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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 30
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“Goni”^  On a 30 June:
Manfred Reyes2002 Parliamentary and presidential elections in Bolivia. None of the eleven candidates gets anywhere near the required 50% of the vote, so the Congress, on 03 August, will have to choose who will take office on 06 August between the two top vote-getters, Manfred Reyes Villa (20%) [< photo], 46, of the Nueva Fuerza Republicana, mayor of Cochabamba and former military captain offering “social revolution”, and Gonzalo “Goni” Sánchez de Lozada (22%) [31 May 2002 photo >], (72 minus 1 day), of the MNR, ex-president (1993-1997) who owns Bolivia's largest mining company. The other presidential candidates are social democrat Jaime Paz Zamora (Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria and NM) another ex-president (1989-1993), Juan Evo Morales Aima (Movimiento Al Socialismo), 42, an indigenous leader of Bolivia's coca farmers who was expelled from Congress in 2001 accused of inciting violence (18%), Ronald Maclean Abarda (Acción Democrática Nacionalista), Alberto Costa Obregón (Libertad y Justicia), Felipe Quispe Huanca (MIP) another indigenous leader and a former leftist guerilla, Nicolás Felipe Valdivia Almanza (Condepa), Jorge Rolando Morales Anaya (Partido Socialista), Max Johnny Fernández Saucedo (UCS), René Oswald Blattman Bauer (Movimiento Ciudadano para el Cambio).
2002 Most US postal rates are increased. For example the first-class postage for the first ounce goes from 34 to 37 cents.
2001 At 13:00 UT, Chris Sterry, 47, an Anglican vicar in northern England, has been preaching on the Old Testament for 30 hours, following rules prohibiting nonsense, repetition, and pauses lasting longer than 10 seconds except for a 15 minute break every eight hours. His record-setting unscripted sermon is intended to raise money for charity.
2000 Electronic signature law is signed by US president Clinton, both on paper and electronically. The new law provides that no contract, signature or record shall be denied legally binding status just because it is in electronic form capable of being retained and accurately reproduced for later reference. It takes effect on 01 October. As of 01 March 2001, companies can begin the electronic retention of legal records such as mortgages and financial securities.
1996 Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic responded to international pressure to step aside by handing his powers to an equally nationalist deputy.
1991 Les dernières troupes soviétiques quittent la Tchécoslovaquie. Le joug communiste est terminé. Les autres pays de l’ancien " bloc " communiste suivent dans des délais assez brefs. Le Pacte de Varsovie (union militaire de défense commune des pays du bloc communiste face à l’O.T.A.N., mais surtout outil de pression au service du pouvoir communiste de Moscou) est dissous.
1989 The National Islamic Front (NIF) stages a military coup and takes control of the Sudan.
1988 Consacration de 5 évêques "intégristes" par Monseigneur Lefèvre, un évêque francais, qui va dans le sens opposé à toutes les décisions libérales du Concile Vatican II. Ce qui leur vaudra d’ailleurs d’être excommunié par le Pape Jean-Paul II, qui, quoique très proche des thèses intégristes de Monseigneur Lefèvre, n’accepte aucune contradiction, aucune désobéissance au sein de sa hiérarchie. La mouvance intégriste vivra d’ailleurs une espèce de schisme à la suite de cette excommunication, certains pensant qu’il faut rester "fidèles" à Rome et tenter de changer l’Eglise de l’intérieur.
1986 Georgia sodomy law upheld by US Supreme Court (5-4)
1985 39 remaining US hostages from TWA Flight 847 are freed in Beirut after being held 17 days.
1982 US Federal Equal Rights Amendment fails 3 states short of ratification
1981 China's Communist Party condemns the late Mao Tse-tung's policy
1973 Observers aboard Concorde jet observe 72-min solar eclipse
1972 first leap second day; also 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985
1971 The 26th Amendment to the US Constitution, lowering the minimum voting age to 18, is ratified as Ohio becomes the 38th state to approve it.
1970 Cooper-Church Amendment passes in US Senate         ^top^
      The Senate votes 58 to 37 in favor of adopting the Cooper-Church amendment to limit presidential power in Cambodia. The amendment barred funds to retain US troops in Cambodia after 01 July or to supply military advisers, mercenaries, or to conduct "any combat activity in the air above Cambodia in direct support of Cambodian forces" without congressional approval. The amendment represented the first limitation ever passed in the Senate concerning the president's powers as commander-in-chief during a war situation. The House of Representatives rejected the amendment on 09 July, and it was eventually dropped from the Foreign Military Sales Act. In a written report on the US incursion in Cambodia, President Nixon pronounced it a "successful" operation. Nixon ruled out the use of US troops there in the future, suggesting that Cambodia's defense would be left largely to Cambodia and its allies. Regarding the use of US air power in Cambodia, Nixon stated that the United States would not provide air or logistical support for South Vietnamese forces in Cambodia, but would continue bombing enemy personnel and supply concentrations "with the approval of the Cambodian government." Nixon noted that more than a year's supply of weapons and ammunition had been captured and that 11'349 enemy soldiers were killed by Allied forces during the incursion into the area.
1969 Spain cedes Ifni to Morocco.
1967 Thieu becomes president of South Vietnam.         ^top^
      The South Vietnamese Armed Forces Council resolves rival claims to the presidency in favor of Nguyen Van Thieu, Chief of State. Former Premier Nguyen Cao Ky, who had announced on 11 May that he would run for president, was forced to accept second place on the presidential ticket. Thieu had been an Army officer in command of the 5th Infantry Division near Saigon when he and other senior South Vietnamese officers led a coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem. Following the coup, a series of groups jockeyed for power. In June 1965, another coup against the civilian government momentarily in power resulted in a 10-man Military National Leadership Committee, which elected Ky as premier and Thieu as Chairman and Chief of State. When elections were held in 1967, the situation was reversed and Thieu became president. In 1971, Ky would choose not to run against Thieu and Thieu would be re-elected to the presidency, although charges of a rigged election surfaced. Pressured by the United States to agree to the Paris Peace Accords in 1973, which left the North Vietnamese in control of large segments of South Vietnam, President Thieu's position was further undermined when the US Congress cut promised military aid. After an open North Vietnamese attack on Phuoc Long Province in November 1974, President Gerald Ford failed to honor US promises to come to the aid of the South Vietnamese in the case of such an attack. With four North Vietnamese corps closing in on Saigon and all hope of outside assistance gone, President Thieu resigned, and on 25 April, 1975, he left South Vietnam, flying to Taiwan and then to Great Britain.
