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Events, deaths, births, of MAR 02
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY   ART “4” MAR 02    wikipedia
• Police and guerillas die in India... • Texas independence proclaimed... • Indépendance du Maroc… • Invasion suisse… • Tetra car's father dies… • USSR–China border fight... • Attempt to strengthen Prohibition... • Mort d'un poète lituanien de langue française... • Automatic streetlights... • Pioneer 10 launched to Jupiter... • John Irving is born... • D. H. Lawrence dies… • Sam Houston born... • Antitrust action against Microsoft... • Alexander Graham Bell is born... • Apple drops Newton... • Bombing of North Vietnam starts... • Bob Kennedy's plan to end Viet War... • US Supreme Court rules against steamboat monopoly... • Soft–coal strike... • Battle of Bismarck Sea... • Doctor Seuss is born... • Tsar of Russia abdicates... • Ho Chi Minh elected President of Vietnam... • US importation of slaves ended... • Hayes elected US President by Congress... • Heroic Finland resists 94th day of Soviet aggression...
Yahoo stock price graph On a 02 March:
2001 Yahoo stock (YHOO on NASDAQ) loses $2.75 to close at $21.69. On a split adjusted basis, it had traded as high as high as $237.50 on 03 January 2000, and as low as $1.32 on 22 September 1996. [5-year graph >]
2001 El Gobierno español aprueba por decreto-ley una reforma laboral que es rechazada por los partidos de oposición y las centrales sindicales. Las novedades de la reforma incluyen, entre otras medidas, el abaratamiento de las indemnizaciones por despido para los contratos fijos y las bonificaciones en las cuotas de la Seguridad Social para estimular la contratación de mujeres.
^ 2001 Offensive South Dakota place names to be changed.
     South Dakota Governor Bill Janklow signs a bill calling for changing place names which are "offensive and insulting to all of South Dakota's people, history, and heritage," such as Squaw Lake (to Serenity Lake) and Negro Gulch (to Last Chance Gulch), including 39 towns such as Squaw Teat Creek (to East Rattlesnake Creek) and Negro Creek (to Medicine Mountain Creek). Many of the new names have not yet been chosen.
      Similar renaming measures have been adopted by other US states including Maine, Montana and Minnesota.
      If they want to do this all over, there is still plenty of changes to make. “How Far Is It?” returns these, for example:
  • Squaw Valley, California, Fresno County — 36:41:47N 119:11:39W Population (1990): 2161 Elevation: 1630 feet
  • Squaw Lake, Minnesota, Itasca County — 47:37:37N 94:08:28W Population (1990): 139 Elevation: 1360 feet
  • Squaw Harbor, Alaska, Aleutians East Borough — 55:14:36N 160:33:12W Elevation: 21 feet
  • Squaw Peak Terrace, Arizona, Maricopa County — 33:29:45N 112:00:53W Elevation: 1180 feet
  • Squaw Hill, California, Tehama County — 39:54:29N 122:05:31W Elevation: 195 feet
  • Squaw Gap, North Dakota, McKenzie County — 47:29:20N 103:55:37W Elevation: 2274 feet
  • Squawtown (historical), Ohio, Pickaway County — 39:30:33N 82:59:00W Elevation: 670 feet
  • Squawberry, Tennessee, Carter County — 36:07:50N 82:04:10W Elevation: 3550 feet
  • Squaw Mountain, Texas, Jack County — 33:21:40N 98:19:14W Elevation: 976 feet
  • Squaw Crossing, Utah, Uintah County — 39:58:08N 109:40:07W Elevation: 4785 feet
  • Squaw Hollow, Wyoming, Sweetwater County — 41:09:49N 109:33:35W Elevation: 6142 feet
  • Squaw Place, Wyoming, Albany County — 42:22:12N 105:42:12W
  • Broad, Arkansas, Bradley County — 33:17:34N 92:04:27W Elevation: 106 feet
  • Broad, Georgia, Wilkes County — 33:56:49N 82:42:24W Elevation: 529 feet
  • Old Squaw Skin Landing, Michigan, Allegan County — 42:38:29N 86:04:09W
  • Negro Head Corner, Arkansas, Woodruff County — 35:20:38N 91:21:27W Elevation: 215 feet
  • Negro Bend (historical), Arkansas, Drew County — 33:25:05N 91:58:35W Elevation: 94 feet
  • Negrotown Knoll, Florida, Highlands County — 27:18:21N 81:32:11W Elevation: 90 feet
  • Negro Bend, Oklahoma, Atoka County — 34:19:33N 95:56:07W Elevation: 544 feet
  • Negro Gull (historical), Tennessee, Cannon County — 35:47:09N 85:57:00W Elevation: 1140 feet
  • Negros Liberty Settlement, Texas, Liberty County — 30:00:45N 94:47:05W Elevation: 25 feet
  • Negro Crossing, Texas, Tom Green County — 31:21:13N 100:32:11W
  • Negro Bay, Virgin Islands, US — 17:42:36N 64:48:28W
  • El Negro, Puerto Rico, US — 18:02:22N 65:51:06W Population (1990): 1387
  • Pinegrove (historical), Louisiana, Rapides Parish — 31:11:40N 92:14:10W Elevation: 85 feet
  • Pinegrove, Montana, Missoula County — 46:52:49N 113:54:08W
  • Pinegrove, Ohio, Meigs County — 39:09:50N 81:49:34W Elevation: 830 feet
  • Hellhole Palms, California, San Diego County — 33:14:12N 116:26:22W Elevation: 1760 feet
  • Helltown, California, Butte County — 39:48:42N 121:39:31W Elevation: 800 feet
  • Hells Bottom (historical), District of Columbia, — 38:53:58N 77:03:27W Elevation: 99 feet
  • Hell Gate, Florida, Martin County — 26:58:35N 80:05:12W Elevation: 2 feet
  • Hell, Michigan, Livingston County — 42:26:05N 83:59:06W
  • Hell Hollow, New Hampshire, Sullivan County — 43:31:23N 72:19:31W
  • Hells Corners, Ohio, Trumbull County — 41:08:30N 80:32:59W Elevation: 1077 feet
  • Hells Half Acre, South Carolina, Barnwell County — 33:14:23N 81:21:59W Elevation: 190 feet
  • Hellgate Villa Condominiums, Utah, Salt Lake County — 40:35:34N 111:37:48W Elevation: 8600 feet
  • Devils Lake, North Dakota, Ramsey County — 48:06:46N 98:52:27W Population (1990): 7782 Elevation: 1475 feet
  • Devil Canyon, California, San Bernardino County — 34:11:52N 117:19:54W Elevation: 1840 feet
  • Devils Elbow, California, Colusa County — 39:20:45N 122:25:40W Elevation: 1000 feet
  • Devils Ladder, Idaho, Adams County — 45:10:42N 116:26:04W Elevation: 7400 feet
  • Devils Lake, Michigan, Lenawee County — 42:00:28N 84:17:33W
  • Devils Corner, Michigan, Delta County — 45:44:15N 86:36:18W Elevation: 682 feet
  • Devils Elbow, Michigan, Grand Traverse County — 44:41:12N 85:28:55W
  • Devils Elbow, Missouri, Pulaski County — 37:50:45N 92:03:49W
  • Devils Gap, Nebraska, Gosper County — 40:34:46N 99:52:18W
  • Devil Town, Ohio, Wayne County — 40:50:43N 81:58:25W Elevation: 1022 feet
  • Devils Cross Roads, South Carolina, Newberry County — 34:18:26N 81:37:10W Elevation: 580 feet
  • Devils Shores, Texas, Val Verde County — 29:37:15N 100:56:12W
  • Devils Slide, Utah, Morgan County — 41:03:49N 111:32:33W Elevation: 5235 feet
  • Diablo, California, Contra Costa County — 37:50:06N 121:57:25W Elevation: 560 feet
  • Diablo, Washington, Whatcom County — 48:42:49N 121:08:24W Elevation: 910 feet
  • Bobo, Alabama, Fayette County — 33:52:38N 87:49:21W Elevation: 550 feet
  • Bobo, Alabama, Madison County — 34:57:44N 86:43:31W Elevation: 868 feet
  • Bobo, Georgia, Gordon County — 34:28:36N 84:40:31W Elevation: 840 feet
  • Bobo, Mississippi, Coahoma County — 34:07:55N 90:40:32W Elevation: 162 feet
  • Bobo, Mississippi, Quitman County — 34:17:03N 90:10:33W Elevation: 160 feet
  • Bobo, Ohio, Pike County — 39:01:24N 82:56:43W Elevation: 660 feet
  • Tonto Estate, Arizona, Gila County — 34:21:32N 111:05:38W Elevation: 5800 feet
  • Tonto Hills Subdivision, Arizona, Maricopa County — 33:52:07N 111:49:41W Elevation: 3456 feet
  • Tonto Village, Arizona, Gila County — 34:18:58N 111:07:53W
  • Dumbell, Wyoming, Park County — 44:06:08N 108:59:16W Elevation: 6144 feet
  • Penistaja, New Mexico, Sandoval County — 35:58:07N 107:13:13W Elevation: 6900 feet
  • Assinins, Michigan, Baraga County — 46:48:37N 88:28:38W Elevation: 673 feet
  • Moron AB, Spain — 37:11:00N 5:36:48W
  • Idiotville (historical), Oregon, Tillamook County — 45:37:10N 123:25:05W Elevation: 1200 feet
  • Tall-Ass-ee, Alabama, Elmore County — 32:32:07N 85:53:29W Population (1990): 5112 Elevation: 395 feet

