<< Mar 04| HISTORY 4 2DAY |Mar 06 >>
Events, deaths, births, of MAR 05 v.9.30
[For Mar 05 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Mar 15 1700s: Mar 16 1800s: Mar 17 1900~2099: Mar 18]
• Horse substitute wanted... • Singapore censors the Net… • Charlotte Brontë declines marriage... • Ulloa tries to govern Louisiana... • Stampede at the Hajj... • Netscape slashes server prices... • Ask the President radio show... • Blackhorse regiment leaves Vietnam... • USAF advisory team sent to Laos... • Bank holiday of 1933... • Churchill's Iron Curtain speech... • Boston Massacre... • Stalin is dead... • Mesmer dies... • First prohibition of alcohol in the US... • Heavy bombing by Soviet aggressors in Finland... • Illustrator Pyle is born... • Tell~all diarist is born...
a 05 March:
2000 Israel's Cabinet voted unanimously to withdraw its troops from south Lebanon by the following July. El secretario del Gobierno israelí, Isaac Herzog, anuncia la retirada del ejército israelí de la banda sur del Líbano.
2000 Yoshiro Mori es nombrado como nuevo primer ministro de Japón en sustitución de Keizo Obuchi, en coma tras una hemorragia cerebral.
2000 A Virginia subsidiary of PPL Therapeutics of Edinburgh, Scotland, the company that cloned Dolly the sheep, produced the first cloned pigs.
1999 El alto representante de la comunidad internacional en Bosnia, el español Carlos Westendorp y Cabeza, destituye al presidente de la República Serbia de Bosnia, Nikola Poplasen, por sus intentos de desestabilizar el proceso de paz.
1998 La Cámara de Representantes de Estados Unidos aprueba, por un voto de diferencia, la celebración este año de una consulta de autodeterminación en Puerto Rico, con lo que comienza así el proceso de descolonización de la zona por parte de Estados Unidos.
1998 La NASA anuncia el descubrimiento por parte de la nave Lunar Prospector de agua en forma de hielo almacenada en cráteres de los dos polos de la Luna.
| 1997 Microsoft announced it had fixed a security flaw
in its Internet Explorer browser . The bug would allow a Web site operator
to run programs secretly or ruin files in other personal computers.
1997 Representatives of North Korea and South Korea met for first time in 25 years, for peace talks in New York.
1992 Ethic committee votes to reveal US congressmen who bounced checks.
1991 Iraq repealed its annexation of Kuwait. The Iraqis turned over 35 prisoners of war, including 15 Americans, to the Red Cross. An anti-Saddam Hussein uprising was reported sweeping city after city in Iraq.
1991 Se declara al español como la única lengua oficial de Puerto Rico, derogando la cooficialidad con el inglés.
1989 El Vaticano califica de blasfema la novela Versículos Satánicos, de Salman Rushdie.
1984 Supreme Court (5-4): city may use public money for Nativity scene.
1969 Gold reaches then record high ($47 per ounce) in Paris.
1968 Separación en Checoslovaquia de los cargos de secretario general del PC y de presidente de la República. En el primer puesto, Alexander Dubcek sustituye a Antonin Novotny, que conserva el cargo de presidente.
1946 Winston Churchill's Iron
In one of the most famous orations of the Cold War period, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill condemns the Soviet Union's policies in Europe and declares, "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent." Churchill's speech is considered one of the opening volleys announcing the beginning of the Cold War.
Churchill, who had been defeated for re-election as prime minister in 1945, was invited to Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri where he gave this speech. President Harry S. Truman joined Churchill on the platform and listened intently to his speech. Churchill began by praising the United States, which he declared stood "at the pinnacle of world power." It soon became clear that a primary purpose of his talk was to argue for an even closer "special relationship" between the United States and Great Britain-the great powers of the "English-speaking world"-in organizing and policing the postwar world. In particular, he warned against the expansionistic policies of the Soviet Union. In addition to the "iron curtain" that had descended across Eastern Europe, Churchill spoke of "communist fifth columns" that were operating throughout western and southern Europe. Drawing parallels with the disastrous appeasement of Hitler prior to World War II, Churchill advised that in dealing with the Soviets there was "nothing which they admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness."
Truman and many other US officials warmly received the speech. Already they had decided that the Soviet Union was bent on expansion and only a tough stance would deter the Russians. Churchill's "iron curtain" phrase immediately entered the official vocabulary of the Cold War. US officials were less enthusiastic about Churchill's call for a "special relationship" between the United States and Great Britain. While they viewed the English as valuable allies in the Cold War, they were also well aware that Britain's power was on the wane and had no intention of being used as pawns to help support the crumbling British empire. In the Soviet Union, Russian leader Joseph Stalin denounced the speech as "war mongering," and referred to Churchill's comments about the "English-speaking world" as imperialist "racism." The British, Americans, and Russians-allies against Hitler less than a year before the speech-were drawing the battle lines of the Cold War.