1965 La France se retire du Conseil de l’Europe         ^top^
     Elle bloque ainsi le mécanisme de prise de décisions et tout le processus évolutif de la Communauté. La France reprochait à la Communauté ses conceptions supranationales.Elle ne reprendra sa place qu’en Janvier 1966, lorsqu’elle aura l’assurance que toute décision " importante " ne sera prise qu’avec un " Consensus " ce qui signifie que le droit de Veto existe (sans qu’il soit cité !) de façon permanente pour tout état membre.
1963 Cardinal Montini elected Pope Paul VI, 262nd head of RC Church
1962 Rwanda and Burundi become independent
1962 Le colonel Boumédienne, un des héros de la Résistance algérienne contre les français est démis de ses responsabilités et destitué " officiellement ". Ben-Bella et Ferhat-Abbas apportent leur soutien à Boumédienne. Mais les rivalités engendreront encore de nombreuses et sanglantes luttes.
Congo gains independence from Belgium.
1960 Indépendance du Congo belge,         ^top^
qui prendra sous la présidence de Mobutu, le nom de Zaïre. Le discours de Patrice Lumumba, le rival de Kasavubu et de Moïse Tshombé, constitue un camouflet pour le roi des belges, Beaudouin 1er. Les forces belges à peine hors du territoire, alors que toutes les analyses belges laissaient penser que l’indépendance serait " facile ", la Force Publique (armée et police réunies, composée de soldats et d’officiers subalternes noirs, mais commandés par des officiers supérieurs blancs) se mutine en Juillet 60. C’est le début d’une période de troubles, de règlements de compte, de la sécession du Katanga (Moïse Tshombé) et de l’intervention des forces de l’ONU
1951 NAACP begins attack on school segregation and discrimination.
1950 Truman orders US forces to Korea         ^top^
      Just three days after the United Nations Security Council voted to provide military assistance to South Korea, US President Harry S. Truman orders US armed forces to assist in defending that nation from invading North Korean armies. Truman's dramatic step marked the official entry of the United States into the Korean War. On 25 June 1950, military forces from communist North Korea invaded South Korea. South Korean forces and the small number of US troops stationed in the nation reeled under the surprise attack. On 27 June, the United States asked the Security Council in the United Nations to pass a resolution calling on member states of the United Nations to assist South Korea. With the Soviets boycotting the meeting for other reasons, the resolution passed.
      Three days later, President Truman ordered US ground forces into South Korea and the troops entered South Korea that same day. At the same time, Truman ordered the US Air Force to bomb military targets in North Korea and directed the US Navy to blockade the North Korean coast. Truman's action signaled the beginning of official and large-scale US participation in the Korean War. Over the next three years, the United States provided at least half of the UN ground forces in Korea and the vast majority of the air and sea forces used in the conflict against North Korea and, later, against Communist China, which entered the war on the side of North Korea in late 1950. Nearly 55'000 US soldiers were killed in the war and over 100'000 were wounded. Cost estimates for the war ranged as high as $20 billion. In July 1953, an armistice was signed that ended the fighting and left Korea a divided nation.
1948 Transistor demonstrated
      John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley demonstrate their invention, the transistor, for the first time on 30 June, 1948. Transistors-tiny wafers containing semiconductors-quickly would replace unwieldy vacuum tubes in most electronic devices. The three men won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1956 for their invention.
1946 ENIAC accepted by army
     The US Army officially accepts ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), the world's first electronic general-purpose digital computer. The machine was built by a team of engineers at the University of Pennsylvania headed by John Mauchly and Presper Eckert.
1945 John von Neumann's EDVAC report         ^top^
      John von Neumann, a prominent mathematician who worked on the Los Alamos atom bomb project, delivers the first draft of his EDVAC report on this day in 1945. The document describes improvements that von Neumann suggested for ENIAC, the first electronic computer. The EDVAC report gave instructions for creating a stored, programmable memory and outlined the thinking behind ENIAC. The report enraged John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, who led the ENIAC development effort. Because ENIAC was a classified government project, Mauchly and Eckert had not yet been allowed to publish their ideas. They feared von Neumann's report would rob them of credit for ENIAC's invention. Years later, a federal judge ruled that Eckert and Mauchly could not own patents on ENIAC because the idea of an electronic computer had already been widely disseminated by the EDVAC paper before they applied for their patents.
1943 US assault on New Guinea and on New Georgia         ^top^
      General Douglas MacArthur launches Operation Cartwheel, a multi-pronged assault on Rabaul and several islands in the Solomon Sea in the South Pacific. The joint effort takes nine months to complete but succeeds in recapturing more Japanese-controlled territory. The purpose of Cartwheel was to destroy the barrier formation Japan had created in the Bismark Archipelago, a collection of islands east of New Guinea in the Solomon Sea. The Japanese considered this area vital to the protection of their conquests in the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines. For the Allies, Rabaul, in New Britain, was the key to winning control of this theater of operations, as it served as the Japanese naval headquarters and main base.
      On 30 June, General MacArthur, strategic commander of the area, starts a simultaneous attack, on New Guinea and on New Georgia, as a setup and staging maneuver for the ultimate assault, that on Rabaul. The landing on New Georgia, led by Admiral William Halsey, proved particularly difficult, given the large Japanese garrison stationed there and the harsh climate and topography. Substantial reinforcements were needed before the region could be controlled, in August.
      One consequence of Cartwheel was a lesson in future strategy. By establishing a "step-by-step" approach to invasion, the Allies unwittingly gave the Japanese time to regroup and establish their next line of defense. The Allies then decided that a new strategy was to be deployed, that of leaving certain islands, or parts thereof, to "wither on the vine," rather than waste valuable time and manpower in fighting it out for marginal gains. A leapfrogging strategy was then employed by MacArthur, whereby he left in place smaller Japanese strongholds in order to concentrate on "bigger fish." The "big fish," Rabaul, would not be in Allied hands until March 1944.
1939 Heinkel He. 176 rocket plane flies for first time, at Peenemünde
1936 40 hour work week law approved for the US (federal)
1930 first round-the-world radio broadcast Schenectady NY
1927 Augusto Cesar Sandino issues his Manifesto Politico
1923 New Zealand claims Ross Dependency in Antarctica
1921 President Harding appointed former President Taft chief justice of the United States.
1914 Tuesday : in the aftermath of the June 28 assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and of his wife, Sophia:
  • German Ambassador to Vienna, Count Heinrich von Tschirschky, warns Austrian Foreign Minister Count Leopold von Berchtold against employing "hasty measures in settling accounts with Serbia".
  • 1914 Mahatma Gandhi's first arrest, campaigning for Indian rights in S Africa
    1913 2nd Balkan War begins
    1909 In Rome, the Catholic Pontifical Biblical Commission issues a decree interpreting the first 11 chapters of Genesis as history, not myth. (??)