    2000: Former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet left Britain for his homeland, hours after he was ruled mentally unfit to stand trial on charges of human rights abuses.
  • 2000 A federal jury in Washington DC convicts Maria Hsia, a friend and political supporter of Vice President Al Gore, for arranging more than $100'000 in illegal donations during the 1996 presidential campaign. Hsia would be sentenced to three months of home confinement.
    2000 El General Augusto José Ramó Pinochet Ugarte es puesto en libertad, después de 503 días de detención en Londres acusado de genocidio. La decisión de su liberación se debió a la consideración de que no estaba físicamente capacitado para afrontar un juicio de extradición, que solicitaba España.
    1998 El presidente del Gobierno central de Nicaragua, Arnold Alemán, alcanza una victoria muy ajustada en las elecciones parlamentarias regionales, que tuvieron una abstención del 50%.
    1998 US Justice Department files antitrust brief against Microsoft
          The Justice Department declared an antitrust war on Microsoft on this day in 1998. The department filed a court brief alleging that Microsoft's Windows 95 licensing requirements violated the terms of a 1995 settlement and that its practice of bundling its Web browser with Windows 95 stifled competition. Twenty-seven states filed a brief in federal appeals court supporting the Justice Department's antitrust case. The department also probed other Microsoft business practices, including deals with Internet service providers and content providers. On the same day, Microsoft agreed to allow the promotion of non-Microsoft Internet browsers by Internet service providers who had signed exclusive agreements with Microsoft to market only Internet Explorer.
    ^ 1998 Apple drops Newton handheld computer.
          In a surprise announcement, Apple Computer said it would stop producing its Newton handheld computer. The ill-fated Newton, which cost an estimated $500 million to develop over ten years, got off to a bad start when it debuted in 1993. The press panned its much ballyhooed handwriting recognition capability, and although later versions corrected some of the problems, the product never quite recovered from its traumatic entry into the marketplace. In the late 1990s, the Newton was overtaken by new products like 3Com's PalmPilot, which sold one million units during its first two years on the market, compared with 200,000 Newtons sold in five years.
    1998 Natascha Kampusch [17 February 1988~], on her way to school in Gänserndorf, Austria, is abducted by Wolfgang Priklopil, 36. He kept her locked up in a small room in his house in Strasshof, 16 km away. On 23 August 2006 she escaped and Priklopil commited suicide. —(060824)
    1996 Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic is reelected president of the Socialist Party of Serbia by 1795 out of 1799 party delegates. Milosevic's government continues to hinder opposition parties, which nevertheless gain increasing support.
    1994 Sofía de Grecia Reina de España recibe el Premio Wiesenthal de Derechos Humanos por su compromiso continuo en favor de la tolerancia y de la lucha contra el antisemitismo y el racismo.
    1991 The UN Security Council endorses allied demands on Iraq for a formal cease-fire.
    1990 Greyhound Bus goes on strike
    1990 El canciller Helmut Kohl acepta que no se modifique la frontera alemana con Polonia.
    1989 La CE adopta medidas drásticas para salvar la capa de ozono que rodea a la Tierra.
    1989 Exxon Houston runs aground in Hawaii, spills 443'000 liters of petroleum
    1985 El Presidente de Pakistán, Mohamed Zia Ulk Haq, anuncia el restablecimiento de la Constitución, derogada tras un golpe de estado.
    1979 Over 1100 Christian organizations combined to form the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA). This oversight agency was created to demonstrate to the public that religious groups wanted to make themselves accountable for the funds they raise and spend.
    1977 The US House of Representatives adopted a “strict” code of ethics. [ha!]
    1974 US first class postage raised from 8 to 10 cents
    ^ 1972 Pioneer 10 launched to Jupiter
         Pioneer 10, the world’s first outer-planetary probe, is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a mission to Jupiter, the solar system’s largest planet. On December 3, 1973, after successfully negotiating the asteroid belt and a distance of one billion kilometers, Pioneer 10 reaches Jupiter, and sends back to earth the first close-up images of the spectacular gas giant. On June 14, 1983, the NASA spacecraft leaves the solar system and radios back the first scientific data on interstellar space. NASA officially ends the Pioneer 10 project on March 31, 1997, with the spacecraft having traveled a distance of some ten billion kilometers.
          Headed in the direction of the Taurus constellation, Pioneer 10 will pass within three light years of another star--Ross 246--in the year 34'600 A.D. Bolted to the probe’s exterior wall is gold-anodized plaque, 15 by 23 cm, that displays a drawing of a human man and woman, a star map marked with the location of the sun, and another map showing the flight path of Pioneer 10. The plaque, intended to seen by intelligent life forms elsewhere in the galaxy, was designed by astronomer Carl Sagan.
    1971 Bangladesh se declara independiente de Pakistán.
    1970 American Airlines' first flight of a Boeing 747.
    1969 first test flight of the supersonic Concorde.
    ^ 1967 Robert Kennedy's plan to end Vietnam war
          Senator Robert Kennedy (D-New York) proposes a three-point plan to help end the war. The plan included suspension of the US bombing of North Vietnam and the gradual withdrawal of US and North Vietnamese troops from South Vietnam with replacement by an international force. Secretary of State Dean Rusk rejected Kennedy's proposal because he believed that the North Vietnamese would never agree to withdraw their troops. Kennedy had been Attorney General under his brother, President John F. Kennedy. When the elder Kennedy was assassinated, Robert stayed on to serve his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, but resigned his post in 1964 to run for the Senate. In the Senate, Kennedy initially continued to support US efforts in Vietnam despite his growing apprehension about the war, especially the massive bombing of North Vietnam, because he was reluctant to disagree with the Johnson administration and its handling of the war. As racial strife and urban violence intensified along with mounting antiwar sentiment, however, Kennedy found it increasingly difficult to remain silent. The presidential campaign of 1968 opened the door for him to act on his concern. When President Johnson announced that he would not seek re-election, Kennedy entered the race, quickly emerging as a serious contender for the presidency. On June 4, 1968, he won the all-important California primary, thereby becoming his party's front-runner. That night, after addressing his supporters at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, he was shot by Sirhan Sirhan. He died the following day at the age of 42.
    ^ 1965 Bombing of North Vietnam starts.
          Operation Rolling Thunder begins with more than 100 United States Air Force jet bombers striking an ammunition depot at Xom Bang, 10 miles inside North Vietnam. Simultaneously, 60 South Vietnamese Air Force propeller planes bombed the Quang Khe naval base, 105 km north of the 17th parallel. Six US planes were downed, but only one US pilot was lost. Capt. Hayden J. Lockhart, flying an F-100, was shot down and became the first Air Force pilot to be taken prisoner by the North Vietnamese. Lockhart was released in 1973 when US POWs were returned under provisions of the Paris Peace Accords. The raid was the result of President Lyndon B. Johnson's decision in February to undertake the sustained bombing of North Vietnam that he and his advisers had been considering for more than a year. The goal of Rolling Thunder was to interdict North Vietnamese transportation routes in the southern part of North Vietnam and the slow infiltration of personnel and supplies into South Vietnam. In July 1966, Rolling Thunder was expanded to include North Vietnamese ammunition dumps and oil storage facilities as targets and in the spring of 1967 it was further expanded to include power plants, factories, and airfields in the Hanoi-Haiphong area. The White House closely controlled Operation Rolling Thunder and President Johnson occasionally selected the targets himself. From 1965 to 1968, about 643,000 tons of bombs were dropped on North Vietnam. A total of nearly 900 US aircraft were lost during Operation Rolling Thunder. The operation continued, with occasional suspensions, until President Johnson halted it on October 31, 1968, under increasing domestic political pressure.
    1958 Yemen announces that it will join the United Arab Republic
    ^ 1956 Indépendance du Maroc.
          Cet ancien protectorat français devient indépendant, à la suite d'une longue série de troubles et de révoltes. Guy Mollet, président du Conseil, entérine l'indépendance du Maroc et sa souveraineté complète. Par les accords de La Celle-Saint-Cloud du 6 novembre 1955, la France avait reconnu au Maroc " le statut d'Etat indépendant uni à la France par les liens permanents d'une interdépendance librement consentie et définie ".
          Troisième fils du sultan Moulay Youssef, de la dynastie alaouite, Mohammed fut imposé par la France, qui croyait pouvoir l'influencer à sa guise, mais il se révéla être une forte personnalité qui se manifesta à partir de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Ainsi, pour bien montrer son indépendance vis-à-vis du résident français, il refusa d'appliquer aux juifs du Maroc les décrets antisémites du gouvernement de Vichy. Fort des promesses américaines concernant le droit du Maroc à l'autodétermination, il appuya le débarquement allié en Afrique du Nord (1942). En 1945, il prit parti pour le mouvement nationaliste d'Allal el-Fassi et, en 1947, manifesta son attachement à la cause nationaliste arabe. Mécontents, les colons et la métropole tentèrent de jouer la carte des Berbères. Ils déposèrent le sultan, qui fut envoyé en exil à Madagascar. En 1953, ils mirent à sa place le Glaoui, pacha de Marrakech qui avait pourtant été un fidèle partisan de l’Axe durant la 2° guerre. Dans les villes, les populations se soulevèrent et la situation devint incontrôlable, forçant la France à rappeler le sultan et à s'engager sur l'accession du Maroc à l'indépendance (La Celle-Saint-Cloud, 1955), qui devint effective le 02 Mars 1956. L'année suivante, il prit le titre de Mohammed V.
    1950 Inauguración oficial del tren Talgo, con un viaje de Madrid a Valladolid, con asistencia del general Franco.
    ^ 1949 Soft-coal strike in US.
          The US's soft-coal workers, led by United Mine Workers chief John L. Lewis, hit the picket line to protest the recent appointment of Dr. James Boyd as the head of the Federal Bureau of Mines. The two-week walkout was another in the flood of strikes that cropped up in the wake of World War II. Indeed, striking had become something of an annual ritual for Lewis and the miners: including the walkout in '49, they had struck every year since the close of the war. And, though some of these strikes roused recourse from the mine owners and government, the workers were able to make some gains, including pension plans and a health fund.
    1949 A US B-50 Superfortress, the Lucky Lady II, lands at Fort Worth, Texas, completing the first nonstop round-the-world flight.
    1949 Automatic streetlights.
          The first automatic streetlight system in which the streetlights turned themselves on at dark is installed in New Milford, Connecticut, by the Connecticut Light and Power Company. Each streetlight contained an electronic device that contained a photoelectric cell capable of measuring outside light. By November of 1949, seven miles of New Milford’s roads were automatically lit at dusk by a total of 190 photoelectric streetlights. No longer would the proud men of New Milford be forced to don stilts in order to light their streetlamps.
    ^ 1946 Ho Chi Minh elected President of Vietnam
          Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese Communist leader, is elected the first president of the short-lived Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Near the end of World War I, Ho Chi Minh emigrated to France, where in 1920 he became a founding member of the French Communist Party. He later traveled to the Soviet Union, where he became a Comitern member and studied revolutionary tactics. Returning to East Asia in the mid-1920s, he set about organizing revolutionaries in China, and with the outbreak of World War II, returned to his Vietnamese homeland. He organized a Vietnamese independence movement--the Viet Minh--and raised a guerilla army to oppose the Japanese occupation of Vietnam.
          On September 2, 1945, just hours after the Japanese signed their unconditional surrender in World War II, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam, hoping to prevent the French from reclaiming their former colonial possession. In 1946, he was elected president of Vietnam, but in the same year, he hesitantly accepted the French demand that Vietnam exist as an autonomous state within the French Union.
          Nevertheless, fighting between Vietnamese nationalists and the French broke out soon afterwards, and in 1949, the French named Bao Dai emperor of all Vietnam. In the same year, with military and economic assistance of newly Communist China, Ho Chi Minh began a war of resistance against French and Southern Vietnamese forces, who were armed largely by the US In 1954, the French suffered a major defeat at Dien Bien Phu in northwest Vietnam, prompting the division of Vietnam along the seventeenth parallel at the conference of Geneva.
          Ho Chi Minh became president of North Vietnam and set about organizing a Communist guerrilla movement in the South, known as the Viet Cong, or the National Liberation Front. Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong successfully opposed a series of ineffectual US-backed South Vietnam regimes and beginning in 1963, withstood a decade-long military intervention by the United States. Ho Chi Minh died in 1969, and six years later, the two Vietnams were reunified as an independent Communist nation.
    1940 Se aprueba en España la ley para la Represión de la Masonería y del Comunismo.
    1939 Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli is elected Pope. He takes the name Pius XII. — Se elige al cardenal Eugenio Pacelli nuevo Papa, quien toma el nombre de Pío XII. Es su 63º cumpleaños.
    1938 Trials of Soviet leaders begins in the Soviet Union — Tercer proceso de Moscú, llamado "proceso al bloque de derechistas y trostkistas", entre los que figuran Bujarin y Rakovski.
    1930 En France, Tardieu redevient Président du Conseil. Nommé en novembre 1929 Président du Conseil, il avait été renversé en février 1930. En dépit d'une intelligence brillante, il envisage une politique accompagnée par la prospérité et ne discerne pas la crise qui couve.
    1930 En su artículo "El vértigo del éxito", Josif Stalin ordena poner freno a la colectivización de las tierras en la URSS.
    ^ 1929 Jones Act attempts to strengthen Prohibition.
          Congress passes the Jones Act, the last effort at enforcing Prohibition. Since 1920, when the Eighteenth Amendment went into effect, the United States had banned the production, importation, and sale of alcoholic beverages; but the laws were ineffective at actually preventing the consumption of alcohol. The Jones Act served to strengthen the federal penalties for bootlegging. Nevertheless, the country ended up rejecting Prohibition and repealing the Eighteenth Amendment in 1933. Prohibition was never particularly popular across the nation, and when the people began to realize that it had other ramifications, it rapidly fell by the wayside. The chief problem with Prohibition was that it didn’t stop the public’s demand for alcohol. Although the consumption of alcohol dropped in raw numbers, it remained substantial. In order to fill this demand, an entire criminal infrastructure was created virtually overnight. The enormous amounts of money that became available in illegal trafficking helped to establish organized crime. Criminal syndicates that could afford to bribe officials throughout the criminal justice system dominated the nation’s major cities. This, in turn, produced a significant change in law enforcement. For the first time, the federal government became a major player in policing and prosecuting lawbreakers. Many people believe that Prohibition also caused a major breakdown in the social fabric of society because of its effect on the national psyche. With so many of people brazenly ignoring the law, an atmosphere of cynicism and hypocrisy was established. When the Eighteenth Amendment was finally repealed, Prohibition was widely viewed as a total failure.
    1925 Highway numbers in the US.
          The first nationwide highway numbering system was instituted by the joint board of state and federal highway officials appointed by the US Secretary of Agriculture. In order to minimize confusion caused by the array of multiform state-appointed highway signs, the board created the shield-shaped highway number markers that have become a comforting sight to lost travelers in times since. Later, interstate highway numbering would be improved by colored signs and the odd-even demarcation that distinguishes between north-south and east-west travel respectively.
    1921 During the Kronstadt Rebellion in Russia, the rebels formed a Provisional Revolutionary Committee.
    1919 Se inaugura en Moscú el primer Congreso de la Internacional Comunista (Komintern).
    1917 Jones Act: Puerto Rico territory created. Puerto Ricans are granted US citizenship. — El Congreso de EEUU elabora la Ley Jones, por la que Puerto Rico pasa a ser territorio de los Estados Unidos, "organizado pero no incorporado", y los puertorriqueños obtienen la nacionalidad estadounidense.
    ^ 1917 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates
    by the following document (a provisional government under Georgy Lvov is formed).:

    "In this great struggle with a foreign enemy, who for nearly three years has tried to enslave our country, The Lord God has been pleased to send down on Russia a new heavy trial. The internal popular disturbances which have begun, threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war. The destiny of Russia, the honor of our heroic army, the good of the people, the whole future of our dear country demand that whatever it cost, the war should be brought to a victorious end.

    The cruel enemy is gathering his last forces, and already the hour is near when our gallant army, together with our glorious allies, will be able to crush the enemy.
         
    In these decisive days in the life of Russia, we thought it a duty of conscience to facilitate for our people a close union and consolidation of all the national forces for the speedy attainment of victory; and, in agreement with the Imperial Duma, we have thought it good to abdicate from the throne of the Russian State, and to lay down the supreme power.
         
    Not wishing to part with our dear son we hand over our inheritance to our brother, the Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich, and give to him our blessing to mount the throne of the Russian State. We bequeath it to our brother to direct the forces of the State in full and inviolable union with the representatives of the people in the legislative institutions, on those principles which will by then be established.
         
    In the name of our dearly loved country we call on all faithful sons of the Fatherland to fulfill their sacred duty to him by obedience to the Tsar at a heavy moment of national trials, to help him, together with the representatives of the people, to bring the Russian State onto the road to victory, prosperity and glory.
         
    May the Lord God help Russia!"      —        Nicholas.

