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Events, deaths, births, of 01 MAR
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1583~1699: Mar 111700s: Mar 121800s: Mar 131900~2099: Mar 14]
Kennedy establishes Peace Corps... • E.M. Forster embarks on a passage to India... • Yellowstone Park established... • US intends to send Marines to Vietnam... • Bomb in US Capitol building... • Change of US Secretary of Defense... • Bulgaria joins the Axis... • West and East Pakistan diverge... • US Steel accomodates union... • Lindbergh baby kidnapped... • Germany incites Mexico to war against US... • Salem witch hunt... • Mortar kills Iwo Jima flag raisers Strank and Block... • Winton Motors gets started... • First space probe to reach another planet... • Puerto Ricans shoot in Congress... • Finns hard pressed by Soviet aggression... • Atomic spy convicted... • Dioclétien instaure la tétrarchie... • Apple's CD~ROM... • Dual computer: Apple and DOS... • Commodore clones IBM computers... • Author Howells is born...
 On a 01 March:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for March 2010:
General: World Economy — That the world economy may be managed according to the principles of justice and equity, taking account of the real needs of peoples, especially the poorest.
Missionary: The Churches in Africa — That the Churches in Africa may be signs and instruments of reconciliation and justice in every part of that continent. —(091213)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for March 2009:
General: That the role of women may be more appreciated and used to good advantage in every country in the world.
Mission: That in the light of the 27 May 2007 letter addressed to them by Pope Benedict XVI, the Bishops, priests, consecrated persons, and lay faithful of the Catholic Church in the Popular Republic of China may commit themselves to being the sign and instrument of unity, communion and peace. — Explanatory Note on the Pope's letter —(090306)
2006 (Ash Wednesday) Homily of Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~]. —(060320)
2003 Shortly after midnight, at the end of a session that began the previous day at 16:30, the Israeli Knesset approves 66-to-48 Ariel Sharon for his second term as Prime Minister, together with the cabinet that he has assembled after his Likud party led in the 28 January 2003 general election; and they are sworn in, Israel's 30th government.
2003 The UK's Press Association reports that the government will propose on 03 March that the 6000 American ruddy ducks [photo below, left] in Britain be killed to protect the genetically related but endangered white-headed duck [photo below, right] of Spain, with which the ruddy ducks mate when they fly to Spain in the winter. Some opponents of the killing suggest that it would be cheaper to fly the birds back to America in business class.
2001 Los talibán de Afganistán comienzan a destruir las estatuas preislámicas del país por orden de su jefe supremo, el mulá Mohamed Omar, porque, según su estricta interpretación del Corán, las representaciones de seres humanos son contrarias a los dictados religiosos.
2000 Rusia acepta la presencia internacional para investigar los crímenes en Chechenia.
1998 El socialdemócrata Gerhard Schroder es el ganador absoluto en las elecciones regionales de Baja Sajonia, que le convierten en el mayor rival de Helmut Kohl en la lucha por la cancillería federal en las elecciones del 27 de septiembre.
1996 US President Clinton imposes economic sanctions on Colombia, for not having fully cooperated with the US war on drugs.
1996 The US Food and Drug Administration approves Ritonavir an AIDS drug that could prolong the lives of severely ill patients, at least slightly.
1995 Ukraine premier Vitaly Massol resigns.
1994 Entra en vigor un nuevo Código Penal en Francia, que sustituye al napoleónico de 1810.
1994 Apple ships DOS-compatible Quadra computer    ^top^
      Apple began shipping the DOS-compatible Quadra 610, which allowed users to switch back and forth between the Macintosh operating system and Windows. The DOS-compatible version of the existing Quadra line represented an attempt by Apple to win back some of the market share it had lost to Windows; however, it would prove to be an uphill battle. Between 1984 and 1998, Apple's market share plummeted from 25 percent to 3 percent. It was not until the introduction of the iMac in 1998 that Apple's share slowly began to climb again.
1993 Authorities in Waco, Texas, negotiate with Branch Davidians.
1992 Más del 64% de la población se pronuncia en referéndum a favor de la independencia de Bosnia-Herzegovina de Yugoslavia. Pero el 60% de los ciudadanos de la república de Montenegro vota en referéndum a favor de la formación con Serbia de una nueva Yugoslavia.
1991 The US embassy in Kuwait reopens.
1991 El rey de Tailandia, Bhumibol Adulyadej, aprueba la reforma constitucional, primer paso hacia la sustitución del poder marcial instaurado en el país tras el reciente golpe de Estado.
1990 The controversial Seabrook NH, nuclear power plant won federal permission to go on line after two decades of protests and legal struggles.
1988 Apple Computer introduces its CD-ROM drive    ^top^
      Apple Computer unveiled its first CD-ROM drive for the Apple II and Macintosh computers on this day in 1988. Although CD-ROM drives had been on the market since 1985, Apple's drive, priced at $1199, was the first to be widely available at retail stores. The CD-ROM drive would not become a standard feature on computers until the mid-1990s. What impressed the media when Apple released its drive was not so much its storage capacity—2000 times greater than a floppy disk—but its ability to play compact discs, allowing workers to listen to music in the office.
1988 Iraq says it launched 16 missiles into Tehran.
1986 Gerardo Fernández Albor toma posesión de la Presidencia de la Xunta de Galicia.
1985 Pentagon accepts theory that atomic war would cause a nuclear winter. [Therefore it would be best fought in the summer in torrid regions?]
1984 Destrucción de siete barcos iraníes por fuerzas navales y aéreas de Irak en el Golfo Pérsico.
1984 Commodore creates IBM clone computers    ^top^
      Commodore announced it would develop IBM clones, joining the flood of clone makers that rushed to market after Compaq first cloned the IBM PC in 1982. At the time, IBM held about 28 percent of the US market, Apple held 25 percent, and IBM clones held about 10 percent. The flood of clones in the late 1980s cost IBM its driving position in the personal computer industry. By 1998, IBM held only 8.6 percent of the PC market, while leading clone makers Compaq, Dell, Gateway, and Hewlett-Packard held a combined 32.1 percent of the market.
1981 Irish Republican Army member Bobby Sands begins a hunger strike at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland. He would die 65 days later.
1980 Snow falls in Florida.
1979 Se celebran las primeras elecciones generales en España tras la promulgación de la Constitución, en las que Unión de Centro Democrático (UCD) consigue la mayoría.
1977 US extends territorial waters to 200 miles.
1974 Watergate grand jury indicts 7 presidential aides. — Siete de los más íntimos colaboradores del presidente estadounidense, Richard Milhous Nixon, son acusados de participar en el escándalo "Watergate".
1972 Club of Rome publishes report "Boundaries on the Growth"
1971 Bomb explodes in US Capitol building    ^top^
      A bomb explodes in a restroom in the Senate wing of the Capitol in Washington, D.C., causing an estimated $300,000 in damage but hurting no one. A group calling itself the "Weather Underground" claimed credit for the bombing, which was done in protest of the ongoing US-supported Laos invasion. The so-called Weathermen were a radical faction of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); the Weathermen advocated violent means to transform American society. The philosophical foundations of the Weathermen were Marxist in nature; they believed that militant struggle was the key to striking out against the state to build a revolutionary consciousness among the young, particularly the white working class. Their primary tools to achieving these ends were arson and bombing. Among the other targets of Weathermen bombings were the Long Island Court House, the New York Police Department headquarters, the Pentagon, and the State Department. No one was killed in these bombings, because the bombers always called in an advanced warning. However, three members of the Weather Underground died on March 6, 1970, when the house in which they were constructing the bombs exploded.
1971 West Pakistan rejects an East Pakistani led government, thus leading to the secession of East Pakistan, to become Bangladesh.    ^top^
      On 01 July 1970, Pakistan's ruler, Yahya Khan, had determined that the parity of representation in the National Assembly between the East Wing and the West Wing that had existed under the 1956 and 1962 constitutions would end and that representation would be based on population. This arrangement gave East Pakistan 162 seats (plus seven reserved for women) versus 138 seats (plus six for women) for the new provinces of the West Wing.
      An intense election campaign took place in 1970 as restrictions on press, speech, and assembly were removed. Bhutto campaigned in the West Wing on a strongly nationalist and leftist platform. The slogan of his party was "Islam our Faith, Democracy our Policy, Socialism our Economy." He said that the PPP would provide "roti, kapra, aur makhan" (bread, clothing, and shelter) to all. He also proclaimed a "thousand year war with India," although this pronouncement was played down later in the campaign. In the East Wing, the Awami League gained widespread support for the six-point program. Its cause was further strengthened because West Pakistani politicians were perceived as callously indifferent to the Bengali victims of the October cyclone and slow to come to their aid. The first general election conducted in Pakistan on the basis of one person, one vote, was held on 07 December 1970; elections to provincial legislative assemblies followed three days later. The voting was heavy. Yahya Khan kept his promise of free and fair elections.
      The Awami League won a colossal victory in East Pakistan, for it was directly elected to 160 of the 162 seats in the east and thus gained a majority of the 300 directly elected seats in the National Assembly (plus the thirteen indirectly elected seats for women, bringing the total to 313 members) without winning a seat in the West Wing. The PPP won a large majority in the West Wing, especially in Punjab and Sindh, but no seats in the East Wing. In the North- West Frontier Province and Balochistan, the National Awami Party won a plurality of the seats. The Muslim League and the Islamic parties did poorly in the west and were not represented in the east. Bhutto, Mujib and East Pakistan Any constitutional agreement clearly depended on the consent of three persons: Mujib of the East Wing, Bhutto of the West Wing, and Yahya Khan, as the ultimate authenticator representing the military government. In his role as intermediary and head of state, Yahya Khan tried to persuade Bhutto and Mujib to come to some kind of accommodation. This effort proved unsuccessful as Mujib insisted on his right as leader of the majority to form a government--a stand at variance with Bhutto, who claimed there were "two majorities" in Pakistan. Bhutto declared that the PPP would not attend the inaugural session of the assembly, thereby making the establishment of civilian government impossible.