    1908 Giant meteorite (or something) shakes Siberia         ^top^
          In the morning a mysterious explosion, equaling close to twenty megatons, overturns an estimated 40'000 trees in the Tunguska region of central Siberia. Seismic vibrations were recorded thousands of kilometers away, and dust thrown up in the atmosphere would brighten the night sky in Russia and Europe for a full month. Scientists suspect that the explosion was caused by a meteorite with a diameter of approximately forty meters, although little material evidence has been found.
         En Sibérie une énorme explosion en altitude est accompagnée de phénomènes optiques, acoustiques et mécaniques observables en Sibérie centrale dans une zone de quelque 1500 km de diamètre. Une boule de feu éclatante traverse le ciel clair en laissant le long de sa trajectoire un cortège de poussières. Des témoins voient ensuite, au sol, des flammes et un nuage de fumée. Le son marquant la disparition du phénomène lumineux est entendu à plus de 1000 km. L’onde de choc ébranle des immeubles, brise des vitres, fait tomber divers objets et renverse même quelques spectateurs. Barographes et séismographes enregistrent les ondes de la déflagation. L’estimation de l’énergie émise par l’explosion, faite en comparant les destructions qu’elle causa avec les effets des ouragans, des éruptions volcaniques et des explosions nucléaires est comparable à l’explosion de 10 à 20 mégatonnes de T.N.T. Une luminosité inhabituelle s’étendra la nuit suivante en de nombreuses régions, sibériennes et européennes. Dans le Caucase, par exemple, il sera possible de lire un journal à minuit sans l’appoint de lumière artificielle (cet effet est aussi contaté dans plusieurs villes d'Europe (Paris,Londres, etc ). Cet effet s’amenuisera pour disparaître au bout de deux mois.
          L’étude du site, commencée dix-neuf ans après l’explosion, a montré l’extraordinaire importance des dégâts. Sur une surface de 30 à 40 km de rayon, les arbres sont abattus, la plupart du temps leurs racines tournées en direction du lieu de l’explosion. Celle-ci a aussi plus ou moins brûlé les arbres dans un rayon de 15 à 18 kilomètres. L’absence de cratère s’expliquait, vers 1930, par le fait que celui-ci se serait formé dans un substratum perpétuellement gelé ; il aurait donc perdu très vite sa forme, probablement durant l’été suivant la chute. Une trentaine d’années séparant le phénomène des premières études détaillées, il était aussi logique de penser que d’éventuelles matières météoritiques avaient eu le temps de disparaître par enfouissement ou par altération.
          À la suite des nombreux travaux qui furent menés depuis lors, il ne subsiste qu’une seule hypothèse pour expliquer le phénomène de la Toungounska : la chute d’un fragment de comète. Le mouvement du météore en direction inverse de la rotation terrestre, ainsi que sa très grande vitesse (50-60 km/s) consécutive sont en effet en faveur d’une météorite de type cométaire. Sa masse devait être constituée d’un bloc ou de fragments de gaz gelés, mêlés à des particules dispersées de silicates et de ferronickel. Cela correspond aux conceptions modernes de la nature des noyaux cométaires et aux traces très dispersées de magnétites, silicates et sphérules trouvés dans le sol. Ce noyau, d’une masse estimée de près d’un million de tonnes, a dû subir, près de la surface terrestre, une pulvérisation violente le transformant en un nuage de matières plus ou moins denses. Cette explosion aérienne rend parfaitement compte de l’orientation radiale des dégâts dus à l’onde de choc, de la forme elliptique de la surface où les arbres ont été abattus, de l’absence de cratère, ainsi que de l’absence de masses individualisées de matière météoritique.
    1906 US Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act adopted.
    1894 Korea declares independence from China, asks for Japanese aid [like asking a shark for help against a crocodile].
    1881 Liberté de réunion et d'association
          Dans la série des lois républicaines qu'il impose, Jules Ferry, après avoir fait voter l'amnistie des condamnés de la Commune, le 21 Jun, et avoir fait accepter le 14 Jul pour date de la Fête nationale, fait adopter cette loi qui donne aux travailleurs la liberté de réunion et d'association.
    ^ 1876 Soldiers are evacuated from the Little Big Horn by steamboat
          After a slow two-day march, the wounded soldiers from the Battle of the Little Big Horn reach the steamboat Far West. The Far West had been leased by the US Army for the duration of the 1876 campaign against the hostile Sioux and Cheyenne Indians of the Northern Plains. Under the command of the skilled civilian Captain Grant Marsh, the 58-meter vessel was ideal for navigating the shallow waters of the Upper Missouri River system. The boat drew only 50 cm of water when fully laden and Marsh managed to steam up the shallow Big Horn River in southern Montana in June 1876. There, the boat became a headquarters for the army's planned attack on a village of Sioux and Cheyenne they believed were camping on the nearby Little Big Horn River.
          On 28 June, Captain Grant and several other men were fishing a couple of kilometers from the boat when a young Indian on horseback approached. "He wore an exceedingly dejected countenance," one man later wrote. By signing and drawing on the ground, the Indian managed to convey that there had been a battle but the men did not understand its outcome. In fact, the Indian was Curley, one of Lieutenant Colonel George Custer's Crow scouts. Three days earlier, he had been the last man to see Custer and his 7th Cavalry battalion before they were wiped out during the Battle of the Little Big Horn.
          The following day, Grant received a dispatch from General Terry, who had found Custer's destroyed battalion and the surviving soldiers of the 7th Cavalry. Terry ordered Grant to prepare to evacuate the wounded soldiers. Slowed by the burden of carrying the wounded men, Terry's force did not arrive until 30 June. Grant immediately received the 54 wounded soldiers and sped downstream as quickly as possible. With the Far West draped in black and flying her flag at half-mast, Grant delivered the wounded to Fort Abraham Lincoln near Bismarck, North Dakota, at 23:00 on 05 July. The fast and relatively comfortable transport of the wounded by steam power undoubtedly saved numerous lives. Yet, Grant was also the bearer of bad news. From Fort Abraham Lincoln, General Terry's report of the disaster was telegraphed all over the country. Soon the entire nation learned that General Custer and more than 200 men had been massacred along the Little Big Horn River.
    1871 Guatemala revolts for agrarian reforms
    1865 Eight Lincoln-assassination conspirators convicted in Washington, DC
    1864 US Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, resigns
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues.