    1915 Vladmir Jabotinsky forms a Jewish military force to fight in Palestine.
    1912 Se declara obligatoria la lectura de El Quijote en las escuelas públicas españolas.
    1899 President William McKinley signs legislation creating Mount Rainier National Park in central Washington. The nearly 1000-square-kilometer area of pristine forests and spectacular alpine scenery is the fifth national park designated by Congress.
    1896 Battle of Aduwa, Abyssinia (Ethiopia) defeats invading Italians.
    1893 first US federal railroad legislation passed; required safety features.
    ^ 1877 US Congress assigns US presidency to Hayes; Reconstruction ends
          Congress accepts an electoral commission’s decision that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the disputed presidential election of the previous November, and only three days later, Hayes is inaugurated as president. One of President Hayes’s first acts is to end the federal military occupation of the South and to recognize Democratic control over the region, bringing the Reconstruction era to a close. On November 7, 1876, Democratic presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden received an electoral majority over Hayes, although the returns of nineteen electoral votes in three Southern states still under Republican rule, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, along with one vote in Oregon, were still in dispute.
          For the first time in US history, Congress established a special electoral commission to decide the disputed presidential election, made up five members from each house of Congress and five members from the Supreme Court. The commission, divided along party lines, voted along party lines, until late February of 1877, when some of the Democrats began to support Hayes’s claim. Although no bargain was publicly revealed, it is likely that the Democrats were assured of a conciliatory attitude toward the South under a Hayes administration.
          All disputed votes were awarded to Hayes, giving him a bare majority over Tilden, and on 02 March Congress approved the decision. Shortly after Hayes was inaugurated, the Republican Party’s radical Reconstruction policies, which dominated Southern politics for nearly a decade, all but collapsed. The Southern Republican Party vanished as Southern state governments effectively nullified the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, stripping southern African Americans of the right to vote. It would be nearly a century before the nation would again attempt to restore the political agenda of Reconstruction, and establish equal rights for all the people of the South.
         Congress accepts an electoral commission's decision that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the disputed presidential election of the previous November. Three days later, Hayes was inaugurated as the 19th US president. The result was greeted with outrage by some Northern Democrats, who thereafter referred to Hayes as "His Fraudulency." One of President Hayes' first acts was to end the federal military occupation of the South and to recognize Democratic control over the region, thus bringing the Reconstruction era to a close.
          On November 7, 1876, Democratic presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden received more popular votes than Hayes, and early returns indicated a Democratic victory in the electoral college as well. However, Republicans refused to concede on the grounds that returns from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina were still in dispute, and because a presidential elector in Oregon, who voted for Hayes, was found ineligible. The Oregon elector, John Watts, served in the appointive position of postmaster for one week after learning he was chosen to be an elector. Although he resigned well before the December electoral vote, Democrats claimed he violated the constitutional clause that no elected or appointed official may serve as a presidential elector.
          A candidate needed 185 electoral votes to win, and with these 20 electoral votes still undecided Tilden had 184 votes to Hayes' 165 votes. Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina each sent two sets of electors to the electoral college, and the Republicans and Democrats each claimed the disputed Oregon vote. The Republican-controlled Senate and the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives could not decide how to count the votes, and a deadlock ensued. Finally, at the end of January 1877, Congress voted to establish a special electoral commission to decide the disputed presidential election, with five members from each house of Congress and five members from the Supreme Court. There were seven Democrats, seven Republicans, and one independent, Supreme Court Justice David Davis. However, before any voting occurred, Davis resigned from the commission when he was elected a US senator from Illinois. The justice who replaced him was Joseph Bradley, a staunch Republican.
          The commission voted along party lines, with Hayes receiving eight votes to Tilden's seven, and Democrats in Congress launched filibusters and other delay tactics to block approval of the decision. Finally, in late February, some House Democrats began to support Hayes' claim. Although no bargain was publicly revealed, it is known that Southern Democrats were assured of a conciliatory attitude toward the South under a Hayes administration, including acceptance of Democratic governors and a withdrawal of federal troops. In the early morning of 02 March Congress agreed to award the contested votes to Hayes, giving him a bare majority over Tilden, and he won the presidency.
          Shortly after Hayes' inauguration, the Republican Party's radical Reconstruction policies, which dominated Southern politics for nearly a decade, all but collapsed. If Tilden had been elected, however, the result would likely have much been the same. During Hayes' four years in the White House, the Southern Republican Party vanished, as Southern state governments effectively nullified the 14th and 15th Amendments, stripping Southern African Americans of the right to vote. It would be nearly a century before the nation would again attempt to establish equal rights for African Americans in the South.
    1867 US Congress creates the Department of Education.
    1867 Congress abolishes peonage in New Mexico.
    1867 first Reconstruction act passed by Congress.
    1865 Comienza en París la Conferencia Internacional para establecer un sistema de comunicaciones y de tarifas telegráficas.
    1865 At Waynesborough, General Early's army is defeated.
    1853 Territory of Washington organized.
    1848 En France, la journée de travail légale est fixée à dix heures pour Paris et à onze heures pour la province, conformément aux recommendations d'une commission du travail présidée par Louis Blanc, créée juste après la révolution de février. En 1841, une loi avait "limité" le travail des enfants âgés de douze à seize à douze heures de travail quotidien.
    independent Texas^ 1836 Texas independence proclaimed.
          During the Texas Revolution, a convention of Texans from the US meets at Washington-on-the-Brazos and declares the independence of Texas from Mexico. The delegates chose David Burnet as provisional president and confirmed Sam Houston as the commander in chief of all Texan forces. The Texans also adopted a constitution that protected the free practice of slavery, which had been prohibited by Mexican law. Meanwhile, in San Antonio, Santa Anna's siege of the Alamo continued, and the fort's 185 or so American defenders waited for the final Mexican assault. In 1820, Moses Austin, a US citizen, asked the Spanish government in Mexico for permission to settle in sparsely populated Texas. Land was granted, but Austin died soon thereafter, so his son, Stephen F. Austin, took over the project.
          In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain, and Austin negotiated a contract with the new Mexican government that allowed him to lead some 300 families to the Brazos River. Under the terms of the agreement, the settlers were to be Catholics, but Austin mainly brought Protestants from the southern United States. Other US settlers arrived in succeeding years, and the Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans. In 1826, a conflict between Mexican and American settlers led to the Freedonia Rebellion, and in 1830 the Mexican government took measures to stop the influx of Americans. In 1833, Austin, who sought statehood for Texas in the Mexican federation, was imprisoned after calling on settlers to declare it without the consent of the Mexican congress. He was released in 1835. In 1834, Antonio López de Santa Anna, a soldier and politician, became dictator of Mexico and sought to crush rebellions in Texas and other areas.
          In October 1835, Anglo residents of Gonzales, 80 km east of San Antonio, responded to Santa Anna's demand that they return a cannon loaned for defense against Indian attack by discharging it against the Mexican troops sent to reclaim it. The Mexicans were routed in what is regarded as the first battle of the Texas Revolution. The American settlers set up a provisional state government, and a Texan army under Sam Houston won a series of minor battles in the fall of 1835. In December, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Milam drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes around 1800. In January 1836, Santa Anna concentrated a force of several thousand men south of the Rio Grande, and Sam Houston ordered the Alamo abandoned. Colonel James Bowie, who arrived at the Alamo on 19 January, realized that the fort's captured cannons could not be removed before Santa Anna's arrival, so he remained entrenched with his men. By delaying Santa Anna's forces, he also reasoned, Houston would have more time to raise an army large enough to repulse the Mexicans.
          On 02 February, Bowie and his 30 or so men were joined by a small cavalry company under Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about 140. One week later, the frontiersman Davy Crockett arrived in command of 14 Tennessee Mounted Volunteers. On 23 February, Santa Anna and some 3000 Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the former mission was bombarded with cannon and rifle fire for 12 days. On 24 February, in the chaos of the siege, Colonel Travis smuggled out a letter that read: "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World.... I shall never surrender or retreat.... Victory or Death!" On 01 March, the last Texan reinforcements from nearby Gonzales broke through the enemy's lines and into the Alamo, bringing the total defenders to approximately 185.
          On 02 March, Texas' revolutionary government declares its independence from Mexico. In the early morning of 06 March, Santa Anna ordered his troops to storm the Alamo. Travis' artillery decimated the first and then the second Mexican charge, but in just over an hour the Texans were overwhelmed, and the Alamo was taken. Santa Anna had ordered that no prisoners be taken, and all the Texan and American defenders were killed in brutal hand-to-hand fighting. The only survivors of the Alamo were a handful of civilians, mostly women and children. Several hundred of Santa Anna's men died during the siege and storming of the Alamo.
          Six weeks later, a large Texan army under Sam Houston surprised Santa Anna's army at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna. The Mexican dictator was forced to recognize Texas' independence and withdrew his forces south of the Río Grande. Texas sought annexation by the United States, but both Mexico and antislavery forces in the United States opposed its admission into the Union. For nearly a decade, Texas existed as an independent republic, and Houston was Texas' first elected president. In 1845, Texas joined the Union as the 28th state, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican-American War.
    ^ 1824 US Supreme Court rules agains steamboat monopoly.
          During the early nineteenth century, the Supreme Court was repeatedly called in to referee the power struggle between the states and the Federal government. And, 02 March 1824, saw the Court hand down yet another ruling in a case that pitted Federalists against states' rights advocates. The case in question was Gibbons v. Ogdens, which stemmed from the New York state government's decision in the late 1780s to hand Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston a monopoly on steamboat navigation in state territory. Fulton and Livingston later sold their steamboat concern to Aaron Ogden, who soon discovered that, despite the state sanctioned monopoly, he had competition, in the person of fellow steamboat impresario Thomas Gibbons, for New York's waters. Ogden promptly filed suit against Gibbons; in 1820, the New York Court of Chancery affirmed Ogden's monopoly. However, Gibbons, who held that his Federal trade license granted him rights to operate in New York's waters, refused to be defeated and took his case to the Supreme Court. The Court ultimately rules in favor of Gibbons, a decision which effectively protects the Federal government's power as the sole regulator of interstate trade.
    1821 Más de mil obreros en paro, armados, atacan las fábricas textiles de Alcoy (Alicante) y destruyen sus máquinas.
    1819 Territory of Arkansas organized.
    1815 Se inicia en Francia el período conocido como Imperio de los Cien Días, en el que Napoleón, liberado de la isla de Elba, retoma el poder.
    ^ 1807 US Congress abolishes importation of African slaves
         The US Congress passes an act to "prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States... from any foreign kingdom, place, or country." The first shipload of African captives to North America arrived at Jamestown, Virginia, in August of 1619, but for most of the seventeenth century, European indentured servants were far more numerous in the North American British colonies than African slaves.
          However, after 1680, the flow of indentured servants sharply declined, leading to an explosion in the African slave trade. By the middle of the eighteenth century, slavery could be found in all thirteen colonies and was at the core of the Southern colonies' agricultural economy. By the time of the American Revolution, the English importers alone had brought some 3'000'000 captive Africans to the Americas. After the war, as slave labor was not a crucial element of the Northern economy, most Northern states passed legislation to abolish slavery. However, in the South, the invention of the cotton gin in 1793 sharply increased the need for slave labor, and tension arose between the North and the South as the slave or free status of new states was debated. In 1807, with a self-sustaining population of over four million slaves in the South, some Southern congressmen joined with the North in voting to abolish the African slave trade effective January 1, 1808.
          Nevertheless, the widespread trade of slaves within the South was not prohibited, and illegal trade of African slaves to Brazil and Cuba continued until the 1860s. By 1865, over twelve million Africans had been shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas, and some one million of these individuals had died from mistreatment during the voyage. In addition, an estimated three million Africans died in slave wars and forced marches directly resulting from the Western Hemisphere's demand for African slaves.
    1799 Congress standardizes US weights and measures
    1776 Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston
    ^ 1476 Victoire suisse à Grandson.
          La victoire des Suisses à Grandson affaiblit le Téméraire qui approche de sa fin. La Suisse continue son expansion Ce dernier succéda à son père comme duc de Bourgogne en 1467 et épousa en troisièmes noces Marguerite de York, formant une alliance avec le frère de cette dernière, le roi Edouard IV d'Angleterre. Plus riche et plus puissant que tous les autres princes, il entreprit la restauration du vieux royaume de Bourgogne et la création entre la France et l'Empire d'une nouvelle Lotharingie, qui regrouperait ses possessions de Flandre, de Bourgogne et de Franche-Comté aux dépens de ses voisins. Ce fut l'annexion de la Gueldre, et la tentative de la conquête de la Lorraine, en 1475.
          Mais Charles le Téméraire se heurta aux armées de Louis XI et à celles de ses alliés contre l'expansion bourguignonne. Il subit de sévères défaites contre les Suisses à Grandson (02 mars) et à Morat (28 Jun). Il refusa cependant les conditions de paix et entreprit, en octobre 1476, le siège de Nancy, devant lequel il mourut le 05 janvier 1477. La Bourgogne revint à la France, tandis que les possessions de Flandre revinrent aux Habsbourgs, après le mariage de son héritière, Marie, avec Maximilien Ier. Au début du XV° siècle, la Suisse est en expansion continue. Les villes d’Allemagne du Sud, alliées des Suisses, sont battues par les princes d’Empire et leur ligue est dissoute, alors que les cantons maintiennent leur indépendance. Le destin de la Suisse commence à se séparer définitivement de celui de l’Empire. La Suisse resta désormais le réduit du particularisme communal dans une Europe où, partout ailleurs, l’avenir appartenait à l’État territorial et unificateur
          Les confédérés nouent des alliances de combourgeoisie avec leurs voisins : communautés comme Appenzell, les dizains du Valais, les trois ligues des Grisons ; seigneuries comme les évêchés de Genève, de Sion, l’abbaye de Saint-Gall, les comtés de Neuchâtel et de l’oggenbourg ; villes indépendantes comme Bâle, Soleure, Schaffhouse, Rottweil, Mulhouse. Mais l’expansion territoriale se fait également par des conquêtes. Entre 1403 et 1416, Uri, pour contrôler totalement le Gothard, occupe la Léventine (haute vallée du Tessin) et les vals Maggia et Verzasca. En 1415, les confédérés s’emparent de l’Argovie autrichienne et, en 1460, de la Thurgovie. À côté des alliés, ces territoires forment une nouvelle catégorie : les pays sujets, ou bailliages, propriétés d’un seul canton ou communs à plusieurs.
          La Confédération est, désormais, une puissance militaire redoutable. Le service obligatoire peut mettre sur pied 100'000 hommes aguerris, avec une infanterie armée de la hallebarde, sur l’ordre de la Diète fédérale. La surpopulation incite les cantons à signer avec l’étranger des accords qui stipulent l’envoi de mercenaires (80'000 au total). En 1436, Schwyz et Zurich entrent en conflit pour la possession du comté de Toggenbourg, clé des routes vers l’Autriche et les cols grisons. Zurich s’allie à l’Autriche, mais les sept cantons remportent la victoire de Saint-Jacques sur la Sihl (juillet 1443). L’empereur obtient l’aide de la France. Charles VII envoie le dauphin Louis avec 40'000 mercenaires "armagnacs" qui tiennent les confédérés en échec, à Saint-Jacques sur la Birse (août 1444).
          Cependant la France signe la paix sans poursuivre son offensive et, au bout de dix ans de guerre civile, Zurich reprend sa place dans l’alliance. La France de Louis XI est, tout comme les confédérés, inquiète des ambitions de Charles le Téméraire, duc de Bourgogne. Le roi persuade les Suisses de signer la paix avec l’Autriche (1474) et d’attaquer le Téméraire, pour porter secours à leurs alliés de Bâle et de Mulhouse. Le conflit prend une dimension internationale avec la Suisse, la France, les villes d’Alsace d’une part, et avec la Bourgogne, la Savoie et le duc de Milan d’autre part. En 1474, la haute Alsace est libérée, et, en 1475, les Bernois envahissent le pays de Vaud savoyard. Tandis que Louis XI et l’empereur signent une paix séparée, la Suisse, isolée, est attaquée par le Téméraire.
         Les confédérés sont vainqueurs à Grandson (02 mars 1476) et à Morat (28 Jun 1476), remportant un immense butin et mettant fin au rêve d’hégémonie bourguignonne. Berne conservait, en possession directe ou en commun avec Fribourg, une série de terres vaudoises et les Valaisans gardaient le bas Valais, jusque-là savoyard. Au lendemain des guerres de Bourgogne, la suprématie des Waldstätten semble mise en question par les grands cantons. En 1481, la Diète de Stans ne peut trouver un accord, mais, à l’ultime moment, la rupture est évitée par l’arbitrage de l’ermite Nicolas de Flue. Fribourg et Soleure entrent dans la Confédération.
    TO THE TOP
    < 01 Mar 03 Mar >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 02 March:

    2006 Philippe Muray, of lung cancer, born in 1945 (1946?); French philosopher, polemicist, poet, and author of essays and the novels Chant Pluriel (1973), Jubila (1976), Postérité (1988), On ferme (1997). — (060524)
    2005:: 68 rough-toothed dolphins wash up dead on a beach near Marathon, Florida. — (060429)
    2004 Eighty-six persons, including a suicide bomber at one of the holiest Shiite shrines, that of Imam Hussein, in Karbala, Iraq. Some 100 persons are injured.
    2003 Tayne Ferris, 36, and her sons Shawn, 11, and Kyle, 8, at 18:55 (23:55 UT) , in icing-caused crash, into snow-covered Mount Wilcox in the Beartown State Forest near Monterey in southwest Massachusetts, of the single-engine Piper Cherokee Six piloted by her husband Ronald K. Ferris, 39. He and their other sons, Ryan, 2, Jordan, 5 (broken limb), and Tyler, 10 (broken leg), survive the crash and are rescued 18 hours later, suffering from hypothermia and frostbite, but Ronald Ferris, with hypothermia and multiple injuries, dies soon after reaching the hospital. Returning from a vacation in Sarasota, Florida, (where the parents of Ron and of Tayne live) they had left Lakeland, Florida, at 13:00 (18:00 UT), they had been flying from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, headed home to Swanzey, New Hampshire, where they owned the Ferris Wheels used car dealership. On its website http://208.179.72.12:8080/ferriswheels.com/about.htm, there is this: When you purchase a Ferris Wheels, Inc. VEHICLE you are entitled to a FREE AIRPLANE RIDE over the local area. Ron Ferris owns and pilots a Piper Cherokee Six 300, 7 Passenger Airplane located at the Keene Dillant Hopkins Airport. Ron loves to fly and will take up to 6 additional people with him for a nice ride around the area! Pick a nice day and give Ron a call. He’d love to take you for a ride!
    2003 Jimmy Lemmings, 42, of injuries suffered on 20 February in explosion and fire in Corbin, Kentucky, at the CTA Acoustics plant which makes insulation for automakers, where he was a worker. He becames its third fatality.
    2003 Abed Alhalak Jadala, 9, Palestinian boy, by large caliber Israeli bullet, in the afternoon, while in the funeral procession of al-Hadi and al-Asar, in Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip.
    2003 Mahmoud al-Hadi, 23; and Abed Rabu al-Asar, 50, Palestinians, in Israeli pre-dawn incursion into Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip, with helicopter gunships, tanks, and armored bulldozers. Fatah militant Al-Hadi was among the gunmen fighting the Israeli troops. Al-Asar is shot dead in his apartment by Israeli fire. 25 Palestinians are injured. The Israelis destroy 10 homes. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1877 Palestinians and 706 Israelis.
    2002 (Saturday) Tzofia Ya'arit Eliyahu, 23, and her son Avraham Eliyahu, 7 months, from Beit Yisrael; Lidor Ilan, 12, and his sister Oriah Ilan, 18 months, from Rishon Letzion, and five members of the Nehmad family, from Rishon Letzion: Shlomo, 40; his wife Gafnit, 32, their children Shiraz, 7, and Liran, 3, and nephew Shauli, 15; and Modammed al-Darameh, 19, Palestinian suicide bomber, at 19:15, in the ultra-Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood of Beit Yisrael, at the end of the Sabbath. The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claims responsibility, in reprisal for Israeli raids, still in progress, on the Balata and Jenin refugee camps in the West Bank, which have killed about 30 Palestinians.
    2002 Moshe Dayan, Israeli policeman,. shot in the head, while riding alone on his motorcycle in the Judean Desert near the Mar Saba monastery in Nahal Kidron.
    2002 More Muslims are Hindu mobs continue to rampage in parts of Gujarat.
    ^ 2001 Police officers and separatist guerillas in India.
    In Tripura.
          At least five rebels ae killed late in the day in a territorial battle between the NLFT (National Liberation Front of Tripura) and its rival separatist group, the All Trapper Tiger Force, in Sidhai, a village in western Tripura, in India's remote northeast.
          More than a dozen guerrilla groups are fighting separatist wars in India's seven northeastern states. They complain of alienation, neglect by the federal government and threats to their indigenous cultures. More than 25'000 people have been killed since they began fighting Indian security forces in 1948.
    In Kashmir.
          Islamic militant groups based in Pakistan claimed responsibility for ambushing two police vehicles and killing 17 policemen in Indian-controlled Kashmir. The attack is jointly carried out by four groups who have been fighting for independence from India since 1989. The groups are Lashkar-e-Tayabba, Hezb-ul Mujahedeen, Jaish-e-Mohammed and Hezb-e-Islami, he said.
          The militants fire rockets and heavy weapons at policemen on Friday near Manjakot, a village 240 km northwest of Jammu, the winter capital of Indian-controlled Jammu-Kashmir state. The policemen, riding in a jeep and a minibus, are returning from Manjakot after investigating the killing of two civilians on 1 March by suspected militants. It is the first major strike by the guerrillas since Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee one week earlier extended a unilateral cease-fire against them for three months. The rebel groups have rejected the truce and intensified attacks against Indian security forces.
    2001 Ernest McCarver, executed in North Carolina. His IQ had been measured at 67. He is executed despite the fact that the state legislature is about to consider proposals to outlaw the use of the death penalty against the mentally disabled. Thirteen of the 38 death penalty US states have enacted such legislation.
    2001 Mustafa Ramlawi, 40, mentally handicapped Palestinian from the Bourej refugee camp, shot by Israeli soldiers as “he was trying to plant a bomb by a main road in the central Gaza Strip”.
    2002 Emil Sanielevici, 20, a White, on life support since being shot, in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, in a racist rampage the previous day by a Black, Ronald Taylor, 39, who killed two other Whites and wounded two more.
    1998: 16 ethnic Albanians and 4 Serb policemen, in riot in Kosovo.
    ^ 1969 Border fights between the Soviet Union and China
          In a dramatic confirmation of the growing rift between the two most powerful communist nations in the world, troops from the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China fire on each other at a border outpost on the Ussuri River in the eastern region of the USSR, north of Vladivostok. In the years following this incident, the United States used the Soviet-Chinese schism to its advantage in its Cold War diplomacy. The cause of the firefight between Soviet and Chinese troops was a matter of dispute. The Soviets charged that Chinese soldiers crossed the border between the two nations and attacked a Soviet outpost, killing and wounding a number of Russian guards. The intruders were then driven back with heavy casualties. The Chinese report indicated that it was the Soviets who crossed the border and were repulsed. Either way, it was the first time that either side openly admitted to a clash of arms along the border, though it had been rumored for years that similar run-ins were occurring.
          Ever since the early-1960s, relations between the two Communist superpowers had deteriorated. China charged that the Soviet leadership was deviating from the pure path of Marxism, and by the mid-1960s, Chinese leaders were openly declaring that the United States and the Soviet Union were conspiring against the Chinese Revolution. For the United States, the breakdown of relations between the Soviet Union and China was a diplomatic opportunity. By the early 1970s, the United States began to initiate diplomatic contacts with China. (Relations between the two nations had been severed in 1949 following the successful communist revolution in China.) In 1972, President Richard Nixon surprised the world by announcing that he would visit China. The strongest impetus for this new cordiality toward communist China was the US desire to use the new relationship as leverage in its diplomacy with the Soviet Union, making the Russians more malleable on issues such as arms control and their support of North Vietnam in the on-going Vietnam War. Pitting these two communist giants against one another became a mainstay of US diplomacy in the later Cold War era.
    1967 José Martínez Ruiz, "Azorín", escritor español.
    1962 Charles de la Vallée Poussin, mathematician
    ^ 1943 The first of thousands killed in the battle of the Bismarck Sea, as it starts.
          US and Australian land-based planes begin an offensive against a convoy of Japanese ships in the Bismarck Sea, in the western Pacific. On March 1, US reconnaissance planes spotted 16 Japanese ships en route to Lae and Salamaua in New Guinea. The Japanese were attempting to keep from losing the island and their garrisons there by sending 7000 reinforcement soldiers and aircraft fuel and supplies.
          But a US bombing campaign, beginning on 02 March and lasting until 04 March, consisting of 137 American bombers supported by US and Australian fighters, destroyed eight Japanese troop transports and four Japanese destroyers. More than 3000 Japanese troops and sailors drowned as a consequence, and the supplies sunk with their ships. Of 150 Japanese fighter planes that attempted to engage the American bombers, 102 were shot down. It was an utter disaster for the Japanese — the US 5th Air Force and the Royal Australian Air Force dropped a total of 213 tons of bombs on the Japanese convoy.
          British Prime Minister Winston Churchill chose 04 March, the official end of the battle, to congratulate President Franklin D. Roosevelt, since that day was also the 10th anniversary of the president's first inauguration. "Accept my warmest congratulations on your brilliant victory in the Pacific, which fitly salutes the end of your first 10 years."
    1940 Ricardo Miró, poeta panameño.
    ^ 1940 Day 94 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
    More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

