch's corporate interests centered on newspaper, magazine, book, and electronic publishing; television broadcasting; and film and video production,
1931 De muy buena familia, comedia de Jacinto Benavnte y Martínez se estrena en el Teatro Muñoz Seca.
1927 José María Subirachs Sitjar, escultor español.
1926 , US pastor and civil rights leader who died on 17 April 1990.
Abernathy^ 1926 Ralph David Abernathy, Black US pastor and civil-rights leader who died on 17 April 1990. He was the chief aide and closest associate of Martin Luther King [15 Jan 1929 – 04 Apr 1968] during the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and '60s. [< 09 April 1968 photo]
      The son of a successful farmer, Abernathy was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1948 and graduated with a BS degree from Alabama State University in 1950. His interest then shifted from mathematics to sociology, and he earned an MA degree in the latter from Atlanta University in 1951. That same year he became pastor of the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, and he met King a few years later when the latter became pastor ofanother Baptist church in the same city. In 1955–1956 the two men organized a boycott of the Montgomery bus system by Blacks that forced the system's racial desegregation in 1956. This nonviolent boycott was the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement that was to desegregate US society during the following two decades.
      King and Abernathy continued their close collaboration as the Civil Rights Movement gathered momentum, and in 1957 they founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC; with King as president and Abernathy as secretary-treasurer) to organize the nonviolent struggle against segregation throughout the South. In 1961 Abernathy relocated his pastoral activities to Atlanta, and that year he was named vice president at large of the SCLC and King's designated successor there. He continued as King's chief aide and closest adviser until King's assassination in 1968, at which time Abernathy succeeded him as president of the SCLC. He headed that organization until his resignation in 1977, after which he resumed his work as the pastor of a Baptist church in Atlanta. His autobiography, And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, appeared in 1989.
1920 Nicolas Bloembergen, físico estadounidense, Premio Nobel en 1981.
^ 1916 James Harold Wilson, Labour Party politician who died on 24 May 1995. He was prime minister of the UK from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
      The son of an industrial chemist, Wilson was educated at the University of Oxford, where, as a fellow of University College(1938–1939), he collaborated with William Beveridge [05 Mar 1879 – 16 Mar 1963] on work that led to Beveridge's epochal report (1942) advocating social insurance and other welfare measures. On the outbreak of World War II, Wilson was drafted into the civil service. As director of economics and statistics (1943–1944) at the Ministry of Fuel and Power, he produced a study of the mining industry. His book New Deal for Coal (1945) was the basis of the Labour Party's plans for nationalizing the coal mines.
      Wilson was first elected to the House of Commons in 1945 and was appointed president of the Board of Trade in 1947, becoming, at age 31, Britain's youngest cabinet minister since William Pitt the Younger [28 May 1759 – 23 Jan 23, 1806] in 1792. Wilson resigned his post in April 1951 in protest against the introduction of national health service charges to finance rearmament for the Korean War. He became Labour's spokesman on finance and foreign affairs, and in 1960 he mounted a left-wing challenge to Hugh Gaitskell for the party leadership. This failed, but after Gaitskell died in 1963, Wilson was elected leader of the Labour Party. He worked to consolidate the party, and after Labour won the general election of 1964, he became prime minister.
      In 1965 Wilson was unable to avert an illegal declaration of independence by the white minority government of the British colony of Rhodesia, and his subsequent efforts to topple the rebel government by the use of economic sanctions rather than by military force failed. Wilson steered Britain clear of direct military involvement in the Vietnam War, though he gave verbal support to the US war effort. His government outlawed capital punishment (1965) and began the Open University for continuing education. Wilson had widened his party's voting majority in the general election of 1966, but his popularity declined in the late 1960s, partly because of his assumption of direct responsibility for the economy shortly before the pound was devalued (18 Nov 1967). With unemployment rising and trade-union disputes on the increase, the Conservatives won the general election of June 1970, and Wilson resigned.
      In the general election of February 1974 the Conservatives won a plurality of the popular vote but were unable to form a coalition, so Wilson formed a government that March. This administration lasted until October, when he won a narrow majority after the second general election in eight months. Wilson's adroitness in holding together a party of social democrats, trade unionists, and leftists was never more severely tested than in 1975. His party was deeply divided over the question of Britain's new membership in the European Economic Community (EEC). By the June referendum on EEC membership, Wilson was able not only to confirm British membership in the EEC by an overwhelming majority but also to end an acrimonious, long-running quarrel inside the party. In Britain, however, economic difficulties continued, and on 16 March 1976, with the pound floundering and a crucial budget soon to be presented, Wilson announced his resignation to a stunned cabinet. The motives behind this resignation, which took place three years before the next scheduled election, remain unclear. Wilson was succeded by Jim” Callaghan [27 Mar 1912 – 26 March 2005]. In April 1976 the queen appointed Wilson a Knight of the Garter, and in 1983 he was made a life peer.