Introduced by Missourian, US President Harry Truman, Churchill gave this speech at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri, after receiving an honorary degree:
The United States stands at this time at the pinnacle of world power. It is a solemn moment for the American democracy. For with this primacy in power is also joined an awe-inspiring accountability to the future. As you look around you, you must feel not only the sense of duty done, but also you must feel anxiety lest you fall below the level of achievement. Opportunity is here now, clear and shining, for both our countries. To reject it or ignore it or fritter it away will bring upon us all the long reproaches of the aftertime.
It is necessary that constancy of mind, persistency of purpose, and the grand simplicity of decision shall rule and guide the conduct of the English-speaking peoples in peace as they did in war. We must, and I believe we shall, prove ourselves equal to this severe requirement.
I have a strong admiration and regard for the valiant Russian people and for my wartime comrade, Marshal Stalin. There is deep sympathy and goodwill in Britain and I doubt not here also toward the peoples of all the Russias and a resolve to persevere through many differences and rebuffs in establishing lasting friendships.
It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe.
From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.
The safety of the world, ladies and gentlemen, requires a unity in Europe, from which no nation should be permanently outcast. It is from the quarrels of the strong parent races in Europe that the world wars we have witnessed, or which occurred in former times, have sprung.
Twice the United States has had to send several millions of its young men across the Atlantic to fight the wars. But now we all can find any nation, wherever it may dwell, between dusk and dawn. Surely we should work with conscious purpose for a grand pacification of Europe within the structure of the United Nations and in accordance with our Charter.
In a great number of countries, far from the Russian frontiers and throughout the world, Communist fifth columns are established and work in complete unity and absolute obedience to the directions they receive from the Communist center. Except in the British Commonwealth and in the United States where Communism is in its infancy, the Communist parties or fifth columns constitute a growing challenge and peril to Christian civilization.
The outlook is also anxious in the Far East and especially in Manchuria. The agreement which was made at Yalta, to which I was a party, was extremely favorable to Soviet Russia, but it was made at a time when no one could say that the German war might not extend all through the summer and autumn of 1945 and when the Japanese war was expected by the best judges to last for a further eighteen months from the end of the German war.
I repulse the idea that a new war is inevitable still more that it is imminent. It is because I am sure that our fortunes are still in our own hands and that we hold the power to save the future, that I feel the duty to speak out now that I have the occasion and the opportunity to do so.
I do not believe that Soviet Russia desires war. What they desire is the fruits of war and the indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines.
But what we have to consider here today while time remains, is the permanent prevention of war and the establishment of conditions of freedom and democracy as rapidly as possible in all countries. Our difficulties and dangers will not be removed by closing our eyes to them. They will not be removed by mere waiting to see what happens; nor will they be removed by a policy of appeasement.
What is needed is a settlement, and the longer this is delayed, the more difficult it will be and the greater our dangers will become.
From what I have seen of our Russian friends and allies during the war, I am convinced that there is nothing they admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for weakness, especially military weakness.
For that reason the old doctrine of a balance of power is unsound. We cannot afford, if we can help it, to work on narrow margins, offering temptations to a trial of strength.
Last time I saw it all coming and I cried aloud to my own fellow countrymen and to the world, but no one paid any attention. Up till the year 1933 or even 1935, Germany might have been saved from the awful fate which has overtaken her and we might all have been spared the miseries Hitler let loose upon mankind.
There never was a war in history easier to prevent by timely action than the one which has just desolated such great areas of the globe. It could have been prevented, in my belief, without the firing of a single shot, and Germany might be powerful, prosperous and honored today; but no one would listen and one by one we were all sucked into the awful whirlpool.
We must not let it happen again. This can only be achieved by reaching now, in 1946, a good understanding on all points with Russia under the general authority of the United Nations Organization and by the maintenance of that good understanding through many peaceful years, by the whole strength of the English-speaking world and all its connections.
If the population of the English-speaking Commonwealth be added to that of the United States, with all that such cooperation implies in the air, on the sea, all over the globe, and in science and in industry, and in moral force, there will be no quivering, precarious balance of power to offer its temptation to ambition or adventure. On the contrary there will be an overwhelming assurance of security.
If we adhere faithfully to the Charter of the United Nations and walk forward in sedate and sober strength, seeking no one's land or treasure, seeking to lay no arbitrary control upon the thoughts of men, if all British moral and material forces and convictions are joined with your own in fraternal association, the high roads of the future will be clear, not only for us but for all, not only for our time but for a century to come.