    Soviet troops attack delaying positions on the Isthmus. Over 100 planes bomb Tampere. 70 buildings destroyed in Lahti.

           Three Soviet divisions launch a massive general offensive.
          The fiercest fighting is on the Karelian Isthmus, at Käremäenlahti to the south of Viipuri and in the Lyykylä sector east of the city. The Finns are forced to withdraw from the frontline strongholds.
          Enemy strikes towards the islands of Tuppuransaari and Teikarsaari are supported by a massive artillery bombardment. A Finnish counterattack around midday is unsuccessful and Tuppuransaari runs out of ammunition. Both islands are lost to the enemy.
          The enemy also manages to reach land on the western shore of Viipurinlahti bay.
          In Ladoga Karelia, the Soviet artillery in Kollaa begins an intensive bombardment at 6.30 in the morning, followed by an assault with two divisions across the entire breadth of the Finnish positions.
          Finnish reconnaissance planes have in the past couple of days observed firing stations for approximately 50 enemy artillery batteries in the centre of the Kollaa front. During the course of the day the enemy artillery in Kollaa fires about 30,000 rounds, against less than 1,000 on the Finnish side.
          Despite the enemy's massive numerical superiority, the fighting becomes bogged down in trench warfare with very heavy casualties on both sides.
          The enemy artillery at times reaches a rate of 200 rounds a minute.
          Despite the extremely difficult conditions and the pounding it has taken from the air due to the Soviet Union's aerial superiority, the Finnish defence nevertheless holds firm.
          The Russians also launch assaults with artillery and tank support on the River Aittojoki. The Russian assaults are repulsed.
          In the north, the Finns defending the Kuusijoki line in Kuhmo are unable to withstand the Russian assault. The assault was preceded by an artillery bombardment of around 3,000 rounds.
          In Salla, nine members of a company of Swedish volunteers are killed when the company is surrounded by the Russians. The enemy loses 200 of its own men.
          Battle is joined at Löytövaara in Kuhmo.
          In Ladoga Karelia, an enemy ski battalion is wiped out between Mustalampi and Lavajärvi.
          Tampere is bombed by over a hundred enemy aircraft, including some fighters. Over 70 buildings are destroyed by Soviet bombers in Lahti.
          Foreign Minister Tanner explains to the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee why the Government has postponed acceptance of the Soviet Union's peace terms.
          Sweden's Foreign Minister Christian Günther delays passing on Finland's answer to Moscow.
          The Allies ask the Norwegian and Swedish Governments to allow their troops to pass through Norway and Sweden en route to Finland. Norway and Sweden refuse permission.
          A battalion of Hungarian volunteers arrives in Finland.
          The office of the Canadian Prime Minister announces there are no legal obstacles to Canadian volunteers participating in the war in Finland. The first group of volunteers boards ship in Ottawa en route for Finland.
    A selection of events and documents on the history of Finland
    ^ Äärimmäisen vaikeissa olosuhteissa taisteleva suomalaisten puolustus kestää Talvisodan 94. päivä, 02.maaliskuuta.1940
           Kolmen neuvostodivisioonan massiivinen suurhyökkäys alkaa.
          Kovimmat taistelut käydään Karjalan kannaksella Käremäenlahdella Viipurin eteläpuolella ja Lyykylän suunnassa kaupungista itään.Suomalaiset ovat pakotettuja luopumaan etulinjan tukikohdista.
          Vihollinen hyökkää kohden Tuppuransaarta ja Teikarsaarta valtavan tykistökeskityksen tukemana. Suomalaisten vastahyökkäys puolen päivän aikaan epäonnistuu, Tuppuransaarella loppuvat ammukset. Suomi menettää Tuppuransaaren ja Teikarsaaren.
          Vihollinen pääsee maihin myös Viipurinlahden länsirannalla.
          Kollaalla neuvostotykistö aloittaa kiivaan tulituksen klo 06.30, jota seuraa kahden divisioonan hyökkäys koko puolustusaseman leveydeltä.
          Suomalaiset tiedustelulentäjät ovat maaliskuun alussa todenneet Kollaan rintaman keskustassa noin 50 vihollisen tykistöpatterin tuliasemat. Päivän aikana Kollaalla vihollinen ampuu noin 30 000 laukausta. Suomalaistykistön laukausmäärä on alle 1000.
          Vihollisen valtavasta ylivoimasta huolimatta taistelut jähmettyvätkummallekin osapuolelle erittäin kuluttavaksi asemasodaksi.
          Ajoittain vihollisen tulinopeus on jopa 200 laukausta minuutissa.
          Äärimmäisen vaikeissa olosuhteissa taisteleva suomalaisten puolustus kestää, vaikka sitä moukaroivat Neuvostoliiton ylivoimaiset ilmavoimat.
          Venäläiset hyökkäävät myös Aittojoella tykistön ja hyökkäysvaunujen tukemana.
          Venäläisten hyökkäykset torjutaan.
          Suomalaiset lyödään Kuusijoki-linjalta Kuhmossa.
          Venäläisten hyökkäystä on edeltänyt noin 3000 kranaatin tulivalmistelu.
          Sallassa venäläiset saartavat ruotsalaiskomppanian, jokamenettää 9 miestä kaatuneina. Vihollisen tappiot ovat 200 miestä.
          Taistelut Löytövaarassa alkavat.
          Laatokan Karjalassa vihollisen hiihtopataljoona tuhotaan Mustalammen ja Lavajärven välisellä alueella.
          Yli 100 viholliskonetta, mukana myös hävittäjiä, pommittaa Tamperetta.
          Lahdessa sortuu ilmapommituksissa yli 70 rakennusta.
          Ulkoministeri Tanner selostaa eduskunnan ulkoasiainvaliokunnallesyyt siihen miksi myönteisen vastauksen antamista Neuvostoliittoon on lykätty. Ruotsin ulkoministeri Günther viivyttää Suomen vastauksen lähettämistä Moskovaan.
          Liittoutuneet pyytävät lupaa joukkojensa kuljettamiseksi Suomen avuksi Norjan ja Ruotsin läpi. Norja ja Ruotsi antavat lupapyyntöön kieltävän vastauksen.
          Unkarilainen vapaaehtoispataljoona saapuu Suomeen.
          Ulkomailta: Kanadan pääministerin toimisto ilmoittaa, ettei kanadalaisten osallistumiselle Suomen taisteluihin ole laillisia esteitä. Ensimmäiset vapaaehtoiset kanadalaiset astuvat laivaan Ottawassa päämääränäänkaukainen taisteleva Suomi.
    Suomen historian dokumentteja
    ^ Det finska försvaret håller trots ytterst svåra förhållanden Vinterkrigets 94 dag, den 02 mars 1940
          Tre ryska divisioner inleder en massiv storoffensiv.
          De hårdaste striderna förs på Karelska näset i Käremäenlahti söder om Viborg och i riktning Lyykylä öster om staden. Finnarna tvingas överge baserna vid den främre linjen.
          Fienden anfaller mot öarna Tuppuransaari och Teikarsaari med stöd av en massiv artillerikoncentration. Finnarnas motoffensiv vid middagstid misslyckas, på Tuppuransaari tar ammunitionen slut. Finland förlorar Tuppuransaari och Teikarsaari.
          Fienden lyckas stiga i land också på den västra stranden av Viborgska viken.
          I Kollaa inleder det ryska artilleriet en häftig eldgivning kl. 6.30. Därefter anfaller två divisioner längs hela försvarsställningen.
          De finska spaningsflygarna upptäckte i början av mars ungefär 50 fientliga artilleribatteriers eldställningar vid centrum av fronten i Kollaa.Under dagen skjuter fienden ungefär 30 000 skott i Kollaa. Antalet finska skott är under 1000.
          Trots fiendens väldiga övermakt stagnerar striderna på bägge sidor till ett mycket slitande ställningskrig.
          Fiendens eldhastighet är tidvis ända upp till 200 skott i minuten.
          Det finska försvaret håller trots de ytterst svåra förhållandena och trots att det ryska överlägsna flygvapnet brassar på. Ryssarna anfaller också mot Aittojoki med stöd av artilleri och stridsvagnar.
          Ryssarnas anfall avvärjs.
          Finnarna drivs bort från Kuusijokilinjen i Kuhmo.
          Ryssarnas anfall föregås av en eldförberedning med ungefär 3000 granater.
          I Salla omringar ryssarna det svenska kompaniet som förlorar 9 stupade. Fiendens förlust är 200 man.
          I Löytövaara börjar nya strider.
          I Ladoga-Karelen förintas en fientlig skidlöparbataljon i terrängen mellan Mustalampi och Lavajärvi.
          Över 100 fientliga plan, inklusive jagare, bombar Tammerfors.
          I Lahtis rasar över 70 byggnader samman till följd av bombardemanget.
          Utrikesminister Tanner redogör åt riksdagens utrikesutskott för orsakerna till varför man dröjer med ett positivt svar till Sovjetunionen. Sveriges utrikesminister Günther dröjer med att sända Finlands svar till Moskva.
          De allierade anhåller om att få transportera sina trupper till Finland via Norge och Sverige. Norge och Sverige ger ett nekande svar på denna anhållan.
          En ungersk frivillig bataljon anländer till Finland.
          Utrikes: Canadas statsministers kansli meddelar att det inte finns några legala hinder för kanadensarna att delta i Finlands krig. De första frivilliga kanadensarna stiger ombord i Ottawa för att resa till det avlägsna krigande Finland.
    Valda urkunder till Finlands historia
    ^ 1939 Oscar Vladislas Milosz, poète Franco-Lituanien (ou Biélorusse) des plus originaux.
           Le surgissement à notre époque de ce poète lituanien de langue française, qui fait songer à la fois à Nerval, à Verlaine et à Claudel, ressemble à celui d’une comète : venu d’ailleurs, vivant à l’écart du monde et des modes littéraires, on dirait un romantique égaré entre la fin du symbolisme et les débuts du surréalisme. Nourri de Dante, de Goethe, de Byron et de Poe, féru d’illuminisme, d’alchimie, de Kabbale, ses vrais héros sont Faust et Salomon ; cette constellation de noms suffit à le placer hors du temps, surtout hors de notre temps. Mais sa démarche, dont l’unité réside dans le " pèlerinage aux sources ", lui permet d’être un contemporain de toutes les époques : il a cherché passionnément, à travers tous les livres des sages qui passent pour fous, à travers tous les mythes comme à travers tous les langages, le secret de la souffrance et de la noblesse de l’homme ; il a même rêvé d’être un nouvel Adam. Oscar Vladislas de Lubicz-Milosz naquit à Czereïa, en Lituanie (aujourd'hui en Biélorussie) et grandit dans le château familial jusqu'en 1889. Il fut initié précocement au français par sa gouvernante, et garda toute sa vie cette double appartenance à la Lituanie, que les bouleversements de l'Histoire rendirent de plus en plus inaccessible, et à la France (il adopta la nationalité française en 1931).
