• Montezuma murdered, Spanish flee Tenochtitlan... • Hitler has hundreds of followers murdered... • Giant thing hits Earth... • 7 Days Battle: Day 6... • End of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation... • Louis le Pieux destitué par ses fils... • Gone with the Wind published... • The first Corvette... • The last Rambler... • Russian cosmonauts die on reentry... • Garfield's assassin hanged...
a 30 June:
2002 Parliamentary and presidential elections in Bolivia. None of the eleven candidates gets anywhere near the required 50% of the vote, so the Congress, on 03 August, will have to choose who will take office on 06 August between the two top vote-getters, Manfred Reyes Villa (20%) [< photo], 46, of the Nueva Fuerza Republicana, mayor of Cochabamba and former military captain offering social revolution, and Gonzalo Goni Sánchez de Lozada (22%) [31 May 2002 photo >], (72 minus 1 day), of the MNR, ex-president (1993-1997) who owns Bolivia's largest mining company. The other presidential candidates are social democrat Jaime Paz Zamora (Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria and NM) another ex-president (1989-1993), Juan Evo Morales Aima (Movimiento Al Socialismo), 42, an indigenous leader of Bolivia's coca farmers who was expelled from Congress in 2001 accused of inciting violence (18%), Ronald Maclean Abarda (Acción Democrática Nacionalista), Alberto Costa Obregón (Libertad y Justicia), Felipe Quispe Huanca (MIP) another indigenous leader and a former leftist guerilla, Nicolás Felipe Valdivia Almanza (Condepa), Jorge Rolando Morales Anaya (Partido Socialista), Max Johnny Fernández Saucedo (UCS), René Oswald Blattman Bauer (Movimiento Ciudadano para el Cambio).
2002 Most US postal rates are increased. For example the first-class postage for the first ounce goes from 34 to 37 cents.
2001 At 13:00 UT, Chris Sterry, 47, an Anglican vicar in northern England, has been preaching on the Old Testament for 30 hours, following rules prohibiting nonsense, repetition, and pauses lasting longer than 10 seconds except for a 15 minute break every eight hours. His record-setting unscripted sermon is intended to raise money for charity.
2000 Electronic signature law is signed by US president Clinton, both on paper and electronically. The new law provides that no contract, signature or record shall be denied legally binding status just because it is in electronic form capable of being retained and accurately reproduced for later reference. It takes effect on 01 October. As of 01 March 2001, companies can begin the electronic retention of legal records such as mortgages and financial securities.
1996 Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic responded to international pressure to step aside by handing his powers to an equally nationalist deputy.
1985 39 remaining US hostages from TWA Flight 847 are freed in Beirut after being held 17 days.
1982 US Federal Equal Rights Amendment fails 3 states short of ratification
1981 China's Communist Party condemns the late Mao Tse-tung's policy
1973 Observers aboard Concorde jet observe 72-min solar eclipse
1972 first leap second day; also 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985
1971 The 26th Amendment to the US Constitution, lowering the minimum voting age to 18, is ratified as Ohio becomes the 38th state to approve it.
| 1969 Spain cedes Ifni to Morocco.
1962 Rwanda and Burundi become independent
1962 Le colonel Boumédienne, un des héros de la Résistance algérienne contre les français est démis de ses responsabilités et destitué " officiellement ". Ben-Bella et Ferhat-Abbas apportent leur soutien à Boumédienne. Mais les rivalités engendreront encore de nombreuses et sanglantes luttes.
| 1939 Heinkel He. 176 rocket plane flies for first
time, at Peenemünde
1936 40 hour work week law approved for the US (federal)
1930 first round-the-world radio broadcast Schenectady NY
1927 Augusto Cesar Sandino issues his Manifesto Politico
1923 New Zealand claims Ross Dependency in Antarctica
1921 President Harding appointed former President Taft chief justice of the United States.
1913 2nd Balkan War begins
1909 In Rome, the Catholic Pontifical Biblical Commission issues a decree interpreting the first 11 chapters of Genesis as history, not myth. (??)
| 1906 US Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection
1894 Korea declares independence from China, asks for Japanese aid [like asking a shark for help against a crocodile].
1865 Eight Lincoln-assassination conspirators convicted in Washington, DC
1864 US Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, resigns
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues.