Complete Speeches of Winston Churchill Contents:
| 1941 Derrotados los italianos por los ingleses, el emperador
de Etiopía, Haile Selasie, entra en Addis Abeba en su caballo blanco.
1940 El Politburó del PCUS (Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética) ordena la ejecución de 14'700 oficiales polacos en el bosque de Katyn.
1939 Guerra Civil española. Se constituye en Madrid el Consejo Nacional de Defensa para propiciar la rendición republicana ante los "nacionales".
1929 Fire destroys the Los Angeles Automobile Show with over 320 new cars, including the Auburn Motor Company’s only Auburn Cabin Speedster.
1927 1000 US marines land in China to protect American property. [imagine the reaction if Chinese Marines had landed in the US to protect Chinese property!]
1923 Montana and Nevada adopted legislation that paved the path for state funded pensions for elderly citizens. Under the guise of the new pension law, Montana and Nevada handed "qualifying" people over the age of 70 as much as $25.
1918 Rumanía firma la paz con las potencias centrales europeas.
1908 first ascent of Mt Erebus, Antarctica.
1904 El tribunal de casación francés decide la revisión de la sentencia de Alfred Dreyfus y ordena una investigación complementaria.
1901 Formación en España de un nuevo Gobierno presidido por Práxedes Mateo Sagasta.
1877 Inaugural Address of US President Rutherford B. Hayes
1867 An abortive Fenian uprising against English rule took place in Ireland.
1865 Confederate government orders every vessel to give half its freight capacity to government shipments.
1862 Siege of New Madrid, Missouri continues.
1849 Inaugural Address of US President Zachary Taylor.
1821 James Monroe is first US President inaugurated (for his second term) on March 5th, because 4th was Sunday (his Inaugural Address).
1795 Treaty of Basel-Prussia ends war with France
1783 Un terremoto destruye parte de la ciudad de Messina y ocasiona graves daños en Calabria.
1774 John Hancock's Boston Massacre Oration.
1616 Nicolaus Copernicus' De Revolutionibus placed on Catholic Index of Forbidden Books. Nikolaj Kopernick was born in 1473 in Torún, Poland. He became a mathematician and astronomer who authored the Copernican theory: the sun is the center of our universe -- Le moine astronome Nicolas Copernic, né à Thorn (Pologne), après avoir étudié à Cracovie (Pologne), puis à Bologne et à Padoue (Italie), rentre en Pologne et rédige en 1530 , son fameux "traité sur les révolutions des orbes célestes".
1329 Juana II y su marido Felipe de Evreux son coronados reyes de Navarra.
1179 The Third Lateran Council (11th ecumenical council) opens in Rome under Alexander III. It is attended by 302 bishops who enact measures against the Waldenses and Albigensians. Lateran III also mandates that popes are to be elected by two-thirds vote from the assembled cardinals.
2006 Milan Babic [26 Feb 1956–], suicide in UN prison at The Hague, where he was serving a 14-year prison sentence for crimes against humanity while he was president (1991-1992) of the rebel Republic of Serbian Krajina within newly independent Croatia. He had pleaded guilty, expressed repentance, and testified against other criminal Serb leaders. —(060306)
2003 Juan Bautista Aguita, Sergio Antonio Roz, Adela Galvis, Jesús Emel Vega, Carlos Mauricio Lindarte García, Luis Alberto Cárdenas Botello, and Mónica Leal, by a car bomb placed under the gasoline tank of a van, at 09:45 in a basement parking lot at the Alejandría shopping center in Cúcuta, Colombia. 68 persons are injured. The ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional) rebels are suspected.
2003 Paul Newman, 50, of injuries suffered on 20 February in explosion and fire in Corbin, Kentucky, at the CTA Acoustics plant which makes insulation for automakers, where he was a worker. He becames its fifth fatality
2003 Kwan Sui-chu, 78, of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), in Toronto, Canada, of which she was a resident. On 23 February, with her husband, she had returned from a 10-day visit to Hong Kong, where they stayed at the Metropole Hotel in Kowloon. Within the next few days, several of her family members would have symptons of SARS, including her son, Chi Kwai Tse, 44, who would die on 13 March 2003. They are the first two in Canada to die of the new disease.