          Cette éternelle mélancolie de l'exilé nostalgique lui inspira d'abord des poèmes décadentistes (" Poème des décadences ", 1899 ; " les Sept Solitudes ", 1906), puis " l'Amoureuse Initiation " (1910), roman historique situé dans la Venise du XVIIIème siècle, où il fait un bilan amer de ses déceptions. Ses premières pièces (" Miguel Mañara ", 1912 ; " Méphiboseth ", 1913 ; " Saül de Tarse ", 1914, publié en 1971) annoncent le tour mystique, voire occultiste, que va prendre son œuvre à partir de la nuit du 14 décembre 1914, où il connaît une illumination dont il essaiera de rendre compte dans " l'Épître à Storge " (1917). Il se consacra dès lors à des recherches ésotériques, aidé en cela par ses vastes connaissances des langues et par son appartenance à plusieurs cultures. On retrouve la trace de ses préoccupations métaphysiques dans le lyrisme de ses recueils poétiques " Nihumim " (1915), " Adramandoni " (1918) et la " Confession de Lemuel " (1922), mais elles font surtout l'objet d'essais et de traités, plus poétiques que scientifiques, où se manifestent parfois de remarquables intuitions : " les Arcanes " (1927), " l'Apocalypse de saint Jean déchiffrée " (1933), " la Clef de l'Apocalypse " (1938).
    1939 Howard Carter, English archeologist born on 09 May 1874, who found the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamun on 05 November 1922, first saw the inside on 26 November 1922, broke seals on 17 February 1923, opened the sarcophagus on 03 February 1926, opened the coffins on 10 October 1926, first examined the mummy on 11 November 1926, continued investigating at the site until 1929, and co-wrote (with Arthur C. Mace) the three-volume The Tomb of Tutankh.Amen (1923-1933)
    1938 Gabriele d'Annunzio, escritor y político italiano.
    1932 Sor Ángela de la Cruz, escritora española.
    ^ 1930 David Herbert Lawrence.
          D. H. Lawrence was an English short-story writer, poet, essayist, and one of the most important and controversial 20th-century English novelists. Lawrence was born on 11 September 1885. In May 1912 he left England with the wife of one of his former professor, then returned to England and married her in July 1914. This kind of relationship would form the theme of much of his fiction, some of which would be banned as obscene.
    — The son of a Nottingham coal miner, Lawrence was a sickly child, devoted to his refined but domineering mother, who insisted upon his education. He graduated from the teacher-training course at University College, Nottingham, in 1905 and became a schoolmaster in a London suburb. In 1909 some of his poems were published in The English Review, edited by Ford Madox, who was also instrumental in the publication of Lawrence's first novel, The White Peacock (1911).
          Lawrence eloped to the Continent in 1912 with Frieda von Richthofen Weekley, a German noblewoman who was the wife of a Nottingham professor; they were married in 1914. During World War I the couple was forced to remain in England; Lawrence's outspoken opposition to the war and Frieda's German birth aroused suspicion that they were spies. In 1919 they left England, returning only for brief visits. Their nomadic existence was spent variously in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Australia, the United States (New Mexico), and Mexico. Lawrence died at the age of 45 of tuberculosis, a disease with which he had struggled for years.
    — Lawrence believed that industrialized Western culture was dehumanizing because it emphasized intellectual attributes to the exclusion of natural or physical instincts. He thought, however, that this culture was in decline and that humanity would soon evolve into a new awareness of itself as being a part of nature. One aspect of this blood consciousness would be an acceptance of the need for sexual fulfillment. His three great novels, Sons and Lovers (1913), The Rainbow (1915), and Women in Love (1921), concern the consequences of trying to deny humanity's union with nature.
          After World War I, Lawrence began to believe that society needed to be reorganized under one superhuman leader. He kept trying to get his friends to join him in founding a utopian society in some exotic locale. He called that society Rananim, from a word comes in a Hebrew song which he heard sung by his Jewish friend, Samuel Koteliansky. The novels containing this theme — Aaron's Rod (1922), Kangaroo (1923), and The Plumed Serpent (1926) — are all considered failures. Lawrence's most controversial novel is Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928), the story of an English noblewoman who finds love and sexual fulfillment with her husband's gamekeeper. Because their lovemaking is described in intimate detail (for the 1920s), the novel caused a sensation and was banned in England and the United States until 1959.
          All of Lawrence's novels are written in a lyrical, sensuous, often rhapsodic prose style. He had an extraordinary ability to convey a sense of specific time and place, and his writings often reflected his complex personality. Lawrence's works include volumes of stories, poems, and essays. He also wrote a number of plays, travel books such as Etruscan Places (1932), and volumes of literary criticism, notably Studies in Classic American Literature (1916).
         D. H. Lawrence is less know as a painter, some of whose artwork was found objectionable for similar reasons as some of his writing.
    — LAWRENCE ONLINE: Aaron's Rod AmoresLady Chatterley's Lover _ Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928) New PoemsThe RainbowThe Rainbow Rex (original magazine version) Sons and Lovers _ Sons and Lovers (1913) Studies in Classic American Literature (1923) Touch and Go: A Play in Three ActsWomen in Love _ Women in Love (1920) — one of the authors included in Some Imagist Poets: An Anthology
    — Artwork: Holy FamilyPresurrectionBoccacio Story
    — Georgia O'Keeffe's     The Lawrence Tree (I have no idea what it means)
    1923 Rui Barbosa, uno de los fundadores de la República de Brasil y autor de su Constitución.
    1921 Thomae, mathematician.
    ^ 1918 Hans Ledwinka, 89, engineer who created the Tatra car, in Munich, Germany.
          Early in his career, Ledwinka took over engineering for the Nesseldorf Wagenbau of Austria-Hungary when the founder of the company, Hugo von Roslerstamm, decided the company should enter racing. Under Ledwinka’s leadership, the Rennzweier and the Type A racers were produced. The cars demonstrated modest racing success and wide-scale production of the Type S began in 1909. Nesseldorf Wagenbau continued to grow until 1914, when, coinciding with the outbreak of WWI, it shifted to railroad production. On October 28, 1918, two weeks before the end of the war on the Western Front, the Moravian town of Nesseldorf of Austria-Hungary became the city of Koprivnicka in the newly created country of Czechoslovakia. Just after the war, Hans Ledwinka began construction of a new automobile to be marketed under the marquee Tatra, a division of the newly named Koprivnicka Wagenbau. The Tatra High Mountains are among the highest mountains in the Carpathian Mountain Range, the legendary home of Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Ledwinka settled on the name Tatra in 1919 when an experimental model of his car with four-wheel brakes passed a sleigh on an icy mountain road, prompting the sleigh riders to exclaim, "This is a car for the Tatras." In 1923, the first official Tatra automobile, the Tatra T11, was completed, and Ledwinka’s hope for an affordable "people’s car" was realized. The reliable, rugged T11, like Ford’s Model T, gave many Czechoslovakians their first opportunity to own an automobile. In 1934, Tatra achieved automotive notoriety with the introduction of the Tatra 77, the world’s first aerodynamically styled automobile powered by a rear-mounted air-cooled engine.
    1913 George McDonald, Black, lynched in Brooks County, Georgia, accused of having taken a shot at a White man.
    1909 Henriette Ronner-Knip, Dutch artist born on 31 May 1821.
    1909 John (or Joseph) Fowler, lynched in Early County, Georgia, accused of assaulting a White.
    1895 Berthe Marie-Pauline Morisot, Mme. Eugène Manet, French Impressionist painter born on 14 January 1841. — MORE ON MORISOT AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1885 Serret, mathematician.
    1872 Henri Bataille, poeta francés.
    1871 Antoine Léon Morel-Fatio, French artist born on 17 January 1810.
    1869 Jan van Ravensway (or Ravenszwaai), Dutch artist born on 29 November 1789.
    1855 Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia. His reign of autocracy and militarism was ended by defeat in the Crimean war.
    1847 Louis Ducis, French artist born on 14 July 1775.
    1814 reverend Matthey William Peters, British artist born in 1741. — more with links to images.
    1812 John Raphael Smith, English artist born in 1752. — links to images.
    1792 Carl Gustav Pilo, Swedish artist born on 19 March 1711 or 1712. — more with links to images.
    1783 Francisco Salzillo, escultor español.
    1583 (24 Mar?) Hubert Goltzius, Flemish humanist, printmaker, publisher, painter, and numismatist, born on 30 October 1526. — more with links to images.
    1751 John Smibert, Scottish US painter specialized in portraits, born on 02 April 1688. — MORE ON SMIBERT AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
     