Congress creates Indian Territory (now Oklahoma)
1827 La girafe arrive au Jardin des Plantes
Une girafe est offerte au roi de France Charles X par le Pacha d’Egypte. Elle arrive à Marseille et traverse la France en grande pompe, objet d’une curiosité populaire énorme. Ce jour, elle est installée au Jardin des Plantes où des centaines de milliers de Parisiens viendront l’admirer pendant 20 ans, jusqu’à sa mort.
1794 Battle of Fort Recovery, Ohio
1741 Pope Benedict XIV encyclical forbidding traffiquing in alms [< click on image for 1741 portrait of Benedict XIV by Pierre Subleyras]
1673 Prise de Maëstricht
Vauban conduit le siège en présence du roi Louis XIV. Les Hollandais résistent dans cette ville qu'ils ont annexée en 1632. Mais Louis XIV veut venir à bout de "cette république de marchands de fromages". C'est au cours de l'un des assauts que d'Artagnan meurt.
1607 Annales Ecclesiastici (Scientific History of Catholicism) published
1294 Jews are expelled from Berne Switzerland.
2008 John Prakash, 62, Salesian priest from India, beaten and shot by men of the terrorist “Nepal Defense Army” (NDA) who had broken in at about 02:00 (20:15 UT on 29 June) into the house that he shared with Father P.V. Matthew (whom they locked up), in Sirsiya (Morang district, Nepal) where Father Prakash directed a school. 80% of the 30 million Nepalese are of the Hindu religion, the state religion until Nepal became a lay state in 2000. The terrorists think they will scare Christians and Muslims into converting to Hinduism or fleeing from Nepal, and Maoists into resigning from the government. —(080702)
2003 Eight persons by explosion at 22:50 in a small cinderblock building in the courtyard of the al-Hassan mosque, in Fallujah, Iraq. Four persons are wounded, including the imam, Sheikh Laith Khalif, who dies the next day. Residents say that a US air-to-ground missile caused the explosion. After an investigation, the US says that the explosion occured in a bomb-making class conducted inside the mosque.
2003 Krastyu Radkov, 46, hit in the head by an al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade bullet intended for an Israeli truck, near Jenin, West Bank, on a road where Radkov, a Bulgarian, was doing road work.
2002 Muhaned al-Taher the Engineer-4, 26, and Imad Draoza, one of his deputies, intentionally killed by Israeli troops in Nablus, West Bank, because Hamas's military wing in Nablus, of which Taher was the head, was responsible from at least 107 Israeli deaths in suicide bombings, included the 19 on the bus of 18 June 2002. The al-Aqsa intifada body count now is at least 548 Israelis and 1430 Palestinians.
2002:: 19 Poles en route to Medjugorje, Bosnia, in a chartered bus which, at 01:00, in Somogy district, Hungary, on the main Budapest-Zagreb highway, veers into the center of a roudabout, overturns and falls into a ditch. The dead include the one of the two drivers who was driving (he probably fell asleep at the wheel), 8 other men, 8 women, a teenaged boy, and a girl, 6. All others on board (32) are injured, including the organizer of the pilgrimage from Stoczek, near Lublin, Father Stefan.
2002 Wang Jianping and his Uygur driver, shot late in the day in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, where Wang was the Chinese consul.
1974 Mrs. Martin Luther King Sr., shot while at the organ in Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church, by a crazed black man. She was the mother of Martin Luther King Jr, who preached in that church. A deacon was also killed.
1974:: 24 persons in fire at Gulliver's Discotheque in Port Chester NY.
1972 Yuri Vladimirovich Linnik, Ukrainian mathematician born on 21 January 1915, son of optics physicist Vladimir Pavlovich Linnik. Yuri Linnik was the author of Characterization Problems in Mathematical Statistics.
Röhm, 46, and hundreds of Nazis,
assassinated on orders from their Führer
In Germany, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ordered a bloody purge of his own political party, assassinating hundreds of Nazis who he believed had the potential to become political enemies in the future. The leadership of the Nazi Storm Troopers (SA), whose four million members had helped bring Hitler to power in the early 1930s, was especially targeted. Hitler feared that some of his followers had taken his early "National Socialism" propaganda too seriously, and thus might compromise his plan to suppress workers' rights in exchange for German industry making the country war-ready.