      A consummate politician, Wilson won four of five general elections, more than any other postwar British leader of any party. His own version of politics in his time may be found in his The Labour Government, 1964–1970 (1971), The Governance of Britain (1976), and Final Term: The Labour Government 1974–76 (1979).
1914 Monseñor Álvaro del Portillo Diez de Sollano, religioso español, director general del Opus Dei.
1912 [Walter Guevara Arze, político boliviano.
1899 Frederick IX king of Denmark (1947-1972) who encouraged resistance against the occupying Germans and protection of the Jews in World War II. He died on 14 January 1972.
1891 Max Kaus, Berliner painter and printmaker, who died on 05 August 1977. — more with links to images.
Vanevar Bush^ 1890 Vannevar Bush US electrical engineer and administrator who died on 28 June 1974. [< on 03 Apr 1944 Time cover]
      Vannevar Bush, a central figure in twentieth century science, studied at Tufts and MIT, where he later taught and served as vice president. He also served as the director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and as president of the Carnegie Institute. During the 1920s and '30s, he and his students built several early analog computers called "Differential Analyzers" to solve difficult differential equations. The machines became crucial to atomic research during World War II. Bush played a critical role in setting up the Manhattan Project in 1942, which led to the development of the atomic bomb. Bush also wrote a series of influential books and papers outlining the future of computing. In a 1945 article in The Atlantic called "As We May Think," he envisioned a revolution in information processing where a hypothetical machine called a "Memex" could retrieve and store information; accept text, numbers, voice, and visual input; and store and manipulate a vast amount of data. Bush's vision strongly influenced Douglas Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute, inventor of the mouse and pioneer of the point-and-click interface.
—     The son of a Universalist minister, Bush received his bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics from Tufts College (Medford, Massachusetts) in 1913. Following a sequence of teaching and electronics jobs, he returned to graduate studies and, in 1916, received a doctorate in electrical engineering that was awarded jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), then located in Boston, and Harvard University, in nearby Cambridge. Bush returned to Tufts as an instructor in the fall of 1916 and soon became involved in antisubmarine research. A submarine-detection device that he invented during World War I was not adopted by the U.S. Navy, probably owing to Bush's lack of access to government policy makers—an obstacle he would rectify in the next war.
      In 1919 Bush joined the electrical engineering department at MIT. During the 1920s and '30s, he and his research laboratory became the preeminent designers and builders of analog computers. Analog computers represent data with some physical quantity, such as voltage, that is allowed to vary continuously. In contrast, digital computers only allow a discrete set of values for data, typically by using two voltage levels, off and on, to represent the binary numbers, 0 and 1.
      Originally developed to solve complex problems associated with long-distance power lines, Bush's analog computers were also applied to many other engineering problems. By 1931 his most successful machine, known as the Differential Analyzer, was operational. Utilizing a complicated arrangement of gears and cams driven by steel shafts, the Differential Analyzer could obtain practical (albeit approximate) solutions to problems which up to that point had been prohibitively difficult. The Differential Analyzer was a great success; it and various copies located at other laboratories were soon employed in solving diverse engineering and physics problems. An even more successful machine, the so-called Rockefeller Differential Analyzer (funded in part by the Rockefeller Foundation), was built in 1935 and proved the most powerful computer available before the arrival of digital computers about 1945. It was enlisted by the military in World War II to produce ballistics tables.
      Bush, like other electrical engineers of his generation, was thus helping to move his profession from a focus on the creation and delivery of electric power toward the problem of designing electronic devices for an industrial and electricity-based society. In 1922 he was among the founders of what would become the Raytheon Company, a manufacturer of electronic parts. Over the span of his life, Bush held 49 electronics patents.
     In 1932, under the new MIT president Karl T. Compton [14 Sep 1887 – 22 Jun 1954], Bush became the first dean of engineering. It was a position he used as a bully pulpit to shape the role of the engineer in society. For both Bush and Compton it was important to defend engineers from the widespread charge that science and technology, or rather technocrats, were responsible for the Great Depression. Bush was now exposed to national politics, serving as chairman of the committee that examined the patent system for the short-lived Science Advisory Board of US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945]. In 1939 Bush left MIT for Washington DC, where he became president of the Carnegie Institution, the oldest private research institution in the US.