2003:: 6 women and 10 men: Abigail Leitel, 14, US~born daughter of a Baptist minister ; Yuval Mendelevich, 13, Meital Katav, 20, woman army veteran, Smadar Firstatter, 17, woman; Elizabetta “Liz” Katzman, 16, and her friend Tal Kirman, 17, woman; Assaf Zur, 17; Mordechai “Motti” Hershko and his son Tom Hershko, 16; Mariam Mustafa Atta, 27; Marak Takash, 54; and Staff Sergeant Eliahu Lacham, 22, all 12 from Haifa; Staff Sergeant Barry Oved, 21, from Rosh Pina; Daniel Harush, 16, from Safed; Kmar Abu Khamed, 13, girl from Daliat al-Carmel; and suicide bomber Mahmoud Awad Kawasme, 21, Hamas militant from Hebron, sitting at rear of Egged bus #37 headed to Haifa University, as its doors open at a stop on Moriah Boulevard near the Carmel Center in Haifa, Israel, at 14:17. 50 persons are injured, of which Anatoly Birikov, 20, from Haifa, would die on 08 March 2003.
2002 First Lieutenant Pinchas Cohen, 23 [< photo], of Jerusalem, late in the night, during an Israeli incursion near the southern Gaza town of Khan Yunis.
2002 Muhammad Hussein Abdulqader Rojob, 24, Palestinian from Dora near Hebron, by Israeli gunfire.
2002 Abdulraziq Stetey, 23, Palestinian from the Jenin Refugee Camp, by shrapnel from a missile shrapnel launched by an Israeli helicopter.
2002 Maher Fouad Hamada, 20, Nour Ahmad Daher, 21, from Rafah, Muhammad Alqama, 22, and marine policeman Jameel Sabbagh, Palestinians, in an Israeli incursion into Sudania, Gaza Strip
2002 Mohanad Abu Halawa, 23, Muhammad Fawzi Mara, 27, and Omar Isa Miqdad, Palestinians, in Ramallah, by missiles launched from Israeli Apache helicopters.
2002 Muhand Dirya Abu Haliwa, Omar Ka'adan, and Fawzi Murar, in the evening, when an Israeli Apache helicopter fired missiles at their car in the West Bank town of Bituniya. A fourth passenger was seriously injured. Haliwa was an aide to Tanzim leader Marwan Barghouti. Ka'adan was the body guard of the head of the Force 17 in Ramallah, Mahmoud Damara (Abu Awad). Murar was a member of Force 17. All three were members of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades.
2002 Maharatu Tagana, 85, from Upper Nazareth; and Abdul-Karim Isa Tahayna, 21, from Jenin, an Islamic Jihad suicide bomber, on bus 823 from Upper Nazareth to Tel Aviv with 10 aboard, as it enters the central bus station in Afula, Israel. Three persons are significantly injured.
2002 Devorah Friedman, 46, Israeli from the Efrat enclave settlement, West Bank, after her car is fired upon on Tunnel Road near Al Khader, west of Bethleem. Her husband is injured. The gunmen escape.
2002 Three Israelis: Yosef Haybi, 52, from Herzliya; Eli Dahan, 53, from Lod, and Salim Barakat, 33, from Yarka (Galilee); and Ibrahim Hassouni, 20, their attacker, of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, a naval policeman from the Balata refugee camp. The killings takes place within 5 minutes outside the adjoining Seafood Market and Mifgash Hasteak restaurants on Menachem Begin Road in Tel Aviv. At about 02:15 Hassouni fires his M-16 rifle from the Ma'ariv bridge at the restaurants running towards them.. Out of ammunition he stabs passers-by with a knife, policeman first-sergeant-major Barakat, in civilian clothes, tackles Hassouni but is beaten by Israelis who mistake him for the terrorist. Barakat shoots Hassouni and, as he leans over him to check his condition, is stabbed by him . A restaurant customer shoots Hassouni in the head. 15 persons are injured. Two unexploded hand grenades are found in the area.
2001 Alison Armitage, 29, police woman, repeatedly run over by a car stolen and driven by teenaged Thomas Whaley, whom she was trying to arrest, on Robert Street, in Hollinwood, near Oldham, Greater Manchester, England. Whaley would be sentenced to 8 years in prison and 10 years without a driving licence, after pleading guilty to manslaughter. — (051119)
2001 Al menos treinta y cinco peregrinos musulmanes, aplastados por una avalancha humana cuando celebraban la "lapidación del diablo", la penúltima de las ceremonias que marcan el viaje de peregrinación a La Meca.
2001 Bryan Zuckor, 14, and Randy Gordon, 17, students at Santana High School, Santee CA, in shooting rampage at 09:30 by Charles Andrew "Andy" Williams, 15. 13 other persons are injured. Williams then surrenders to a sheriff's deputy, who was at the school to address a class, and an off-duty police officer, there to register his child. Williams will be tried as an adult, as is mandatory in California.