    1859 Niagara Falls crossed on tightrope         ^top^
          Jean-François Gravelet, a Frenchman known professionally as Emile Blondin, becomes the first daredevil to walk across Niagara Falls on a tightrope. The feat, performed above the Niagara gorge just downriver from the falls, is witnessed by some 5000 spectators. Wearing pink tights and a yellow tunic, Blondin crosses a cable about five centimeters in diameter and 335-meter long, with only a balancing pole to protect him from plunging into the dangerous rapids below. It is the first in a series of famous Niagara tightrope walks performed by "The Great Blondin" from 1859 to 1860. These "ascensions," as he advertises them, would include crossing the gorge with his manager on his back, walking the tightrope in a sack, and pushing a wheelbarrow across while dressed as an ape.
         L'équilibriste Jean François Blondel (né en France à Saint Omer) franchit les chutes du Niagara sur une corde. Il répétera son exploit faisant même la traversée les yeux bandés, poussant une brouette dans laquelle était assis un assistant.
    Reproductions of paintings of NIAGARA FALLS ONLINE: Linksby Churchby Bierstadtby Coleby Kensettby Rembrandt Pealeanother one by Peale
    une girafe1834 Congress creates Indian Territory (now Oklahoma)
    1827 La girafe arrive au Jardin des Plantes
          Une girafe est offerte au roi de France Charles X par le Pacha d’Egypte. Elle arrive à Marseille et traverse la France en grande pompe, objet d’une curiosité populaire énorme. Ce jour, elle est installée au Jardin des Plantes où des centaines de milliers de Parisiens viendront l’admirer pendant 20 ans, jusqu’à sa mort. click for Benedict XIV portrait
    1794 Battle of Fort Recovery, Ohio
    1741 Pope Benedict XIV encyclical forbidding traffiquing in alms [< click on image for 1741 portrait of Benedict XIV by Pierre Subleyras]
    1673 Prise de Maëstricht
          Vauban conduit le siège en présence du roi Louis XIV. Les Hollandais résistent dans cette ville qu'ils ont annexée en 1632. Mais Louis XIV veut venir à bout de "cette république de marchands de fromages". C'est au cours de l'un des assauts que d'Artagnan meurt.
    1607 Annales Ecclesiastici (Scientific History of Catholicism) published
    1294 Jews are expelled from Berne Switzerland.
    0833 L'empereur Louis le Pieux humilié et destitué par ses fils         ^top^
          Troisième des fils de Charlemagne, roi d’Aquitaine dès 78, Louis le Pieux ou le Débonnaire gouverna ce pays jusqu’en 814. Seul survivant et seul successeur de Charlemagne, il est couronné empereur à Aix-la-Chapelle, en septembre 813. Instruit, considérant l’Église et l’Empire comme deux notions étroitement liées et à peine distinctes, Louis procéda d’abord à la réforme de ces deux institutions. Couronné une deuxième fois par le pape Étienne IV, il promulgua en 817 l’Ordinatio Imperii ; pour régler sa succession : son fils aîné, Lothaire, fut proclamé empereur et seul héritier de l’Empire ; les deux frères de celui-ci, Pépin et Louis, gouverneraient comme rois en sous-ordre, l’un l’Aquitaine et l’autre la Bavière sous l’autorité de leur père, puis, après sa mort, sous celle de Lothaire. Compromis entre l’idée d’unité et la coutume du partage successoral de l’État franc.
          Mais un nouvel héritier naquit à Louis le Pieux en 823 de sa seconde épouse, Judith Welf. À ce fils prénommé Charles (le futur Charles le Chauve), l’empereur chercha à le " doter". Mais il subit les intrigues des partisans de sa seconde épouse et de ceux de sa première décision ! À l’intérieur comme à l’extérieur de l’Empire, les causes de ce malaise s’accumulaient. La crise éclata en 829 lorsque Louis le Pieux attribua à Charles un apanage comprenant l’Alémanie, la Rétie, l’Alsace et une partie de la Bourgogne.
          Dès lors le parti impérialiste complota la chute de l’empereur et son remplacement par Lothaire. Une première Ces intrigues aboutirent en 831 à la division de l’État carolingien en trois parts égales, à l’exception de l’Italie implicitement réservée à Lothaire. L’Empire en tant que tel paraissait oublié. La situation de Louis le Pieux ne s’améliora pas pour autant. Pépin et Louis, se jugeant défavorisés par rapport à Charles, prirent les armes contre leur père et rejoignirent leur frère aîné dans la rébellion.      Au "Champ du Mensonge" (au sud de Colmar), l’empereur fut abandonné par ses guerriers et se rendit lui-même à ses fils, le 30 Jun 833. L’Empire échut à Lothaire qui dut cependant reconnaître à ses deux frères la plus grande partie des territoires que leur père leur avait promis en 831. Quant à Louis le Pieux, il fut contraint, à Soissons, de prendre le costume de pénitent: on le déclara, de ce fait, incapable de gouverner à l’avenir.
          Cette humiliation sans précédent entraîna presque aussitôt un revirement en sa faveur ; libéré par Pépin et par Louis, il fut réconcilié par l’Église et recouronné à Metz. Dès lors, il tenta d’assurer une part d’Empire aussi importante que possible à son fils cadet, Charles (le Chauve). Après la mort de Pépin d’Aquitaine, il ajouta même toute la partie occidentale de l’Empire, à l’ouest de la Meuse, de la Saône et du Rhône avec quelques comtés en Provence. L’Est passait à Lothaire; Louis était relégué en Bavière. C’est lors de la tentative de soumission de ce dernier que Louis le Pieux mourut.
    0296 St Marcellinus begins his reign as Pope
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    < 29 Jun 01 Jul >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 30 June:

    2008 John Prakash, 62, Salesian priest from India, beaten and shot by men of the terrorist “Nepal Defense Army” (NDA) who had broken in at about 02:00 (20:15 UT on 29 June) into the house that he shared with Father P.V. Matthew (whom they locked up), in Sirsiya (Morang district, Nepal) where Father Prakash directed a school. 80% of the 30 million Nepalese are of the Hindu religion, the state religion until Nepal became a lay state in 2000. The terrorists think they will scare Christians and Muslims into converting to Hinduism or fleeing from Nepal, and Maoists into resigning from the government. —(080702)
    2003 Eight persons by explosion at 22:50 in a small cinderblock building in the courtyard of the al-Hassan mosque, in Fallujah, Iraq. Four persons are wounded, including the imam, Sheikh Laith Khalif, who dies the next day. Residents say that a US air-to-ground missile caused the explosion. After an investigation, the US says that the explosion occured in a bomb-making class conducted inside the mosque.
    2003 Krastyu Radkov, 46, hit in the head by an al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade bullet intended for an Israeli truck, near Jenin, West Bank, on a road where Radkov, a Bulgarian, was doing road work.