      With the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, Bush approached Roosevelt about forming an organization, the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), to organize research of interest to the military and to inform the armed services about new technologies. The NDRC was formed with Bush as its chairman on 27 June 1940. One year later, the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was created with Bush as its chairman. James Bryant Conant [26 Mar 1893 – 11 Feb 1978] assumed his former role as chairman of the NDRC. Besides overseeing the NDRC and other science committees, the OSRD functioned as a liaison office among the Allies. By the war's end its annual budget exceeded $500 billion.
      Bush had begun the work for which he would become most famous, organizing research by US scientists and engineers for the war with Germany. Building upon his wide academic, industrial, and government contacts, Bush played a seminal role in directing the marriage of government funding and scientific research. With the exorbitant costs of modern, large-scale, scientific research shifted from industry to government, previously impractical “big science” experiments, such as the Manhattan Project, became feasible. Subsequently, this system of funding and directing scientific research through the military became known as the Pentagon system, or the military-industrial complex.
      Of the many weapons developed through the OSRD, two, radar and the atomic bomb, were prime examples of Bush's managerial and political skills. Through the establishment of the Microwave Committee and the Radiation Laboratory at MIT, Bush created institutions to shepherd the development of microwave-based radar systems, a vast improvement on the long-wave radar systems developed by the US Navy during the 1930s. In turn, these institutions drew upon his MIT connections. Bush's former students and colleagues brought not only their expertise but also networks of researchers at universities such as Stanford and corporations such as the Sperry Gyroscope Company who were developing microwave technology. Bush's prewar connections became an integral aspect of the wartime organization of research, as well as one reason why MIT was the largest single recipient of OSRD contracts.
      The atomic bomb displayed another aspect of Bush's leadership. The NDRC, and then the OSRD, absorbed the Uranium Committee that Roosevelt had established in 1939. Dissatisfied with the pace of the committee, Bush added new members, and, when the committee produced a report claiming that an atomic bomb might not be possible, he quickly convened another committee, armed it with different information, and received the report he wanted, one which stated that a bomb was possible and that Germany was most likely ahead of the United States in its development. All of this he accomplished before the United States was attacked by Japan; in doing so, he set in motion the activities that would culminate in the horrendous destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 06 August and 09 August 1945.
      The success of scientists and engineers in solving problems and developing new weapons for the military transformed the armed services into the most powerful friends of scientific research and development. Recognizing that science would have a new place in the nation's postwar political culture, Bush sought to shape that new identity. In November 1944 he engineered a request from Roosevelt to prepare a report outlining how science, which had helped the nation in war, could assist the country in the postwar era.
      Written for Roosevelt but delivered to President Harry S. Truman [08 May 1884 – 26 Dec 1972] in July 1945, Science: The Endless Frontier was Bush's blueprint for organizing government support of university-based research. Central to Bush's vision was a National Research Foundation (NRF) run by an independently appointed chairman that would fund research for the physical and biological sciences as well as national defense. The latter field was quite important; Bush, like others, feared that the military's new enthusiasm for research and development would indelibly alter the character of American scientific work and ultimately prove detrimental to economic growth. Appointed by, and accountable to, a National Science Board, Bush's NRF chairman would be insulated from political pressure, whether from the White House or Congress, to fund research that might prove politically expeditious but technically unsound. This proposed independence proved naive. Truman would not approve an organization whose director he could not hire and fire; nor did Truman or his budget secretary believe that such a position was constitutionally sound.
     The defeat of his proposal was the beginning of the end for Bush's influence on the development of science policy. Fearful of military control of scientific research, Bush published a work of both practical politics and political theory, Modern Arms and Free Men, in 1949. Widely discussed and reviewed, the book was Bush's warning that the militarization of US science would harm the development of the economy. Indeed, Bush's famous belief that ballistic missiles were not feasible lay as much on moral as technical grounds. Bush realized that the problem of building an accurate ballistic missile guidance system would someday be solved, but he wondered at what fiscal and political cost. His book ended with a lament for politicians to reassert their control of the military for the sake of both US science and democracy.
     In a career that extended from the era of electrification to computers and electronic devices, Bush played a seminal role in transforming US science. When Bush began his career at MIT in 1919, solving the difficulties in constructing the US's electric-power network was paramount, and private foundations were the dominant patrons of US scientific research.By the time he died in 1974, consumer electronic devices and computers were ubiquitous, and the U.S. government, especially the armed services, had become the major patron of American scientific research.
