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Events, deaths, births, of MAR 06
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1583~1699: Mar 161700s: Mar 171800s: Mar 181900~2099: Mar 19]
• Malenkov heads USSR... • Rosenbergs' spy trial begins... • Germans renew attack on Verdun... • Remember the Alamo!... • US Supreme Court endorses slavery... • Kohl elected West German Chancellor... • Michelangelo nasce... • Classification périodique des éléments... • Toronto becomes a city... • Buick dies... • Soviet aggressors agree to peace talks with Finland... • Knights of Labor go on strike... • Dutch attack Nazi food truck... • FCC asked to facilitate high–speed Internet... • Gabriel García Marquez is born... • Computer virus strikes... • Michelangelo is born... • Georgia O'Keeffe dies... • US Marines to go to Vietnam... • Bloody fighting at Laos border... • States may not tax US...
orphaned baby bear On a 06 March:

2003 This 3-month-old polar bear (weighing 12 kg) [photo >] finds a home in the Toronto Zoo after native hunters killed its mother and police officer Wayne Maynard saved it from death near Fort Severn in northwestern Ontario. Polar bears need their mother for the first two years of their life. The 15'000 polar bears in Canada are under threat because of extensive hunting and environmental and habit changes brought on by increased human incursion in their territory and by global warming.

2001 El juez federal argentino Gabriel Cavallo decreta la inconstitucionalidad y nulidad de las leyes de "Obediencia Debida" y "Punto Final", aprobadas en 1986 y 1987 por el gobierno de Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Folukes.