      On 01 March 1971, Yahya Khan, who earlier had referred to Mujib as the "future prime minister of Pakistan," dissolved his civilian cabinet and declared an indefinite postponement of the National Assembly. In East Pakistan, the reaction was immediate. Strikes, demonstrations, and civil disobedience increased in tempo until there was open revolt. Prodded by Mujib, Bengalis declared they would pay no taxes and would ignore martial law regulations on press and radio censorship. The writ of the central government all but ceased to exist in East Pakistan. Mujib, Bhutto, and Yahya Khan held negotiations in Dhaka in late March in a last-ditch attempt to defuse the growing crisis; simultaneously, General Tikka Khan, who commanded the Pakistani forces in East Pakistan, prepared a contingency plan for a military takeover and called for troop reinforcements to be flown in via Sri Lanka.
      In an atmosphere of distrust and suspicion, the talks broke down, and on 25 March Yahya Khan and Bhutto flew back to West Pakistan. Tikka Khan's emergency plan went into operation. Roadblocks and barriers appeared all over Dhaka. Mujib was taken into custody and flown to the West Wing to stand trial for treason. Universities were attacked, and the first of many deaths occurred. The tempo of violence of the military crackdown during these first days soon accelerated into a full-blown and brutal civil war. On 26 March, Yahya Khan outlawed the Awami League, banned political activity, and re-imposed press censorship in both wings. Because of these strictures, people in the West Wing remained uninformed about the crackdown in the east and tended to discount reports appearing in the international press as an Indian conspiracy.
      Major Ziaur Rahman, a political unknown at the time, proclaimed the independence of Bangladesh from Chittagong, a city in the southeast of the new country. He would become president of Bangladesh in April 1977. A Bangladeshi government in exile was formed in Calcutta. Ziaur Rahman and others organized Bengali troops to form the Mukti Bahini (Liberation Force) to resist the Pakistan Army. The East Pakistan Rifles, a paramilitary force, mutinied and joined the revolutionary forces. Nevertheless, the Pakistan Army pressed its heavy offensive and in early April controlled most of East Pakistan. More than 250,000 refugees crossed into India in the first few days of the war. The influx continued over the next six months and reached a total of about 10 million. No accurate estimate can be made of the numbers of people killed or wounded or the numbers women, but the assessment of international human rights organizations is that the Pakistani crackdown was particularly alarming in its ferocity. Relations between Pakistan and India, already tense, deteriorated sharply as a result of the crisis.
      On 31 March, the Indian parliament passed a resolution in support of the "people of Bengal." The Mukti Bahini, formed around regular and paramilitary forces, received equipment, training, and other assistance from India. Superpower rivalries further complicated the situation, impinged on Pakistan's war, and possibly impeded its political resolution. In the fall, military and guerrilla operations increased, and Pakistan and India reported escalation of border shelling. On the western border of East Pakistan, military preparations were also in evidence.
      On 21 November, the Mukti Bahini launched an offensive on Jessore, southwest of Dhaka. Yahya Khan declared a state of emergency in all of Pakistan on 23 November and asked his people to prepare for war. In response to Indian military movements along and across the Indian-East Pakistani border, the Pakistan Air Force attacked military targets in northern India on 03 December, and on 04 December India began an integrated ground, naval, and air invasion of East Pakistan. The Indian army launched a five-pronged attack and began converging on Dhaka. Indian forces closed in around Dhaka and received the surrender of Pakistani forces on 16 December. Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi proclaimed a unilateral cease-fire on 17 December.
      Violent demonstrations against the military government soon broke out at the news of Pakistan's defeat. Yahya Khan resigned on 20 December. Bhutto assumed power as president and chief martial law administrator of a disgraced military, a shattered government, and a bewildered and demoralized population. Formal relations between Pakistan and Bangladesh were not established until 1976.
1970 White govt of Rhodesia declares independence from Britain
1970 End of US coml whale hunting
1968 Clifford replaces McNamara as US Secretary of Defense.    ^top^
      Clark Clifford replaces Robert McNamara as US Secretary of Defense. McNamara, who had first taken office under President John F. Kennedy, left amid a debate over Vietnam policy precipitated by the Tet Offensive. In the summer of 1967, McNamara had become convinced that the United States should seek an end to the war through a negotiated settlement. In a memorandum submitted to President Johnson, he recommended that the US freeze its troop levels, cease the bombing of North Vietnam, and turn over responsibility for the ground war to South Vietnam. Johnson rejected these proposals outright. After the communists launched the Tet Offensive in January 1968, an increasingly demoralized McNamara left Washington after eight years as Defense Secretary to become the president of the World Bank. Clifford, a successful Washington lawyer and Democratic Party powerbroker, served as Defense Secretary until January 1969, when he departed with the rest of the Johnson administration.
1968 Vatican City's Apostolic Constitution of 1967 goes into effect
1967 US Representative Adam Clayton Powell Jr. of New York City, accused of misconduct, was denied (307 to 116) his seat in the 90th Congress. The Supreme Court would rule in 1969 that Powell had to be seated.
1967 Dominica and St Lucia gain independence from Britain.
1967 El Tribunal Supremo declara ilegal en España el sindicato Comisiones Obreras (CCOO).
^ 1966 Soviet probe crashes into Venus
      Venera 3, a Soviet probe launched on 15 November 1965 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, collides with Venus, the second planet from the sun. Although Venera 3 fails in its mission to measure the Venusian atmosphere, it is the first unmanned spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet.
      Four years earlier, the US probe Mariner 2, was the first spacecraft to pass close enough to Venus to take scientific measurements of the planet, discovering surface temperatures in excess of eight hundred degrees Fahrenheit on its surface.
      In 1967, Venera 4 succeeded where Venera 3 had failed, successfully ejecting several scientific instruments, including a thermometer, a barometer, an atmospheric density gauge, and gas analyzers, into Venus’ atmosphere.
      On 15 December 1970, Venera 7 became the first human spacecraft to soft-land on the Venus, successfully sending back images and data for twenty-three minutes before succumbing to the extremely high temperature and atmosphere pressure found on the planet’s surface.
1966 Ba'ath-party takes power in Syria.
^ 1965 US informs South Vietnam of intent to send Marines.
      Ambassador Maxwell Taylor informs South Vietnamese Premier Phan Huy Quat that the United States is preparing to send 3500 US Marines to Vietnam to protect the US airbase at Da Nang. Three days later, a formal request was submitted by the US Embassy, asking the South Vietnamese government to "invite" the United States to send the Marines. Premier Quat, a mere figurehead, had to obtain approval from the real power, Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu, chief of the Armed Forces Council. Thieu approved, but asked that the Marines be "brought ashore in the most inconspicuous way feasible." Rumors of the imminent arrival of American troops soon circulated in Saigon, but there was no official word from either government until 06 March when the Johnson administration publicly confirmed that it would be sending the Marines to South Vietnam.
1965 The US Supreme Court rules unconstitutional a Maryland movie censorship law, as it violates the First Amendment. Two weeks later, the court would also strike down New York's censorship procedures.
1962 Uganda became a self-governing country
1959 Archbishop Makarios returns to Cyprus after 3 years
1954 US explodes 15 megaton hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll. — Estados Unidos hace explotar la bomba de hidrógeno más potente fabricada hasta la fecha, en el atolón de Eniwetok, archipiélago de las Marshall, en el Pacífico.
^ 1954 Puerto Rican nationalists wound five US Representatives
      In the US Capitol, four members of an extremist Puerto Rican nationalist group fire more than thirty shots at the floor of the House of Representatives from a visitors’ gallery, injuring five US representatives. Alvin Bentley of Michigan, George Fallon of Maryland, Ben Jensen of Iowa, Clifford Davis of Tennessee, and Kenneth Roberts of Alabama. All eventually recover from their gunshot wounds and return to their seats in Congress.
      Three of the Puerto Rican terrorists are detained immediately after the shooting and the fourth is captured later. The group was protesting the new constitution of Puerto Rico granting the US Congress ultimate authority over the commonwealth’s affairs.
1952 Helgoland, in North Sea, returned to West Germany by Britain
1952 Egyptian government-Ali Maher Pasja resigns
1950 USSR issues golden rubles
1950 Klaus Fuchs sentenced to 14 years for atomic espionage (London)
1950 Chiang Kai-shek resumed the presidency of National China on Formosa
^ 1950 Fuchs is convicted of revealing atomic secrets
      In London, Klaus Fuchs, the German-born physicist who helped build the first two US atomic bombs, is convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.
      As a student in prewar Germany, Fuchs joined the Communist Party, but in 1934 was forced to flee after Nazi leader Adolf Hitler seized power. Settling in Britain, he became a brilliant young scientist, and after World War II broke out, was granted security clearance despite his Communist past. In 1943, he was sent with other British scientists to the United States to join the top secret US atomic program. Eventually stationed at atomic development headquarters in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Fuchs became an important scientist in the program.
      However, soon after his arrival, he made contact with a Soviet spy and offered precise information about the program, including a blueprint of the "Fat Man" atomic bomb later dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, and everything that the Los Alamos scientists knew about the hypothesized hydrogen bomb.