    2002 Muhaned al-Taher “the Engineer-4”, 26, and Imad Draoza, one of his deputies, intentionally killed by Israeli troops in Nablus, West Bank, because Hamas's military wing in Nablus, of which Taher was the head, was responsible from at least 107 Israeli deaths in suicide bombings, included the 19 on the bus of 18 June 2002. The al-Aqsa intifada body count now is at least 548 Israelis and 1430 Palestinians.
    2002:: 19 Poles en route to Medjugorje, Bosnia, in a chartered bus which, at 01:00, in Somogy district, Hungary, on the main Budapest-Zagreb highway, veers into the center of a roudabout, overturns and falls into a ditch. The dead include the one of the two drivers who was driving (he probably fell asleep at the wheel), 8 other men, 8 women, a teenaged boy, and a girl, 6. All others on board (32) are injured, including the organizer of the pilgrimage from Stoczek, near Lublin, Father Stefan.
    2002 Wang Jianping and his Uygur driver, shot late in the day in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, where Wang was the Chinese consul.
    1974 Mrs. Martin Luther King Sr., shot while at the organ in Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church, by a crazed black man. She was the mother of Martin Luther King Jr, who preached in that church. A deacon was also killed.
    1974:: 24 persons in fire at Gulliver's Discotheque in Port Chester NY.
    1972 Yuri Vladimirovich Linnik, Ukrainian mathematician born on 21 January 1915, son of optics physicist Vladimir Pavlovich Linnik. Yuri Linnik was the author of Characterization Problems in Mathematical Statistics.
    1971 Georgi Dobrovolsky, Vladislav Volkov, Viktor Patsayev, Soviet cosmonauts, in reentry disaster         ^top^
          The three Soviet cosmonauts who had served as the first crew of the world's first space station die when their spacecraft depressurizes during reentry. On 06 June, the three cosmonauts had launched into space aboard Soyuz 11 on a mission to dock and enter Salyut 1, the Soviet space station that had been placed in orbit in April. The spacecraft successfully docked with the station and the cosmonauts spent twenty-three days orbiting the earth.
          On 30 June, they leave the Salyut 1, and begin reentry procedures. However, when they fire the explosive bolts to separate the Soyux 11 reentry capsule from another stage of the spacecraft, a critical valve is jerked open. 160 kilometers above the earth, the capsule is suddenly exposed to the surrounding low pressure of space. As the capsule rapidly depressurizes, Patsayev tried to close the valve by hand but fails. Minutes later the cosmonauts are dead. As a result of the tragedy, the Soviet Union did not send any future crews to Salyut 1, and it was more than two years before they attempted another manned mission.
    L’équipage de 3 soviétiques, dans le vaisseau Soyouz qui le ramène de la station orbitale Saliout –1, périt suite à une fuite de pression.
    1969 Nash Rambler         ^top^
          The last of 4'204'925 Ramblers is produced. The Nash Rambler had originally been developed by George Walter Mason, after World War II when Mason realized before anyone else that the post-war "seller's market" would evaporate once the market was again saturated with cars. Mason foresaw the difficulty that independent car companies would experience once they were faced with head to head competition with the Big Three's massive production capabilities. It was Mason's theory that to compete with the Big Three the independents needed to market a different product. He developed a number of smaller cars including the Rambler, the Nash-Healey (a collaboration with British Healey), and the Metropolitan.
          None of the cars managed to capture the American market. But years later, after Nash-Kelvinator and Hudson merged to become AMC, the Rambler finally caught on as a sub-compact car. George Romney, Mason's protégé, coined the term "gas-guzzling dinosaur" to describe the Big Three's products. Romney led a personal ad campaign promoting the AMC Rambler as an efficient, reliable car. His campaign was immensely successful, and the Rambler single-handedly kept AMC alive during impossible times for independents.
    1961 Lee de Forest, 87, inventor of vacuum tube
          Lee de Forest, widely regarded as the "father of radio and the grandfather of television," patented the Audion radio tube in 1907, which turned radio into a practical transmission device for voice and music. Previously, wireless technology was primarily used for telegraph signals.
    1957 the Reconstruction Finance Corporation         ^top^
          The Federal Government permanently closes the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). With that, the United States effectively buried one of the remaining vestiges of the Great Depression. Indeed, the RFC was formed at the behest in 1931, as the nation was sinking deeper into the depths of poverty and despair. The brainchild of President Hoover, who felt that a revived private sector could best lead America back to prosperity, the RFC was charged with propping up the nation's struggling banks and businesses. Towards that end, the RFC was given license to hand out $300 million in credit to ailing financial institutions. However, the agency truly blossomed when Franklin Roosevelt ascended to the Presidency. Under Roosevelt’s lead, the RFC helped drive the New Deal recovery program and became a key player during World War II, making disbursements to America’s burgeoning defense industry, as well as cash-strapped foreign governments. But, by 1951 rumors that the agency was awash in impropriety swirled about Washington, leading Congress to marshal a probe that revealed that the RFC was riddled with corruption. These findings coupled with President Eisenhower’s push to curtail the government's role in the economy effectively signaled the end for the agency. In 1953 Eisenhower signed the RFC Liquidation Act into law, effectively stripping the organization of its duties as a lender. Four years later, the RFC was permanently closed.
    1934 Ernst Röhm, 46, and hundreds of Nazis, assassinated on orders from their Führer         ^top^
          In Germany, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ordered a bloody purge of his own political party, assassinating hundreds of Nazis who he believed had the potential to become political enemies in the future. The leadership of the Nazi Storm Troopers (SA), whose four million members had helped bring Hitler to power in the early 1930s, was especially targeted. Hitler feared that some of his followers had taken his early "National Socialism" propaganda too seriously, and thus might compromise his plan to suppress workers' rights in exchange for German industry making the country war-ready.
          Eleven years earlier, the "Beer Hall Putsch"--the Nazis first attempt at seizing power in Germany by force--had ended in failure, and Hitler was sent to Landsberg jail, where he spent nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party was reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gained a majority in the German parliament--the Reichstag--by legal means in 1932. In the same year, Hindenburg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January of 1933 appointed him as chancellor, mistakenly believing that the powerful Nazi leader could be brought to heel as a member of the president's cabinet.
          However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of Chancellor Hitler's first acts was to order the burning of the Reichstag building. The Nazi party's propaganda officers disguised the attack as a Communist plot, and Hitler used it as pretext for calling general elections. In the weeks before the elections, the police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority.
          Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts. On 30 June 1934, Hitler massacred his suspected political critics during the so-called "Night of the Long Knives," and on 02 August, Hindenburg, then merely a figurehead, died. After winning a confidence vote from the German people, Hitler dismantled the last remnants of Germany's democratic government, and became the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide.