      Today Bush is also remembered as a prophet in another field, computer science. In a 1945 article entitled “As We May Think,” published in The Atlantic Monthly, Bush proposed a device that he called the Memex, an indexed, archival, microfilm machine for cross-referencing and retrieving information. For Bush, this article was an extension of his work in analog computing and microfilm technology. To the modern reader it portends the creation of hypertext and the World Wide Web.
1888 Berwick, mathematician.
1860 Rodolphe Wytsman, Belgian artist who died on 02 November 1927. — more with links to two images.
1853 Pincherle, mathematician.
1826 Aloïs Frederick Schönn, Austrian artist who died on 16 September 1897.
1822 Joseph Bertrand, French mathematician and educator who died on 05 April 1900.
1822 Eulogio Florentino Sanz y Sánchez, escritor y crítico español.
1818 Thomas LeClear, US painter who died on 26 November 1882. MORE ON LECLEAR  AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1818 George Heming Mason, English painter who died on 22 Oct 1872. — more with links to images.
^ 1818 Frankenstein is published
      Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is published. The book, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 21, is frequently called the world's first science fiction novel. In Shelley's tale, a scientist animates a creature constructed from dismembered corpses. The gentle, intellectually gifted creature is enormous and physically hideous. Cruelly rejected by its creator, it wanders, seeking companionship and becoming increasingly brutal as it fails to find a mate.
      Mary Shelley created the story on a rainy afternoon in 1816 in Geneva, where she was staying with her consort, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, and their friend Lord Byron. Byron proposed they each write a gothic ghost story, but only Mary Shelley completed hers. Although serving as the basis for the Western horror story and the inspiration for numerous movies in the 20th century, the book Frankenstein is much more than pop fiction. The story explores philosophical themes and challenges Romantic ideals about the beauty and goodness of nature.
      Mary Shelley led a life nearly as tumultuous as the monster she created. Born on 30 August 1797, the daughter of free-thinking philosopher William Godwin and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, she lost her mother days after her birth. She clashed with her stepmother and was sent to Scotland to live with foster parents during her early teens.
      When Mary Godwin was 17, she eloped with the married poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and fled to Europe, arriving in France on 28 July 1814. After Shelley's wife committed suicide, the couple married on 30 December 1816. They spent much of their time abroad, fleeing Shelley's creditors. Mary Shelley gave birth to five children, but only one lived to adulthood.
      After Shelley drowned (poetic justice!) in a sailing accident on 18 July 1822, when Mary Shelley was only 24, she edited his Posthumous Poems (1824), Poetical Works (1839), and his prose works. She lived on a small stipend from her father-in-law, Lord Shelley, until her surviving son inherited his fortune and title in 1844. She died on 1 February 1851 at the age of 53. Although she was a respected writer for many years, only Frankenstein and her journals are still widely read.
MARY SHELLEY ONLINE:
  • Frankenstein (1818): scientist creates artificial human monster.
  • Frankenstein (another site)
  • The Last Man (1826), her best novel: future destruction of the human race by a plague.
  • The Mortal Immortal
  • Valperga (1823)
  • 1811 Urbain Jean Joseph le Verrier, mathematician, astronomer, co-discovered Neptune.
    1785 John McLean, United States Supreme Court justice; dissented (correctly) from the infamous pro-slavery Dred Scott decision (1857). He died on 04 April 1861.
    1780 August Leopold Crelle, German civil engineer and mathematician who died on 06 October 1855. He founded in 1826 the Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (“Crelle's Journal”) and was its editor-in-chief for the first 52 volumes.
    1754 Juan Meléndez Valdés, poeta extremeño.
    1544 Torquato Tasso, Italian poet who died on 25 April 1595.
     
    Feasts which occur on an 11 March:
    2007 Third Sunday of Lent
     
    Feasts of every 11 March:
    — Saint Teresa Margaret Redi, Italian Carmelite
    — San Cándido
    — San Constantino
    — San Fermín
    — San Pedro
    — San Primo
    — Santo Eutimio
    — San Ramiro
    — Rosine est une sainte tout à fait légendaire, dont le culte a été célébré avec ferveur à Wengligen, une petite ville de Bavière, près d'Augsbourg.
    — Mauritius : Maha Shivaratree.
     
    The latest possible date for Ash Wednesday is 10 March. The earliest possible date for Easter is 22 March. So 11 March and all the other days from 10 March to 21 March are always within Lent.
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