      After the war, Fuchs returned to England, where he continued his atomic work and Soviet espionage until December 21, 1949, when a British intelligence officer informed the physicist that he was suspected of having given classified nuclear weapons information to the USS.R. The discovery of Fuch's espionage came four months after the Soviet Union successfully detonated its first atomic bomb. Fuchs pleaded guilty and, on March 1, 1950, after a two-hour trial, was convicted.
      Despite calls for his execution, by British law he could only be sentenced to fourteen years as he had committed the espionage before the USS.R. was designated an official British enemy. After nine years, he was released from prison and immediately left Britain for Communist East Germany, where he resumed his scientific career. The revelation of Fuchs's espionage was a major factor leading to US President Harry S. Truman's approval of massive funding for the development of the hydrogen bomb, a weapon theorized to be dozens of times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.
1948 Evacuación de las últimas tropas británicas de la India.
1946 La monarquía triunfa por amplia mayoría en el plebiscito celebrado en Grecia. Jorge II anuncia su regreso a Atenas.
1946 Panama  accepts its new constitution.
1946 British Govt takes control of Bank of England, after 252 years.
1945 US infantry regiment captures Münchengladbach.
1945 British 43rd Division under Gen Essame occupies Xanten
1945 Chinese 30th division occupies Hsenwi.
1945 FDR announces success of Yalta Conference.
1945 Fieldmarshal Kesselring succeeds von Rundstedt as commander.
1944 Massive strikes in Northern Italian towns.
1942 3 day Battle of Java Sea ends, US suffers a major naval defeat.
1942 Japanese troops occupy Kalidjati airport in Java.
1942 Tito establishes 2nd Proletarit Brigade in Bosnia.
^ 1941 Bulgaria joins the Axis as German troops arrive.
      Bulgaria joins the Axis powers by signing the Tripartite Pact. When the Second World War broke out, Bulgaria declared its neutrality. But Bulgaria's King Boris was eager to expand his country's borders, and Germany had already coerced Romania to restore south Dobruja--which had been lost in World War I--to Bulgaria. Bulgaria had chosen the wrong side in World War I, deciding that its territorial needs then would best be met by joining the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary and the German Empire). They were wrong, and King Boris was determined not to make the same mistake again. Believing Hitler's boasts that he had already won the war, King Boris chose to pitch his country's tent on the Axis side of the war. Hitler needed a compliant Bulgaria through which to march his troops en route to offensives against both Yugoslavia and Greece. If the Germans were victorious in Greece, Bulgaria hoped, as a new war partner, to gain access itself to the Aegean by claiming Greek territory to its south.
      On 01 March 1941, the Germans came marching through the Balkans, as the Bulgarian king signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna with Hitler looking on. Bulgaria benefited in the short term from the alliance; it made territorial gains in both Greece and Yugoslavia. But Hitler was not through exploiting its "partner"—the Fuhrer wanted Bulgaria's help in its war with the Soviet Union. While King Boris prepared Bulgarian troops for the Eastern Front in 1943, communists and agrarian reformers mounted a vigorous resistance campaign, assassinating more than 100 pro-Nazi officials. King Boris also died at this time-from a heart attack. A Regency Council was formed, which remained loyal to Germany. Successive governments rose and fell until the Soviet Union's invasion of Bulgaria in September 1944 resulted in an armistice and a postwar, pro-Soviet Bulgaria.
1941 Himmler inspects Auschwitz concentration camp
1941 W47NV in Nashville, Tennessee, which had received the first commercial license for an FM radio station, begins operations, airing a commercial for Nashville's Standard Candy Company.
1939 Manuel Azaña dimite como Presidente de la Segunda República española, en su exilio de Francia. Le sustituye Diego Martínez Barrio.
^ 1937 US Steel bows to CIO.
      After a long and turbulent United Auto Workers (UAW) strike at the General Motors (GM) plant in Flint, Michigan. struggle, GM had capitulated and recognized the UAW as the "bargaining agent" for the company's employees. The UAW's victory had a profound ripple effect; it not only galvanized workers in other industries, but helped legitimize the labor movement in the eyes of corporate leaders.
      The earliest result of the UAW-GM strike was the landmark contract signed by Congress of Industrial Organizations chief John L. Lewis and US Steel President Myron Taylor. At the heart of the deal was US Steel's official recognition of the CIO's steel arm as the sole negotiator for the company's unionized workers. The contract was also studded with concessions to US Steel employees, including the adoption of overtime pay and the forty-hour work week, as well as a pay hike that raised wages by nearly forty cents an hour. This was a stunning about-face for a company that had previously done its best to crush its workers’ union-based efforts. However, Taylor viewed the UAW-GM strike as a clear indication that "complete industrial organization was inevitable" and thus reached out to his workers in hopes of averting a showdown that, given labor's surging power, could have severely debilitated his company.
1935 En nombre de la Sociedad de Naciones, el barón de Aloisi transfiere oficialmente el territorio del Sarre a Alemania.
1934 Henry Pu Yi crowned emperor Kang Teh of Manchuria.
1933 Bank holidays declared in 6 states, to prevent run on banks
1924 Germany's prohibition of Communist Party KPD lifted
1921 Ruanda ceded to England
1921 Sailors revolt in Kronstadt Russia
^ 1921 E.M. Forster embarks on a 2nd passage to India.
      British writer E.M. Forster, 41, embarks on his second trip to India after an absence of eight years. Forster would turn his observations of the country into his fifth and most critically acclaimed novel, A Passage to India, published in 1924. The novel explored racism and colonialism through the story of an English tourist who accuses a respected Indian doctor of attacking her. Forster was born in London in 1879, the son of an architect. His father died before he was two, and he spent most of his childhood with his mother and a great-aunt in an old house called Rooksnest, which later became the model for the country estate portrayed in Howard's End. Forster was teased and tormented mercilessly at the private school he attended as a day student and remained shy and timid throughout the rest of his life. However, he found intellectual companionship during his university years at King's College, Cambridge, where he joined a secret society of intellectuals called the Apostles. Forster began contributing essays and stories to the newly formed Independent Review in 1903 and published his first novel, Where Angels Fear to Tread, two years later. Like his later books, the novel looked at English discomfort with foreign cultures. Forster traveled widely, visiting Greece, Italy, and India, and later served with the Red Cross in Alexandria, Egypt, from 1915 to 1919. Forster made many close friends among the intellectual and literary "Bloomsbury set," including Virginia Woolf. Forster published five novels by 1924 and received an honorary fellowship from his alma mater in 1946, which allowed him to live in Cambridge for the rest of his long life. Although Forster lived to be 91, he published no novels in his lifetime after A Passage to India, although a sixth novel, Maurice, which dealt with homosexuality, was published after his death.
1920 Austria becomes a kingdom again, under Admiral Horthy.
1920 Buriat ASSR, in RSFSR, constituted
^ 1917 US public is informed that Germany incites Mexico to war against the US.
     The US State Department would publishes the "Zimmermann Note," a coded message from German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann to Count Johann von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to Mexico. The telegram had been intercepted and deciphered by British intelligence, and, on 24 February, given to the US ambassador to Britain. In it Zimmermann states that, in the event of war with the United States, Mexico should be asked to enter the conflict as a German ally. In return, Germany promised to restore to Mexico the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. American public opinion is galvanized against Germany
      On 22 February, the US Congress had passed a $250 million arms appropriations bill intended to make the United States ready for war with Germany, which, on 31 January had announced the renewal of unlimited submarine warfare in the Atlantic German torpedo-armed submarines were prepared to attack any and all ships, including civilian passenger carriers, said to be sited in war-zone waters. On 03 February, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Germany, and just hours after that the American liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. None of the 25 US persons on board were killed, and all were later picked up by a British steamer.
      When World War I erupted in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson had pledged neutrality for the United States, a position that the vast majority of Americans favored. Britain, however, was one of America's closest trading partners, and tension soon arose between the United States and Germany over the latter's attempted quarantine of the British isles. Several US ships traveling to Britain were damaged or sunk by German mines, and in February 1915 Germany announced unrestricted warfare against all ships, neutral or otherwise, that entered the war zone around Britain.
      One month later, Germany announced that a German cruiser had sunk the William P. Frye, a private American vessel that was transporting grain to England when it disappeared. President Wilson was outraged, but the German government apologized and called the attack an unfortunate mistake. The Germans' most formidable naval weapon was the U-boat, a submarine far more sophisticated than those built by other nations at the time. The typical U-boat was 65 m long, carried 35 men and 12 torpedoes, and could travel underwater for two hours at a time. In the first few years of World War I, the U-boats took a terrible toll on Allied shipping. In early May 1915, several New York newspapers published a warning by the German embassy in Washington that Americans traveling on British or Allied ships in war zones did so at their own risk. The announcement was placed on the same page as an advertisement of the imminent sailing of the British-owned Lusitania ocean liner from New York to Liverpool.
      On 07 May, the Lusitania was torpedoed without warning just off the coast of Ireland. Of the 1959 passengers, 1198 were killed, including 128 from the US. The German government maintained that the Lusitania was carrying munitions, but the US demanded reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships. In August, Germany pledged to see to the safety of passengers before sinking unarmed vessels but in November sunk an Italian liner without warning, killing 272 people, including 27 US nationals. Public opinion in the United States began to turn irrevocably against Germany. In 1917, Germany, determined to win its war of attrition against the Allies, announces the resumption of unrestricted warfare.