    La nuit des "Longs couteaux"
          Sanglante et atroce purge au cours de laquelle Hitler et ses S.S. se débarrassent de tous les opposants au régime, y compris leurs propres partisans jugés pas assez extrémistes comme par exemple Ernst Röhm, chef des brigades S.A., mais aussi deux cents dignitaires politiques et militaires qui pouvaient inquiéter Hitler dans sa montée au sommet du pouvoir.
          Les S.A. (section d’assaut, allemand: Sturmabteilung), c’est une milice " brune " (les fameuses " chemises brunes ") de 400'000 hommes, disciplinés, expérimentés, composés de tueurs, de repris de justice, de la lie de la société, qui moyennant les plus basses besognes obtiennent leur pardon et même des "privilèges" dans le nouveau régime . Ils feront régner la terreur dans toute l’Allemagne, tuant, torturant, martyrisant, volant et violant sans complexe, sans pitié dès 1921, mais encore plus dans les années 30. A ce moment d’ailleurs, elle compte près de 3 millions d’hommes.
          Elle n’a rien à voir avec l’armée officielle (la Wehrmacht) qui d’ailleurs les méprise, sans toutefois échapper à leur contrôle. Ils seront, après cette Nuit des longs couteaux, intégré dans les sections SS. C’est la " mafia " au pouvoir, mais disciplinée et aux mains d’une mafia encore plus dangereuse. Dans le film Les Damnés de Luchino Visconti, vous pouvez suivre une reconstitution quasi historique, un tableau saisissant et réaliste de cette affreuse tuerie qui contredit bien l’adage : "Les loups ne se mangent pas entre eux !" Cette tuerie est aussi le symbole clair et inattaquable qu’aucune morale (sinon la fin justifie tous les moyens) n’est respectée par les nazis et que même leurs partisans sont chassés dans une espèce de fuite en avant vers toujours plus de cruauté, plus d’intransigeance … Aucun compromis n’est possible avec eux.
    1919 John W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), English physicist born on 12 November 1842. He worked on the theory of waves. He became the Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge and was awarded the 1904 Nobel prize for the discovery of the gas Argon.
    1919 Dr. Washington Dodge, of gunshot wound to the head and a fractured skull suffered when shot himself and fell on 21 June 1919 at his home at 840 Powell Street in San Francisco, despondent about a lawsuit filed against the Poulsen Wireless Corporation, which he headed. Born on 03 June 1859, he was a physician, former banker, supervisor, library trustee, and assessor of San Francisco. He survived the 15 April 1912 sinking of the Titanic.
    ^ 1882 Charles J. Guiteau, hanged for the assassination of President Garfield
         On 02 July 1881, after only four months in office, while on his way to visit his ill wife in Elberon, New Jersey, President James A. Garfield [19 Nov 1831 – 19 Sep 1881] was shot in the back and the arm at the railroad station in Washington DC, by Charles J. Guiteau [08 Sep 1841–], a disappointed office seeker with messianic visions, who had unsuccessfully sought an appointment to be US consul in Paris. Guiteau peaceably surrendered to police, calmly announcing, "I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now president of the United States."
          Garfield, mortally ill, was treated in Washington and then taken to the seashore at Elberon, New Jersey, where he attempted to recuperate with his family. For 80 days he performed only one official act, the signing of an extradition paper. It was generally agreed that, in such cases, the vice president is empowered by the Constitution to assume the powers and duties of the office of president. But should he serve merely as acting president until Garfield recovered, or would he receive the office itself and thus displace his predecessor?
          Because of an ambiguity in the Constitution, opinion was divided, and, because Congress was not in session, the problem could not be debated there. On 02 September 1881, the matter came before a cabinet meeting, where it was finally agreed that no action would be taken without first consulting Garfield. But in the opinion of the doctors this was impossible, and no further action was taken before the death of the president, the result of slow blood poisoning, on 19 September.
         The following day, Chester A. Arthur [05 Oct 1829 – 18 Nov 1886] was inaugurated as the twenty-first president of the United States. Garfield had three funerals: one in Elberon, another in Washington, where his body rested in state in the Capitol for three days, and a third in Cleveland, Ohio, where he was buried. Charles Guiteau's murder trial began in November, and on 25 January 1882, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. On 30 June 1882, he is hanged in his jail in Washington.
    ^ 1862 Many Rebs and Yanks at the Battle of Glendale (White Oak Swamp)
          The Seven Days' Battles continue at Glendale (White Oak Swamp, or Frayser's Farm), Virginia, as rebel General Robert E. Lee [19 Jan 1807 – 12 Oct 1870] has a chance to deal a decisive blow against the Army of the Potomac of Union Major General George B. McClellan [03 Dec 1826 – 29 Oct 1885]. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia had already won the Seven Days' Battles, but the Confederates' attempt to rout McClellan cost many Southern casualties. The Seven Days' Battles were the climax of McClellan's Peninsular campaign. For two months, the Union army sailed down Chesapeake Bay and then inched up the James Peninsula. In late June, the two forces began a series of clashes in which McClellan became unnerved and began to retreat to his base at Harrison's Landing on the James River. Lee hounded him on the retreat.
          On 30 June, Lee plotted a complex attack on the Yankees as they backed down the peninsula. He hoped to hit the front, flank, and rear of the Union army to create confusion and jam the escape routes. Those attacks did not succeed, as they required precise timing. Lee's own generals were confused, the attacks developed slowly, and they made only temporary ruptures in the Federal lines. Most disappointing for Lee was the performance of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Jackson was coming off a brilliant campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, but he showed little of his skill during the Seven Days' Battles. His corps halted at the edge of White Oak Swamp, and he focused his attention on taking a bridge from the Yankees. His officers located fords that would have allowed his men to bypass the bottleneck, but Jackson stayed put. This allowed the Union to move troops from Jackson's sector of the battlefield to halt a Confederate attack in another area. Lee's failure at Glendale permitted McClellan's army to fall back to higher, more defensible locations. The next day, 01 July, Lee assaulted Malvern Hill and his army suffered tremendous casualties in the face of a withering Union artillery barrage.
    1849 Albertus Brondgeest, Dutch artist born on 02 December 1786.
    1849 Peter De Wint, British painter born on 21 January 1784. — MORE ON DE WINT AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1802 Gaetano Gandolfi, Italian painter, draftsman, printmaker, and sculptor, born on 30 August 1734. — MORE ON GANDOLFI AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1849 Albertus Brondgeest, Dutch artist born on 02 December 1786.
    1798 Simon Julien de Parme, French artist born on 28 October 1735 (alternative date of death: 23 or 24 February 1800).
    1678 Pauwel de Vos, Antwerp Flemish painter in 1591, 1592, or on 09 December 1595. — a bit more with links to images.
    1662 Jan Corneliszoon Verspronck, Haarlem Dutch painter specialized in Portraits born in 1597. — MORE ON VERSPRONCK AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1660 William Oughtred, English Anglican priest and mathematician born on 05 March 1574. He is best known for his invention of an early form of the slide rule. He invented many new symbols including x for multiplication and :: for proportion. Author of Clavis Mathematicae (1631), and of Circles of Proportion and the Horizontal Instrument (1632).
    1651 The dead of the last day of the Battle of of Beresteczko (Berestechko) in the Volhynia (Wolyn, Volyn) region of Ukraine, which started on 28 June 1651, and is won by the Polish army under king Jan II Casimir [22 Mar 1609 – 16 Dec 1672] against Ukrainian Zaporozhian Cossack and peasant forces, led by hetman (generalissimo) Bohdan Khmelnytsky [1595 – 16 Aug 1657], and their Crimean Tatar allies. The Polish army had around 57'000 soldiers, the Ukrainians about 100'000 plus 25'000 Tatar cavalry soldiers. The Poles win because Tatars desert the battlefield. As a result, Khmelnytsky was forced to sign the Treaty of Biala Cerkiew (Bila Tserkva) with the Poles.
    1649 Simon Vouet, French painter born on 09 January 1590. — MORE ON VOUET AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1520 Montezuma is murdered as Spanish flee Aztec capital, hundreds of Spaniards killed or drowned.         ^top^
          Faced with an Aztec revolt against their rule, Spanish forces under Hernando Cortes fought their way out of Tenochtitlan at heavy cost. Known to the Spanish as La Noche Triste, or "the Night of Sadness," hundreds of soldiers drowned in Lake Texcoco when the vessel carrying them and Aztec treasure hoarded by Cortes sank. Montezuma II, the Aztec emperor who had become merely a subject of Cortes in the previous year, was also killed during the struggle; by an Aztec or a Spaniard it is not known.
          In 1519, Cortes, learning of political strife in the Aztec Empire, landed on the eastern coast of Mexico with six hundred men and marched to Tenochtitlan, the empire's capital. Joined by rival Indian groups who resented the Aztec's power, and aided by Montezuma II's belief that Cortes was the reincarnation of the god Quetzalcoatl, the Spanish entered Tenochtitlan unopposed on November 8, 1519.
          Cortes subsequently took the Aztec emperor hostage and began to govern his empire through him. In the spring of 1520, Cortes marched back to the coast to defeat Panfilo de Narvaez, a Spanish rival. When he returned to Tenochtitlan in June, he found that the subordinate he had left in command in charge of the city had massacred many of its occupants, and the Aztec population was on the brink of revolt.
          On 30 June, after the uprising began, Cortes fled the capital and Montezuma was killed and succeeded by his brother. During the Spaniard's retreat, they defeated a large Aztec army at Otumba and then occupied Tlaxcala. In late May of the next year, Cortes returned to Tenochtitlan, and after a three-month siege the city fell. Cuauhtemoc, the new Aztec emperor, was taken prisoner and later executed. His death marked the end of Aztec civilization.
         Faced with an Aztec revolt against their rule, forces under the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés fight their way out of Tenochtitlán at heavy cost. Known to the Spanish as La Noche Triste, or "the Night of Sadness," many soldiers drowned in Lake Texcoco when the vessel carrying them and Aztec treasures hoarded by Cortés sank. Montezuma II, the Aztec emperor who had become merely a subject of Cortés in the previous year, was also killed during the struggle; by the Aztecs or the Spanish, it is not known.
          Tenochtitlán was founded in 1325 A.D. by a wandering tribe of hunters and gatherers on islands in Lake Texcoco, near the present site of Mexico City. In only one century, this civilization grew into the Aztec Empire, due largely to its advanced system of agriculture. The empire came to dominate central Mexico and by the ascendance of Montezuma II in 1502 had reached its greatest extent, reaching as far south as perhaps modern-day Nicaragua. At the time, the empire was held together primarily by Aztec military strength, and Montezuma II set about establishing a bureaucracy, creating provinces that would pay tribute to the imperial capital of Tenochtitlán. The conquered peoples resented the Aztec demands for tribute and victims for the religious sacrifices, but the Aztec military kept rebellion at bay.
          Meanwhile, Hernán Cortés, a young Spanish-born noble, came to Hispaniola in the West Indies in 1504. In 1511, he sailed with Diego Velázquez to conquer Cuba and twice was elected mayor of Santiago, the capital of Hispaniola. In 1518, he was appointed captain general of a new Spanish expedition to the American mainland. Velázquez, the governor of Cuba, later rescinded the order, and Cortés sailed without permission. He visited the coast of Yucatán and in March 1519 landed at Tabasco in Mexico's Bay of Campeche with 500 soldiers, 100 sailors, and 16 horses. There, he won over the local Indians and was given a female slave, Malinche--baptized Marina--who became his mistress and later bore him a son. She knew both Maya and Aztec and served as an interpreter. The expedition then proceeded up the Mexican coast, where Cortés founded Veracruz, mainly for the purpose of having himself elected captain general by the colony, thus shaking off the authority of Velázquez and making him responsible only to King Charles V of Spain.
          At Veracruz, Cortés trained his army and then burned his ships to ensure loyalty to his plans for conquest. Having learned of political strife in the Aztec Empire, Cortés led his force into the Mexican interior. On the way to Tenochtitlán, he clashed with local Indians, but many of these peoples, including the nation of Tlaxcala, became his allies after learning of his plan to conquer their hated Aztec rulers. Hearing of the approach of Cortés, with his frightful horses and sophisticated weapons, Montezuma II tried to buy him off, but Cortés would not be dissuaded. On 08 November 1519, the Spaniards and their 1000 Tlaxcaltec warriors were allowed to enter Tenochtitlán unopposed.
          Montezuma suspected them to be divine envoys of the god Quetzalcóatl, who was prophesied to return from the east in a "One Reed" year, which 1519 was on the Aztec calendar. The Spaniards were greeted with great honor, and Cortés seized the opportunity, taking Montezuma hostage so that he might govern the empire through him. His mistress, Marina, was a great help in this endeavor and succeeded in convincing Montezuma to cooperate fully.
          In the spring of 1520, Cortés learned of the arrival of a Spanish force from Cuba, led by Pánfilo Narváez and sent by Velázquez to deprive Cortés of his command. Cortés led his army out of Tenochtitlán to meet them, leaving behind a garrison of 80 Spaniards and a few hundred Tlaxcaltecs to govern the city. Cortés defeated Narváez and enlisted Narváez' army into his own. When he returned to Tenochtitlán in June, he found the garrison under siege from the Aztecs, who had rebelled after the subordinate that Cortés left in command of the city massacred several Aztec chiefs, and the population on the brink of revolt. On 30 June, under pressure and lacking food, Cortés and his men fled the capital at night. In the fighting that ensued, Montezuma was killed--in Aztec reports by the Spaniards, and in Spanish reports by an Aztec mob bitter at Montezuma's subservience to Spanish rule. He was succeeded as emperor by his brother, Cuitláhuac.