La piel del cielo, de la escritora y periodista mejicana Elena Poniatowska, obtiene el primer premio en la cuarta edición del Premio Alfaguara de Novela.
2001 In Guruvayur, India, Kannan elephant, 30, wins for the 6th time the annual 500-meter race to the temple of Krishna, that opens the 10-day festival. [photo below].
elephant race in Guruvayur
2000 Three White New York police officers are convicted of a cover-up in the cruel brutal police station torture of Haitian immigrant Abner Louima. The convictions would be outrageously overturned in 2002 because of “insufficient evidence.”
^ 1998 Ameritech seeks FCC support for high-speed network
      Ameritech, operator of local telephone service in five states, asked the Federal Communications Commission to waive rules making it difficult to provide high-speed Internet access and other data services. The FCC regulations prohibited local phone companies from moving Internet and other data across state boundaries. Two other regional phone companies, Bell Atlantic and US West Communications, had requested similar help. The skyrocketing demand among US homes for high-speed Internet access would cause similar policy and regulatory questions across the country.
1995 A petición del Gobierno español, el Comité Monetario de la Unión Europea devalúa la peseta un 7% para evitar que los mercados la expulsen del Sistema Monetario Europeo.
1994 La mayoría de los votantes de Moldavia se pronuncia en segundo referendum contra la reunificación con Rumania.
^ 1992 Computer virus strikes
      Thousands of personal computers around the world were stricken with a computer virus called "Michelangelo." Once transmitted to a computer, the Michelangelo virus remained dormant until this day (Michelangelo's birthday) in 1992, when it released two destructive payloads. The first damaged files stored on floppy disks, and the second destroyed files on hard drives. If an infected computer were booted up on 06 March, the virus would erase certain portions of the hard drive.
1992 Se crea en Copenhague el Consejo Báltico, formado por Dinamarca, Rusia, Polonia, Estonia, Letonia, Alemania, Noruega, Suecia y Finlandia, para reforzar la cooperación en materia de economía, medio ambiente y cultura.
Helmut Kohl1983 Kohl elected West German Chancellor    ^top^
      Helmut Kohl, the interim chancellor of West Germany since the fall of Helmut Schmidt’s Social Democrat government in the previous year, is elected German chancellor as his Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party is voted back into power.
      Elected as Rhine-Palatinate state premier in 1969, Kohl served the post until 1976, when he became federal chairman of the CDU and led the opposition to Chancellor Schmidt’s government. In 1982, with Germany suffering under persistent economic difficulties, he organized a successful no-confidence vote in the West German parliament against Schmidt and was subsequently named interim chancellor.
      In March of 1983, the West German people confirmed him as chancellor and in 1987, German economic recovery led to his reelection. In the fall of 1989, the Communist government of East Germany collapsed, and Kohl led the efforts to reunify the two Germanys. In March of 1990, in the first all-German elections in six decades, Kohl was elected the first chancellor of a reunified Germany. During his third term as chancellor, Kohl oversaw the formidable task of absorbing East Germany’s crippled economy into the West, and was an advocate of the movement for a united Europe. In 1994, he was elected to a fourth term.
     Increasing unemployment in Germany and Kohl’s cuts to the country’s welfare system led to his defeat against Gerhard Schroder and the Social Democrats in 1998.
     Late in 1999, Kohl admittited receiving secret cash donations to the CDU over a period of years and refused to name the donors. In January 2000, prosecutors in Berlin began a case against Kohl for possible breach of trust. 000119 Kohl resigned as CDU honorary chairman. 000227 the CDU suffered a grave electoral defeat.
1980 La escritora Marguerite Yourcenar, primera mujer elegida miembro de la Academia Francesa.
^ 1971 Bloody fighting continues at Laos border.
      Operation Lam Son 719 continues as reinforced South Vietnamese forces push into Tchepone, a major enemy supply center located on Route 9 in Laos. The base was deserted and almost completely destroyed as a result of American bombing raids. The operation, begun on February 8, included a limited incursion by South Vietnamese forces into Laos to disrupt the communist supply and infiltration network in Laos along Route 9, adjacent to the two northern provinces of South Vietnam. The operation was supported by US airpower (aviation and airlift) and artillery (firing across the border from firebases inside South Vietnam). Observers described the drive on North Vietnam's supply routes and depots in Laos as some of the "bloodiest fighting" of the war. Enemy resistance was light at first as a 12'000-man spearhead of the South Vietnamese army thrust its way across the border into the communists' deepest jungle stronghold toward Tchepone. However, resistance stiffened in the second week of February as the North Vietnamese rushed reinforcements to the area. On February 23, the big push bogged down around 16 miles from the border after bloody fighting in which the communist troops overran two South Vietnamese battalions.
      The fierce fighting continued into March and the South Vietnamese finally reached Tchepone. However, fighting near the Vietnam border intensified and in the second week of March, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu gave the order for his troops to withdraw as casualties soared on both sides. However, withdrawing the ground task force under heavy North Vietnamese pressure was a difficult task. The South Vietnamese fought for two weeks to get back inside their own border and losses were heavy. The South Vietnamese suffered some 9000 casualties, almost 50% of the force. In supporting the South Vietnamese, the US sustained 1462 casualties and lost 168 helicopters.
^ 1965 US about to send Marines to Vietnam.
     The White House confirms reports that, at the request of South Vietnam, the United States is sending two battalions of US Marines for security work at the Da Nang air base, which will hopefully free South Vietnamese troops for combat. On 01 March 1965, Ambassador Maxwell Taylor informed South Vietnamese Premier Phan Huy Quat that the United States was preparing to send 3500 US Marines to Vietnam. Three days later, a formal request was submitted by the US Embassy, asking the South Vietnamese government to "invite" the United States to send the Marines. Premier Quat, a mere figurehead, had to obtain approval from the real power, Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu, chief of the Armed Forces Council. Thieu approved, but asked that the Marines be "brought ashore in the most inconspicuous way feasible." The Marines began landing near Da Nang on 08 March 1965.
1964 Constantino II es proclamado rey de Grecia.
1959 Farthest radio signal heard (Pioneer IV, 600'000 km)
1957 The former British African colonies of the Gold Coast and Togoland become Ghana, dominion of the British Commonwealth. It would achieve independence as the Republic of Ghana in1960.
^ 1953 Malenkov succeeds Stalin as USSR dictator.
      Just one day after the death of long-time Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, Georgi Malenkov is named premier and first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Malenkov's tenure was extremely brief, and within a matter of weeks he was pushed aside by Nikita Khrushchev.
      Malenkov was one of the few old-time Bolsheviks who had survived Stalin's bloody purges of the 1930s. A quiet figure who seemed to prefer working in the background, Malenkov was not taken seriously by many of his peers in the Soviet government, but under Stalin's watchful eye he proceeded up the Communist Party hierarchy throughout the 1930s and 1940s. By the late-1940s it was widely assumed that he would succeed Stalin. When Stalin died in March 1953, Malenkov took the position of premier and first secretary of the Communist Party. It appeared that he might have a reformist streak, as he called for cuts in military spending and eased up on political repression in the Soviet Union and the eastern bloc nations. These actions might have proved his undoing. In just two weeks, his main political opponent in the Communist Party, Nikita Khrushchev, had organized a coalition of political and military leaders against Malenkov and took over as first secretary.
      In February 1955, this same group voted Malenkov out as premier and a Khrushchev puppet, Nikolai Bulganin, took over. Malenkov seethed at this action and in 1957 joined in a plot to overthrow Khrushchev. When the attempt failed, he was dismissed from his government positions and expelled from the Communist Party. Instead of imprisonment, Malenkov faced the disgrace of being sent to Kazakhstan to serve as the manager of a hydroelectric operation. He died in 1988. Malenkov was a transition figure from the iron-fisted dictatorship of Joseph Stalin to the more moderate regime instituted by Nikita Khrushchev. In an ironic turn of affairs, Khrushchev eventually supported many of the reforms first put forward by Malenkov.
^ 1951 The Rosenbergs espionage trial begins
      The trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg begins in New York Southern District federal court. Judge Irving R. Kaufman presides over the espionage prosecution (treason could not be charged because the United States was not at war with the Soviet Union) of the couple accused of selling nuclear secrets to the Russians. The father-and-son team of Emanuel and Alexander Bloch represented the Rosenbergs, and co-defendant Morton Sobell. The prosecution team included the infamous Roy Cohn, best known for his association with Senator Joseph McCarthy.
      David Greenglass was a machinist at Los Alamos, where America developed the atomic bomb. Julius Rosenberg, his brother-in-law, was a member of the American Communist Party and was fired from his government job during the Red Scare. According to Greenglass, Rosenberg asked him to pass highly confidential instructions on making atomic weapons to the Soviet Union. Harry Gold, an acquaintance of Greenglass, transferred these materials to the Russians, after the arrangement had been made by co-conspirator Sobell. The Soviets exploded their first atomic bomb (and effectively started the Cold War) in September 1949 based on information, including that from Greenglass, that they had obtained from spies.
      The only direct evidence of the Rosenbergs’ involvement was Greenglass’ confession. The left-wing community believed that the Rosenbergs were prosecuted because of their membership in the Communist Party. Their case became the cause celebre of leftists throughout the nation.
      The trial lasted nearly a month, finally ending on April 4 with convictions for all of the defendants. The Rosenbergs were sentenced to death row on April 6. Sobell and Gold received 30-year sentences, while Greenglass only received 15 years as a result of his cooperation. Reportedly, the Rosenbergs were offered a deal in which their death sentences would be commuted in return for an admission of their guilt. They refused and were executed in June 1953.
1946 France recognizes Vietnam statehood within Indo-Chinese federation.
^ 1945 Hungry Dutch Resistance attacks Nazi food truck.