      In late March, Germany sunk four more US merchant ships, and on 02 April President Wilson appeared before Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany. On 04 April, the Senate voted 82 to six to declare war against Germany. Two days later, the House of Representatives endorsed the declaration by a vote of 373 to 50, and America formally entered World War I. On 26 June, the first 14'000 US infantrymen landed in France to begin training for combat. After four years of bloody stalemate along the western front, the entrance of the US's well-supplied forces into the conflict was a major turning point in the war. When the war finally ended, on 11 November 1918, more than two million US soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, and some 50'000 of these men had lost their lives.
1916 Germany begins attacking ships in the Atlantic
1913 Federal income tax takes effect, as per 16th amendment
1912 Albert Berry makes first parachute jump from an airplane.
1896 El físico francés Antoine Henri Becquerel descubre una nueva propiedad de la materia que recibe el nombre de "radioactividad", primer paso para al hallazgo del "radio" por los esposos Curie.
1875 Congress passes Civil Rights Act; invalidated by Supreme Ct, 1883
1872 Yellowstone becomes world's first national park
1867 Most of Nebraska becomes 37th US state (expanded later)
1866 - Paraguayan canoes sink 2 Brazilian ironclads on Rio Parana
1864 Federal cavalry raid by Judson Kilpatrick and Ulric Dahlgren on Richmond, Virginia
1854 Se redacta el Plan de Ayutla en México, que critica el conservadurismo del presidente Santa Ana y pide la creación de un congreso constituyente que redefina la vida nacional. Esta declaración llevará a un pronunciamiento y a la creación de un gobierno provisional.
1854 SS City of Glasgow leaves Liverpool harbor and is never seen again.
1847 Michigan becomes first English-speaking jurisdiction to abolish the death penalty (except for treason against the state)
1845 President Tyler signs a congressional resolution to annex the Republic of Texas.
1803 Ohio becomes 17th state of US.
1799 La escuadra combinada de rusos y turcos toma a los franceses Corfú y algunas islas más del mar Jónico.
1792 US Presidential Succession Act passed
1790 US Congress authorizes the first US Census.
1781 Continental Congress adopts Articles of Confederation.
1780 Pennsylvania becomes first US state to abolish slavery (for new-borns only)
^ 1692 Salem Witch Hunt Begins
     In Salem Village in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, an Indian slave from Barbados, are charged with the illegal practice of witchcraft. The same day, Tituba, possibly under coercion, confesses to the crime, encouraging the authorities to seek out more Salem witches.
      Trouble in the small Puritan community began in the previous month, when nine-year-old Elizabeth Parris and eleven-year-old Abigail Williams, the daughter and niece of Reverend Samuel Parris, began experiencing fits and other signs of a hysterical disorder. A doctor concluded that the children were suffering from the effects of witchcraft, and the young girls corroborated the doctor's diagnosis. With encouragement from a number of adults in the community, the girls, who were soon joined by other "afflicted" Salem residents, accused a widening circle of local residents of witchcraft, mostly middle-aged women but also several men and even one four-year-old child.
      Over the next few months, the afflicted incriminate more than 150 women and men from Salem Village and the surrounding areas of Satanic practices. In June of 1692, the special Court of Oyer, "to hear," and Terminer, "to decide," convened in Salem under Chief Justice William Stoughton to judge the accused. The first to be tried was Bridget Bishop of Salem who was found guilty and executed by hanging on 10 June.
      Thirteen more women and four men from all stations of life followed her to the gallows, and one man, Giles Corey, was executed by crushing. Most of those tried were condemned on the basis of the witnesses' hysterical behavior during the actual proceedings, characterized by fits and hallucinations that were argued to be caused by the defendants on trial.
      In October of 1692, Governor William Phipps of Massachusetts ordered the Court of Oyer and Terminer dissolved and replaced with the Superior Court of Judicature, which forbid the type of sensational testimony allowed in the earlier trials. Executions ceased, and the Superior Court eventually released all those awaiting trial and pardoned those sentenced to death. The Salem witch trials, which resulted in the executions of nineteen innocent women and men, had effectively ended.
1634 Battle at Smolensk: Polish King Wladyslaw IV beats Russians
1591 Pope Gregory XIV sends a monitorial letter to the Council of Paris, in which he renews the sentence of excommunication against French king Henri IV (who had not yet complied with his promise to become a Catholic), and orders the clergy, nobles, judicial functionaries, and the Third Estate of France to renounce him, under pain of severe penalties.
1587 English parliament leader Peter Wentworth confined in London Tower.
1493 A su regreso de América, al mando de Martín Alonso Yáñez Pinzón, la carabela La Pinta arriba al puerto de Bayona (Pontevedra), primer lugar de Europa en que se supo la noticia del descubrimiento.
1476 Fernando II Rey de Aragon (y V de Castilla) vence en Toro a los partidarios del nombramiento real de Juana la Beltraneja.
1420 Pope Martin V issues a Bull inviting all Christians to unite in a crusade for the extermination of Wycliffites, Hussites, and other heretics.
1382 French Maillotin uprises against taxes
1260 Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis, conquers Damascus.
0743 Slave export by Christians to heathen areas prohibited
0710 Rodrigo, rey visigodo, es ungido monarca en España.
0705 John VII is elected Pope
0492 Saint Gelasius I is elected Pope
Roman emperor Maximianus introduces tetrarchy
^ 0293 L'empereur romain Dioclétien instaure la «tétrarchie»
     C'est une forme originale de gouvernement à quatre. Dioclétien est un soldat de grand mérite originaire des régions du Danube. Il comprend que le gouvernement de l'empire dépasse désormais les forces d'un seul homme. La pression des Barbares se fait de plus en plus forte aux frontières et certaines provinces comme la Gaule en arrivent à se gouverner seules. Dans l'année qui suit son arrivée au pouvoir, en 286, Dioclétien se donne un collègue, Maximien. La cohabitation se passe bien. Dioclétien complète alors le système avec deux nouveaux empereurs d'un rang inférieur. C'est la tétrarchie. Dioclétien et Maximien prennent le titre d'Auguste. Le premier gouverne l'Orient (capitale: Nicomédie, en face d'Istanbul), le second l'Italie et l'Afrique (capitale: Milan). Les adjoints prennent le titre de César. Constance Chlore gouverne l'Espagne, la Bretagne et la Gaule (capitale: Trèves), Galère l'Illyrie (capitale: Sirmium, dans la Hongrie actuelle). L'empereur découpe les vastes provinces de l'empire et crée des circonscriptions de taille plus réduites, plus faciles à organiser et défendre. Rome n'est plus le siège du gouvernement. La Ville éternelle est délaissée au profit de villes frontalières plus proches des légions. Dans le même temps où il décentralise l'administration de l'empire, Dioclétien éprouve la nécessité de renforcer sa cohésion culturelle et politique. C'est pourquoi son règne est marqué par de violentes persécutions contre les communautés chrétiennes qui refusent de sacrifier au culte impérial. Selon la règle qu'ils ont eux-mêmes fixée, Dioclétien et Maximien se retirent de leur plein gré en 305. Mais leurs successeurs se montrent moins désintéressés et la tétrarchie sombre très vite dans les luttes intestines, non sans avoir préparé la scission de l'empire entre l'Orient (grec) et l'Occident (latin). On peut voir à Venise, sur le mur extérieur de la basilique Saint-Marc, une sculpture en pierre rouge qui représente les tétrarques. Elle a été découverte à Constantinople et ramenée par des croisés.
--1 -BC Start of revised Julian calendar in Rome
< 28 Feb < 29 Feb 02 Mar >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 01 March:

2007 A. Michelle Wilson, 16; Kathryn Madora Strunk, 16; Jamie Ann Vidensek, 17; Peter James Dunn II, 16; Michael J.Bowen, 16; Michael D. Tompkins, 17; Ryan Andrew Mohler, 17; Andrew Joel Jackson, 16; ; [photos below] students at the high school of Enterprise, Alabama, destroyed by a tornado. —(070304)








Joe Geeling
2006 Joe Geeling, 11 [photo >], of multiple stab wounds inflicted by a 14-year-old boy, in Bury, Greater Manchester, England, after both had left Saint Gabriel's Roman Catholic High School at the end of the school day. Joe Geeling suffered from cystic fibrosis and needed daily treatment. — (060305)

2006 Eldar Abir, 48, Israeli man of the Migdalim enclave settlement in the West Bank, after being shot by two Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades terrorists as he was filling up his car at a gasoline station. — (060301)

2006 Khaled Dahdouh (or Dahduh, or Abu al-Walid al-Dahdukh?), 39 (45?), top military commander of the Islamic Jihad Al Quds Brigades in the Gaza Strip, by an explosion in his car in Gaza City (due to a bomb placed in it by Israelis? or to a missile fired by an Israeli aircraft?). — (060301)

2005 Elías Mendoza Alcaraz and Sergio Mendoza Alcaraz, murdered in Chinicuila, Michoacán state, Mexico. Both brothers were government employees. (050917)
al-Masricar bomb remnants
2003 Abu Muhammad al-Masri
[< photo], by a car bomb that explodes next to him as he leaves his bean shop to walk to a mosque to pray, in Ain el-Hilweh, the largest Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon, over which an Israeli reconnaissance plane had flown the previous day [remnants of the car bomb >]. The mosque is frequented by members of the terrorist organization Osbat al-Ansar, suspected of links to Al Qaeda. Israel has accused al-Masri of leading Qaeda operations in Lebanon. Al-Masri is Egyptian, he is believed to frequently use the name Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah and to be about 40 years old. He ran al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, including the al-Farooq camp near Kandahar.He is also believed to have been involved in the Africa embassy bombings. He came to Ain el-Hilweh, which is near Sidon, in 1997. — Reuters would receive a fax purporting to be from Youth of the Armed Struggle (which is totally unknown), saying that they killed Masri because he belonged to Jamaat an-Nour (thought to be an offshoot of Osbat al-Ansar). The fax blames Jamaat an-Nour for a string of bomb attacks in Ain el-Hilweh and for threats against prominent Palestinians in the camp.