          During the Spaniards' retreat, they defeated a large Aztec army at Otumba and then rejoined their Tlaxcaltec allies. In May 1521, Cortés returned to Tenochtitlán, and after a three-month siege the city fell. This victory marked the fall of the Aztec empire. Cuauhtémoc, Cuitláhuac's successor as emperor, was taken prisoner and later executed, and Cortés became the ruler of vast Mexican empire.
          The Spanish conquistador led an expedition to Honduras in 1524 and in 1528 returned to Spain to see the king. Charles made him Marqués del Valle but refused to name him governor because of his quarrels with Velázquez and others. In 1530, he returned to Mexico, now known as New Spain, and found the country in disarray. After restoring some order, he retired to his estate south of Mexico City and sent out maritime expeditions from the Pacific coast. In 1540, he returned to Spain and was neglected by the court. He died in 1547.
    < 29 Jun 01 Jul >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 30 June:

    1953 Corvette1953 Chevrolet Corvette         ^top^
          The first Chevrolet Corvette, a white convertible roadster with a red interior, is produced in temporary facilities in Flint, Michigan. The Corvette concept started as plans for a dream car in the 1953 Motorama auto show. The first all-fiberglass body, US-made sports car, the 'Vette turned heads at its release. The sleek lines of the 1953 edition are among the best produced by American car design, but under its exterior the first Corvettes were less than impressive. Comprised mostly of existing General Motors (GM) parts and carrying inadequate V-6 Blue Spark engines, the Corvette was at best a half-hearted attempt at a powerful sports car.
          However, events combined to keep the Chevrolet Corvette in production despite its dismal sales records early on. Ford's release of the T-Bird in 1954 necessitated the Corvette's existence as GM's answer in the small, sporty market. GM gradually improved the vehicle's design, and by 1961 it was undoubtedly America's favorite sports car. Unique in American history in its longevity as a model, the Corvette has remained an impressive machine throughout its lifetime. In recent years GM has been able to rank the Corvette among the world's elite sports cars in zero-to-sixty acceleration times, top speed, and overall muscle. The Corvette's list price modestly remains at about half the price of its European competitors.
    1945 Sean Scully, in Dublin, US Abstract painter. — MORE ON SCULLY AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1940 US Fish and Wildlife Service is established.
    ^ 1936 Gone with the Wind
          Margaret Mitchell's only novel, Gone with the Wind, is published. The book will become one of the bestselling novels of all time, selling some 25 million copies. It will sell 1 million copies within six months, with as many as 50'000 copies being bought on a single day.
          Mitchell was born in Atlanta in 1900. She hoped to study medicine, but became a journalist instead, reporting for The Atlanta Journal from 1922 to 1926. She married in 1925 and retired from journalism after an ankle injury. She spent 10 years writing and researching the antebellum South and the Civil War in order to produce Gone with the Wind. The book was made into an Oscar-winning movie in 1939. Mitchell never tried writing a sequel to the book, but in 1988 her estate sold sequel rights to Warner Books for nearly $5 million. The sequel, Scarlett, by Alexandra Ripley, was published in 1991 and topped the bestseller list despite a chilly response from critics.
    1911 Ruskin Spear, British painter who died in 1990. — link to images.
    1909 Juan Bosch poet / pres of the Dominican Republic (1962-63)
    1900 Gheorghe Vranceanu, Romanian mathematician who died on 27 April 1979.
    1888 Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa, who died on 30 November 1935, Portuguese poet whose part in Modernism gave Portuguese literature European significance. From age 7 to 17 he lived in Durban, South Africa, where his stepfather was Portuguese consul. He became fluent in English. He worked as a commercial translator in Lisbon, while becoming a leading aesthetician of the Modernist movement, contributing articles to magazines. In 1918 he started publishing books of his English poetry. It is only after his death that he became famous for his Portuguese poetry, written in different styles under his own name and a variety of pen names embodying what he felt were his multiple personalities, such as Poesias de Fernando Pessoa — Poesias de Alvaro de Campos — Poemas de Alberto Caeiro — Odes de Ricardo Reis.
    1891 Sir Stanley Spencer, British painter and draftsman who died on 14 December 1959. — MORE ON SPENCER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1880 Karl Rudolf Fueter, Swiss mathematician who died on 09 August 1950. Author of Synthetische Zahlentheorie (1917), Vorlesungen über die singulären Moduln und die komplexe Multiplikation der elliptischen Funktionen (2 volumes: 1924, 1927), Das mathematische Werkzeug des Chemikers, biologen und Statistikers (1926).
    1853 Robert Ponsonby Staples, British artist who died in 1943.
    1848 Eugen Otto Erwin Netto, German mathematician who died on 13 May 1919. He made major steps towards abstract group theory in his book Substitutionentheorie und ihre Anwendung auf die Algebra (1882).
    1824 Willem Anthonie van Deventer, Dutch artist who died in 1893.
    1819 William A Wheeler (R) 19th VP of US (1877-81)
    1799 François-Auguste-André Biard, French artist who died on 20 June 1882.
    1791 Félix Savart, French physicist who died on 16 March 1841.
    1789 Émile Jean Horace Vernet, French painter, specialized in Orientalism and Battle Scenes, who died on 17 January 1863. — MORE ON VERNET AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1728 Nicolas-Guy Brenet, French painter who died on 22 February 1792. — more with links to images.
    1685 John Gay author. GAY ONLINE: The Beggar's Opera The Beggar's OperaThe Beggar's Opera
    1470 Charles VIII, who would be from 1483, invade Italy unopposed, enter Naples on 22 February 1495, be crowned King of Naples on 12 February, be chased back to France by a coalition of Milan, Austria, Venice, and the Pope, and die on 07 Apr 1498.
     
    Holidays Guatemala : Revolution Day (1871) / Lybia : Troop Withdrawl Day / Mongolia : Constitution Day / Rwanda and Burundi : Independence Day (1962) / Surinam : Lebaran, official holiday / Zaïre (Congo): Independence Day (1960)

    Religious Observances RC : St Paul / first Martyrs of the See of Rome (opt)
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    Thoughts for the day:
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    “The light of a hundred stars surpasses the light of the new moon.”
    “The light of the moon doesn't equal one-hundredth of the light of one star — the sun.”
    “Don't ask a shark to save you from a crocodile.”
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