2001 At least 23 high school girls in fire of their locked and barred dormitory, started by an overturned kerosene lamp, in the village of Gindiri, 190 km north of Abuja, Nigeria.
2001 Rodney McAllister, 10, torn apart by a pack of dogs as he was going to play basketball at 17:00, in a St.Louis MO park. Authorities had done nothing about complaints by residents about stray dogs.
1983 Sady Zañartu, escritor chileno.
1979 Ocho generales adictos al Sha Mohamed Reza Pahlevi, ejecutados en Irán.
1978 Geer van Velde, Dutch artist born on 05 April 1898.
1958 Giacomo Balla, Italian Futurist painter born on 24 July 1871. MORE ON BALLA AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1954 Julian Lowell Coolidge, author of books on geometry, probability, and the history of mathematics.
In Moscow, Joseph Stalin, 73, who became the leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenin’s death in 1924, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage. Stalin, the son of a poor cobbler, was born in Georgia in 1879 as Yusip Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili.
As a young man, he attended seminary school before joining a Georgian Marxist political party in 1898, and then Vladimir Lenin’s revolutionary Bolshevik Party upon its founding in 1903. In 1913, he took the alias Stalin, meaning "Man of Steel" and became a leading Bolshevik.
After the October Revolution of 1917, Stalin held several important posts in the Soviet Communist Party, and in 1922, became secretary to the party central committee, an office he held until his death. Although Lenin had criticized Stalin’s arbitrary leadership as secretary general, Stalin seized power upon Lenin’s death in 1924, defeating such rivals as Leon Trotsky.
As Soviet leader, Stalin abandoned the Communist ideal of a rapidly diminishing state and launched the first Five-Year Plan, a brutal program of forced industrialization and collectivization of agriculture. In the early 1930s, he executed, worked to death, or starved up to ten million peasants who stood in the way of his ruthless economic plans. Beginning in 1934, he began a massive purge of the Communist Party, the Soviet government, the military, and the intelligentsia, and tens of thousands of suspected political opponents to his rule were imprisoned, exiled, or executed.
Failing to achieve satisfactory alliances with the Western democracies, Stalin agreed to a Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact with Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in 1939. The treaty, which divided much of Eastern Europe between Nazi Germany and the USS.R., was only honored by Hitler for two years.
[1949 poster by B. N. Karpov and others >]
On 22 June 22 1941, the Nazis launched Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the USS.R. Stalin was caught by surprise, and the German Wehrmacht penetrated deep into the Soviet Union, reaching the outskirts of Moscow before the Red Army was able to begin a successful counter-offensive. Despite the difficulties of Soviet life under Stalin’s tyrannical regime, Russians bitterly resisted the German invasion. By the time the triumphant Red Army entered Berlin, the German capital, some twenty-two million Soviet citizens had died in the "Great Patriotic War."
At Allied conferences during and after the war, Stalin proved an astute diplomat, succeeding in dividing the world into spheres of influence and setting the stage for the Cold War. After the war, Stalin isolated the USS.R. and Eastern Europe from the rest of the world, and grew critical of independent Communist movements, such as in China or Yugoslavia. In the last years of his life, his increasing paranoia led to new purges in the Soviet Union.
After his death in 1953, his body was embalmed and displayed next to Lenin’s inside a mausoleum on Moscow’s Red Square. However, just three years later, Nikita Khrushchev, the new Soviet leader, denounced Stalin and his tyrannical politics at the Twentieth Party Congress, and in 1961, Stalin’s body was disinterred from Lenin’s tomb.
Like his right-wing rival for the title of worst dictator in history, Hitler, who was born in Austria, Joseph Stalin was not a native of the country he ruled with an iron fist. Ioseb Dzhugashvili was born in 1889 in Georgia, then part of the old Russian empire. The son of a drunk who beat him mercilessly and a pious washerwoman mother, Stalin learned Russian, which he spoke with a heavy accent all his life, in an Orthodox Church-run school. While studying to be a priest at Tiflis Theological Seminary, he began secretly reading Karl Marx and other left-wing revolutionary thinkers. The "official" communist story is that he was expelled from the seminary for this intellectual rebellion; in reality, it may have been because of poor health. In 1900, Stalin became active in revolutionary political activism, taking part in labor demonstrations and strikes. Stalin joined the more militant wing of the Marxist Social Democratic movement, the Bolsheviks, and became a student of its leader, Vladimir Ilich Lenin. Stalin was arrested seven times between 1902 and 1913, and subjected to prison and exile. Stalin's first big break came in 1912, when Lenin, in exile in Switzerland, named him to serve on the first Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party-now a separate entity from the Social Democrats. The following year, Stalin (finally dropping Dzugashvili and taking the new name Stalin, from the Russian word for "steel") published a signal article on the role of Marxism in the destiny of Russia. In 1917, escaping from an exile in Siberia, he linked up with Lenin and his coup against the middle-class democratic government that had supplanted the czar's rule. Stalin continued to move up the party ladder, from commissar for nationalities to secretary general of the Central Committee-a role that would provide the center of his dictatorial takeover and control of the party and the new USSR. In fact, upon Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin began the consolidation of his power base, conducting show trials to purge enemies and rivals, even having Leon Trotsky assassinated during his exile in Mexico. Stalin also abandoned Lenin's New Economic Policy, which would have meant some decentralization of industry. Stalin demanded-and got-absolute state control of the economy, as well as greater swaths of Soviet life, until his totalitarian grip on the new Russian empire was absolute. The outbreak of World War II saw Stalin attempt an alliance with Adolf Hitler for purely self-interested reasons, and despite the political fallout of a communist signing an alliance with a fascist, they signed a nonaggression pact that allowed each dictator free reign in their respective spheres of influence. Stalin then proceeded to annex parts of Poland, Romania, and Finland, and occupy Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. In May 1941, he made himself chairman of the Council of People's Commissars; he was now the official head of the government and no longer merely head of the party. One month later, Germany invaded the USSR, making significant early inroads. As German troops approached, Stalin remained in the capital, directing a scorched-earth defensive policy and exercising personal control over the strategies of the Red Army. As the war progressed, Stalin sat in on the major Allied conferences, including those in Tehran (1943) and Yalta (1945). His iron will and deft political skills enabled him to play the loyal ally while never abandoning his vision of an expanded postwar Soviet Empire. In fact, after Germany's surrender in April 1945, Stalin oversaw the continued occupation and domination of much of Eastern Europe, despite "promises" of free elections in those countries. Stalin did not mellow with age; he prosecuted a reign of terror, purges, executions, exiles to the Gulag Archipelago (a system of forced-labor camps in the frozen north), and persecution in the postwar USSR, suppressing all dissent and anything that smacked of foreign, especially Western European, influence. To the great relief of many, he died of a massive heart attack on March 5, 1953. He is remembered to this day as the man who helped save his nation from Nazi domination-and as the mass murderer of the century, having overseen the deaths of between 8 million and 10 million of his own people.
1940 Day 97 of Winter War:
USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Heavy bombing in Mikkeli
There is fierce fighting on the islands of Ravansaari, Turkinsaari and Neulasaari in Viipurinlahti bay.
On the western shore of the bay the enemy is advancing in Vilaniemi and Häränpäänniemi.
The counterattack to retake the church hill at Äyräpää is delayed by the late arrival of the Finnish detachment at the starting position. The launch of the operation is put back until daylight. The Finnish attack founders with heavy losses in the face of intense enemy fire. During the half-hour attack up the church hill, the attacking Finnish soldiers from the Ostrobothnia municipality of Nurmo lose 40 dead and 30 wounded, some fatally. The hill remains in enemy hands.
During the course of the morning the Russians occupy Vasikkasaari.
General Headquarters sets up an office to coordinate recruitment of foreign volunteers.
The town of Mikkeli, the home of General Headquarters, is heavily bombed and 33 civilians killed.
The Red Army has already reached Viipurinlahti bay, and the deadline for Finland to formally appeal for help from the Western Allies runs out today.
After a heated debate, the Finnish Government decides to accept the Soviet Union's preconditions for opening peace talks. Moscow announces its intention to stick to its demands: Finland will have to cede Viipuri and Sortavala.
The first train of Finnish child evacuees arrives in Copenhagen with 93 children on board.
A French ambulance arrives in Finland.
The Soviet Government formally apologises to Sweden over the bombing of Pajala.
^ Vihollinen pommittaa rajusti Mikkeliä Talvisodan 97. päivä, 05.maaliskuuta.1940
Viipurinlahdella käydään kovia taisteluja Ravansaaressa, Turkinsaaressa ja Neulasaaressa.
Länsirannalla vihollinen etenee Vilaniemessä ja Häränpään-niemessä.
Vastahyökkäys Äyräpään kirkonmäen takaisinsaamiseksi viivästyy tehtävään määrätyn osaston myöhästyttyä lähtöasemasta.
Hyökkäyksen alkamishetki siirtyy valoisaan aikaan. Hyökkäus kilpistyy vihollisen voimakkaaseen tuleen. Suomalaiset kärsivät raskaita tappioita.