2003 Kelly Vieira, from injuries suffered in the 20 February 2003 fire of The Station nightclub in West Warwick, Rhode Island, of which she is the 98th fatality, the second one to die after the fire.
2003 Marc Zanichelli, 37, at 09:40, at the NAPA auto parts store at 263 Hendrix Street in East New York, Brooklyn NY, of which he was the manager, by a bullet to the head from a .45-caliber handgun fired by one of two robbers, after Zanichelli tells them that the key to the safe is in his car parked outside. They get away with the wallets of the three employees.

2002 Dozens more of Indian Moslems, many of them burned alive in their homes, and 14 at the small Best Bakery, in the Hanuman Tekri area of Vadodara.by a mob of about 500, and elsewhere in Gujarat state by other enraged Hindu mobs, as the police and the firefighters fail to intervene. The death toll now exceeds 200, including the 58 Hindu activist burned alive on a train by a Moslem mob on 27 February, purposefully aggravated by false rumors spread by Hindu agitators, which is what started the violence. The army today sends in troops. —(060224)
2001 Claude Knafo, 29, Israeli from Tiberias, by a bomb detonated in a taxi van in Mei Ami. Nine other people, Arabs and Jews, are injured. This brings the number killed in the al-Aqsa intifada to 339 Palestinians, 58 Israelis, and 15 others.
2001 Ana Louise North, 19, by crashing into a legally parked trailer after careening down Baldwin Street in Dunedin, New Zealand, at about 02:30. She was riding in a rubbish bin layed on its side, with Lindsay Peter Roxburgh, 19, who suffered a serious head injury. The two, university students, had met in a bar earlier in the night. Baldwin Street is listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the steepest in the world with a maximum gradient of 1 in 2.66 (38º). North is good candidate for a Darwin Award.(Darwin Awards celebrate the theory of evolution by commemorating the remains of those who improved our gene pool by removing themselves from it in really stupid ways).
^ 2001 Jerry Joyce, police captain, suicide.
      After 38 years on the force, Cleveland police Capt. Jerry Joyce takes his own life. It's the third suicide in the Cleveland Police Department in less than 15 months. Joyce loved putting on the uniform and working the streets, but he recently became frustrated after a reorganization left him sitting behind a desk. Police officers kill themselves at a rate of two to six times the national average. Twice as many officers kill themselves as are killed in the line of duty. Police officers internalize their stress and are hesitant to talk about the job at home, and even more reluctant to seek counseling, which is seen as a negative mark against their career. Joyce called Cleveland police Chief Martin Flask at home the previous evening, and told him he was unhappy with his new assignment overseeing jail security. They agreed to meet on this day to talk about it, but a few hours before the meeting was to take place, Joyce took his own life with his service revolver.
2000 John Kroll, 55, and Joseph Healy, 71, shot by a Black, Ronald Taylor, 39, in a racist rampage. He also shoots Emil Sanielevici, 20, who dies the next day; and Richard Clinger, 57, and Steve Bostard, 26, who both would recover. All five victims are Whites shot separately in different places in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. On 08 November 2001, Taylor would be convicted, and, on 11 January 2002, sentenced to death plus 65-to-130 years in prison. [Does that make sense? Will they carefull keep him alive in prison until he is 41+65=106, and then execute him? Or will they execute him first and then keep his corpse in a prison cell?]. Taylor began his rampage at 11:15 when he shot Kroll, a carpenter fixing a door at Taylor's apartment. Kroll died later in the day. Taylor then set the apartment afire, walked to a nearby Burger King, and shot and killed former priest Healy [would that be Joseph G. Healy who had been a Maryknoll missionary in Tanzania?] who was drinking coffee. Taylor then walked across the street to a McDonald's restaurant, where he shot Clinger sitting in his van in the parking lot, and Sanielevici who was sitting in his car at the takeout window. Taylor then entered the restaurant, walked behind the counter, and shot Bostard, the restaurant's assistant manager, in the head.
1998 Al menos 16 albaneses y cuatro policías serbios en Kosovo, en un enfrentamiento entre la policía de Belgrado y ciudadanos albaneses, en la peor oleada de violencia desde que terminó la guerra de Bosnia.
1995 Georg Köhler, biólogo alemán, Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1984.
1991 Edwin H Land, 81, in Cambridge, Massachusetts , inventor of polarizing filters and Polaroid instant photography.
1979 Molla Mustafa Barzani, 75, Iranian Kurd leader (KDP)
1978 Oka, mathematician.
1962 Julio Camba, escritor y periodista español.
1952 Mariano Azuela, novelista mexicano.
1944 Walter Elmer Schofield, US Impressionist painter born on 09 September 1867. — MORE ON SCHOFIELD AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
Mike Strank
1945 Mike Strank
, [photo >] by a mortar shell as he was diagramming a plan in the sand for his squad on Iwo Jima. He was the sergeant leading the 6 men who raised the flag on Mount Suribachi on 23 February 1945, subject of a famous photo.(he is the one on the left in the back) It was him who got the order to climb Mt. Suribachi. A smaller flag had already been raised. Mike picked his men and explained that the larger flag had to be raised so that "every Marine on this cruddy island can see it." It was Mike who gave the orders to find a pole, attach the flag and "put'er up!"
     Born in 1919 in Jarabenia, Czechoslovakia, he came to the US as a child. At home as a boy, Mike was studious, had a photographic memory, played the French Horn and once slugged a baseball out of Points Stadium in Johnstown. In 1936, Mike ran down to the river to see for himself the terrible Johnstown flood. He brought this report back to his family: "Don't worry--it will recede."
      Mike's right hand is the only hand of a flagraiser not on the pole. His right hand is around the wrist of Franklin Sousley, helping the younger man push the heavy pole. This is typical of Mike, the oldest of the flagraisers, always there to help one of his boys. Two months before the battle Mike's Captain tried to promote him but Mike turned it down flat: "I trained those boys and I'm going to be with them in battle," he said.

Harlon Block^ 1945 Harlon Block, [< photo] by a mortar shell, later in the day after he had taken command after Sergeant Strank had been killed. He is the rightmost one in the flag raising photo. When his mother Belle saw the Flag Raising Photo in the Weslaco Newspaper on Feb. 25, she exclaimed, "That's Harlon" pointing to the figure on the far right. But the US Government mis-identified the figure as Harry Hansen of Boston. Belle never wavered in her belief that it was Harlon insisting, "I know my boy." No one--not her family, neighbors, the Government or the public--had any reason to believe her. But eighteen months later in a sensational front-page story, a Congressional investigation revealed that it was Harlon in the photo, proving that indeed, Belle did "know her boy."
     Block was born in Yorktown, Texas, in 1924. He led the Weslaco Panther Football Team to the Conference Championship. He was honored as "All South Texas End." Harlon and twelve of his teammates enlisted in the Marine Corps together in 1943.
^ 1940 Day 92 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.

Soviet troops attack delaying positions on the Isthmus

      The Soviet force on the Isthmus follows closely behind the Finnish troops withdrawing to the backline positions and carries out a number of assaults on the delaying positions.
      Soviet tanks dragging sled personnel carriers overtake the Finnish troops withdrawing to the delaying positions to the west of Perojoki. The vanguard of the Russian tanks breaks through to Ukonmäki near the main road from Viipuri to Tali.
      The enemy is also attacking along the Heinjoki-Lyykylä road and to the south of Viipuri.
      In Vuosalmi, a Soviet detachment of approximately battalion strength attacking the church hill at Äyräpää is beaten back by the defending Finnish troops.
      In Taipale, the command dugout in the Terenttilä sector receives a direct hit; 2 officers and 11 men are killed and a further 6 soldiers are seriously wounded.
      In northern Finland, Lieutenant-Colonel Magnus Dyrssen is killed by enemy shelling. Dyrssen was commander of the Swedish volunteer battalion, Stridsgruppen SFK, which had just taken over responsibility for the front in Salla.
      The fighting in Viipurinlahti bay leads to the establishment of a Coastal Group commanded by Jaeger Major-General K.M. Wallenius from the Lapland Group.
      The Western Allies announce they are ready to send 50'000 troops and aircraft to Finland if they receive an official request for help before the March 5.
      Finland delays its response to the peace terms put forward by the Soviet Union.
      Foreign Minister Tanner gives an interview to the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter. In his interview, Tanner underlines the urgent need for foreign aid, while also stressing Finland's willingness to seek peace through dialogue.
      Finland's civil defence chief, Lieutenant-General Sihvo urges the general public to avoid going into the towns if at all possible.
      In Sweden, 1500 gold rings have been collected to aid Finland.
Neuvostoliittolaiset hyökkäilevät viivytysasemia vastaan Kannaksella Talvisodan 93. päivä, 01.maaliskuuta.1940    ^top^
       Neuvostojoukot seuravat tiiviisti taka-asemaan vetäytyvien suomalaisten kannoilla ja hyökkäilevät viivytysasemia vastaan Kannaksella.
      Jalkaväkeä perässään vetävät venäläisten hyökkäysvaunut ajavatviivytysasemaan vetäytyvien suomalaisten ohi Perojoen länsipuolella. Panssarikärki tunkeutuu Ukonmäelle lähelle Viipurin ja Talin välistä maantietä. Vihollinen hyökkää myös Heinjoen- Lyykylän tien suunnassa ja Viipurin eteläpuollella.