      Members of the Dutch Resistance who were attempting to hijack a truck in Apeldoorn, Holland, ambush Lt. Gen. Hanns Rauter, an SS officer. During the following week, the German SS executed 263 Dutch in retaliation. The Dutch Resistance was one of the fiercest of all the underground movements in Nazi-occupied Europe. "The Dutch never accepted the German contention that...the war was over," wrote the Dutch foreign minister in a postwar account of life under Nazi occupation. "[T]heir acts of resistance and sabotage grew more audacious as time passed." Those acts of resistance and sabotage included harboring Allied soldiers and pilots who either parachuted or crash-landed within Dutch territory, harboring Dutch Jews, and killing German troops. The Resistance was composed of representatives from all segments of Dutch society, ranging from the most conservative to communists. Rauter was head of the SS in Holland and answered directly to Heinrich Himmler, the SS commander. In 1941, during a strike that broke out in Amsterdam among Dutch workers to protest the round-up of almost 400 Dutch Jews, Hauter ordered the SS and German troops to open fire on the strikers, killing 11. The Jews, whom the strikers were trying to protect, were deported to Buchenwald. All were dead by the fall. Rauter was riding in an SS truck, filled with food destined for the Wehrmacht (the German air force) based near Apeldoorn on March 6, 1945, when some young members of the Dutch Resistance ambushed the truck. The closing days of the war had left much of occupied Holland close to famine conditions, and the guerrillas were determined to co-opt the food. They did not know Rauter was in the truck when it was attacked; Rauter was shot during the heist attempt but lived. In retaliation, the SS proceeded to round up and execute 263 Dutchmen, some of whom were Resistance fighters who were already being held in prison. Rauter was tried for war crimes by the Dutch court Den Haag. He was found guilty and sentenced to death. He appealed the sentence at Nuremberg in 1949, but the sentence was upheld and he was executed that year.
1944 Heavy bombers make the first US raid on Berlin during World War II.(daylight bombing)
1934 Por primera vez en la historia, el Partido Laborista de Gran Bretaña gana las elecciones generales.
1933 A nationwide bank holiday declared by US President F. D. Roosevelt geos into effect.
1932 Charles Lindbergh receives a note (postmarked Brooklyn, New York, March 4) demanding $70'000 for the return of Charles Jr., 20-months old, who was kidnapped.on 01 March, when a first ransom note demanding $50'000 had been found.
1929 Por primera vez en España se transmite por radio un estreno teatral, el de la obra Las hogueras de San Juan, de Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, desde el Teatro Español, de Madrid
1911 Alvaro de Figueroa y Torres conde de Romanones es elegido presidente del Consejo de Ministros de España.
1896 first auto in Detroit, Charles B King rides his "Horseless Carriage"
^ 1886 Knights of Labor go on strike.
      The Knights of Labor hit the picket line to protest to protest the practices of the Southwestern Railroad system. By striking against Southwestern, the Knights were also taking on the company's chief, high-flying Wall Street financier Jay Gould. Though they could hardly match Gould's vast reservoir of money, the Knights had numbers on their side: some 9,000 workers walked off the job, which effectively halted service on 8000 km of track. In the process, the workers landed a glancing blow at Gould's finances: the strike ultimately saddled Southwestern rail with losses totaling $3 million. The Knights were also able to impede the trans-coastal trade network that had come to depend on a fully operational rail system. Of course, the strike also exacted a sharp toll on the workers, who forfeited $900'000 in wages and eventually began to suffer from hunger. The Knights' battle against Gould and Southwestern Railroad stretched for a good two months before the strikers finally returned to work in May of 1886.
1886 first US alternating current power plant starts, Great Barrington, MA
1881 A los 28 años de edad, ingresa en la Real Academia Española el polígrafo Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo.
^ 1869 La classification périodique des éléments
      On doit cette représentation des constituants de la matière à un chimiste russe de 35 ans, né à Tobolsk, en Sibérie, Dimitri Ivanovitch Mendeleïev. Faute de disposer d'un bon manuel, ce professeur renommé de l'université de Saint-Pétersbourg rédige lui-même un ouvrage en deux volumes sur les «Principes de la chimie». Ce travail l'amène à réfléchir sur la manière d'ordonner les 63 éléments chimiques déjà connus comme l'hydrogène, l'oxygène, le fer, le carbone,... En classant ces éléments d'après le poids de leur atome, il observe que leurs propriétés chimiques se répètent à intervalles réguliers. C'est ainsi que le 6 mars 1869, il présente devant la Société chimique russe un projet de classification périodique à lignes et à colonnes, où tous les éléments d'une même colonne affichent des propriétés comparables. Deux ans plus tard, il améliore le tableau en prévoyant des cases vides pour des éléments encore inconnus. La célébrité lui vient en 1875, lorsque le chimiste Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran ayant découvert un nouvel élément, le gallium, celui-ci trouve exactement sa place dans le tableau. Les travaux de Mendeleïev témoignent de l'essor de la science et des techniques au milieu du XIXe siècle, y compris en Russie, où la culture s'épanouit sous le règne du meilleur tsar qu'aient jamais eu les Russes, Alexandre II. Rien qu'en 1869, les Occidentaux peuvent assister à l'invention de la «houille blanche» (l'électricité produite par les chutes d'eau) ainsi qu'à l'inauguration du canal de Suez et, aux Etats-Unis, du premier chemin de fer transcontinental. Dix ans plus tard, la montée des nationalismes et des intolérances commenceront de mettre à mal la foi des Européens dans le progrès.
     With so many elements already found and the possibility of more being discovered, chemists needed a way to organize them. Many systems were tried in order to make some sort of pattern in their properties to match the table. The modern periodic table, based on atomic number and electron configuration, was created primarily by a Russian chemist, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, and a German physicist, Julius Lothar Meyer, both working independently. They both created similar periodic tables only a few months apart in 1869. Mendeleev created the first periodic table based on atomic weight. He observed that many elements had similar properties, and that they occur periodically, hence the name, periodic table. From this, he made the periodic law. His periodic law states that the chemical and physical properties of the elements vary in a periodic way with their atomic weights. The modern one states that the properties vary with atomic number, not weight. For example, the elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium have similar chemical properties. The elements that immediate follow them, beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium, also have similar chemical properties. Elements in Mendeleev's table were arranged in rows called periods. The columns were called groups. Elements of each group had similar properties. By Mendeleev's theory, they should have been perfectly arranged by increasing atomic weight. Since Mendeleev's table was based on atomic weight, some things didn't match perfectly. The reason for this discrepancy is the fact that atomic number (the number of protons in an atom), not atomic weight, determines the order of the elements in the table, the basis of the modern periodic table. [click on table for a new window with more information on each element]
1865 Lincoln appoints Hugh McCullogh as United States Secretary of the Treasury
1862 Siege of New Madrid, Missouri continues
1862 Gran incendio en el Alcázar de Segovia, sede de la Academia de Artillería desde tiempos de Carlos III.
1857 US Supreme Court rules on the Dred Scott case    ^top^
      The US Supreme Court hands down its decision on -Sanford v. Dred Scott, a case that intensified national divisions over the issue of slavery.
      In 1834, Dred Scott, a slave, had been taken to Illinois, a free state, and then Wisconsin territory, where slavery was prohibited by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Scott lived in Wisconsin with his master, Dr. John Emerson, for several years before returning to Missouri, a slave state. In 1846, after Emerson died, Scott sued his master’s widow for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived as a resident of a free state and territory. He won his suit in a lower court, but the Missouri supreme court reversed the decision.
      Scott appealed the decision, and, as his new master, J. F. A. Sanford, was a resident of New York, a federal court decided to hear the case on the basis of the diversity of state citizenship represented. After a federal district court decided against Scott, the case came on appeal to the US Supreme Court, which was divided along slavery and antislavery lines; although the Southern justices had a majority.
      During the trial, the antislavery justices used the case to defend the constitutionality of the Missouri Compromise, which had been repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Southern majority responds by ruling on 06 March 1857, that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories. Three of the Southern justices also held that African Americans who were slaves or whose ancestors were slaves were not entitled to the rights of a federal citizen and therefore had no standing in court.
      These rulings all confirmed that, in the view of the nation’s highest judicial court, under no condition did Dred Scott have the legal right to request his freedom. The Supreme Court’s verdict further inflamed the irrepressible differences in America over the issue of slavery, which in 1861 erupted with the outbreak of the American Civil War.
1845 En Ecuador se produce una revolución civil de tendencia nacionalista que depondrá a Flores y llevará a la presidencia a don Vicente Ramón Roca, responsable de una nueva Constitución.
^ 1819 Supreme Court rules states may not tax US.
      Foes of federalism, along with Maryland's state treasury, suffer a heady defeat in the Supreme Court's decision on McCulloch v. Maryland, a case that centered around the question of whether or not Maryland held the power to tax all the local branches of the Bank of the United States, most notably the one located in Baltimore. Invoking the controversial principle of "federal sovereignty," the Court ruled that states could not levy taxes against US government institutions. The decision held implications that wandered into sticky political territory; the Court effectively denied state legislators' attempts to exercise control over the Federal government. Moreover, while articulating the ruling, Chief Justice John Marshall affirmed Congress' right to establish a corporation such as the Bank of the United States. Though the Constitution made no specific mention of Congress creating a bank, Marshall, citing the "Hamiltonian doctrines" of "loose construction" and "implied powers," nonetheless ceded the House this power.
1816 Jews are expelled from Free city of Lubeck Germany.
1812 Un terremoto facilita al capitán español Domingo Monteverde la toma de Caracas (Venezuela).
1728 Se firma en Madrid el convenio de El Pardo, que significa el fracaso de la alianza española con Austria y la aceptación, de nuevo, del tratado de Utrecht.
1714 Se firma el tratado de paz que pone fin a las luchas entre Francia y Austria en la Guerra de Sucesión española.
1629 In Germany, the Edict of Restitution ordered that all church property secularized since 1552 be restored to the Roman Catholic Church.
1521 Magellan discovers Guam
1460 Treaty of Alcacovas — Portugal gives Castile Canary Islands for West Africa
< 05 Mar 07 Mar >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 06 March:


2008 Paulos Faraj Rahho
[20 Nov 1942–] [photo >], Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Mossul, Iraq, dies captive of terrorists who, on 29 February 2008, abducted him from his car, while killing his driver, Faris Gorgis Khoder, and his bodyguards; Ramy and Samir. Together with subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, the archbishop's secretary Father Ragheed Aziz Ganni [20 Jan 1972–] had been murdered on 03 June 2007. Rahho was ordained a priest on 10 June 1965 and consecrated a bishop on 16 February 2001. —(080313)

2007 Some 120 Shi'ah Muslim pilgrims and two joint suicide bombers in Hilla, Iraq. Some 160 are wounded. The crowd of pilgrims was traveling on foot to attend in Karbala on 09 March 2007 the massive celebration of Arba'in al Husayn, for the grandson of Muhammad [], Husayn ibn Ali [626 – 10 Oct 680 = 03 Sha'ban 4 HE – 10 Muharram 61 AH] who was killed in the Battle of Karbala which crystallized the division between Sunni and Shi'a Islam, and is commemorated on Ashurah, the start of a 40-day mourning period for Husayn which ends on Arba'in. —(070306)

2007 Some 200 persons in magnitude 6.3 earthquake at 10:50 (03:50 UT) with epicenter 30km deep at 0º32' S 100º30' E, 50 km NNE of Padang, in southern Sumatra, Indonesia, followed by a magnitude 6.1 aftershock at 12:49 (05.49 UT) with epicenter just 4km away, and lesser aftershocks later. —(070306)

2006 (approximate date) Thomas William “Tom” Fox [07 Jul 1951–], Quaker peace activist murdered after torture by the terrorists who, on 26 October 2005, took him hostage together with his fellow peace activists James Loney, 41; Harmeet Singh Sooden [24 Mar 1973~]; and Norman Kember [27 March 1931~]. —(060312)

2006 Munir Abu Suker, 30; Iyad Abu Shaouf; and two passers-by; as an Israeli missile fired from an aircraft hits its target, Suker's car, traveling in the Sajaya neighborhood of Gaza City. Suker was a senior Islamic Jihad commander involved in bomb attacks against Israeli security forces and in the firing of Kassam rockets at Israeli civilian targets. He was also involved in smuggling weapons and operatives back and forth between Gaza and Sinai in order to facilitate their crossing into Israel to launch terror attacks. Shaouf, also an Islamic Jihad member, was in the car with him. 7 passers-by, including two children, are wounded. —(060306)
^ 2005 Hans Albrecht Bethe, US theoretical physicist born on 02 July 1906 in Strasbourg, in Alsace-Lorraine, which had been French since 1681, but which Germany, after defeating France in 1871, had annexed. (Strasbourg, besieged since 10 August 1870, had capitulated on 28 Septembre 1870) and which France recovered after World War I. French troops led by Général Gouraud liberated Strasbourg 11 days after the 11 November 1918 armistice. In World War II, Strasbourg was occupied by Nazi Germany only on 18 June 1940, after the complete defeat of France. Annexed again to Germany, Strasbourg was liberated on 23 November 1944 by the 2ème Division Blindée of Général Leclerc. This explains why Bethe was born German in a French city. But by 1944 he had been a naturalized US citizen for three years.
      Bethe helped to shape classical physics into quantum physics and increased the understanding of the atomic processes responsible for the properties of matter and of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1967 for his work on the production of energy in stars. Moreover, he was a leader in emphasizing the social responsibility of science.
      Bethe studied physics at the University of Frankfurt and did research in theoretical physics at the University of Munich, where he obtained the doctorate in 1928. His doctoral thesis, on the theory of electron diffraction, remains of fundamental value in understanding observational data. His work on term splitting in crystals in 1929 showed how the symmetrical electric field by which an atom in a crystal is surrounded affectsits energy states. In 1931 he worked with Enrico Fermi in Rome. He returned to Germany and served as a lecturer at the University of Tübingen until 1933. After a stay in Manchester, Eng., he immigrated to the United States and became, in 1934, a lecturer at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., which remained his home. He was a professor there from 1937 to 1975, when he became professor emeritus.
      In 1939 Bethe calculated the Sun's energy production, which results from the fusion of four hydrogen atoms (each of mass 1.008) into one helium atom (mass 4.0039). No direct fusion is possible, but Bethe showed that the probabilities of the four steps of the “carbon cycle” can account for the energy output. A carbon isotope of mass 12 reacts successively with three hydrogen nuclei (protons) to form the nitrogen isotope of mass 15; energy is produced through the fusion of a fourth hydrogen nucleus to release a helium nucleus (alpha particle) and the original carbon isotope.
      Bethe became a US citizen in 1941. At the beginning of World War II, Bethe had no US clearance for military work. But, after reading in the Encyclopædia Britannica that the armor-piercing mechanism of grenades was not well understood, he formulated a theory that became the foundation for research on the problem. His work, unpublished except in classified reports, illustrated his faculty for developing highly mathematical theories to the point that their numerical results could be compared with the actual measurements.
      After working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on the development of radar, Bethe headed the Theoretical Physics Division of the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos NM. The development of the atomic bomb and the dropping of it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki created a strong feeling of social responsibility in Bethe and other Los Alamos physicists. Hewas one of the organizers and original contributors to The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Moreover, he lectured and wrote on the nuclear threat in order to increase public awareness of it.
      Bethe was awarded the Max Planck Medal in 1955 and the US Atomic Energy Commission's Enrico Fermi Award in 1961. He became, in 1957, a foreign member of the Royal Society of London, as well as a member of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington DC.
      The discovery of neutron stars led Bethe back to fundamental research in astrophysics in 1970. Although his main interest was in the rapidly developing subjects of atomic and nuclearprocesses, he also applied classical mathematical methods to the calculation of electron densities in crystals, the order–disorder states in alloys, the operational conditions of reactors, the ionization processes in shock waves, and the detection of underground explosions from seismographic records.
      Bethe's later works include Elementary Nuclear Theory (1948), a discussion of the experimental evidence concerning the forces acting inside the atomic nucleus, and Intermediate Quantum Mechanics (2nd ed. 1968), a theoretical description of atomic structure.
2005 Five persons when a passenger train derails near Sheikhupura, Punjab province, Pakistan. 25 persons are injured.
2004 Mohammed Abu-Diyeh, 18, of Hamas; 3 other Palestinian terrorists; and Palestinian policemen Bashir Abu-Omrein, 28, and Hussam Aliwah, 28, in a botched large-scale attack by militants at the Erez crossing between the Gaza Strip and Israel in the morning. The attackers used three jeeps in the attack, with at least one disguised as an Israel Defense Forces military vehicle with forged license plates. The first jeep, laden with explosives, was detonated near a Palestinian police outpost, likely due to the policemen's refusal to allow the jeep to cross the checkpoint into Israel. At least one militant and the two policemen were killed. The second jeep was detonated farther north on the Palestinian side of the border crossing. A militant who drove the jeep was killed in the explosion. The two militants in the third jeep, disguised as an Israeli military vehicle, approached the southernmost IDF position, near the V.I.P crossing. The jeep crashed into the IDF position's gate; one militant, dressed in an IDF uniform and armed with an AK-47 assault rifle, exited the vehicle and fired at the Israeli troops, which returned fire and killed the two militants. Abu-Diyeh was from Gaza City's Rimal neighborhood. The Palestinian policemen apparently confronted the militants, in an attempt to prevent them from crossing with their vehicles into Israel. Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah called their joint attack a "self-sacrifice operation" in a message posted on the Hamas web site.
2004 Palestinian policeman Taher Abu Sariyeh, 19, killed in the early morning by Israeli troops in the Tul Karm refugee camp, during a clash between Israeli soldiers and dozens of stone throwers, including many children on their way to school. Abu Sariyeh was in uniform at the time of his death and carried a handgun.
2003:: 96 of the 97 passengers and all 6 of the crew of Air Algérie Flight 6289, a Boeing 737 which crashes, with one engine on fire, a few minutes after it took off from Tamanrasset, Algeria, bound for Algiers. The lone survivor, a young Algerian soldier, is critically injured.
2003 Mitchell Shubert, 39, from injuries suffered on 20 March 2003 in the fire of The Station nightclub in West Warwick, Rhode Island, which killed 96 persons immediately. He is the third of the 187 persons injured to die later. He suffered scarring in his lungs from breathing in smoke and flames and has bad burns on his back, face, hands and one arm. He was a construction superintendent from Newberry, Florida.
2003 Julian Lawrence Shapiro “John B. Sanford”, 98, US novelist, historian and memoirist. His memoir of his life from 1904 to 1927, The Color of the Air: Scenes From the Life of an American Jew, Volume I, was published in 1985. Four more volumes in the autobiographical series followed. His career as a writer was hurt by his membership in the Communist Party and his related blacklisting. He mostly wrote novels until 1975, when he began collections of historical vignettes as well as autobiographical and other works. In 1982 his novel A Man Without Shoes, which he had finished in 1947, was finally published. In all, Sanford published 24 books.
2002 Ralph Rumney, of cancer, English avant-garde untalented artist born on 05 June 1934. He wrote his autobiography in French: Le Consul (1999). — links to two worthless images.
2002 Abdel-Rahman Ghazal, of the military wing of Hamas, in an explosion at his home in Gaza City.
2002 Abdulghani Abu Daqa, 50, Palestinian, bleeding to death after being shot by the Israeli soldiers who prevent paramedics from reaching him for three hours. The al-Aqsa intifada body count is now at least 956 Palestinians and 313 Israelis.
2002 Jamal Abu Hamad, 29, Palesitinia, killed by Israeli soldiers in an incursion in Abassan.
2002 Alexander Nastarenko, 37, of Netanya, Israeli reservist corporal, by Palestinian gunmen who crossed the border fence and ambush his army jeep on the patrol road near Kibbutz Nir Oz.
2002 Three Danish and two German peacekeeping soldiers, in an accidental explosion while trying to destroy SA-3 anti-aircraft missiles at a munitions site in Kabul, Afghanistan.
2001: 54 children and teachers, as four classrooms are destroyed by an explosion in an elementary school in the village of Fang Lin, Jiangxi province, China. 27 others are injured. The explosion is in fireworks being assembled by third-graders contracted by a local business for the benefit of teachers, despite the long-standing protestations of parents.
2001 Nathan Mitchell, 33, struck by a train in Biloxi, Mississipi, while he, an animal control officer, is trying to catch a pitbull dog that had been running loose.
1998 A Connecticut state lottery accountant, and three supervisors and the lottery chief which he shoots before killing himself.
1997 Michael Norman Manley, político y periodista jamaicano.
1994 Melina Mercouri, born on 18 October 1925, Greek movie actress and political activist who was the minister of culture in Greece's first Socialist government (1981). Author of autobiography, I Was Born Greek (1971).
1992 María Helena Vieira da Silva, Portuguese-born (13 June 1908) French painter — more with links to images.
1986 Georgia O'Keeffe, 98, in Santa Fe. She had gained worldwide fame for her austere minimalist paintings of the US southwest.MORE ON O'KEEFFE AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1981 Klaus Grabowski, child molester, shot by parent.
1973 Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker Buck, US author noted for her novels about China (Good Earth) born on 26 June 1892. — Premio Nobel 1938.
1964 King Paul I of Hellenes, born on 14 December 1901.
1950 Albert Lebrun, born on 29 August 1871, 14th and last president (10 May 1932 – July 1940) of France's Third Republic. Author of autobiography Témoignages (1945).
1944 Alexandr Petrovich Kotelnikov, 78, university professor of mathematics (vector calculus in Lobachevsty space)
^ 1940 Day 97 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Soviets agree to start talks, delegation under prime minister Ryti heads for Moscow.
In the IV Corps area, enemy breaches the siege of 168th Division

       In Ladoga Karelia, the Soviet 11th Division launches a tank-supported offensive against the Finnish-controlled islands in the Pitkäranta sector at 9 o'clock in the morning.
      The offensive is preceded by a fierce three-hour artillery bombardment during which approximately 10'000 enemy shells rain down on the Finnish positions.
      In this way the Russians manage to break through the Pitkäranta section of the blockade encircling the great Kitelä 'motti'. The Finnish counterattack in Vilaniemi is unsuccessful. Russians also come ashore in Karjaniemi and Niskapohja. In the Sintolanniemi sector on the Isthmus the Russians cross the Vuoksi on a 2 km front. Paimio, Petäjä, Maksima and other islands on the eastern shore of Lake Ladoga are under heavy enemy shelling. 50 men from the municipality of Rantasalmi are killed.
      Foreign Minister Tanner asks the Allies for an extension of the deadline for requesting military assistance. Finland is given until the 12th of March to make a formal request.
      The Soviet Union announces its readiness to open talks with Finland in Moscow, but will not agree a ceasefire until the talks are actually underway. The Finnish Government meets twice to consider the composition of the Finnish delegation for the Moscow peace talks. In the evening, the Finnish delegation under the leadership of Prime Minister Risto Ryti leaves for Stockholm en route to Moscow. The other members of the delegation were J.K. Paasikivi, Rudolf Walden and Väinö Voionmaa.
      In San Francisco, the great Finnish runner Taisto Mäki wins a three-mile race in 14 minutes 15.3 seconds in an event organized to raise funds for Finland.
^ Neuvostoliitto ilmoittaa suostuvansa aloittamaan neuvottelut Suomen kanssa Talvisodan 98. päivä, 06.maaliskuuta.1940
       Vihollisen 11. Divisioona aloittaa klo 9 Pitkärannan suunnalla panssarien tukemana hyökkäyksen suomalaisten hallussa olevia saaria vastaan.
      Vihollisen hyökkäystä edeltää kolmen tunnin mittainen rajutykistövalmistelu: vihollinen ampuu 10 000 tykinlaukausta.
      Näin Laatokan pohjoispuolella venäläiset murtavat Kitelän suurmotin saartorenkaan Pitkärannan alueella. Suomalaisten vastahyökkäys Vilaniemessä epäonnistuu. Venäläisiä pääsee maihin myös Karjaniemessä ja Niskapohjassa.Venäläiset hyökkäävät yli 2 km leveänä rintamana Sintolanniemen lohkolla Vuoksen yli. Laatokan itärannan saaret, mm. Paimio, Petäjä ja Maksima ovat vihollisen ankaran keskityksen kohteena. Rantasalmen pitäjästä kaatuu 50 miestä.
      Ulkoministeri Tanner anoo lisäaikaa liittoutuneilta lopullisen avunpyynnön esittämistä varten. Lopulliseksi määräpäiväksi ilmoitetaan 12. päivä kuluvaa kuuta, jolloin Suomen virallinen avunpyyntö on esitettävä.
      Neuvostoliitto ilmoittaa suostuvansa neuvottelujen aloittamiseen Suomenkanssa Moskovassa, mutta ei suostu aselepoon ennen kuin neuvottelut on saatu käyntiin. Suomen hallitus kokoontuu kahdesti selvittämään neuvottelu-valtuuskunnan kokoonpanoa.
      Pääministeri Risto Rytin johtama valtuuskunta lähtee illalla Tukholman kautta Moskovaan. Valtuuskuntaan kuuluvat pääministerin lisäksi Paasikivi, Walden ja Voionmaa.
      Ulkomailta: Juoksijasuuruus Taisto Mäki voittaa San Fransiscossa järjestetyn ensimmäisen Suomi-keräyksen yhteydessä pidetyn juoksukilpailun. Matka on 3 mailia, Mäen aika 14.15,3.
^ Sovjet meddelar att fredsförhandlingar med Finland kan inledas Vinterkrigets 98 dag, den 06 mars 1940
       Med stöd av pansarvagnar går fiendens 11. Division till attack i riktning Pitkäranta mot de öar som finnarna har kontrollen över.
      Fiendens anfall föregås av en tre timmars häftig artilleriförberedning: fienden skjuter 10 000 kanonskott.
      Norr om Ladoga bryter ryssarna ner cerneringsringen vid Kitelä stormotti på området kring Pitkäranta. Finlands motstöt i Vilaniemi misslyckas. Ryssarna lyckas gå i land också vid Karjaniemi och Niskapohja. Ryssarna anfaller på en över 2 km lång front över Vuoksen på avsnittet i Sintolanniemi. Öarna längs den östra stranden av Ladoga, bl.a. Paimo, Petäjä och Maksima är föremål för fiendens stränga koncentration. Över 50 man hemma från Rantasalmi socken stupar.
      Utrikesminister Tanner begär om extra tid av de allierade för den slutliga anhållan om bistånd. Den sista dagen som Finland kan framföra sin officiella anhållan om bistånd uppges vara den 12 innevarande månad.
      Sovjetunionen meddelar att fredsförhandlingar med Finland kan inledas i Moskva, men går inte med på vapenvila förrän förhandlingarna har satts igång.
      Finlands regering samlas två gånger för att fastställa fredsdelegationens sammansättning.
      Statsminister Risto Ryti leder delegationen som på kvällen reser via Stockholm till Moskva. Till delegationen hör förutom statsministern Paasikivi, Walden och Voionmaa.
      Utrikes: I San Fransisco vinner den store löparen Taisto Mäki en löptävling som arrangeras i anslutning till den första Finlandsinsamlingen. Sträckan är 3 amerikanska mil och Mäki löper den på tiden 14.15,3.
1939 Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann, 86, first to prove that p (pi) is transcendental.
1937 Otto Rudolf, born on 25 September 1869, Prussian theologian, philosopher, and historian of religion, who exerted worldwide influence through his investigation of man's experience of the holy. Das Heilige (1917) is his most important work.
1935 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., in Washington, retired Supreme Court Justice, born on 08 March 1841.
1930 Alfred von Tirpitz, retired Prussian admiral born on 19 March 1849, the chief builder of the German Navy in the 17 years preceding World War I and a dominant personality of the emperor William II's reign.
^ 1929 David Buick, 74, who name is that of the GM Buick car, in Detroit.
      A former bathtub manufacturer, David Buick sold his first car in 1904. Only a few months later, William C. Durant, the eventual founder of General Motors, took control of the company. Durant raised $1.5 million to refinance Buick’s starved coffers. He reportedly sold over a half million dollars of stock in a day. Using his contacts in the carriage business, Durant established an extensive distribution network. By 1908 the Buick Motor Company, based in Flint, Michigan, sold more cars than any auto maker in prior history. After working for several years under Durant, David Buick left the Buick Motor Company in 1908. At the time of his death in 1929, Buick was penniless. The Buick Motor Company, on the contrary, had sold over two million cars and had made William C. Durant one of the most powerful men in the US auto industry.
1923 James Jebusa Shannon, British US painter born in 1862. — links to images.

^ 1916 More casualties as Germans renew attack on Verdun.
      During the First World War Verdun was a fortified French garrison town on the River Meuse 200 km east of Paris. In December 1915, General Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Staff of the German Army, decided to attack Verdun. Although he admitted he would be unable to break through at these point on the Western Front, he argued that in defending Verdun, the Germans would "bleed the French army white".
      The German attack on Verdun started on 21 February 1916. A million troops, led by Crown Prince Wilhelm, faced only about 200'000 French defenders. The following day the French was forced to retreat to their second line of trenches. By 24 February the French had moved back to the third line and were only 8km from Verdun.
      On 24 February, General Henri-Philippe Pétain was appointed commander of the Verdun sector. He gave orders that no more withdrawals would take place. He arranged for every spare French soldier to this part of the Western Front. Of the 330 infantry regiments of the French Army, 259 eventually fought at Verdun.
      The German advance was brought to a halt at the end of February. On 06 March, the German Fifth Army launched a new attack at Verdun. The Germans advanced 3km before they were stopped in front of the area around Mort Homme Hill. The French held this strategic point until it was finally secured by the Germans on 29 May, and Fort Vaux fell on 07 June, after a long siege.
      Further attacks continued throughout the summer and early autumn. However, the scale of the German attacks were reduced by the need to transfer troops to defend their front-line at the Somme. The French now counter-attacked and General Charles Mangin became a national hero when the forts at Douaumont and Vaux were recaptured by 02 November 1916. Over the next six weeks the French infantry gained another 2 km at Verdun.
      Verdun, the longest battle of the First World War, ended on 18 December. The French Army lost about 550'000 men at Verdun. It is estimated that the German Army suffered 434'000 casualties. About half of all casualties at Verdun were killed.

1903 Gaston Paris, greatest French philologist of his age, born on 09 August 1839. After studying in German universities and at the École des Chartes in Paris, he succeeded his father as professor of French medieval literature at the Collège de France. He was one of the founders and directors of Revue critique and of Romania, the leading journal devoted to French philology. A scholar of enormous erudition and exemplary thoroughness, Paris is also remarkable for his efforts to present the findings of research in a form suitable for the general reading public. He became a member of the Académie des Inscriptions in 1876 and of the French Academy in 1896.
1900 Gottlieb Daimler designed first motorcycle
1836 Colonel William B. Travis, Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett, and the other 185 defenders of the Alamo, and 1544 of the attackers.    ^top^
      During the Texas War for Independence, Mexican president and general Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna [21 Feb 1794 – 21 Jun 1876] orders the first assault on the fortified Alamo mission in San Antonio, Texas, held by 144 Texans and US citizens under the leadership of Travis, Bowie [1796–], and Crockett [17 Aug 1786–]. [flag flown at the Alamo >]
      After gaining independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s, attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous communities were, in their opinion, against the 1824 Mexican constitution, and led them to rebellion. In October of 1835, residents of Gonzales, fifty miles east of San Antonio, responded to Santa Anna’s demand that they return a cannon loaned for defense against Indian attack by discharging it against the Mexican troops sent to reclaim it.
      Two months later, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Milam drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes after the 1790s.
      In January of 1836, Santa Anna concentrated a force of several thousand men south of the Rio Grande and General Sam Houston, the commander of the Texas revolutionary troops, ordered the Alamo abandoned.
      However, Colonel Jim Bowie realized that the Alamo’s twenty-five captured cannons could not be removed before Santa Anna’s arrival, so he remained entrenched with his men in order to give Houston time to raise a revolutionary army. On February 2, Bowie and his twenty-five men were joined by a small cavalry company under Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about one hundred and thirty. One week later, Davy Crockett arrived in command of fourteen Tennessee Mounted Volunteers.
      On February 23, Santa Anna and some 4000 Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the Mexican leader ordered the former mission bombarded with cannon and rifle fire for twelve days. The next day, in the chaos of the siege, Colonel Travis smuggled out a letter that read:
Commandancy of the Alamo
Bexar, Feby. 24th, 1836
To the People of Texas and all Americans in the World--
Fellow Citizens and Compatriots--
I am besieged by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna--I have sustained a continual Bombardment and cannonade for 24 hours and have not lost a man--The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion, otherwise the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken--I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, and our flag still waves proudly from the walls--I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism and everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid with all despatch--The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily and will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible and die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor and that of his country--Victory or Death.
           William Barret Travis Lt. Col. comdt.

P.S. The Lord is on our side--When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn--We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels, and got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beeves--
Send this to San Felipe by Express night and day--
     On 02 March, the last Texan reinforcements from nearby Gonzales broke through the enemy’s lines and into the Alamo, bringing the total defenders to one hundred and eighty-five. The same day, Texas’ revolutionary government formally declared its independence from Mexico.
      In the early morning of 06 March, Santa Anna ordered the first assault on the Alamo. Travis’s artillery decimated the first and then the second Mexican charge, but within ninety minutes the Texans were overwhelmed, and the Alamo was taken. All of the Texan defenders were killed, along with some 1500 of Santa Anna’s troops. The only survivors of the Alamo were a mother, her child, and an African-American slave.
      Six weeks later, a large Texan army under Sam Houston surprised Santa Anna’s army at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. Texas independence was won.

Prise du Fort Alamo.
     5000 soldats mexicains s'emparent de Fort Alamo, au Texas, après plusieurs jours de combats acharnés. Le fort n'était défendu que par 187 ressortissants texans ou étatsuniens. Tous succombent au terme de l'assaut après avoir mis hors de combat 1500 ennemis. Parmi les victimes figurent David Crockett et Jim Bowie, des trappeurs légendaires du Kentucky. En retenant l'armée mexicaine du 24 février 1836 à ce 6 mars, les défenseurs de Fort Alamo ont permis au Texas de se libérer du Mexique. Le Texas était à l'origine une dépendance du Mexique. Mais à sa population hispanique étaient venus s'ajouter des immigrants nord-américains. Les nouveaux habitants proclament leur indépendance à la faveur des troubles qui agitent le Mexique. Le dictateur Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna décide de soumettre les rebelles. Pendant que ses soldats piétinent devant Fort Alamo, les Texans mettent sur pied leur propre armée sous le commandement de Sam Houston. Deux mois plus tard, ils battent l'armée épuisée de Santa Anna. Ils font même celui-ci prisonnier.
      Le 01 mars 1845, le Texas obtiendra son admission au sein des États-Unis d'Amérique tout en conservant le droit de pratiquer l'esclavage. Cette annexion entraînera une protestation du Mexique. Les États-Unis saisiront ce prétexte pour entrer en guerre contre leur voisin et, par le traité de Guadalupe Hidalgo, ils lui prendront de nouveaux et vastes territoires.
1797 William Hodges, English painter born on 28 October 1744. — links to images.
1796 Guillaume-Thomas Raynal, Catholic priest, Encyclopedist philosopher, born on 12 April 1713 (portrait engraving), author-editor of the 6-volume L'Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes (1770), who had called for the abolition of slavery.
1673 Daniel de Blieck, Dutch painter born in 1630. — links to images.
1531 Pedro Arias Dávila, más conocido por “Pedrarias”, Gobernador de Panamá y Nicaragua.
1447 Saint Colette, abbess, reformer of the Poor Clares and founder of the Colettine Poor Clares. Born on 13 January 1381, the daughter of a carpenter at the monastery of Corbie, she was orphaned at 17 and entered the third order of St. Francis, living in a hermitage given her by the abbot of Corbie. In a vision, St. Francis directed Colette to restore the Poor Clares to the original severity of their rule, which she undertook to do, in 1406, after visiting Antipope Benedict XIII and receiving his support. Despite initial opposition, her reform spread through Savoy, Burgundy, France, Flanders, and Spain, increasing notably after her death.
< 05 Mar 07 Mar >
^  Births which occurred on a 06 March:

1936 Marion S. Barry, Black mayor of Washington DC, who spent some time in prison on a drug charge.
^ 1928 Gabriel García Marquez, Colombian novelist (Nobel 1982).
      Gabriel Garcia Marquez is born in Arataca, Colombia. As a child, his grandmother told him fantastic stories of magical events, relating them as if they were fact. These early stories helped shape his own signature writing style, later known as "magical realism." Garcia Marquez studied law and journalism at the National University of Colombia at Bogota and later at the University of Cartagena. In 1948, he became a reporter for the Colombian newspaper El Espectador and worked as a foreign correspondent in Rome, Paris, Barcelona, Caracas, and New York during the next decade. He also began writing short stories during this time. His first important fiction collection, Leaf Storm and Other Stories, was published in 1955 and introduced the fictional Colombian village of Macondo, where many of his later stories and novels are set.
      In the 1960s, Garcia Marquez moved to Mexico City, where he worked as a screenwriter, journalist, and publicist. In Mexico, he wrote one of his best-known novels, One Hundred Years of Solitude, published in 1967. He moved to Barcelona in 1973 and also made many trips to Cuba, where he became close personal friends with communist dictator Fidel Castro. His friendship with Castro and his left-leaning politics made him politically unpopular with the US government, but his books continued to sell well. Garcia Marquez won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1982. Other major works include Love in the Time of Cholera (1985) and The General in His Labyrinth (1989).
1926 Alan Greenspan, in New York City, economist (Ph.D. 1977), presidential adviser, US Federal Reserve Board chaiman (11 Aug 1987 — 20 June 2004). [photo >]
1910 Kristian Torbensen “Ejler Bille”, Danish sculptor, painter, and writer. — more with link to an image.
1910 Eduardo Caballero Calderón, novelista y político colombiano.
1906 Lou Costello Paterson NJ, (Cristillo) (comedian, actor [Abbott and Costello]: "Who's on First?"). He died on 03 March 1959.
1901 Naum Iliich Akhiezer, mathematician whose main work was on function theory and approximation theory; died in 1980.
1885 Ring Lardner US, (sports reporter, humorist, writer: Alibi Ike, You Know Me Al, Elmer the Great, June Moon). He died on 25 September 1933. — LARDNER ONLINE: The Big Town: How I and the Mrs. Go to New York to See Life and Get Katie a HusbandComplete On-Line Works (illustrated) — Gullible's Travels, Etc. — You Know Me Al (illustrated)
1870 Oscar Straus, Austrian composer who died on 11 January 1954.
1866 Ettore Bortolotti, university professor of mathematics who worked mostly in topology, analysis, and the history of mathematics; died in 1947.
1847 Federico Andreotti, Italian painter who died in 1930. — more with links to images.
1834 George Louis Palmella Busson Du Maurier, British caricaturist whose illustrations for Punch were acute commentaries on the Victorian scene. He also wrote three successful novels. Du Maurier's happy childhood at Passy, France, is recalled in Peter Ibbetson (1891); his full-blooded enjoyment of student life in the Latin Quarter of Paris is reflected in Trilby (1894); in The Martian (1897) there is a poignant episode based on his own tragic experience of losing the sight of his left eye. This misfortune led him to abandon painting in favor of drawing. In 1860 he moved to London, where his skilled draftsmanship and engaging personality quickly established his success. His gently satiric caricatures were mainly aimed at the growing nouveau riche class and the aesthetes led by Oscar Wilde. His book illustrations and drawings for such periodicals as Once a Week and The Leisure Hour, however, are sometimes considered his best work. died on 06 October 1896. His granddaughter, novelist Daphne du Maurier [13 May 1907 – 19 Apr 1989], edited The Young George du Maurier: A Selection of His Letters, 1860–1867 (1951). — A non-caricature drawing: Two Children in the Snow (21x33cm)
^ 1834 Toronto is established
      Toronto, formerly known as York, is incorporated as a city with controversial Canadian politician William Lyon Mackenzie as its first mayor.
      Initially a fur-trading post, Toronto was later the site of a French fort built to counteract British influence in the Niagara area. In 1793, the site, which had become home to a settlement of American loyalists, was chosen as the capital of Upper Canada and became known as York.
      In 1834, it was incorporated as the city of Toronto under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie. Mackenzie, a Scottish-born journalist, had immigrated to Upper Canada, now known as Ontario, in 1820. Soon after his arrival, Mackenzie became a leader of Canadian opposition to the "Family Compact," an aristocratic political organization that dominated Canadian politics and was made up almost entirely of members of the Church of England. In 1826, his printing press was destroyed, and beginning in 1828, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada by his constituency six times and expelled for "libel" five times. As a leader of the Reform Party of Upper Canada he went to London in 1832 to obtain redress of grievances, and in 1834, he became the first mayor of Toronto.
      In 1837, Mackenzie, enraged at the defeat of the Reform Party and the oppressive policies of the British lieutenant governor of Canada, launched a rebellion in the hope of seizing Toronto and making it independent of British rule. US citizens across the border sympathized with Mackenzie’s plight, and sent a small steamer across the Niagara to supply the rebel forces with arms. On 29 December, loyalist forces crossed over to the US side where the Caroline was moored, took up its anchor, set it afire, and sent the vessel over the Niagara Falls. One American was killed in the incident, and US General Winfield Scott was sent to the area to prevent a violent American reprisal.
      Mackenzie’s rebellion was promptly put down and he fled to British-claimed Navy Island in the Niagara River where he set up a provisional government with fortified headquarters. However, he was later arrested and imprisoned for eighteen months by US authorities for violating neutrality laws. The Caroline Affair added to the tense relations between the US and Great Britain in the years before the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. In 1849, Mackenzie was allowed to return to Canada under a general amnesty proclamation, and in 1851 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of United Canada. His grandson, William Lyon Mackenzie King, became a Canadian prime minister in the twentieth century.
1806 Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet who died on 29 June 1861.
1767 Charles Henri Marie Barbaroux, à Marseille, homme politique français. Avocat acquis aux idées révolutionnaires, il dirigea la section des fédérés marseillais, lors de la prise des Tuileries le 10 Aug 1792. Élu député des Bouches du Rhône à la Convention, il se rapprocha des Girondins, et lorsque ceux-ci furent éliminés du pouvoir par les Montagnards, il tenta d'organiser la résistance en Normandie (Caen 1793) avec Buzot [01 Mar 1760 – 20 Jun 1794] et Pétion de Villeneuve [03 Jan 1756 – 20 Jun 1794]; il échoua et fut condamné à mort et guillotiné le 25 juin 1794 (07 messidor an II) à Bordeaux où il s'était réfugié.
Michelangelo1724 Henry Laurens, President of Continental Congress of the US (1777-1778). He died on 08 December 1792.
1722 Johann-Christian Brand, Austrian painter who died on 12 June 1795. — more with link to an image.
1619 Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, French big-nosed dramatist and novelist, in Paris. He studied under Pierre Gassendi. Cyrano died on 28 July 1655. His works include a tragedy, La Mort d'Agrippine (1654), a comedy, Le Pédant joué 1654), Lettres, and CYRANO ONLINE: BERGERAC ONLINE: L'Autre Monde ou les Etats et Empires de la Lune et du Soleil [Same, other site] (1656) — Histoire comique des états et empires du soleil (1662) [Same, other site*] — Le ministre d'estat flambé en vers burlesque*Oeuvres comiques galantes et littéraires*Les oeuvres diverses* (* means page images). — He was the subject of Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac : comédie héroique en 5 actes, en vers.
God's hand1492 Juan Luis Vives, humanista español.
1481 Baldassare Peruzzi, pintor y arquitecto italiano.
1475 Michelangelo Buonarroti Simoni [< image], painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. [Rime]. He died on 18 February 1564.  MORE ON MICHELANGELO AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1405 John II, King of Castile (1406-1454) who died on 21 July 1454.
Feasts which occur on a 06 March:
2109 Ash Wednesday
2052 Ash Wednesday
2041 Ash Wednesday
2030 Ash Wednesday
2019 Ash Wednesday
1957 Ash Wednesday
1946 Ash Wednesday
1935 Ash Wednesday
1889 Ash Wednesday
1878 Ash Wednesday

Feasts of every 06 March:
— Jesus Nazarene of Atalaya
— San Marciano
— San Basilio
— Santo Olegario
— San Víctor
— San Victoriano
— Sainte Colette, religieuse picarde née en 1381, réforme l’ordre monastique des Clarisses et le ramène à l’idéal de pauvreté de ses fondateurs, François d’Assise et Claire. Ses restes reposent au couvent de Poligny, dans le Jura.
— Independence Day of Ghana (1957)
— Magellan Day = Discovery Day in Guam (1521)
— Stoneware Pottery Appreciation Day in the US

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updated Thursday 09-Apr-2009 23:49 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.20 Thursday 13-Mar-2008 20:42 UT
v.7.22 Tuesday 06-Mar-2007 18:14 UT
v.6.21 Sunday 12-Mar-2006 22:31 UT
Sunday 27-Mar-2005 14:19 UT
Saturday 06-Mar-2004 17:26 UT

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