Puoli tuntia kestävässä rynnäkössä ylös kirkonmäkeä Nurmon kunnasta olevia suomalaissotilaita kaatuu 40 ja haavoittuu 30 miestä, osa kuolettavasti. Kirkonmäki jää viholliselle.
Aamulla menetetään Vasikkasaari, jonka venäläissotilaat miehittävät.
Päämajaan perustetaan vapaaehtoistoimisto johtamaan ulkomaisten vapaaehtoisten värväystä.
Vihollinen pommittaa rajusti Päämajakaupunki Mikkeliä: 33 siviilihenkilöä saa surmansa.
Vihollinen on edennyt jo Viipurinlahdelle, avunpyyntö länsiliittoutuneille on esitettävä tänään.
Suomen hallitus taipuu kiivaiden keskustelujen jälkeen Neuvostoliiton kanssa rauhanneuvotteluihin ennakkoehtojen mukaisesti.
Moskova ilmoittaa pysyvänsä vaatimuksissaan rauhanehdoissa: Suomen on luovutettava Viipuri ja Sortavala.
Ensimmäinen suomalaislapsia turvaan vievä juna saapuu Kööpenhaminaan. Junassa on 93 suomalaislasta.
Ranskalainen ambulanssi saapuu Suomeen.
Neuvostoliiton hallitus esittää Ruotsin hallitukselle anteeksipyynnön pommituksen johdosta.
^ Fienden bombar häftigt S:t Michel Vinterkrigets 97 dag, den 05 mars 1940
I Viborgska viken pågår häftiga strider på öarna Ravansaari, Turkinsaari och Neulasaari.
På den västra stranden framskrider fienden i Vilaniemi och Häränpäänniemi.
Motoffensiven för att återerövra Äyräpää kyrkbacke fördröjs när den avdelning som utsetts för uppgiften försenas i starten.
Tidpunkten för anfallet skjuts upp tills det blir ljust.
Anfallet stoppas upp av fiendens ursinniga eldgivning. Finnarna tillfogas svåra nederlag.
Under den halv timmes långa anstormningen uppför kyrkbacken stupar 40 och såras 30 soldater hemma från Nurmo kommun, en del av de sårade avlider senare. Kyrkbacken förblir i fiendens besittning.
På morgonen går ön Vasikkasaari förlorad. Ryska soldater ockuperar ön.
En frivilligbyrå grundas vid huvudkvarteret för att leda värvningen av utländska frivilliga soldater.
Fienden bombar häftigt huvudkvartersstaden S:t Michel: 33 civila dödas.
Fienden har redan ryckt fram till Viborgska viken, anhållan om bistånd av de västallierade måste framföras idag.
Efter intensiva diskussioner ger regeringen vika och man beslutar att inleda fredsförhandlingar med Sovjetunionen i enlighet med förhandsvillkoren. Moskva meddelar att Sovjetunionen håller fast vid de ursprungliga fredsvillkoren: Finland måste överlåta Viborg och Sordavala.
Det första tåget som ska föra barn i skydd anländer till Köpenhamn. I tåget finns 93 finska barn.
En fransk ambulans anländer till Finland.
Sovjetunionens regering framför en ursäkt till Sveriges regering för bombningarna.
| 1927 Franz
Mertens, 86, number theorist who is best remembered for his
elementary proof of the Dirichlet theorem.
1925 Johan Ludwig William Valdemar Jensen, 65, telephone company employee, self taught mathematician, contributed to the Riemann Hypothesis.
1908 Curry Robertson (or Robertson Curry), and John Henry, lynched in Pulaski County, Georgia, accused of the murder of a White.
1895 Charles Édouard Edmond Delort, French painter born on 04 February 1841. MORE ON DELORT AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1894 Sylvester Rhodes, Black, lynched in Tattnall County, Georgia, accused of the murder of a White.
1893 Hippolyte Adolphe Taine, filósofo e historiador francés.
1880 Edouard Henri Girardet, Swiss painter and engraver born on 31 July 1819. — more with link to an image.
1875 Claude-Louis Mathieu, 91, engineer, mathematician, astronomer, published L'Histoire de l'astronomie au XVIII siècle in 1827.
1864 Francisco Blasco, pintor español.
1860 Alfred de Dreux (or Dedreux), French artist born on 23 May 1810.
1847 Innocent-Louis Goubaud, French artist born in 1780.
1827 Pierre-Simon de Laplace, 77, mathematician, astronomer. [said about Napier's logarithms:]" ...by shortening the labors doubled the life of the astronomer." sabio francés y autor de la teoría astronómica que lleva su nombre y de varias leyes electromagnéticas.
1827 Alessandro Giuseppe Volta, físico italiano, inventor de la pila eléctrica que lleva su nombre, precursor de la electroquímica.