      Vuosalmessa neuvostojoukot hyökkäävät Äyräpään kirkonmäkeä vastaan noin pataljoonan voimin. Suomalaiset lyövät vihollisen takaisin.
      Taipaleessa Terenttilän lohkolla komentokorsu, jota kutsutaan "Seurahuoneeksi" saa täysosuman: 2 upseeria ja 11 miestä saa surmansa,6 sotilasta haavoittuu vaikeasti.
      Rintamavastuun Sallassa ottaneen ruotsalaisen vapaaehtoispataljoonan Stridsgruppen SFK:n päällikkö, everstiluutnantti Magnus Dyrssen kaatuu vihollisen tykistötulessa.
      Viipurinlahden taisteluja silmälläpitäen perustetaan Rannikkoryhmä, jonka komentajaksi määrätään Lapin Ryhmästä jääkärikenraalimajuri K. M. Wallenius.
      Länsiliittoutuneet ilmoittavat lähettävänsä 50 000 sotilasta ja ilmavoimia, mikäli Suomi esittää virallisen avunpyynnön ennen 5.päivä maaliskuuta.
      Suomi viivyttää rauhanehtoihin annettavaa vastausta Neuvostoliitolle.
      Ulkoministeri Tanner antaa haastattelun Dagens Nyheter-lehdelle. Haastattelussaan ulkoministeri Tanner tähdentää ulkomaisen avunkiireellisyyttä samalla painottaen Suomen neuvotteluvalmiuttarauhan aikaansaamiseksi.
      Väestönsuojelupäällikkö, kenraaliluutnantti Sihvo kehottaa välttämään tarpeetonta oleskelua kaupungeissa.
      Ulkomailta: Ruotsin kultasormuskeräys on tuottanut 1500 kultasormusta.
^ Ryssarna attackerar försvarsställningarna på Näset Vinterkrigets 93 dag, den 01 mars 1940
       Ryska trupper följer tätt efter de finska trupperna som retirerar till de bakre ställningarna och attackerar försvarsställningarna på Näset.
      Ryska stridsvagnar drar infanteriet efter sig och kör förbi de retirerande finnarna väster om Perojoki.
      Pansartäten tränger in till Ukonmäki nära landsvägen mellan Viborg och Tali.
      Fienden anfaller också i riktningen Heinjoki-Lyykylävägen och söder om Viborg.
      I Vuosalmi anfaller sovjettrupperna mot Äyräpää kyrkbacke med ungefär en bataljon. Finnarna slår tillbaka fienden.
      Kommandobunkern i Terenttilä-avsnittet i Taipale, som kallas "Seurahuone", är föremål för en fullträff: 2 officerare och 11 soldater dödas, 6 soldater såras allvarligt.
      Överstelöjtnant Magnus Dyrssen, chef för den frivilliga bataljonen Stridsgruppen SFK som övertagit frontansvaret i Salla, dödas av fiendens artillerield.
      Med tanke på striderna i Viborgska viken grundas Kustgruppen. Till kommendör för Kustgruppen utnämns jägargeneralmajor K. M. Wallenius från Lapplandsgruppen.
      De västallierade meddelar att de kommer att sända 50'000 soldater och flygvapen under förutsättningen att Finland framför en officiell anhållan om bistånd före den 5 mars.
      Finland dröjer med svaret på fredsvillkoren åt Sovjetunionen.
      Utrikesminister Tanner ger en intervju åt tidningen Dagens Nyheter. I intervjun framhäver Tanner att Finland brådskande behöver utländskt bistånd och understryker samtidigt vår villighet att förhandla om fred.
      Chefen för befolkningsskyddet, generallöjtnant Sihvo uppmanar medborgarna att inte vistas onödigt i städerna.
      Utrikes: Guldringsinsamlingen i Sverige har resulterat i 1500 guldringar.
1938 Gabrielle d'Annunzio, 74, Italian poet/fascist (Il fuoco)
1935 William Degouve de Nuncques, Belgian Symbolist artist born on 28 February 1867. — MORE ON DEGOUVE AT ART “4” FEB with links to images.
1932 Ramón Casas i Carbó, Catalan painter, born on 05 January 1866. — more
Lindbergh baby wanted poster ^ 1932 Charles Lindbergh Jr., 20-months-old, kidnapped and killed.
      The twenty-month-old son of Charles Augustus Lindbergh, the famous American aviator who made the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight in 1927, is kidnapped from the nursery of the Lindbergh home in Hopewell, New Jersey. A ransom note is found on the scene of the crime demanding $50'000 in payment for the return of the child.
      Three days later, after Lindbergh involves the authorities against the kidnapper's advice, the ransom is increased to $70'000. Dr. John F. Condon, a civilian sympathetic to Lindbergh, volunteers to intercede in the payment of the ransom, and on 02 April, at New Jersey's St. Raymond's Cemetery, he hands over the $70'000 as Charles Lindbergh waits nearby in a car.
      However, the Lindbergh baby is not returned and nearly six weeks later, on 12 May 1932, the infant's battered and mostly decomposed body is found in the woods just a few miles from the Lindbergh's home. The cause of death is determined to be a massive fracture of the skull occurring some two to three months before.
      Following the tragic discovery, the Lindbergh kidnapping case, already a highly publicized story, becomes a sensational media event as authorities launch an extensive manhunt for the guilty party, using the recorded serial numbers of the ransom money as a guide.
      Public outrage over the Lindbergh kidnapping leads to the passing of the "Lindbergh Law" by Congress, which makes the crime of kidnapping a federal offense punishable by the death penalty.
      On 19 September 1934, $14'000 of the ransom money is found in the Bronx, New York, apartment of Richard Bruno Hauptmann, a German carpenter.
      During the subsequent criminal trial, Hauptmann maintains his innocence, claiming that a business partner, Isador Fisch, gave him the money before returning to Germany, where he died in March of 1934. On 13 February 1935, Hauptmann is convicted and, on 03 April 1936, after a series of appeals, he is executed by electrocution.
      In the years after the kidnapping, a number of people begin to question Hauptmann's guilt and the quality of the criminal investigation, although much of this criticism is likely motivated by opposition to Lindbergh following the public revelations of his Nazi sympathies.
     The baby of aviation hero Charles Lindbergh, is kidnapped from the family’s new mansion in Hopewell, New Jersey. Lindbergh, who became the first worldwide celebrity after flying The Spirit of St. Louis across the Atlantic in 1927, and his wife, Anne, discovered a ransom note in their child’s empty room. The kidnapper had used a ladder to climb up to the open second-floor window and had left muddy footprints in the room. The ransom note, written in barely literate English, demanded $50'000. The crime captured the attention of the entire nation. The Lindbergh family was inundated by offers of assistance and false clues. Even Al Capone offered his help from prison, though conditioned, of course, upon his release. For three days, investigators found nothing and there was no further word from the kidnappers. Then, a new letter showed up, this time demanding $70'000. Dr. John F. Condon, a New York physician, volunteered to act as the go-between for the Lindberghs. But it wasn’t until 02 April that the kidnappers gave instructions for dropping off the money. After the money had been delivered, the kidnappers indicated that little baby Charles was on a boat named Nelly off the coast of Massachusetts. However, after an exhaustive search of every port, there was no sign of either the boat or the child. Soon after, a renewed search of the area near the Lindbergh mansion turned up the baby’s body. He had been killed the night of the kidnapping and was found less than a mile from his home. The heartbroken Lindberghs ended up donating the home to charity and moved away. The kidnapping looked like it would go unsolved until September 1934, when a marked bill from the ransom turned up. The gas station attendant who had accepted the bill wrote down the license plate number because he was suspicious of the driver. It was tracked back to a German immigrant, Bruno Hauptmann. When his home was searched, detectives found $13'000 of the Lindbergh ransom money. Hauptmann claimed that a friend had given him the money to hold and that he had no connection to the crime. The resulting trial became a national sensation. Famous writers Damon Runyan and Walter Winchell covered the trial. The prosecution’s case was not particularly strong. The main evidence, apart from the money, was that which connected Hauptmann to the type of wood that was used to make the ladder as well as testimony from handwriting experts that the ransom note had been written by Hauptmann. Still, the evidence and intense public pressure was enough to convict Hauptmann. In April 1935, he was executed in the electric chair. The episode had one other major consequence: Kidnapping was made a federal crime in the aftermath of this high-profile crime. The FBI’s jurisdiction over kidnapping remains to this day.
1920 Joseph Trumpeldor, killed defending Tel-Mai against arab attack
^ 1919 (over the next 12 months) Some 8000 peaceful Korean demonstrators of the March First Movement or Samil Independence Movement, fired upon by the Japanese occupiers, in the more than 1500 demonstrations in which approximately 2 million Koreans participate in response to a proclamation by the 33 Chondo Kyo, Buddhist, and Christian leaders of the Movement, including Son Byong-Hi [08 Apr 1861 – 19 May 1922]. Some 16'000 are wounded, and 47'000 arrested, including Son Byong-Hi, dies of an illness contracted in prison. Some 10'000 are tried and convicted. 715 private houses, 47 churches, and 2 school buildings are destroyed by fire.