    < 01 Mar 03 Mar >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 02 March:

    ^ 1942 John Irving, writer, in Exeter, New Hampshire.
          Irving never met his biological father and was raised by his mother and her second husband, who taught Russian history at Phillips Exeter Academy, which Irving attended. Having decided during his teens that he wanted to become a writer, Irving graduated from the University of New Hampshire in 1965 and went on to study fiction writing at the University of Iowa, where he received a master of fine arts degree in 1967. Irving supported himself by teaching English at Mount Holyoke and at the University of Iowa throughout the 1970s while writing several novels.
          His early works, including Setting Free the Bears, (1969) The Water-Method Man, (1972) and The 158-Pound Marriage (1974), did not receive much attention. However, his 1978 novel, The World According to Garp, became a hit, spending six months on the bestseller lists. The book, detailing the life and death of fictional novelist T.S. Garp, was made into a movie starring Robin Williams in 1982. Irving was able to stop teaching to write full time after the publication of Garp.
          Later novels include The Hotel New Hampshire, (1981) Cider House Rules, (1985) and A Prayer for Owen Meaney (1989), which was made into the movie Simon Birch in 1998. Twice married, Irving fathered two sons.
    1938 Ricardo Lagos, presidente de Chile.
    1937 José Francisco Guerrero, político salvadoreño
    1937 Abdelaziz Buteflika, presidente de Argelia.
    1931 Mikhail S. Gorbachev Soviet leader (1985-91) He introduced liberalizing reforms known as "glasnost" and "perestroika"
    1930 Fernando Quiñones Chozas, escritor y poeta español.
    1923 Time magazine.
    1921 Jean Bedel Bokassa, presidente centroafricano.
    1912 Hugh Dowker, mathematician.
    The Cat in the Hat^ 1904 Theodore Seuss Geisel “Dr. Seuss”, in Springfield, Massachusetts
          This date is commemorated in the US as Read Across America Day.
          After attending Dartmouth College and Oxford University, he began a career in advertising. His advertising cartoons, featuring Quick, Henry, the Flit!, appeared in several leading American magazines.Dr. Seuss's first children's book, And To Think That I Saw It On Mulberry Street, hit the market in 1937, and the world of children's literature was changed forever! In 1957, Seuss's The Cat in the Hat became the prototype for one of Random House's best- selling series, Beginner Books. This popular series combined engaging stories with outrageous illustrations and playful sounds to teach basic reading skills.
          Brilliant, playful, and always respectful of children, Dr. Seuss charmed his way into the consciousness of four generations of youngsters and parents. In the process, he helped kids learn to read. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1984 and three Academy Awards, Seuss was the author and illustrator of 44 children's books, some of which have been made into audiocassettes, animated television specials, and videos for children of all ages. Even after his death in 1991, Dr. Seuss continues to be the best-selling author of children's books in the world.
    Loraxgreen eggs and ham       He was the author of Land Before Time, The Cat in the Hat, The Cat in the Hat Comes Back, Dr. Seuss's ABC, Fox in Socks, Green Eggs and Ham, Hop on Pop, I Am NOT Going to Get Up Today!, I Can Read with My Eyes Shut!, I Wish That I Had Duck Feet, Oh Say Can You Say?, Oh, the Thinks You Can Think!, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish, Ten Apples Up on Top!, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, Bartholomew and the Oobleck, The Butter Battle Book, Did I Ever Tell You How Lucky You Are?, Dr. Seuss's Sleep Book, The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins, Happy Birthday to You, Hooray for Diffendoofer Day!, Horton Hatches the Egg, Horton Hears a Who!, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Hunches in Bunches, I Can Lick 30 Tigers Today! and Other Stories, I Had Trouble in Getting to Solla Sollew, If I Ran the Circus, If I Ran the Zoo, The King's Stilts, The Lorax, McElligot's Pool, My Book About Me, My Many Colored Days, Oh, the Places You'll Go!, On Beyond Zebra!, Scrambled Eggs Super!, The Sneetches and Other Stories, Thidwick the BigHearted Moose, Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories, You're Only Old Once!, Great Day for Up I, Myself Marvin K. Mooney Will You Please Go Now!, Mr. Brown Can Moo! Can You?, The Shape of Me and Other Stuff, There's a Wocket in My Pocket, Did I Ever Tell You How High You Can Count?: Learn About Counting Beyond 100 .
         Dr. Seuss died on 24 September 1991.
    1876 Eugenio Pacelli Pius XII, 260th pope (1939-1958), is born on the 66th birthday of Cardinal Pecci, archbishop of Perugia, who be elected pope Leo XIII 10 days before little Eugenio's 2nd birchday. Pius XII died on 09 October 1958.
    1864 Victor Léon Jean Pierre Charreton, French artist who died on 26 November 1936.
    ^ 1847 Alexander Graham Bell, in Scotland.
          inventor Alexander Graham Bell laid the foundation for modern communications with his work on the telephone, telegraph, and voice recording. Bell became interested in sound during his childhood, when his father developed a system to teach deaf people to speak. Later, when the younger Bell began teaching the system himself, he became intrigued with sound transmission. After moving to Boston in 1872, he teamed up with the mechanically gifted Thomas Watson to create models of a speech transmission device. A few days after his twenty-ninth birthday in 1876, Bell patented the telephone. The following year, he founded Bell Telephone Company and was immediately bombarded by patent suits. Litigation against Bell persisted through the life of his patents, but ultimately his claims were upheld. Later in life, he invented a device for recording sound called the graphophone, as well as several aerial vehicles and hydrofoils.
    1836 Weingarten, mathematician.
    1824 Bedrich Smetana, Bohemia, composer (Bartered Bride, Moldau)
    1822 William Louis Sonntag, US Hudson River School painter specialized in landscapes, who died on 22 January 1900. — more with links to images.
    1810 Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, Leo XIII, elected 256th pope on 20 February 1878 and who died on 20 July 1903.
    ^ 1793 Samuel Houston, first president of the Republic of Texas, in Rockbridge County, Virginia.
         Sam Houston would fight for Texas' independence from Mexico; become President of Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44); US Senator; and Texas governor.
         When Houston was 14, his father died and his mother moved her nine children to the frontier village of Maryville, Tennessee. After working for a time in the Maryville general store, Houston joined the army at the age of 20. There he attracted the admiring attention of his commanding general, Andrew Jackson, and established a distinguished record in the War of 1812.
          In 1818, intrigued by politics, Houston decided to abandon the military for the law. He completed an 18-month law course in six months. By the following year, he had become a district attorney in Nashville, where he could make important political connections. Five years later, he ran for Congress and won. The people of Tennessee reelected him for a second term and twice made him their governor. Houston's personal life, however, suffered as his political fortunes soared. In 1829, his wife abandoned him. Despondent, he resigned the governorship and went to live with Cherokee Indians in Arkansas, serving for several years as their spokesman in Washington. Houston's interest in the fate of the Arkansas Cherokee led him to make several trips to the neighboring Mexican State of Texas. He became intrigued by the growing Texan movement for political independence from Mexico and decided to make Texas his new home.
          In 1836, Houston signed the Texas declaration of independence. Because of his previous military experience, his fellow insurgents chose him as commander-in-chief of the revolutionary Texas army. Although his first efforts as a military strategist were failures, Houston led the Texan army to a spectacular victory over superior Mexican forces at San Jacinto in April 1836. Celebrated as the liberator of Texas, Houston easily won election later that year as the first president of the Republic of Texas. He immediately let it be known that Texas would like to become part of the United States.
          However, US fears of war with Mexico and questions over the extension of slavery into the new territory interfered with annexation for a decade. Finally, the aggressively expansionist President James Polk pushed Congress to grant statehood to Texas in 1846. Again an American citizen, Houston served for 14 years as a US senator, where he argued eloquently for Native American rights. The divisive issue of slavery finally derailed Houston's political career. His antislavery beliefs were out of step with the dominant southern ideology of Texas, and he staunchly resisted those who argued for southern secession from the Union during the 1850s. Nonetheless, his enduring popularity won him the governorship in 1859. When Texas voted to break from the Union in 1861, Houston refused to swear allegiance to the Confederacy. The Texas legislature voted to remove Houston from office and replaced him with a pro-Confederacy governor. Disillusioned, Houston retired to his farm near Huntsville. He died two years later, in 1863, while the fratricidal war he had sought to avoid continued to tear his beloved state and nation apart.
    1760 Camille Desmoulins France, journalist/pamphleteer/revolution leader.
    1733 Jean François Gille Colson, French artist who died on 01 March 1803. — more with links to images.
    1656 Jan-Frans van Douven, German artist who died in 1727.
    1603 Pietro Novelli Monrealese, Italian artist who died in August 1647.
     
    Holidays -- Burma : Peasant's Day / Ethiopia : Battle of Aduwa Day (1896) / Texas 1836, Morocco 1956 : Independence Day

    Religious Observances Ang : Chad, Bishop of Lichfield / Luth : Charles Wesley, John Wesley / Santos Lucio, Pablo, Jovino, Basileo y Heraclio./ Saint Charles le Bon, fils du roi de Danemark Knut le Grand, devient comte de Flandre au retour de la première croisade. Il se signale alors par son souci de paix, de justice et de charité. Mal récompensé, il est assassiné à Bruges en 1127.
    Ash Wednesday in 1881, 1892, 1927, 1938, 1949, 1960, 2022, 2033, 2044, 2101, 2112.
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