1794 Ramón de la Cruz Cano y Olmedilla, escritor y comediógrafo español.
1720 (before 06 March) Pieter “Standaart” van Bloemen, Antwerp Flemish painter and draftsman, baptized on 17 January 1657, who died before 06 March 1720. — more with links to two images.
1671 Cornelis Simonsz van der Schalcke, Dutch artist born on 15 February 1611. — link to an image.
1658 Francisco López de Zárate, poeta español.
1638 Paulus Moreelse (or Morselszen), Dutch artist born in 1571. MORE ON MOREELSE AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
before 1638 Jacques de Rousseau (or des Rousseaux), French artist born perhaps in 1600.
1576 Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens, marino español, sucesor del duque de Alba en el gobierno de Flandes.
1534 Antonio Allegri Correggio, Italian Mannerist painter born in some year between 1489 and 1494. MORE ON CORREGGIO AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1291 Sa'ad al'Da'ulah Jewish grand vizier of Persia, assassinated
0254 Pope Saint Lucius I.
1942 Felipe González Márquez, presidente del Gobierno español.
1937 Olusegun Obasanjo, militar y político nigeriano.
1918 James Tobin, profesor estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Economía en 1981
1918 Joan Josep Tharrats, pintor, escultor y escritor catalán.
1915 Laurent Schwartz, mathematician (theory of distributions), retired in 1983.
1905 Joaquín Calvo Sotelo, dramaturgo y académico español.
1887 Heitor Villa-Lobos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, composer (Salon Waltz) He died on 17 November 1959.
1880 Sergi Natavovich Bernstein, university professor of mathematics, some of his best work was on function approximation and on probabilities; died in 1968.
1879 William Henry Beveridge, British economist who died on 16 March 1963
1874 Arthur Schendel, Dutch novelist and short-story writer who died on 11 September 1946.
1872 Triple air brake for trains is patented by George Westinghouse Jr.
1871 Rosa Luxemburg, Polish-born German revolutionary and agitator, theoretician of a humane and democratic Marxism, who was assassinated by reactionary troops during the Spartacus Revolt, on 15 January 1919.
1869 Michael von Faulhaber, German cardinal, archbishop of Munich who died on 12 June 1952.
1856 Mikaïl Alexandrovitch Vrubel, Russian painter who died on 01 April 1910. MORE ON VRUBEL AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1853 Howard Pyle, US painter, author, and Golden Age illustrator who died on 09 November 1911. MORE ON PYLE AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images. — PYLE BOOKS ONLINE: Men of Iron Men of Iron Twilight Land — The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood — The Story of King Arthur and his Knights — Book of Pirates — Otto of the Silver Hand — co-author of The Wonder Clock
1852 Lady Augusta Gregory, Irish writer and playwright who died on 22 May 1852.
1829 Jean-Jacques Henher, French artist who died on 23 July 1905.
1824 James Merritt Ives, US lithographer who died on 03 Jan 1895, the Ives of Currier & Ives. — more with links to images.
1820 August Friedrich Siegert, German artist who died on 13 August 1883. — link to an image.
1817 Angelo Genocchi, lawyer, political activist, university professor of mathematics, his main research was in number theory, series, and the integral calculus; died in 1889.
1779 Samuel Gompertz, barred from universities for being a Jew, self educated mathematician best remembered for Gompertz's Law of Mortality; died in 1865.
1743 Jean-Simon Berthélémy, French artist who died on 01 March 1811. — more with links to images.
1696 Giovanni-Battista Tiepolo, Italian painter who died on 27 March 1770. MORE ON TIEPOLO AT ART 4 MARCH 27 with links to images.
1637 Jan van der Heyden, Dutch painter of cityscapes who died on 28 March 1712.
1625 John Collins, apprentice bookseller, law clerk, seaman, teacher, accountant, mathematician member of the Royal Society, died in 1683.
1574 William Oughtred, Anglican priest, mathematician, invented an early slide-rule, died in 1660.
1512 Gerardus Mercator, Rupelmonde (Flanders), mathematician, geographer/mapmaker who died on 02 December 1594.
1326 Louis I (the Great) king of Hungary (1342-1382), Poland (1370-1382)
which occur on a 05 March:
2098 Ash Wednesday
2087 Ash Wednesday
2085 Ash Wednesday
2014 Ash Wednesday
2012 Second Sunday of Lent
2003 Ash Wednesday
1930 Ash Wednesday
1924 Ash Wednesday
1919 Ash Wednesday
of every 05 March:
— Santo Adrián
— Santo Eusebio
— San Teófilo
— San Juan
— San José de la Cruz