     After Korean emperor Kojong [1852 – 21 Jan 1919], the supreme symbol of independence, died mourners from all parts of Korea came to Seoul for his funeral. The demonstrations for Korean national independence from Japan begin on 01 March 1919 in Seoul and soon spread throughout Korea. The movement was begun by the 33 leaders who, after almost 10 years of Japanese rule, drew up a Korean “Proclamation of Independence” and then organized a mass demonstration in Seoul for 01 March 1919, Kojong's commemoration day. On the appointed day, the 33 leaders, hoping to bring international pressure on Japan to end her colonial rule in Korea, signed and read their proclamation and had co-conspirators read it in townships throughout the country. The suppressed anti-Japanese feelings of Koreans were released in one great explosion, and mass demonstrations took place in many parts of the country, forming the largest national protest rallies against foreign domination in Korean history.
      Though the movement failed to bring about its paramount goal of national independence, it was significant in strengthening national unity, leading to the birth in Shanghai of the Korean Provisional Government, and drawing worldwide attention. Finally, the failure of the March First Movement greatly enhanced the rise of the Korean Communist party.
     The Korean Provisional Government in exile was organized in April 1919 in Shanghai by Korean patriots, including such leaders as Syngman Rhee [26 Mar 1875 – 19 Jul 1965] (its president), Yi Tong-hwi (its prime minister), An Ch'ang-ho, and Kim Ku. The Korean Provisional Government continued until the liberation of Korea from Japanese occupation at the end of World War II. 01 March became a national holiday in both North and South Korea.
1917 Linton Clinton, Black, lynched in Thomas County, Georgia, accused of attempting to rape a White woman.
1913 Pieri, mathematician.
1911 Jacobus H van 't Hoff, 58, Dutch chemist/physicist (Nobel 1901)
1910 Will Williamson, Black, lynched in Toombs County, Georgia, accused of attempting to rape a White woman.
1910: 118 persons as 3 passenger trains are buried at Steven's Pass in Cascade Range by the worst snowslide in US history
1908 Maschke, mathematician.
1906 José María de Pereda, novelista español.
1896 The dead of the Battle of Adowa in which : 80'000 Ethiopians crush 20'000 Italians
1884 Isaac Todhunter, 63, mathematician.
1884 Ludwig Vollmar, German artist born on 07 January 1842.
1870 Francisco S. López, 43, Pres of Paraguay (1862-70)
1865 Anna Paulowna Romanova, 70, great monarch of Russia
1862 Barlow, mathematician.
1811 Jean-Simon Berthélémy, French artist born on 05 March 1743. — more with links to images.
1810 Jean-Jacques de Boissieu, French painter born on 30 November 1736. — more with links to images.
1803 Jean François Gille Colson, French artist born on 02 March 1733. — more with links to images.
1704 Joseph Parrocel des Batailles, French artist born on 03 October 1646. — MORE ON PARROCEL AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1643 Girolamo Frescobaldi, 59, Italian composer/organist
1633 George Herbert, 39, English poet
1619 Thomas Campion, 53, English physician/composer/poet (Poemata)
1562: 1200 (?) Huguenots. assembling for worship in a barn at Vassy are massacred by soldiers of the Roman Catholic Guise family.This precipitated the first of the Wars of Religion in France.
1383 Amadeus VI, 49, (Green Earl), earl of Savoy
1131 Stephen II, King of Hungary (1116-1131)
0965 Leo VIII, pope of dubious validity, puppet of emperor Otho I.
0492 Pope Saint Felix III
< 28 Feb < 29 Feb 02 Mar >
^  Births which occurred on a 01 March:

1993 La Unión Internacional de Comunicaciones (ITUT) nace; hasta la fecha era conocida por CCITT.
^ 1961 The Peace Corps is established
     US President John F. Kennedy issues Executive Order #10924, creating the Peace Corps as a new agency within the Department of State. The same day, he sent a message to Congress asking for permanent funding for the agency, which would send trained US men and women to foreign nations to assist in development efforts. The Peace Corps captured the imagination of the US public, and during the week after its creation thousands of letter poured into Washington from young Americans hoping to volunteer. The immediate precursor of the Peace Corps--the Point Four Youth Corps--was proposed by Representative Henry Reuss of Wisconsin in the late 1950s.
      Senator Kennedy learned of the Reuss proposal during his 1960 presidential campaign and, sensing growing public enthusiasm for the idea, decided to add it to his platform. In early October 1960, he sent a message to the Young Democrats that called for the establishment of a "Youth Peace Corps," and on 14 October he first publicly spoke of the Peace Corps idea at an early morning speech at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. The night before, he had engaged Vice President Richard Nixon in the third presidential debate and was surprised to find an estimated 10'000 students waiting up to hear him speak when he arrived at the university at 02:00. The assembled students heard the future president issue a challenge: How many of them, he asked, would be willing to serve their country and the cause of freedom by living and working in the developing world for years at a time? The Peace Corps proposal gained momentum in the final days of Kennedy's campaign, and on 08 November he was narrowly elected the 35th president of the United States.
      On 20 January 1961, in Kennedy's famous inaugural address, he promised aid to the poor of the world. "To those peoples in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery," he said, "we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required--not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right." He also appealed to US citizens to "ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." After 01 March, thousands of young people in the US answered this call to duty by volunteering for the Peace Corps. The agency, which was headed by Kennedy's brother-in-law, R. Sargent Shriver, eventually chose some 750 volunteers to serve in 13 nations in 1961. In August, Kennedy hosted a White House ceremony to honor the first Peace Corps volunteers. The 51 Americans who later landed in Accra, Ghana, for two years of service immediately made a favorable impression on their hosts when they gathered on the airport tarmac to sing the Ghanaian national anthem in Twi, the local language. On 22 September 1961, Kennedy signed congressional legislation creating a permanent Peace Corps that would "promote world peace and friendship" through three goals: (1) to help the peoples of interested countries in meeting their need for trained men and women; (2) to help promote a better understanding of Americans on the part of the peoples served; and (3) to help promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of Americans. By the end of 1963, 7000 volunteers were in the field, serving in 44 Third World countries. In 1966, Peace Corps enrollment peaked, with more than 15,000 volunteers in 52 countries. Budget cuts later reduced the number of Peace Corps volunteers, but at the end of the century more than 7000 Peace Corps volunteers were serving in over 70 countries. Since 1961, more than 161'000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps, serving in 134 nations.
      Newly elected President John F. Kennedy issues an executive order establishing the Peace Corps. It proved to be one of the most innovative and highly publicized Cold War programs set up by the United States. During the course of his campaign for the presidency in 1960, Kennedy floated the idea that a new "army" should be created by the United States. This force would be made up of civilians who would volunteer their time and skills to travel to underdeveloped nations to assist them in any way they could. To fulfill this plan, Kennedy issued an executive order on 01 March 1961 establishing the Peace Corps as a trial program. Kennedy sent a message to Congress asking for its support and made clear the significance of underdeveloped nations to the United States. The people of these nations were "struggling for economic and social progress." "Our own freedom," Kennedy continued, "and the future of freedom around the world, depend, in a very real sense, on their ability to build growing and independent nations where men can live in dignity, liberated from the bonds of hunger, ignorance, and poverty." Many in Congress, and the US public, were skeptical about the program's costs and the effectiveness of American aid to what were perceived to be "backward" nations, but Kennedy's warning about the dangers in the underdeveloped world could not be ignored. Revolutions were breaking out around the globe and many of these conflicts-such as in Laos, the Congo, and elsewhere-were in danger of becoming Cold War battlefields. Several months later, Congress voted to make the Corps permanent. During the 1960s and 1970s, thousands of Americans — especially young people — flocked to serve in dozens of nations, particularly in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Working side by side with the people of these nations, Peace Corps volunteers helped build sewer and water systems; constructed and taught in schools; assisted in developing new crops and agricultural methods to increase productivity; and participated in numerous other projects. Volunteers often faced privation and sometimes danger, and they were not always welcomed by foreign people suspicious of American motives. Overall, however, the program was judged a success in terms of helping to "win the hearts and minds" of people in the underdeveloped world. The program continues to function, and thousands of persons in the US each year are drawn to the humanitarian mission and sense of adventure that characterizes the Peace Corps.
1947 International Monetary Fund begins operations.
1940 Native son, novel by Richard Wright, is published
1935 Judith Rossner, author.
1931 José de Jesús Fajardo-Cázares, in municipio de San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato.
1922 Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Prime Minister and Nobel Peace Prize winner, murdered by a Jewish extremist on 04 November 1995.
1921 Terrence "Cardinal" Cooke NY
1917 Robert Lowell (Pulitzer Prize-winning poet: Lord Weary's Castle [1947], The Dolphin [1974]; National Book Award for Poetry [1960]). He died on 12 September 1977.
1904 Dubreil, mathematician.
^ 1897 The Winton Motor Carriage Company.
     It is organized in Cleveland, Ohio, with Alexander Winton as president. After twelve years in the bicycle manufacturing business, Winton began producing cars with his name on them in 1896. A fiery Scotsman, Winton took the challenge to build the world’s fastest automobile personally. Like Ransom Olds, he raced his own cars. Racing at Daytona Beach is said to have begun with a match race between Winton and Olds in 1902 that the two men declared a draw. A year later Winton won a multi-car race at Daytona, driving his Winton Bullet to an average speed of 68 MPH and becoming the first person to break the mile-per-minute barrier. Alexander Winton’s personal rivalries did not stop with Ransom Olds. In 1901, Henry Ford, after being passed over for a mechanic’s job with Winton’s company, defeated Winton in his first and last car race. Ford’s future notoriety would depend heavily on the publicity won in his encounter with his one-time potential employer. James Ward Packard also maintained a personal rivalry with Winton. After having purchased a Winton, Packard complained about the car’s reliability. Winton reportedly politely urged Packard to build his own car. Packard responded by starting his own company. In the first decade of US car racing Wintons and Packards, driven by Barney Oldfield and Ralph DePalma, respectively, would fuel the sport’s greatest rivalry. In 1903 Winton drove his car from San Francisco to New York to prove the reliability of his vehicles. It was the automotive industry’s most dramatic achievement up to that point. A popular anecdote sums up Winton’s involvment in the early automotive industry. Faced with mechanical problems in an early Winton, a Cleveland area resident reportedly towed his Winton through the streets of Cleveland with a team of mules exhibiting a sign reading, "This is the only way you can drive a Winton." In response, Winton hired a farm wagon carrying a jackass to follow his detractor, exhibiting a sign that read, "This is the only animal unable to drive a Winton." 1975 Honda’s Civic The Honda Civic was introduced to the United States market as an alternative to the inefficient cars offered by American car companies. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo made car owners aware of the advantages of fuel economy. Early Honda advertisements boasted "The Honda Civic. More miles per gallon than anybody."