Eleven years earlier, the "Beer Hall Putsch"--the Nazis first attempt at seizing power in Germany by force--had ended in failure, and Hitler was sent to Landsberg jail, where he spent nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. Upon his release, the Nazi Party was reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gained a majority in the German parliament--the Reichstag--by legal means in 1932. In the same year, Hindenburg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January of 1933 appointed him as chancellor, mistakenly believing that the powerful Nazi leader could be brought to heel as a member of the president's cabinet.
However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of Chancellor Hitler's first acts was to order the burning of the Reichstag building. The Nazi party's propaganda officers disguised the attack as a Communist plot, and Hitler used it as pretext for calling general elections. In the weeks before the elections, the police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority.
Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts. On 30 June 1934, Hitler massacred his suspected political critics during the so-called "Night of the Long Knives," and on 02 August, Hindenburg, then merely a figurehead, died. After winning a confidence vote from the German people, Hitler dismantled the last remnants of Germany's democratic government, and became the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide.
La nuit des "Longs couteaux"
Sanglante et atroce purge au cours de laquelle Hitler et ses S.S. se débarrassent de tous les opposants au régime, y compris leurs propres partisans jugés pas assez extrémistes comme par exemple Ernst Röhm, chef des brigades S.A., mais aussi deux cents dignitaires politiques et militaires qui pouvaient inquiéter Hitler dans sa montée au sommet du pouvoir.
Les S.A. (section d’assaut, allemand: Sturmabteilung), c’est une milice " brune " (les fameuses " chemises brunes ") de 400'000 hommes, disciplinés, expérimentés, composés de tueurs, de repris de justice, de la lie de la société, qui moyennant les plus basses besognes obtiennent leur pardon et même des "privilèges" dans le nouveau régime . Ils feront régner la terreur dans toute l’Allemagne, tuant, torturant, martyrisant, volant et violant sans complexe, sans pitié dès 1921, mais encore plus dans les années 30. A ce moment d’ailleurs, elle compte près de 3 millions d’hommes.
Elle n’a rien à voir avec l’armée officielle (la Wehrmacht) qui d’ailleurs les méprise, sans toutefois échapper à leur contrôle. Ils seront, après cette Nuit des longs couteaux, intégré dans les sections SS. C’est la " mafia " au pouvoir, mais disciplinée et aux mains d’une mafia encore plus dangereuse. Dans le film Les Damnés de Luchino Visconti, vous pouvez suivre une reconstitution quasi historique, un tableau saisissant et réaliste de cette affreuse tuerie qui contredit bien l’adage : "Les loups ne se mangent pas entre eux !" Cette tuerie est aussi le symbole clair et inattaquable qu’aucune morale (sinon la fin justifie tous les moyens) n’est respectée par les nazis et que même leurs partisans sont chassés dans une espèce de fuite en avant vers toujours plus de cruauté, plus d’intransigeance … Aucun compromis n’est possible avec eux.
| 1919 John
W. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), English physicist born on 12 November
1842. He worked on the theory of waves. He became the Cavendish Professor
of Physics at Cambridge and was awarded the 1904 Nobel prize for the discovery
of the gas Argon.
1919 Dr. Washington Dodge, of gunshot wound to the head and a fractured skull suffered when shot himself and fell on 21 June 1919 at his home at 840 Powell Street in San Francisco, despondent about a lawsuit filed against the Poulsen Wireless Corporation, which he headed. Born on 03 June 1859, he was a physician, former banker, supervisor, library trustee, and assessor of San Francisco. He survived the 15 April 1912 sinking of the Titanic.
1849 Peter De Wint, British painter born on 21 January 1784. MORE ON DE WINT AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1802 Gaetano Gandolfi, Italian painter, draftsman, printmaker, and sculptor, born on 30 August 1734. MORE ON GANDOLFI AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1849 Albertus Brondgeest, Dutch artist born on 02 December 1786.