1935 Oskar Kokoschka, Austrian Expressionist painter who died on 22 February 1980. — MORE ON KOKOSCHKA AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1882 Edgar Alwin Payne, US painter who died in 1947. — more with links to images.
1880 Lytton Strachey, English biographer and critic who died on 21 January 1932.
^ 1872 Yellowstone Park is established
      US President Grant signs the bill creating the nation's first national park at Yellowstone. Native Americans had lived and hunted in the region that would become Yellowstone for hundreds of years before the first Anglo explorers arrived. Abundant game and mountain streams teaming with fish attracted the Indians to the region, though the awe-inspiring geysers, canyons, and gurgling mud pots also fascinated them. John Colter, the famous mountain man, was the first Anglo to travel through the area. After journeying with Lewis and Clark to the Pacific, Colter joined a party of fur trappers to explore the wilderness. In 1807, he explored part of the Yellowstone plateau and returned with fantastic stories of steaming geysers and bubbling cauldrons. Some doubters accused the mountain man of telling tall tales and jokingly dubbed the area "Colter's Hell." Before the Civil War, only a handful of trappers and hunters ventured into the area, and it remained largely a mystery. In 1869, the Folsom-Cook expedition made the first formal exploration, followed a year later by a much more thorough reconnaissance by the Washburn-Langford-Doane expedition.
      The key to Yellowstone's future as a national park, though, was the 1871 exploration under the direction of the government geologist Ferdinand Hayden. Hayden brought along William Jackson, a pioneering photographer, and Thomas Moran, a brilliant landscape artist, to make a visual record of the expedition. Their images provided the first visual proof of Yellowstone's wonders and caught the attention of the US Congress. Early in 1872, Congress moved to set aside 494'434 hectares of public land straddling the future states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho as America's first national park. President Grant signed the bill into law on this day in 1872. The Yellowstone Act of 1872 designated the region as a public "pleasuring-ground," which would be preserved "from injury or spoilation, of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within." For a nation bent on settling and exploiting the West, the creation of Yellowstone was surprising. Many congressmen gave it their support simply because they believed the rugged and isolated region was of little economic value. Yet the Yellowstone Act of 1872 set a precedent and popularized the idea of preserving sections of the public domain for use as public parks. Congress went on to designate dozens of other national parks, and the idea spread to other nations around the world.
1859 Charles Fletcher Lummis, escritor y explorador estadounidense.
1853 Henri-Jules-Jean Geoffroy “Geo”, French painter who died in 1924. — links to images.
1848 Augustus Saint-Gaudens, US sculptor who died on 03 August 1907.
1842 Nicolas Gysis, Greek artist who died on 04 January 1901. — more with link to an image.
^ 1837 William Dean Howells, US novelist and critic who died on 11 May 1920. He was the dean of late 19th-century US letters, the champion of literary realism, and the close friend and adviser of Mark Twain and Henry James [15 Apr 1843 – 28 Feb 1916].
      The son of an itinerant printer and newspaper editor, Howells grew up in various Ohio towns and began work early as a typesetter and later as a reporter. Meanwhile, he taught himself languages, becoming well read in German, Spanish, and English classics, and began contributing poems to The Atlantic Monthly. His campaign biography of Abraham Lincoln (1860) financed a trip to New England, where he met the great men of the literary establishment, James Russell Lowell, editor of The Atlantic Monthly, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Hawthorne, and Emerson. On Lincoln's victory he was rewarded with a consulship at Venice (1861–1865), which enabled him to marry. On his return to the US he became assistant editor (1866–1871), then editor (1871–1881), of The Atlantic Monthly, in which he began publishing reviews and articles that interpreted US writers. He was a shrewd judge of his contemporaries. He immediately recognized the worth of Henry James, and he was the first totake Mark Twain seriously as an artist.
      Their Wedding Journey (1872) and A Chance Acquaintance (1873) were his first realistic novels of uneventful middle-class life. There followed some international novels, contrasting US and European manners. Howells' best work depicts the US scene as it changed from a simple, egalitarian society where luck and pluck were rewarded to one in which social and economic gulfs were becoming unbridgeable, and the individual's fate was ruled by chance. He wrote A Modern Instance (1882), the story of the disintegration of a marriage, which is considered his strongest novel. His best known work, The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885), deals with a self-made businessman's efforts to fit into Boston society. In 1887 he risked both livelihood and reputation with his plea for clemency for the condemned Haymarket anarchists on the grounds that they had been convicted for their political beliefs. In 1888 he left Boston for New York.
      His deeply shaken social faith is reflected in the novels of his New York period, such as the strongly pro-labor Annie Kilburn (1888) and A Hazard of New Fortunes (1890), generally considered his finest work, which dramatizes the teeming, competitive life of New York, where a representative group of characters tries to establish a magazine.
      Howells' critical writings of this period welcomed the young Naturalistic novelists Hamlin Garland, Stephen Crane, and Frank Norris and promoted the European authors Turgenev, Ibsen, Zola, Pérez Galdós, Verga, and above all Tolstoy.
      Long before his death Howells was out of fashion. Later critics have more fairly evaluated his enormous influence, and readers have rediscovered the style, humor, and honesty of his best works.

  • The Daughter of the Storage, and Other Things in Prose and Verse
  • The Day of Their Wedding
  • An Imperative Duty
  • My Mark Twain
  • An Open-Eyed Conspiracy: An Idyl of Saratoga
  • Poems (1873 edition)
  • The Rise of Silas Lapham
  • The Rise of Silas Lapham
  • The Shadow of a Dream
  • The Sleeping Car: A Farce
  • Their Wedding Journey
  • A Traveller from Altruria
  • 1829 Adolf Seel, German artist who died on 14 February 1907. [Not a Seel of approval by the internet, it seems: I find no online examples of his work.]
    1823 Hugues Merle, French painter who died on 16 March 1881. — links to images.
    1818 Adriaan de Braekeleer, Belgian artist who died in 1904.
    1810 Fryderyk Franciszek “Frédéric François Chopin” [–17 Oct 1849], Polish-French pianist and composer.— wikibio —(100301)
    1779 Jacob Gottfried Weber, composer.
    1732 William Maxwell Cushing, US jurist, first Supreme Court appointee, who died on 13 September 1810.
    1730 Anton Wilhelm Tischbein, German artist who died on 01 November 1804. — link to an image.
    1711 The Spectator, primera publicación periodística diaria en Inglaterra,.publica su primer número.
    1644 Simon Foucher, French ecclesiastic philosopher who died on 27 April 1696.
    1630 Ferdinand van Apshoven II, Flemish artist who died in 1694.
    1629 Abraham Teniers, Flemish artist who died on 26 September 1670.
    1611 Pell, mathematician.
    1597 La Faille, mathematician.
    1494 Francesco Ubertini Verdi “Bacchiaca”, Italian painter who died on 05 October 1557. — MORE ON BACCHIACA AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1456 Wladyslaw Jagiello, king of Bohemia/Hungary (1471/90-1516)
    1389 Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence who died on 02 May 1459.
    Holidays Bayonna Spain : Pinzon Day / Engadine, Switzerland : Chalanda Marz/Coming of spring / Lanark, Lanarkshire Scotland : Whuppity Scoorie Day / Ohio 1803, Nebraska 1867 : Admission Day / Panam  : Constitution Day (1946) / Paraguay : Heroes' Day/National Defense Day/Memorial Day / South Korea : Independence Movement Day/Sam Il Chul (1919)
    Ash Wednesday in 1876, 1911, 1922, 1933, 1995, 2006, 2017, 2028, 2090.
    Moine près de Guérande, Saint Aubin devint évêque d'Angers en 529. Il se signala par ses dénonciations de l'inceste qui était, paraît-il, pratique courante parmi les guerriers francs de l'époque mérovingienne.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “The surest way never to grow old is to die young.”
    “Most people shrink from growing old.”
    “The average man dies at age 75 in the US. So, if you're the average man, leave the US when you're 74 and don't come back until you're 76.”

    “You can fool too many of the people too much of the time.” — James Thurber — {no fooling?}
    “Words are the most powerful drug used by mankind.”
    — Rudyard Kipling [1865-1936]. {+ words are free, and few words are illegal, though certain combinations of them may have lethal side effects in a dictatorship.}
    updated Tuesday 02-Mar-2010 3:45 UT
    principal updates:
    v.9.21 Saturday 07-Mar-2009 3:11 UT
    v.8.10 Monday 18-Feb-2008 16:58 UT
    v.7.20 Sunday 04-Mar-2007 18:18 UT
    v.6.22 Tuesday 21-Mar-2006 2:58 UT
    Tuesday 01-Mar-2005 6:22 UT
    Monday 01-Mar-2004 16:48 UT

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