1798 Simon Julien de Parme, French artist born on 28 October 1735 (alternative date of death: 23 or 24 February 1800).
1678 Pauwel de Vos, Antwerp Flemish painter in 1591, 1592, or on 09 December 1595. — a bit more with links to images.
1662 Jan Corneliszoon Verspronck, Haarlem Dutch painter specialized in Portraits born in 1597. MORE ON VERSPRONCK AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1660 William Oughtred, English Anglican priest and mathematician born on 05 March 1574. He is best known for his invention of an early form of the slide rule. He invented many new symbols including x for multiplication and :: for proportion. Author of Clavis Mathematicae (1631), and of Circles of Proportion and the Horizontal Instrument (1632).
1651 The dead of the last day of the Battle of of Beresteczko (Berestechko) in the Volhynia (Wolyn, Volyn) region of Ukraine, which started on 28 June 1651, and is won by the Polish army under king Jan II Casimir [22 Mar 1609 – 16 Dec 1672] against Ukrainian Zaporozhian Cossack and peasant forces, led by hetman (generalissimo) Bohdan Khmelnytsky [1595 – 16 Aug 1657], and their Crimean Tatar allies. The Polish army had around 57'000 soldiers, the Ukrainians about 100'000 plus 25'000 Tatar cavalry soldiers. The Poles win because Tatars desert the battlefield. As a result, Khmelnytsky was forced to sign the Treaty of Biala Cerkiew (Bila Tserkva) with the Poles.
1649 Simon Vouet, French painter born on 09 January 1590. MORE ON VOUET AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
|1945 Sean Scully, in Dublin, US Abstract painter.
ON SCULLY AT ART 4 JUNE
with links to images.
1940 US Fish and Wildlife Service is established.
1909 Juan Bosch poet / pres of the Dominican Republic (1962-63)
1900 Gheorghe Vranceanu, Romanian mathematician who died on 27 April 1979.
1888 Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa, who died on 30 November 1935, Portuguese poet whose part in Modernism gave Portuguese literature European significance. From age 7 to 17 he lived in Durban, South Africa, where his stepfather was Portuguese consul. He became fluent in English. He worked as a commercial translator in Lisbon, while becoming a leading aesthetician of the Modernist movement, contributing articles to magazines. In 1918 he started publishing books of his English poetry. It is only after his death that he became famous for his Portuguese poetry, written in different styles under his own name and a variety of pen names embodying what he felt were his multiple personalities, such as Poesias de Fernando Pessoa Poesias de Alvaro de Campos Poemas de Alberto Caeiro Odes de Ricardo Reis.
1891 Sir Stanley Spencer, British painter and draftsman who died on 14 December 1959. MORE ON SPENCER AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1880 Karl Rudolf Fueter, Swiss mathematician who died on 09 August 1950. Author of Synthetische Zahlentheorie (1917), Vorlesungen über die singulären Moduln und die komplexe Multiplikation der elliptischen Funktionen (2 volumes: 1924, 1927), Das mathematische Werkzeug des Chemikers, biologen und Statistikers (1926).
1853 Robert Ponsonby Staples, British artist who died in 1943.
1848 Eugen Otto Erwin Netto, German mathematician who died on 13 May 1919. He made major steps towards abstract group theory in his book Substitutionentheorie und ihre Anwendung auf die Algebra (1882).
1824 Willem Anthonie van Deventer, Dutch artist who died in 1893.
1819 William A Wheeler (R) 19th VP of US (1877-81)
1799 François-Auguste-André Biard, French artist who died on 20 June 1882.
1791 Félix Savart, French physicist who died on 16 March 1841.
1789 Émile Jean Horace Vernet, French painter, specialized in Orientalism and Battle Scenes, who died on 17 January 1863. MORE ON VERNET AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1728 Nicolas-Guy Brenet, French painter who died on 22 February 1792. — more with links to images.
1685 John Gay author. GAY ONLINE: The Beggar's Opera The Beggar's Opera The Beggar's Opera
1470 Charles VIII, who would be from 1483, invade Italy unopposed, enter Naples on 22 February 1495, be crowned King of Naples on 12 February, be chased back to France by a coalition of Milan, Austria, Venice, and the Pope, and die on 07 Apr 1498.
From Maxim O'Ronn's Illustrated Dixshunnary: