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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 28
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” JUN 28   wikipedia
• Rubens is born... • Assassination which resulted in WW1... • WW1 peace treaty which resulted in WW2... • Playwright takes the name “Molière”... • Charles V becomes Holy Roman Emperor... • Yugoslavia expelled from COMINFORM...
^  On a 28 June:



2008
In Rome's Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls,
at First Vespers of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul
Pope Benedict XVI opens the Jubilee Year of Saint Paul,
who was born in 0008 approximately.
The Year of Saint Paul ends on 29 June 2009.

The Pope's 28 June 2007 homily

—(080628)
^ 2002 Ivory Coast opposition leader is not a foreigner.
      A court in Abidjan delivers a certificate of nationality to opposition Rally of the Republicans party leader Alassane Dramane Ouattara. The question of Ouattara's citizenship has led to repeated street battles between his supporters and those of President Laurent Gbagbo which have left hundreds of people dead. The decision removes a principal obstacle that would have prevented Ouattara from standing in the country's next presidential race, set for 2005.
      The Supreme Court had barred Ouattara, a former prime minister, from running in legislative and presidential elections in 2000 because of questions about his nationality. Ouattara insists both he and his parents are Ivorian -- the proof of which is legally required to run for office. Detractors, including the government, said that Ouattara has roots in Burkina Faso.
      Ivory Coast's peaceful reputation was shattered in December 1999, when General Robert Guei seized power in the nation's first-ever coup and forced then-President Henri Konan Bedie into exile. Guei rigged presidential elections in October 2000, but was toppled in a popular uprising when he tried to steal the vote from Gbagbo.
      Gbagbo's victory, however, rapidly turned into a bloodletting between his mostly southern, Christian supporters and the predominantly northern, Muslim backers of Ouattara. At least 200 people died in that bout of violence. The dead included 57 RDR supporters, allegedly killed by paramilitary police, whose bodies were found dumped in an Abidjan field.
      A national reconciliation forum that brought Gbagbo together with Guei, Bedie and Ouattara in December 2001 recommended that the government recognize the opposition leader's full citizenship. The Supreme Court, however, could still use technicalities in the constitution to bar Ouattara from running for president.
      Ivory Coast has largely been calm for the last year. But ethnic violence, which evolved out of a ruling party political rally in the central town of Daloa, left at least four people dead on 25 June 2002.
      And other problems remain. A bitter political dispute arose after a national electoral commission decision to only allow the use of new identity cards issued in the late 1990s to vote on 07 July. Ouattara's party argues that only about half of voters have these papers and has called on its supporters to vote with the same documents they used in past elections.
2001 Former Yugoslav dictator Slobodan Milosevic is handed over by Serbia to the UN war crimes tribunal.
2000 ["Physician, cure yourself" department] The Colfax, Washington, firestation is devastated by a fire, probably not arson.
2000 Seven months after being shipwrecked and orphaned of mother while fleeing Cuba for the US, Elián González [06 Dec 1993~], is taken back to Cuba by his father, after US Attorney General Janet Reno [21 July 1938~] (of Waco and Ruby Ridge fame), instead of leaving the custody dispute to a family court, has the little boy snatched at gunpoint from his Miami relatives, who were giving him a home in the US, honoring the obvious intentions of Elian's dead mother. Fidel Castro [13 Aug 1926~] gloats over his propaganda victory.
2000 The US Supreme Court struck down Nebraska's so-called "partial-birth" abortion law.
2000 The US Supreme Court ruled the Boy Scouts can bar homosexuals from serving as troop leaders.
1995 Webster Hubbell, former No. 3 official at the US Justice Department, is sentenced to 21 months in prison for defrauding clients of the law firm where he and Hillary Rodham Clinton were partners.
^ 1994 IPG, Time Warner deal for interactive advertising
      Interpublic Group and Time Warner team up to create an interactive advertising venture on 28 June 1994. The new venture is expected to create multimedia tie-ins to print advertising deals. The two companies also agree to collaborate on content for interactive television. Time Warner is about to test an interactive television market in four thousand homes in Orlando, Florida, and Interpublic Group is beginning to establish a reputation as an aggressive early player in the realm of Internet advertising.
1994 Novell acquires Word Perfect
      Novell announces that it has completed its acquisition of WordPerfect Corporation. The purchase, coupled with the company's recently purchased Borland spreadsheet software, is an attempt by Novell to rival Microsoft's dominant position in the market for office suite software. Novell's ownership of WordPerfect would last less than two years: In January 1996, Novell would sell WordPerfect to Corel.
1991 Firma en Budapest del protocolo de autodisolución del Consejo de Ayuda Mutua Económica (CAME o COMECON) por los delegados permanentes de la URSS, Polonia, Hungría, Checoslovaquia, Bulgaria, Rumanía, Vietnam, Cuba y Mongolia.
1990 En España, el Pleno del Congreso de los Diputados aprueba el Proyecto de Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo.
1984 Los restos mortales de Alfonso Rodríguez Castelao, escritor, dibujante y nacionalista gallego, son enterrados en el Panteón de Gallegos Ilustres, en el convento de Santo Domingo de Bonaval (Santiago de Compostela).
1978 US Supreme Court orders the University of California at Davis Medical School to admit Allan Bakke, a White  man claiming reverse discrimination when his application was rejected.
1977 US Supreme Court allows Federal control of Nixon's tapes and papers
1976 Las islas Seychelles, nuevo país independiente tras 162 años de dominación británica.
1976 El general Ramalho Eanes, elegido presidente de Portugal por amplia mayoría.
1972 US President Nixon announces that no more draftees will be sent to Vietnam unless they volunteer for such duty. He also announced that 10,000 US soldiers would be withdrawn by 01 September, which would leave a total of 39'000 in Vietnam. As the war in Vietnam wound down with the signing of the 1973 Paris Peace Accords, the war in neighboring Cambodia was going from bad to worse.
1971 The US Supreme Court declares that state funding of nonreligious instruction in parochial schools is unconstitutional.
^ 1969 Not so gay: homosexuals riot
      Just after 03:00, a police raid of the Stonewall Inn — a homosexual club on New York City’s Christopher Street — turned violent as patrons and local sympathizers began rioting against the police. Although the police were legally justified in raiding the club, which was serving liquor without a license, among other violations, New York’s homosexuals had grown weary of the police department’s targeting of homosexual clubs, the majority of which had already been closed.
      The crowd on the street watched quietly as Stonewall’s employees were arrested, but when three drag queens and a lesbian were forced into the paddy wagon, the crowd began throwing coins and then bottles at the police. The officers were forced to take shelter inside the establishment, and two policemen were slightly injured before reinforcements arrived to disperse the mob. The protest, however, spilled over into the neighboring downtown streets, and order was not restored until the deployment of New York’s riot police. The so-called Stonewall Riot was followed by several days of demonstrations in New York, and was the impetus for the formation of the Gay Liberation Front, as well as other homosexual, lesbian, and bisexual civil rights organizations. It is also regarded by many as history’s first major homosexual rights protest.
1968 Daniel Ellsberg, a senior research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for International Studies,.indicted for leaking Pentagon Papers to The New York Times
1967 Israel declares Jerusalem reunified under its sovereignty following its capture of the Arab sector in the June 1967 war.
1966
Juan Carlos Onganía se hace cargo de la presidencia de la República de Argentina mediante un golpe de Estado militar.
1965 first US ground combat forces in Vietnam authorized by Pres Johnson
1965 US forces launch their first offensive in Vietnam.
      In the first major offensive ordered for US forces, 3000 soldiers of the 173rd Airborne Brigade — in conjunction with 800 Australian soldiers and a Vietnamese airborne unit — assault a jungle area known as Viet Cong Zone D, 30 km northeast of Saigon. The operation was called off after three days when it failed to make any major contract with the enemy. One American was killed and nine Americans and four Australians were wounded. The State Department assured the American public that the operation was in accord with Johnson administration policy on the role of US troops.
1964 Malcolm X founds the Organization for Afro-American Unity to seek independence for blacks in the Western Hemisphere.
1963 España ingresa en el GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) o Acuerdo General de Aranceles Aduaneros y Comercio.
1962 The Lutheran Church in America (LCA) was formed with the merger of four Lutheran synods: the United Lutheran Church in America, the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, the American Evangelical Lutheran Church and the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church.
1954 French troops begin to pull out of Vietnam's Tonkin Province.
1954 Chu Enlai y Nehru proclaman Los cinco principios de coexistencia pacífica.
1950 North Korean forces capture Seoul, South Korea. General Douglas MacArthur arrives in South Korea. A year after leaving West Point, Lt. Joe Kingston was en route to Korea, where he found himself retreating and advancing in a single day.
1950 China Popular confisca las grandes propiedades territoriales y requisa las de la Iglesia.
^ 1948 Yugoslavia expelled from COMINFORM
      The Soviet Union expels Yugoslavia from the Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM) for the latter's position on the Greek civil war. The expulsion was concrete evidence of the permanent split that had taken place between Russia and Yugoslavia. The Soviet Union had established COMINFORM in 1947 to serve as a coordinating body for communist parties in Russia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Italy, France, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Most Western observers believed the organization to be the successor to the Communist International (COMINTERN had been dissolved by Russia in 1943, in an effort to placate its wartime allies — the United States and Great Britain). With the hardening of Cold War animosities after World War II, however, the establishment of COMINFORM signaled that the Soviet Union was once again setting itself up as the official leader of the Communist bloc nations. In addition, the inclusion of the Italian and French Communist parties served notice that the Soviet Union wished to have a strong say in political developments outside of its eastern European satellites. Yugoslavia was an original member, but that nation's leader, Josef Broz Tito, proved to be reluctant in following the Soviet line. Throughout 1947 and into 1948, Tito harshly criticized Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's lack of assistance to communists fighting for power in Greece. When Tito refused to tone down his complaints, Stalin ordered Yugoslavia expelled from COMINFORM. After its expulsion, Yugoslavia continued to chart a Communist, but distinctly independent, pathway in its domestic and foreign policies. The United States was delighted with the Soviet-Yugoslavia split, and actively courted Tito with economic and military aid in the late-1940s and 1950s. As Stalin had already discovered, however, Tito refused to be the puppet of any government. COMINFORM slowly declined after 1948, as other communist parties, such as Italy's, also chafed under the Soviet desire for control. The Soviet Union officially dissolved the organization in 1956.
1946 Enrico de Nicola becomes first president of Italy
1945 General Douglas MacArthur announces the end of Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
1945 Polish Provisional Government of National Unity set up by Soviets
1942 Los alemanes conquistan la fortaleza de Tobruk (África del Norte).
1941 II Guerra mundial: Albania declara la guerra a la URSS.
1940 Romania cedes Bessarabia to Soviet Union
^ 1940 De Gaulle chef des F.F.L.
      En dépit de la réticence du Premier ministre britannique Churchill et de l'hostilité du président des Etats-Unis, Roosevelt, qui demande : "Comment voulez-vous que je fasse avec un homme qui se prend à la fois pour Jeanne d'Arc et Napoléon ?", le général de Gaulle s'impose comme seul et unique chef des Forces Française Libres.
     General Charles de Gaulle, having set up headquarters in England upon the establishment of a puppet government in his native France, is recognized by Britain as the leader of the Free French Forces, dedicated to the defeat of Germany and the liberation of all France.
      For Charles de Gaulle, fighting Germans was an old story. He sustained multiple injuries fighting at Verdun in World War I. He escaped German POW camps five times, only to be recaptured each time. (At 193 cm in height, it was hard for de Gaulle to remain inconspicuous.)
      At the beginning of World War II, de Gaulle was commander of a tank brigade. He was admired as a courageous leader and made a brigadier general in May 1940. After the German invasion of France, he became undersecretary of state for defense and war in the Reynaud government, but when Reynaud resigned, and Field Marshal Philippe Pétain stepped in, a virtual puppet of the German occupiers, he left for England.
      On June 18, de Gaulle took to the radio airwaves to make an appeal to his fellow French not to accept the armistice being sought by Petain, but to continue fighting under his command. Ten days later, Britain formally acknowledges de Gaulle as the leader of the "Free French Forces," which was at first little more than those French troops stationed in England, volunteers from Frenchmen already living in England, and units of the French navy.
      On August 2, a French military court would sentence de Gaulle to death in absentia for his actions. (No doubt at the instigation of the German occupiers.) De Gaulle would prove an adept wartime politician, finally winning recognition and respect from the Allies and his fellow countrymen.
      He moved the headquarters of the Free French Forces to Algiers and formed a "shadow government," in September 1943. He returned triumphally to liberated Paris in 1944. He went on to head two provisional governments before resigning.
1939 Premier vol transatlantique avec passagers. Un hydravion quadrimoteur Boeing 314 relie Port Washington, aux E.U,. à Marseille. — La Pan American Airways inicia el primer vuelo regular de viajeros sobre el Atlántico, entre Long Island y Marsella.
1938 US Congress creates the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to insure construction loans.
1936 Aprobado en referéndum el Estatuto de Autonomía de Galicia.
1931 Se realizan en España elecciones generales para la formación de Cortes constituyentes durante la II República, en las que los partidos de izquierda obtienen una gran mayoría.
1929 El Instituto Alemán de Física concede la Medalla Max Planck al propio Planck y a Albert Einstein, entre otros.
1928 Alfred E Smith (NY-Gov) nominated for president at Dem Convention
1921 Yugoslavia se constituye como Estado único centralista.
New York Times 19200628^ 1919 Treaty of Versailles
      At Versailles Palace outside of Paris, France, Germany signs with the Allies the treaty that officially ends World War I. The German delegation, which has been forced to sign the punitive agreement, indicates its attitude by breaking the ceremonial pen.
      On 19181111, the fair terms of US President Wilson’s peace proposal had encouraged the leaders of the Central Powers to agree to an armistice. Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” called for unselfish peace terms from the victorious Allies, including the restoration of territories conquered during the war, the right to national self-determination, and the establishment of a postwar world body to resolve future conflict.
      On 18 January 1919, the international peace conference convened at Versailles, and Wilson, who represented the US, soon found himself at odds with other Allied leaders who were intent on punishing Germany. The final treaty, signed on 28 June 1919, calls for Germany’s relinquishment of substantial territory, the abolishment of its navy and overseas empire, and the payment of stiff war reparations to the Allied powers.
     At the signing the one leader who showed remarkable foresight was General Smuts of South Africa, who signed under protest and filed a document declaring that the peace was unsatisfactory because. the indemnities stipulated could not be accepted without grave injury to the industrial revival of Europe there were territorial settlements which would need revision. The Chinese were not present, as they had a disagreement on Shantung.
      These demanding terms would be regarded with increasing bitterness in Germany, and would directly contributed to the rise of Nazism and subsequent outbreak of World War II. Nevertheless, the creation of states based on Wilson’s principle of national self-determination and the formation of the League of Nations were both embodied in the Treaty of Versailles. In 1920, President Woodrow Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Price for his efforts.
full reports in The New York Times 19200628  
KEYNES PREDICTS ECONOMIC CHAOS:
      At the Palace of Versailles outside Paris, Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles with the Allies, officially ending World War I. The English economist John Maynard Keynes, who had attended the peace conference but then left in protest of the treaty, was one of the most outspoken critics of the punitive agreement. In his The Economic Consequences of the Peace, published in December 1919, Keynes predicted that the stiff war reparations and other harsh terms imposed on Germany by the treaty would lead to the financial collapse of the country, which in turn would have serious economic and political repercussions on Europe and the world. By the fall of 1918, it was apparent to the leaders of Germany that defeat was inevitable in World War I. After four years of terrible attrition, Germany no longer had the men or resources to resist the Allies, who had been given a tremendous boost by the infusion of American manpower and supplies.
      In order to avert an Allied invasion of Germany, the German government contacted US President Woodrow Wilson in October 1918 and asked him to arrange a general armistice. Earlier that year, Wilson had proclaimed his "Fourteen Points," which proposed terms for a "just and stable peace" between Germany and its enemies. The Germans asked that the armistice be established along these terms, and the Allies more or less complied, assuring Germany of a fair and unselfish final peace treaty. On 11 November 1918, the armistice was signed and went into effect, and fighting in World War I came to an end. In January 1919, John Maynard Keynes traveled to the Paris Peace Conference as the chief representative of the British Treasury. The brilliant 35-year-old economist had previously won acclaim for his work with the Indian currency and his management of British finances during the war. In Paris, he sat on an economic council and advised British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, but the important peacemaking decisions were out of his hands, and President Wilson, Prime Minister Lloyd George, and French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau wielded the real authority.
      Germany had no role in the negotiations deciding its fate, and lesser Allied powers had little responsibility in the drafting of the final treaty. It soon became apparent that the treaty would bear only a faint resemblance to the Fourteen Points that had been proposed by Wilson and embraced by the Germans. Wilson, a great idealist, had few negotiating skills, and he soon buckled under the pressure of Clemenceau, who hoped to punish Germany as severely as it had punished France in the Treaty of Frankfurt that ended the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. Lloyd George took the middle ground between the two men, but he backed the French plan to force Germany to pay reparations for damages inflicted on Allied civilians and their property. Since the treaty officially held Germany responsible for the outbreak of World War I (in reality it was only partially responsible), the Allies would not have to pay reparations for damages they inflicted on German civilians. The treaty that began to emerge was a thinly veiled Carthaginian Peace, an agreement that accomplished Clemenceau's hope to crush France's old rival. According to its terms, Germany was to relinquish 10% of its territory. It was to be disarmed, and its overseas empire taken over by the Allies. Most detrimental to Germany's immediate future, however, was the confiscation of its foreign financial holdings and its merchant carrier fleet.
      The German economy, already devastated by the war, was thus further crippled, and the stiff war reparations demanded ensured that it would not soon return to its feet. A final reparations figure was not agreed upon in the treaty, but estimates placed the amount in excess of $30 billion, far beyond Germany's capacity to pay. Germany would be subject to invasion if it fell behind on payments. Keynes, horrified by the terms of the emerging treaty, presented a plan to the Allied leaders in which the German government be given a substantial loan, thus allowing it to buy food and materials while beginning reparations payments immediately. Lloyd George approved the "Keynes Plan," but President Wilson turned it down because he feared it would not receive congressional approval. In a private letter to a friend, Keynes called the idealistic American president "the greatest fraud on earth." On 05 June 1919 Keynes wrote a note to Lloyd George informing the prime minister that he was resigning his post in protest of the impending "devastation of Europe." The Germans initially refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, and it took an ultimatum from the Allies to bring the German delegation to Paris on June 28. It was five years to the day since the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, which began the chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. Clemenceau chose the location for the signing of the treaty: the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles Palace, site of the signing of the Treaty of Frankfurt that ended the Franco-Prussian War. At the ceremony, General Jan Christiaan Smuts, soon to be president of South Africa, was the only Allied leader to protest formally the Treaty of Versailles, saying it would do grave injury to the industrial revival of Europe. At Smuts' urging, Keynes began work on The Economic Consequences of the Peace. It was published in December 1919 and was widely read. In the book, Keynes made a grim prophecy that would have particular relevance to the next generation of Europeans: "If we aim at the impoverishment of Central Europe, vengeance, I dare say, will not limp. Nothing can then delay for very long the forces of Reaction and the despairing convulsions of Revolution, before which the horrors of the later German war will fade into nothing, and which will destroy, whoever is victor, the civilisation and the progress of our generation." Germany soon fell hopelessly behind in its reparations payments, and in 1923 France and Belgium occupied the industrial Ruhr region as a means of forcing payment. In protest, workers and employers closed down the factories in the region. Catastrophic inflation ensued, and Germany's fragile economy began quickly to collapse. By the time the crash came in November 1923, a lifetime of savings could not buy a loaf of bread. That month, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler launched an abortive coup against Germany's government. The Nazis were crushed and Hitler was imprisoned, but many resentful Germans sympathized with the Nazis and their hatred of the Treaty of Versailles.
      A decade later, Hitler would exploit this continuing bitterness among Germans to seize control of the German state. In the 1930s, the Treaty of Versailles was significantly revised and altered in Germany's favor, but this belated amendment could not stop the rise of German militarism and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. In the late 1930s, John Maynard Keynes gained a reputation as the world's foremost economist by advocating large-scale government economic planning to keep unemployment low and markets healthy. Today, all major capitalist nations adhere to the key principles of Keynesian economics. He died in 1946.
Le traité de Versailles met fin (formellement) à la Guerre de 1914 – 1918, suspendue depuis l’Armistice du 11 Novembre 1918. La République a voulu que ce soit dans la Galerie des glaces du château de Versailles, à l'endroit même où cinquante ans plus tôt a été proclamé l'Empire allemand, que la signature de ce traité qui a imposé des mois de négociations ait lieu. Les contractants sont la France et ses alliés, Belgique, Angleterre (au nom du Commonwealth), et en face, l’Allemagne. Autour de Clemenceau pour la France, Lloyd George pour l'Angleterre et le président Woodrow Wilson pour les Etats-Unis, Orlando pour l'Italie signent avec l'Allemagne défaite sur la base des quatorze points de Wilson qui, entre autres, affirment le principe des nationalités.
      Précédé du pacte de la Société des Nations, le traité comporte des clauses territoriales, militaires et financières. Les principaux décrets sont : Restitution de l’Alsace et de la Lorraine à la France. Administration de la Sarre (démilitarisée) par la S.D.N (Société des Nations = O.N.U.). Règlement du couloir de Dantzig (Oder-neisse), couloir Polonais vers la Mer Baltique. 20 milliards de Marks-Or à titre de réparations des dommages de guerre. C’est ce Traité que dénoncera Hitler dès son arrivée au pouvoir et qui lui inspirera son esprit "revanchard" et intransigeant lors des hostilités de 1940.
The acquiescence of the German people facilitated the rise of Hitler and the Nazis.
World War I document archive  
^ 1919 Keynes: Versailles Treaty will cause economic chaos
      The day that the Treaty of Versailles was signed in Paris, John Maynard Keynes warns that the war reparations imposed on Germany in the punitive agreement would cause worldwide economic havoc. When catastrophic German inflation and a world depression proved him right, Keynes advocated government spending to create employment. A brilliant economist, the eventual establishment of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank owed much to his ideas.
1917, 14'500 soldats américains débarquent à Saint-Nazaire. Parce qu'ils sont les neveux de l'Oncle Sam, on leur donne ce surnom: les "sammies". Le 13 juin, le général Pershing les avait précédés à Boulogne.
1913 Empieza la segunda guerra balcánica; ofensiva de Bulgaria contra Serbia y Grecia.
1909 Declarada obligatoria la enseñanza elemental en España.
1905 Russian sailors mutiny aboard the battleship Potemkin.
1902 Congress passes the Spooner bill, authorizing a canal to be built across the isthmus of Panama.
1898 Joshua Slocum llega a Nueva York tras conseguir dar la vuelta al mundo, por primera vez en solitario, a bordo de su yate Spray.
^ 1894 Labor Day adopted by US Congress
      By 1894, the notion of a holiday dedicated to America’s workers was hardly a novelty; city and state-based versions of Labor Day had in fact been rumbling about for over a decade. According to Labor Day lore, the holiday was conceived by wood-wise unionist Peter J. McGuire in 1894, though some historians dispute this claim. Whatever its origins, the first Labor Day celebration, organized by the Central Labor Union and consecrated with a parade attended by some ten thousand workers, was held in New York City on 05 September 1882. Labor Day proved to be a fast hit with New York’s workers, prompting a command performance for the holiday the following year.
      In 1894, the Central Labor Union formally staked out the first Monday in September as the regular date for New York’s Labor Day. But, the appeal of a worker’s holiday wasn’t limited to New York and, thanks in no small part to the organizing efforts of the Central Labor Union, Labor Day soon spread to the rest of the nation. In 1887, Oregon became the first state to officially sanction the celebration of Labor Day; during the next few years, scores of other states soon followed suit and adopted their own Labor Day legislation. And, on 28 June 1894, Congress got in on the act and passed a bill that called for the regular observance of Labor Day on the first Monday of September in the District of Columbia and the territories, a holiday for federal employees.
     The strange thing is that Labor Day in most other countries, May 1, commemorates an labor event that took place in the US: the Haymarket riots.
^ 1888 Robert Louis Stevenson sets sail for the South Seas
      The Scottish essayist, poet, and author of fiction and travel books, Robert Louis Stevenson and his family leave San Francisco for their first visit to the South Seas. Stevenson, an adventurous traveler plagued by tuberculosis, was seeking a healthier climate. The family finally settled in Samoa.
      Stevenson was born in Scotland on 13 November 1850, and studied civil engineering and law, but decided to pursue a career as a writer. His decision upset his parents, who remained alienated from him until he was 30 years old. At first, Stevenson wrote essays and travel accounts. In 1876, he fell in love with an American woman named Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne, who was separated from her husband. When she returned to San Francisco in 1879, Stevenson followed her. The couple married and returned to Scotland in 1880. Stevenson published a collection of essays in 1881 and Treasure Island, one of his most popular books, in 1883. In 1885, he published the first version of the popular nursery rhyme book A Child's Garden of Verses. In 1886, he published Kidnapped, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. After returning to the US for a year, the Stevenson family set sail for the South Seas. Stevenson published The Master of Ballantrae in 1889, and wrote several travel accounts of the family's explorations of the region. He died in Samoa on 03 December 1894.
Works by Robert Louis Stevenson online:
  • Across the Plains
  • The Art of Writing
  • Ballads
  • The Beach of Falesa
  • The Black Arrow
  • Catriona
  • A Child's Garden of Verses
  • The Dynamiter, co-author Fanny Stevenson
  • The Ebb-Tide, co-author Lloyd Osbourne
  • Edinburgh: Picturesque Notes
  • Essays of Travel
  • Fables
  • Familiar Studies of Men and Books
  • A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa
  • In the South Seas
  • An Inland Voyage
  • Island Nights' Entertainments
  • Kidnapped
  • Lay Morals, and Other Papers
  • The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson: vol. 1
  • The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson: vol. 2
  • The Master of Ballantrae
  • Memoir of Fleeming Jenkin
  • Memories and Portraits
  • The Merry Men
  • Moral Emblems
  • New Arabian Nights
  • New Poems
  • The Plays of W. E. Henley and R. L. Stevenson, co-author William E. Henley
  • The Pocket R.L.S., Being Favourite Passages from the Works of Stevenson
  • Prayers Written at Vailima, and A Lowden Sabbath Morn
  • Prince Otto: A Romance
  • Records of a Family of Engineers
  • The Silverado Squatters
  • Songs of Travel and Other Verses
  • St. Ives
  • The Story of a Lie, and Other Tales (see Tales and Fantasies)
  • The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (HTML at Virginia)
  • Tales and Fantasies
  • Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes
  • Treasure Island
  • Underwoods
  • Vailima Letters
  • Virginibus Puerisque and Other Papers
  • The Weir of Hermiston: An Unfinished Romance
  • The Wrecker, co-author Lloyd Osbourne
  • The Wrong Box, co-author Lloyd Osbourne
  • 1865 CSS Shenandoah captures 11 whalers in the Bering Sea
    1863 US Major General George Meade replaces Joseph Hooker as head of the Army of the Potomac, three days before the Battle of Gettysburg. A college professor with strong convictions became Maine's greatest hero of the American Civil War.
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues 1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
    1862 Day 4 of the 7 Days-Battle of Savage's Station
    1862 Action at Garnett's and Golding's Farms, Virginia
    1862 Passage of Vicksburg batteries by Flag Officer D.G. Farragut's deep water fleet
    ^ 1862 Confederates capture the St. Nicolas
          A Confederate band makes a daring capture of a commercial vessel on Chesapeake Bay. The plan was the brainchild of George Hollins, a veteran of the War of 1812. Hollins joined the navy at age 15, and had a long and distinguished career. A Maryland native, he was commander of a US warship in the Mediterranean when hostilities erupted in 1861, and returned to New York and resigned his commission. After a brief stop in his hometown, Baltimore, Hollins offered his services to the Confederacy and received a commission on 21 June 1861.
          Soon after, Hollins met up with Richard Thomas Zarvona, a Marylander, former West Point attendee, and adventurer who had fought with pirates in China and revolutionaries in Italy. They hatched a plan to capture the St. Nicolas and use it to marshal other Yankee ships into Confederate service. Zarvona went to Baltimore and recruited a band of pirates, who boarded the St. Nicholas as paying passengers on 28 June. Using the name Madame La Force, Zarvona disguised himself as a flirtatious Frenchwoman. Hollins then boarded the St. Nicholas at its first stop. The conspirators later retreated to the Frenchwoman's cabin, where they armed themselves and then burst out to capture the surprised crew. Hollins took control of the vessel and stopped on the Virginia bank of the Chesapeake to pick up a crew of Confederate soldiers. They planned to capture a Union gunboat, the Pawnee, but it was called away. Instead, the St. Nicholas and its pirate crew came upon a ship loaded with Brazilian coffee. Two more ships, carrying loads of ice and coal, soon fell to the St. Nicholas. These daring exploits earned Hollins a quick promotion from captain to commodore. At the end of July, Hollins was sent to take control of a fleet at New Orleans, Louisiana.
    1854 Gran parte de los moderados españoles, capitaneados por O'Donnell y tres generales más, realizan un pronunciamiento militar en Vicálvaro, conocido por Vicalvarada, contra el gobierno de Luis Sartorius, conde de San Luis.
    1839 Cinque, originally Sengbe Pieh, and other Africans are kidnapped to be sold into slavery in Cuba. They will revolt on 02 July aboard the slave ship Amistad.
    1838 Britain's Queen Victoria is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
    1837 Juramento de la Constitución española de esta fecha, que serviría de modelo a la de 1876, la de mayor duración de España.
    1820 Tomato is proven nonpoisonous
    1794 Aigri par les accusations non seulement des royalistes, mais surtout de ses collègues Montagnards, Robespierre, qui déjà s'absente de la Convention, n'assistera plus aux réunions du Comité de Salut Publique jusqu'au 23 Jul.
    1778 Battle of Monmouth, NJ — El ejército de George Washington, apoyado por las fuerzas del francés La Fayette y el prusiano von Steuben, expulsa a los británicos de Filadelfia tras vencer en la batalla de Monmouth durante la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos. — Mary Ludwig "Molly Pitcher" Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carries water to the soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth and, supposedly, takes her husband's place at his gun after he is overcome with heat.
    1776 Colonists repulse a British sea attack on Charleston, South Carolina. In some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War, American and French troops failed to take Savannah.
    1709 Battle of Poltava: Russians defeat the Swedes and Cossacks.
    1675 Frederick William of Brandenburg crushes the Swedes
    ^ 1669 Académie Royale de Musique
          L’abbé Perrin et Robert Cambert, deux musiciens français, obtiennent de la part du Roi-Soleil (soucieux du dévelopement des arts et des lettres susceptibles de montrer à l’Europe la grandeur de la France), un privilège exceptionnel : "d’Académie d’opéra ou de représentations en musique et en langue française". C’est la création de l'A.R.M. Comme Richelieu, sous Louis XIII, avait créé "l’Académie Française".
          Ils installeront cette académie en 1670 dans la salle du jeu de paume de la Bouteille. Treize salles, dont le théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin, le théâtre Montansier, la première salle Favart, le théâtre Louvois et, enfin, la salle Le Peletier abriteront successivement les représentations de l’Académie, qui prendra les qualificatifs de royale, impériale ou nationale selon le contexte politique.
          Des premiers temps émergent quelques noms glorieux : Lully (1672-1687), le premier maître incontesté, Rameau (1733-1760), vingt-quatre opéras, Gluck (1773-1779), et sa fameuse querelle avec Piccinni. À partir de 1807, nouveau style : le grand opéra à la française, qui atteindra son apogée au milieu du XIXe siècle, avec Meyerbeer, Rossini. Imposant ce style grandiose comme modèle à l’Europe entière, l’Opéra connaît alors son plus grand rayonnement.
          Lorsque la salle Le Peletier disparaît dans les flammes en 1873, le nouvel opéra commandé à Charles Garnier par Napoléon III est encore en construction. Il sera inauguré le 05 janvier 1875 et comporte 2156 places ; c’est alors la plus grande scène du monde. Massenet et Gounod y connaissent des triomphes, ainsi que Verdi et Wagner, sous la direction d’André Messager (1908-1914).
          Jacques Rouché, directeur de 1915 à 1939, administrateur de 1940 à 1944 crée la Réunion des théâtres lyriques nationaux (R.T.L.N., liant ainsi le sort de l’Opéra-Comique à celui de l’Opéra) ; il demeure la personnalité marquante de l’entre-deux-guerres, où l’Opéra rayonne par la qualité de ses chanteurs autant que par la variété de son répertoire.
          Après 1945, au contraire, un déclin réel correspond au désintérêt des Français pour une forme d’art qui ne suscite pas chez eux les révolutions qu’il connaît en Italie (avec Maria Callas) et en Allemagne (avec Wieland Wagner). Malgré quelques grandes réussites (Les Indes galantes, Carmen), les directions successives de Maurice Lehmann, Georges Hirsch, Jacques Ibert, Georges Auric... amènent à la fermeture en 1972 et à la nomination de Rolf Liebermann comme administrateur général et de Georg Solti comme directeur musical.
          La période qui suit, de 1973 à 1980, sera parmi les plus brillantes de l’histoire de l’Opéra, remettant la scène parisienne pour un temps au premier rang mondial. Mais, à la succession de Liebermann, l’ingérence de l’État de plus en plus effective ainsi que la dispersion des pouvoirs au sein même de l’établissement seront l’occasion d’un déclin rapide. Tandis que le palais Garnier achevait de s’enliser sous l’administration de Jean-Louis Martinoty, les querelles de personnes et de pouvoir se cristallisaient autour du nouveau théâtre voulu par François Mitterrand et construit par Carlos Ott..
          L’Opéra-Bastille est inauguré le 13 Jul 1989. Il est réuni au palais Garnier dans l’Association des théâtres de l’Opéra de Paris (A.T.O.P.), avec un président commun, Pierre Bergé (1988-1994) ; en 1989, Myung-Whun Chung est nommé directeur musical de l’Opéra-Bastille, poste qu’il quitte en 1994 après un conflit avec le nouveau directeur désigné, Hugues Gall, qui prend ses fonctions en août 1995. En 1994, l’ensemble palais Garnier - Opéra-Bastille prend le nom d’Opéra national de Paris (O.N.P.).
    ^ 1644 Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, 22, takes the stage name “Molière”
        Or at least this is the date of the earliest document in which is found that name used by the French actor and playwright, the greatest of all writers of French comedy.
          Although the sacred and secular authorities of 17th-century France often combined against him, the genius of Molière finally emerged to win him acclaim. Comedy had a long history before Molière, who employed most of its traditional forms, but he succeeded in inventing a new style that was based on a double vision of normal and abnormal seen in relation to each other — the comedy of the true opposed to the specious, the intelligent seen alongside the pedantic. An actor himself, Molière seems to have been incapable of visualizing any situation without animating and dramatizing it, often beyond the limits of probability; though living in an age of reason, his own good sense led him not to proselytize but rather to animate the absurd, as in such masterpieces as Tartuffe, L'école des femmes, Le Misanthrope, and many others. It is testimony to the freshness of his vision that the greatest comic artists working. Molière died on 17 February 1673.
    MOLIERE EN-LIGNE:
  • Amphitryon
  • Amphitryon : comédie
  • Dépit amoureux : comédie représentée sur le théâtre du Palais Royal
  • Dom Garcie de Navarre
  • Dom Juan, ou Le festin de pierre
  • Georges Dandin
  • L'école des femmes
  • L'école des maris
  • L'étourdi, ou Les contre-temps
  • L'amour médecin
  • L'amour médecin : comédie
  • L'avare
  • L'avare : comédie
  • L'estourdy ou Les contre-temps : comédie représentée sur le théâtre du Palais Royal
  • L'impromptu de Versailles
  • La comtesse d'Escarbagnas
  • La critique de l'École des femmes
  • La gloire du dôme du Val-de-Grâce
  • La gloire du Val-de-grâce
  • La jalousie du barbouillé
  • La princesse d'Élide
  • La princesse d'Elide : comédie du Sieur Mollière [sic] : les plaisirs de l'isle enchantée, course de bague, collation ornée de machines, mêlée de dances & de musique, ballet du palais d'Alcine, feu d'artifice, et autres fêtes galantes de Versailles
  • Le bourgeois gentilhomme
  • Le bourgeois gentilhomme : comédie-balet [sic] faite à Chambort, pour le divertissement du Roy
  • Le dépit amoureux
  • Le divertissement de Chambord / [intermèdes de M. de Pourceaugnac]
  • Le médecin malgré lui
  • Le médecin volant
  • Le malade imaginaire
  • Le malade imaginaire : comédie mêlée de musique, de chansons, & de dances
  • Le mariage forcé
  • Le misanthrope
  • Le misantrope : comédie
  • Le sicilien
  • Le Tartuffe, ou L'imposteur
  • Le Tartuffe ou L'imposteur : comédie
  • Les amants magnifiques
  • Les amans magnifiques : comédie meslée de musique & d'entrées de balet
  • Les fâcheux
  • Les fâcheux : comédie / [avec le Prologue de P. Pellisson]
  • Les femmes savantes
  • Les femmes savantes : comédie
  • Remercîment au Roi
  • Remercîment au Roy
  • Les fourberies de Scapin
  • Les œuvres de Monsieur Molière... [Volume 1]
  • Les œuvres de Monsieur Molière... [Volume 2]
  • Les précieuses ridicules
  • Les précieuses ridicules : comédie représentée au Petit Bourbon
  • Monsieur de Pourceaugnac
  • Monsieur de Pourceaugnac : comédie faite à Chambord pour le divertissement du Roy
  • Pastorale comique
  • Psyché
  • Sganarelle, ou Le cocu imaginaire
  • Sganarelle, ou le Cocu imaginaire : comédie / avec les arguments de chaque scène [les épîtres A Monsieur de Molier et A un amy, par le sieur de Neuf–Villenaine]
  • Œuvres. Tome premier
  • Œuvres. Tome second
  • Œuvres. Tome troisième
  • Œuvres. Tome quatrième
  • Œuvres. Tome cinquième
  • Œuvres. Tome sixième
  • Œuvres. Tome septième
  • Œuvres. Tome huitième
  • Œuvres. Tome neuvième
  • Œuvres. Tome dixième
  • Œuvres complètes . 1
  • Œuvres complètes . 2
  • MOLIERE ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Amphitryon
  • The Middle Class Gentleman
  • The Physician in Spite of Himself
  • The Misanthrope
  • The Miser
  • The School for Wives
  • Tartuffe, or, The Impostor
  • Tartuffe, or The Hypocrite
  • Tartuffe, or The Hypocrite
  • 1635 French colony of Guadeloupe established in the Caribbean.
    1632 Ordenanzas militares de Felipe IV, que rigieron en España durante casi un siglo.
    1629 Paix d'Alès. Celle-ci confirme l'édit de Nantes. Les libertés de conscience et de culte sont maintenues mais les places protestantes sont démantelées et les assemblées politiques désormais interdites.
    ^ 1519 Charles is elected Holy Roman Emperor
          Charles I of Spain, who by birth already holds sway over much of Europe and Spanish America, is elected the successor of his late grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Charles, who is also the grandson of Ferdinand II and Isabella of Spain, had bribed the princes of Germany to vote for him, defeating such formidable candidates as King Henry VIII of England, King Francis I of France, and Frederick the Wise, the duke of Saxony.
          Crowned as Emperor Charles V, the new Holy Roman emperor sought to unite the many kingdoms under his rule in the hope of creating a vast, universal empire. However, his hopes were thwarted by the Protestant Reformation in Germany, a lifelong dynastic struggle with King Francis, and the advance of the Ottoman Turks into Europe. In 1558, after nearly four decades as Holy Roman emperor, Charles abdicated the throne in favor of his brother, Ferdinand. He had already granted much of the other European territory under his rule to his son Philip.
         Election difficile de Charles-Quint, alors roi d’Espagne, au titre d’Empereur de Germanie. Il " unit " ainsi sous son autorité de nombreux territoires autour de la France ; l’Espagne, la Bourgogne (il est l’héritier par Marie de Bourgogne, fille de Charles le Téméraire, sa grand-mère) et bien sûr la Germanie.
          Son principal rival, le roi de France, François Ier, en est fort dépité. Mais pas plus (ni moins) que Henri VIII, roi d’Angleterre, et candidat lui aussi. C’est l’or des banquiers Fugger (d’Augsbourg) qui permettra d’acheter les "alliances" et d’élire Charles d’Espagne. Les banquiers allemands espéraient bien ainsi "participer" aux bénéfices tirés des nouvelles colonies espagnoles au Nouveau Monde. Entre les deux grands rivaux, et dans une moindre mesure Henri VIII d’Angleterre, la guerre va se poursuivre pour "l’hégémonie européenne", alimentée par l’or des colonies. Pour la plus grande joie des "banquiers" et "maîtres de forges" (fabriques d’armement) qui bâtissent alors de colossales fortunes, qui dans certains cas les placent au-dessus même des états qu’ils financent.
    1412 Proclamación del Compromiso de Caspe.
    ^ 1389 Fête nationale Serbe
          Au Kossovo, les Serbes affrontent les Turcs dans une bataille historique qui doit décider de tout leur avenir. Les deux chefs furent tués. Mais les Serbes furent vaincus. Et cette date et ce site restent pour eux un de leurs lieux de pélerinages sacré ! C’est un des symboles de l’identité nationale serbe. Voir 1914.
    1245 first Council of Lyons (13th ecumenical council) opens
          Il est convoqué par le Pape Innocent IV. Les Pères conciliaires (Evêques et cardinaux) se réunissent durant 3 semaines et voteront plusieurs résolutions dont la plus importante est la déposition de l’Empereur de Germanie, Frédéric II. Ce qui envenime la querelle des Investitures entre le Pape et l’Empereur. Qui est le plus important du Pape qui intronise l’Empereur ou de l’Empereur qui protège le Pape et la Chrétienté. De nombreuses guerres (Guelfes et Gibelins) ensanglanteront la péninsule et l’Europe Occidentale.
    TO THE TOP
    < 27 Jun 29 Jun >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 28 June:

    2005 All 16 US soldiers a MH-47 Chinook helicopter of the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, which is shot down by a rocket-propelled grenade of the Taliban guerillas as it was about to land ferrying troops to an ongoing battle (“Operation Redwing”) near Asadabad, Kunar province, Afghanistan, near the Pakistani border, at 3000 m elevation in the Hindu Kush mountains. — (050925)
    2005 Dari al-Fayadh, 87, his son Hassan al-Fayadh, 3 bodyguards, and a suicide car bomber who attacks their 2-car convoy in the Rashidyah district of Baghdad, Iraq. Dari Al-Fayadh, a Shiite, was the oldest of the 275 members of Iraq's National Assembly and served as acting speaker in its first session on 16 March 2005.
    2003 Christopher Patterson, 17, when the two-door Buick coupe in which he was riding in the back seat, crashes going west in the 1100 block of West Marquette Road, Chicago, and catches fire, at 02:35 (07:35 UT). The two other men passengers are injured, as is the woman driver Sheena Riley, 18, (of the 1400 block of West 71st Place) who was drunk and had neither driver's license nor insurance. The four were returning from a party.
    2003 Some 25 persons, in explosion near Hadithah, Iraq, at depot of old Iraqui artillery, left unguarded by US occupation troops. Metal scavengers, some of them smoking, had dismantled 155mm artillery shells, spilling gun powder. 6 persons are injured.
    2002:: 22 Afghan soldiers, 4 women, 3 children, 5 civilian men, by a 02:00 to 04:00 series of secondary explosions in an ammunition depot on the outskirts of Spin Boldak in southern Afghanistan near the Pakistan border, probably set off by a rocket fired by al Qaeda fugitives. Buildings and vehicles in a radius of about 2 km are damaged.
    ^ 2001 Mortimer J. Adler, philosopher and education reformer.
         Adler [28 Dec 1902–] sought to bring intellectualism to the general public with the Great Books program, his own best-selling books and the Encyclopedia Britannica. The former Chicagoan dies at his home in San Mateo, California.
          As an author and editor, Adler built a publishing empire on an unlikely foundation: the philosophic system of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. That system influenced his work as compiler of the Great Books of the Western World and as editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
          Earlier, in the 1930s, it was the underlying theme of the educational reforms Adler and his colleagues carried out at the University of Chicago under the leadership of then-president Robert Maynard Hutchins. In an age of relativism and multiculturalism, Adler championed what he viewed as universal values and the Western tradition. His heroes - Aristotle, Aquinas, John Locke and John Stuart Mill - were assailed as irrelevant by student activists in the 1960s and subjected to "politically correct" attack in later decades. But Adler said: "You can't be a philosopher and an activist. If you do, you get all mixed up." While many modern philosophers aimed their teaching at graduate students and readers of specialized journals, Adler addressed the general public.
          The Great Books Foundation he and Hutchins established in 1946 oversaw groups in thousands of communities, offering people the opportunity to read and discuss classic works of literature. Discussion of the books is a big part of the learning process, he stressed, saying, "Solitary reading is as horrible as solitary drinking." Adler also wrote or co-wrote more than 45 books. Several, including the 1940 "How to Read a Book," became best sellers. "Unlike many of my contemporaries, I never write books for my fellow professors to read," Adler said. "I have no interest in the academic audience at all. I'm interested in Joe Doakes. A general audience can read any book I write - and they do." He thought it preposterous that people could ever consider their education as finished, saying adults should go on learning forever. "Our minds, unlike our bodies, are able to grow and develop until death overtakes us," he said.
          A Columbia University graduate, Adler had been a protegé of Professor John Erskine, pioneer of the Great Books concept, and he helped teach seminars there until 1929, when Hutchins summoned him to the University of Chicago. The revolution in undergraduate teaching launched by Hutchins, Adler and their colleagues at Chicago challenged accepted modern educational theory. It stressed a core curriculum that all students must study. Adler left the university in 1952 to direct the Institute for Philosophical Research, but he retained his connection with Encyclopaedia Britannica. In that year, the first edition of Britannica's Great Books of the Western World appeared. It incorporated the Syntopicon, Adler's codification of 102 "great ideas" culled from the Great Books' 74 authors.
          He also coordinated production of The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, which appeared in 1974, when he became chairman of Britannica's board of editors.
          The short, stocky Adler did not fit the popular image of a philosopher. A New York native, he dropped out of high school at age 14 after being suspended from the school newspaper. Aspiring to be a journalist, Adler became an assistant at a newspaper and enrolled in night courses at Columbia University. There, he discovered the writings of great thinkers such as Mill and Socrates and enrolled at Columbia full time. At his 80th birthday party, Adler offered some rules for success and happiness. "Never work more than seven days a week or 12 hours a day, and sometimes a little less. To grow younger with the years, work harder as you get older." Adler also advised his guests: "Never exercise - as for dieting, eat only the most delicious calories." Adler's first marriage ended in divorce; his second wife, Caroline, died in 1998. He is survived by sons Douglas, Philip, Mark and Michael.
    2001 Roberto Izquierdo Martin, 25, by four lions as he was preparing to transfer them from their cage to the exhibition pen at the Walvo Zoological Park, 120 km northeast of Madrid. The lions are believed to have escaped through a gate that had not been properly shut by the victim.
    1995 Francisco Grande Covián, bioquímico español.
    1984 Claude Chevalley, French mathematician born on 11 February 1909. He had a major influence on the development of several areas of mathematics including Ring Theory and Group Theory. His 1936 and 1941 introduction of the concepts of adèle and idèle led to major advances in class field theory and also in algebraic geometry. Chevalley's theorem was important in applications made in 1954 to quasi-algebraically closed fields and applications made the following year to algebraic groups. Chevalley groups play a central role in the classification of finite simple groups. His name is also attached to Chevalley decompositions and to a Chevalley type of semi-simple algebraic group. Author of (Theory of Lie Groups (3 volumes, 1946, 1951, 1955), Theory of Distributions (1951), Introduction to the theory of algebraic functions of one variable (1951), The algebraic theory of spinors (1954), Class field theory (1954), Fundamental concepts of algebra (1956), Foundations of algebraic geometry (1958).
    ^ 1974 (30 Jun?) Vannevar Bush, a central figure in twentieth-century science
          Bush [11 March 1890–] studied at Tufts and MIT, where he later taught and , served as vice-president. He also served as the director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and as president of the Carnegie Institute. During the 1920s and '30s, he and his students built several early analog computers called "Differential Analyzers" to solve difficult differential equations. The machines became crucial to atomic research during World War II. Bush played a critical role in setting up the Manhattan Project in 1942, which led the development of the atomic bomb.
          Bush also wrote a series of influential books and papers outlining the future of computing. In a 1945 article in The Atlantic, called "As We May Think," he envisioned a revolution in information processing where a hypothetical machine called a Memex could retrieve and store information; accept text, numbers, voice, and visual input; and store and manipulate a vast amount of data. Bush's vision strongly influenced Douglas Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute, inventor of the mouse and pioneer of the point-and-click interface.
    1971 Joseph Colombo mobster, shot dead at 48
    1967 Fourteen persons are shot in race riots in Buffalo, New York.
    1960 Jaume Vicens Vives, historiador español.
    1956 Riots break out in Poznan Poland, 38 die
    1954 Red deer dies in Milwaukee Zoo at 26; oldest known deer.
    1943 Daniel Samuel Hirsh Vigderhaus [03 Jun 1930–], Feiga Fanny Vigderhaus (née Kreslawski) [06 Oct 1880–], Jacques Yankel Vigderhaus [14 Sep 1933–], Liba Vigderhaus (née Kreslawski) [17 Feb 1881–], Mendel Maurice Vigderhaus (Mendel, Maurice), [18 Feb 1876–], Victor Vigderhaus [15 Jan 1882–], gassed in the Auschwitz death camp to which they had been deported from France, where the two boys had been born in Paris. The adults were immigrants from Russia, where the two women had been born in Nievel (or Nevel) and the two men in Polotsk.
    1943 Hélène Schwartz (née Steiner) [19 Apr 1902–], gassed in the Auschwitz death camp to which she had been deported from France, where she was an immigrant from Hungary, where she was born in Nagykanizsa.
    ^ 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife, Sophia, assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
           The assassin is Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. This would result a war with Serbia, soon starting WW1.
         Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian-Hungarian empire, is shot to death along with his wife. Ferdinand had been inspecting his uncle’s imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina despite the threat of Serbian nationalists who wanted the Austrian possessions to join newly independent Serbia.
          On 28 June 1914, the Archduke and his wife, Sophie, are touring Sarajevo in an open car with little security when Serbian nationalist Nedjelko Cabrinovic throws a bomb at their car. Ferdinand manages to deflect the bomb onto the street, but a dozen people, including Sophia, are injured. Later in the day, the archduke and his wife are driving through Sarajevo’s streets again when their driver takes a wrong turn onto a street named after his uncle, Emperor Franz Joseph. As the car slows to change direction, another Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip, fires his pistol into the car, fatally wounding the archduke and his wife.
          Austria-Hungary blames the Serbian government for the attack, and hopes to use the incident as justification for settling the question of Slav nationalism once and for all. However, as Russia supported Serbia, an Austria-Hungary declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention. On 28 July Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe’s great powers collapsed. Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain, and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and World War I had begun.
    It took a lot of demonstrating to sell the US Army on motorized transport, but the ultimate incentive came when the American Expeditionary Force entered World War I.
    Assassinat de l’héritier impérial d’Autriche par un Serbe fanatique. Cela mènera à la guerre de 14–18.
          Devenu archiduc héritier d’Autriche à la suite de la mort tragique de son cousin Rodolphe en 1889, François-Ferdinand représente un élément important de la vie politique autrichienne d’avant 1914. Élevé en soldat, il s’intéressa toujours à l’armée et à la marine impériales, seuls domaines où son oncle François-Joseph lui laisse des responsabilités officielles: en 1914, François-Ferdinand est inspecteur général des forces armées autrichiennes.
          D’une extraordinaire brutalité, il se brouille avec presque tous ses collaborateurs, et ses relations avec François-Joseph sont franchement mauvaises. Convaincu que des transformations s’imposent, il est hostile à l’immobilisme pratiqué par son oncle. Catholique fanatique, militariste forcené, il déteste de tout son être la démocratie libérale, le régime parlementaire, les francs-maçons, les juifs, l’aristocratie hongroise. Il veut abolir le compromis austro-hongrois et souhaite, dans un premier temps, fonder un État trialiste qui fera place aux Slaves du Sud.
         Ainsi sa politique entre-t-elle en conflit avec les intérêts de la Serbie et le patriotisme yougoslave. En politique intérieure il opère un rapprochement avec les chrétiens-sociaux de Karl Lueger et organise au Belvédère un "cabinet fantôme" opposé en tout au gouvernement officiel. Son obstination à épouser une aristocrate tchèque, Sophie Chotek, de rang non royal, lui vaut les pires humiliations à la Cour, puisque son épouse n’aura jamais rang d’archiduchesse.
         Enfin son entêtement à vouloir visiter Sarajevo le 28 juin 1914 le perdra : les patriotes serbes considèrent cette visite, le jour de leur fête nationale, comme une provocation, et l’étudiant Princip assassine le couple princier à coups de revolver. On sait que de cette fin tragique devait naître la Première Guerre mondiale, puisque pour punir les Serbes, l’Autriche leur supprime des droits et les envahit militairement. Ce qui déclenche des réactions en chaîne (Russie, Allemagne etc .) C’est la guerre dans toute son horreur.
    1900 Paul Desiré Trouillebert, French Barbizon School painter born in 1829, specialized in Orientalism. — MORE ON TROUILLEBERT AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1889 Maria Mitchell, 71, first US woman astronomer.
    1874 The Freedmen's Bank, created to assist former slaves in the United States, closes. Customers of the bank lose $3 million.
    1848 (11 June?) Jean-Baptiste Debret, French painter and draftsman, active in Brazil, born on 18 April 1768. — MORE ON DEBRET AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1836 James Madison 4th US president, dies in Montpelier, Virginia.
    1801 Francis Wheatley (or Wheatly), British painter born in 1747. — MORE ON WHEATLEY AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1801 Martin Joachim Kremser Schmidt, Krems region Austrian painter born on 25 September 1718.
    1776 Thomas Hickey, US sergeant convicted of treason, hanged.
    1721 Isaac Sailmaker, British painter born probably in 1633. — link to an image.
    1708 Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros, administrador colonial español.
    1670 (buried) Hendrick Maertenszoon Rokes Sorgh, Rotterdam painter born in 1611. — MORE ON SORGH AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    0767 Saint Paul I, Pope. Immediately after the burial of his brother Pope Stephen II [–26 Apr 757], Paul was elected Pope by a large majority, and received episcopal consecration on 29 May 757.
    0683 Pope Saint Leo II. Though elected pope a few days after the death of St. Agatho (10 Jun 681), he was not consecrated until 17 August 682, probably due to negottiations with the Byzantine Court which had to approve papal elections.
     
    < 27 Jun 29 Jun >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 28 June:

    1954 Anna Birulés i Bertrán, política y economista española, ministra de Ciencia y Tecnología en el segundo gobierno de José María Aznar.
    1947 Mark Helprin, novelist (Winter's Tale)
    1940 José Sanchis, autor y director teatral español.
    1927 F. Sherwood Rowland, científico estadounidense.
    1927 Tibor Csernius, Hungarian artist.
    1909 Francisco Grande Covián, bioquímico español.
    1909 Eric Ambler, English suspense author and screenwriter who died on 22 October 1998. (Epitaph for a Spy, The Dark Frontier, Uncommon Danger, Journey into Fear)
    1906 Maria Goeppert Mayer, Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
    1902 Richard Rodgers, Hammels Station NY, the composer in the Rodgers and Hammerstein operetta team.
    1894 Einar Carl Hille, US mathematician who died on 12 February 1980..
    1892 E. H. Carr, English political scientist and historian who died on 03 November 1982.
    1891 Carl Spaatz, first chief of staff of the US Air Force, who died on 14 July 1974.
    1891 Esther Forbes, author (Johnny Tremain)
    1891 Helmut Macke, German artist who died in 1936.
    1887 Floyd Dell, US novelist and journalist who died on 23 July 1969.
    1884 William Victor Higgins, US painter who died on 23 August 1949. — MORE ON HIGGINS AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    ^ 1883 Pierre Laval, futur collaborateur en chef de Vichy avec les Nazis
          Ce fils d’un petit cafetier d’Auvergne dut travailler pour payer ses études qui lui permirent, en 1907, de s’inscrire au barreau de Paris. Venu de l’extrême gauche, mais dépourvu d’idéalisme, il s’affranchit de tous les partis pour faire carrière grâce à des amitiés personnelles. Avocat, conseiller de nombreux syndicalistes, il est élu député en 1914 puis maire d’Aubervilliers en 1923, fonction qu’il conservera jusqu’à sa mort. Battu aux élections en 1919, il est réélu socialiste indépendant en 1924, puis on le retrouve ministre des Travaux publics sous Painlevé, de la Justice avec Briand, du Travail dans le second cabinet Tardieu (1930). Il est président du Conseil de janvier 1931 à février 1932. La crise économique gagne la France. De nouveau ministre du Travail avec Tardieu et des Colonies sous Doumergue, il succède à Barthou au ministère des Affaires étrangères et redevient président du Conseil en 1935.
          Face à Hitler, il veut assurer à la France l’alliance de l’Italie (janv. 1935) et celle de l’URSS (mai 1935). Staline décrète alors le ralliement des communistes français à la politique de défense nationale. Laval a peut-être donné à Mussolini l’assurance de ne pas l’inquiéter dans l’affaire d’Éthiopie. Mais celle-ci fera tomber Laval en janvier 1936, alors qu’il s’était maintenu au pouvoir en dépit de sa politique monétaire de déflation et d’économies budgétaires, facteur de mécontentement dans l’opinion et surtout chez les fonctionnaires. Se prononçant contre la déclaration de guerre à l’Allemagne, il revient au premier plan après l’armistice.
          Le 23 Jun 1940, ministre d’État, il fait intervenir le vote des pleins pouvoirs au maréchal Pétain, vote qui a lieu le 10 Jul à Vichy. Celui-ci le remerciera en le nommant à la Vice-Présidence du Conseil. L’année suivante il sera même premier ministre. En 1942, il cumule tous les ministères importants et devient le véritable chef de l’état, au-dela même du Maréchal Pétain qu’il étouffe. Persuadé de la victoire de l’Allemagne, il provoque la rencontre de Montoire entre Pétain et Hitler, d’où sortira la politique de collaboration (24 oct. 1940). Le 13 decembre, renvoyé par le maréchal, il reviendra au pouvoir le 17 Apr 1942. appelant qu’il n’a pas eu de responsabilité dans l’armistice, il obtient du maréchal la mission de changer les institutions et de gérer les relations avec l’occupant.
          Mais le maréchal et Laval s’entendent mal. Laval, en cumulant la direction du gouvernement, les Affaires étrangères, l’Information et l’Intérieur, est cette fois le véritable chef de l’État. Persuadé des difficultés de la collaboration, Laval s’engage dans une longue série de marchandages pour limiter les exigences de l’occupant. C’est la "relève" puis le Service du travail obligatoire. Mais, en même temps, son gouvernement prend des mesures de répression contre les juifs et contre les résistants. Les extrémistes de la collaboration attaquent aussi Laval. À Vichy même, son passé de "politicien", son style, ses intrigues lui attirent peu de sympathies Il est impopulaire auprès des Français. Laval n’est pas l’inventeur de la révolution nationale, mais il s’en sert à l’occasion. Dans l’histoire, le nom de Laval est lié à la politique de collaboration et à ses plus tragiques modalités. Les Alliés étant parvenus aux portes de Paris, Laval tente une ultime manœuvre politique en essayant d’obtenir d’Herriot, jusque-là en résidence surveillée, la réunion du Parlement. Les Allemands l’entraînent vers Belfort et Sigmaringen. Il s’y considère comme prisonnier.
          En mai 1945, il gagne l’Espagne par avion, mais est remis aux autorités françaises le 1er août. Son procès porte à leur comble les passions politiques et partisanes. La retenue qui s’était manifestée à l’égard de Pétain est balayée par la haine venue de toutes les tendances de l’opinion. Sa personnalité vénale, sa collaboration claire et nette, plus que zélée avec l’autorité allemande, son action vigoureuse contre les Juifs et surtout les Résistants français, en ont fait l’homme à haïr. Condamné à mort le 09 octobre, Laval s’empoisonne dans sa cellule; il est découvert agonisant, soigné, et porté en civière devant le peloton d’exécution le 15 octobre 1945.
    1875 Henri Léon Lebesgue, French mathematician who died on 26 July 1941. In 1901 he formulated the theory of measure. In 1902 he gave the definition of the Lebesgue integral that generalizes the notion of the Riemann integral. Author of Leçons sur l'intégration et la recherché des fonctions primitives (1904) and Leçons sur les séries trigonométriques (1906).
    1875 Charles Constantin Joseph Hoffbauer, French US painter who died in 1957. — links to images.
    1873 Alexis Carrel, France, surgeon / sociologist / biologist (Nobel 1912, for the development of blood vessel suture technique)
    1869 Mario Puccini, Italian artist who died on 18 June 1920.
    ^ 1867 Luigi Pirandello, Italian playwright, novelist and short story writer, who died on 10 December 1936. He was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize for Literature. With his invention of the “theater within the theater” in the play Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore (1921), he became an important innovator in modern drama.
         Pirandello was the son of a sulfur merchant who wanted him to enter commerce. Pirandello, however, was not interested in business; he wanted to study. He first went to Palermo, the capital of Sicily, and, in 1887, to the University of Rome. After a quarrel with the professor of classics there, he went in 1888 to the University of Bonn, Germany, where in 1891 he gained his doctorate in philology for a thesis on the dialect of Agrigento.
          In 1894 his father arranged his marriage to Antonietta Portulano, the daughter of a business associate, a wealthy sulfur merchant. This marriage gave him financial independence, allowing him to live in Rome and to write. He had already published an early volume of verse, Mal giocondo (1889), which paid tribute to the poetic fashions set by Giosuè Carducci. This was followed by other volumes of verse, including Pasqua di Gea (1891; dedicated to Jenny Schulz-Lander, the love he had left behind in Bonn) and a translation of J. W. von Goethe's Roman Elegies (1896). But his first significant works were short stories, which at first he contributed to periodicals without payment.
          In 1903 a landslide shut down the sulfur mine in which his wife's and his father's capital was invested. Suddenly poor, Pirandello was forced to earn his living not only by writing but also by teaching Italian at a teacher's college in Rome. As a further result of the financial disaster, his wife developed a persecution mania, which manifested itself in a frenzied jealousy of her husband. His torment ended only with her removal to a sanatorium in 1919 (she died in 1959).It was this bitter experience that finally determined the theme of his most characteristic work,already perceptible in his early short stories—the exploration of the tightly closed world of the forever changeable human personality.
          Pirandello's early narrative style stems from the verismo (“realism”) of two Italian novelists of the late 19th century—Luigi Capuana and Giovanni Verga. The titles of Pirandello's early collections of short stories, Amori senza amore (1894) and Beffe della morte e della vita (1903), suggest the wry nature of his realism that is seen also in his first novels: L'esclusa (1901) and Il turno (1902). Success came with his third novel, often acclaimed as his best, Il fu Mattia Pascal (1904). Although the theme is not typically “Pirandellian,” since the obstacles confronting its hero result from external circumstances, it already shows the acute psychological observation that was later to be directed toward the exploration of his characters' subconscious.
          Pirandello's understanding of psychology was sharpened by reading such works as Les altérations de la personnalité (1892), by the French experimental psychologist Alfred Binet; and traces of its influence can be seen in the long essay L'umorismo (1908), in which he examines the principles of his art. Common to both books is the theory of the subconscious personality, which postulates that what a person knows, or thinks he knows, is the least part of what he is. Pirandello had begun to focus his writing on the themes of psychology even before he knew of the work of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. The psychological themes used by Pirandello found their most complete expression in the volumes of short stories La trappola (1915) and E domani, lunedì . . . (1917), and in such individual stories as “Una voce,” “Pena di vivere così,” and “Con altri occhi.”
          Meanwhile, he had been writing other novels, notably I vecchi e i giovani (1913) and Uno, nessuno e centomila (1926). Both are more typical than Il fu Mattia Pascal. The first, a historical novel reflecting the Sicily of the end of the 19th century and the general bitterness at the loss of the ideals of the Risorgimento (the movement that led to the unification of Italy), suffers from Pirandello's tendency to “discompose” rather than to “compose” (to use his own terms, in L'umorismo), so that individual episodes stand out at the expense of the work as a whole. Uno, nessuno e centomila, however, is at once the most original and the most typical of his novels. It is a surrealistic description of the consequences of the hero's discovery that his wife (and others) see him with quite different eyes than he does himself. Its exploration of the reality of personality is of a type better known from his plays.
          Pirandello wrote over 50 plays. He had first turned to the theater in 1898 with L'epilogo, but the accidents that prevented its production until 1910 (when it was retitled La morsa) kept him from other than sporadic attempts at drama until the success of Così è (se vi pare) in 1917. This delay may have been fortunate for the development of his dramatic powers. L'epilogo does not greatly differ from other drama of its period, but Così è (se vi pare) began the series of plays that were to make him world famous in the 1920s. A demonstration, in dramatic terms, of the relativity of truth, and a rejection of the idea of any objective reality not at the mercy of individual vision, it anticipates Pirandello's two great plays, Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) and Enrico IV (1922). Six Characters is the most arresting presentation of the typical Pirandellian contrast between art, which is unchanging, and life, which is an inconstant flux. Characters that have been rejected by their author materialize onstage, throbbing with a more intense vitality than the real actors, who, inevitably, distort their drama as they attempt its presentation. And in Henry IV the theme is madness, which lies just under the skin of ordinary life and is, perhaps, superior to ordinary life in its construction of a satisfying reality. The play finds dramatic strength in its hero's choice of retirement into unreality in preference to life in the uncertain world.
          The production of Six Characters in Paris in 1923 made Pirandello widely known, and his work became one of the central influences on the French theater. French drama from the existentialist pessimism of Jean Anouilh and Jean-Paul Sartre to the absurdist comedy of Eugène Ionesco and Samuel Beckett is tinged with “Pirandellianism.” His influence can also be detected in the drama of other countries, even in the religious verse dramas of T. S. Eliot.
          In 1920 Pirandello said of his own art:
         I think that life is a very sad piece of buffoonery; because we have in ourselves, without being able to know why, wherefore or whence, the need to deceive ourselves constantly by creating a reality (one for each and never the same for all), which from time to time is discovered to be vain and illusory . . . My art is full of bitter compassion for all those who deceive themselves; but this compassion cannot fail to be followed by the ferocious derision of destiny which condemns man to deception.
          This despairing outlook attained its most vigorous expression in Pirandello's plays, which were criticized at first for being too “cerebral” but later recognized for their underlying sensitivity and compassion. The plays' main themes are the necessity and the vanity of illusion, and the multifarious appearances, all of them unreal, of what is presumed to be the truth. A human being is not what he thinks he is, but instead is “one, no one and a hundred thousand,” according to his appearance to this person or that, which is always different from the image of himself in his own mind. Pirandello's plays reflect the verismo of Capuana and Verga in dealing mostly with people in modest circumstances, such as clerks, teachers, and lodging-house keepers, but from whose vicissitudes he draws conclusions of general human significance.
          The universal acclaim that followed Six Characters and Henry IV sent Pirandello touring the world (1925–1927) with his own company, the Teatro d'Arte in Rome. It also emboldened him to disfigure some of his later plays (e.g., Ciascuno a suo modo [1924]) by calling attention to himself, just as in some of the later short stories it is the surrealistic and fantastic elements that are accentuated.
          After the dissolution, because of financial losses, of the Teatro d'Arte in 1928, Pirandello spent his remaining years in frequent and extensive travel. In his will he requested that there should be no public ceremony marking his death, only “a hearse of the poor, the horse and the coachman.”
    — Portrait Luigi Pirandello (1933,.76x62cm; 463x370pix, 133kb) by his son the painter Fausto Pirandello [17 Jun 1899 – 1975]
    — Photo of Luigi and Fausto Pirandello in the 1930s.

    — PIRANDELLO ONLINE: (English translations): Henry IVRight You Are! (If You Think So)Six Characters in Search of an AuthorThree Plays
    1866 Otto Pilny, Swiss artist who died in 1936.
    ^ 1857 Emerson Hough, Western writer.
          Emerson Hough, one of the most successful writers of adventure novels of the romantic western genre, is born in Newton, Iowa. After graduating from the State University of Iowa in 1880, Hough briefly studied law before turning to a career in journalism. In his 20s, he became the manager of the Chicago branch of Field and Stream, the popular hunting and conservation magazine. Deeply fascinated with the frontier and wilderness living, Hough embarked on extensive tours of the wildest areas of the US West. A winter ski trip through the still relatively unknown territory of Yellowstone National Park in 1895 made him a lifelong advocate of the national park system. Beginning in the late 1890s, Hough began producing a mixture of fictional and factual books reflecting his affection for the US West.
          His most notable non-fictional works were popular historical celebrations of great mythic figures of the Old West, and included The Story of the Cowboy (1897) and The Story of the Outlaw (1906). Hough's greatest success, however, came with fictional works that combined sentimental romance stories with the western novel. One of his most popular works, The Covered Wagon (1922), established many of the conventions of the genre that continue to be popular today. The story concerns a migrant wagon train crossing the Oregon Trail. A noble but misunderstood hero vies with a charming but ultimately evil villain for the love of a beautiful young woman. As the wagon train travels west, the emigrants face disasters and dangers during which the hero's hidden strength and character are revealed. The hero, of course, wins his ladylove.
          Although Hough maintained that The Covered Wagon and all his other western novels were based on fact, the books focused on conventional tales of love and romance rather than history. The western setting was often little more than a useful means of combing a masculine adventure story with a feminine love story. For example in North of 36 (1923), which purports to be a historical novel of the Chisholm Trail, a young woman owner of a herd improbably trails with it, and the best character is Old Alamo, lead steer.
          Hough was a master of his genre, however, and his simple but compelling tales were copied in countless books and movies. In 1923, The Covered Wagon was made into one of the first western movies. Having published more than 18 books, Emerson Hough died in Evanston, Illinois, in 1923. He was 66 years old.
    — HOUGH ONLINE: The Passing of the Frontier: A Chronicle of the Old West
    1846 Otto Piltz, German artist who died on 20 August 1910.
    1759 (02 June?) Jan Ekels II, Dutch painter and draftsman who died on 04 June 1793.
    ^ 1712 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, à Genève (Suisse).
          Tout à tour graveur, musicien, écrivain, il fut surtout un grand philosophe. Une de ses oeuvres, le Contrat Social (1762) devait avoir une grande influence sur la Révolution Française.
        Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher, writer, and political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation. Rousseau was the least academic of modern philosophers and in many ways was the most influential. His thought marked the end of the Age of Reason. He propelled political and ethical thinking into new channels. His reforms revolutionized taste, first in music, then in the other arts. He had a profound impact on people's way of life; he taught parents to take a new interest in their children and to educate them differently; he furthered the expression of emotion rather than polite restraint in friendship and love. He introduced the cult of religious sentiment among people who had discarded religious dogma. He opened men's eyes to the beauties of nature, and he made liberty an object of almost universal aspiration. He died on 02 July 1778.
    JJ ROUSSEAU ONLINE: Les Confessions,    
    Les rêveries du promeneur solitaire 
    Discours sur l'Origine et les Fondements de l'Inégalité parmi les Hommes
    Discours sur les Sciences et les Arts
    La Reine Fantasque
    Le Devin du Village
    Les Amours de Claire et de Marcellin
    Oeuvres et documents
    Emile (français et anglais)
    IN ENGLISH translation:
    The Confessions
    Discourse on the Origin of Inequality,
    The Social Contract
     
    1674 Pier-Leone Ghezzi, Italian painter, draftsman, antiquarian, and musician, who was the first professional caricaturist. He died on 05 (06?) March 1755. — MORE ON GHEZZI AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    click for self-portrait1616 Lucas Franchoys II, Mechelen Flemish painter and etcher who died on 03 April 1681. — MORE ON FRANCHOYS AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1641 Marie-Casimire de la Grange d'Arquien, who, after the death of her first husband, would, on 05 July 1665, marry Jan Sobieski [17 Aug 1629 – 17 Jun 1696], who would be elected king of Poland on 28 May 1674. She died on 30 January 1716.
    1609 Peter van Lint, Antwerp painter and draftsman who died on 25 September 1690.
      1577 Pieter Pauwel Rubens, Flemish Baroque era painter who died on 30 May 1640. — [click image for 1639 self-portrait >]  — MORE ON RUBENS AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1529 Bartolomeo Passerotti, Bolognese painter who died on 03 June 1592. — MORE ON PASSEROTTI AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1491 Henry VIII, king of England from the death of his father Henry VII (28 Jan 1457 – 21 April 1509). Murderously mentally ill for some years, Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, survived by his 6th wife. He had beheaded or repudiated the first 5, starting the Church of England when pope Clement VII did not condone Henry VIII's repudiation of his first wife, and beheading anyone he fancied opposed him, including many who had served him well, such as Thomas More and Thomas Cromwell [1485 – 28 Jul 1540]. Henry was thus in contradiction with his earlier self, when he had written Assertio septem sacramentorum adversus Martinum Lutherum (1521) and pope Leo X had named him Defensor Fidei.
    ^ 1476 Gian Pietro Carafa (or Caraffa), pope Paul IV, who would die on 18 August 1559. His anti-Spanish policy renewed the war between France and the Habsburgs.
          He was the son of Giovanni Antonio Carafa, baron of Sant'Angelo della Scala, and Vittoria Camponeschi. He was educated in Rome at the household of his uncle Cardinal Oliviero Carafa [1430 – 20 Jan 1511]; acquired a thorough knowledge of Greek and Hebrew; he also studied philosophy, theology, and canon law. At 14, he tried to join the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) but his father took him out and brought him home. He entered the clerical state in 1494 and was introduced to the papal court in that same year by his uncle the cardinal. His uncle obtained for him a bishopric when he was twenty but he declined. He was made privy chamberlain of the Pope in 1500 and canon of the cathedral chapter of Naples with the dignity of primicerio, also in 1500. He became canon and rector of the church of Santa Maria a Secula in Naples. He was made a protonotary apostolic in 1503.
         He was appointed bishop of Chieti on 30 July 1506; his uncle Cardinal Olivero resigned the see in his favor. He was consecrated a bishop on 18 1505. As bishop of Chieti, Carafa served Pope Leo X as envoy to England and Spain. He resigned his benefices and, with Saint Cajetan of Thiene (Gaetano da Thiene), founded the order of the Theatines (Congregation of Clerics Regular) in 1524 to promote clerical reform through asceticism and apostolic work. Having advised Leo's successors in matters of heresy and reform, he was appointed to the commission for ecclesiastical reform of Pope Paul III, was made cardinal on 22 December 1536, and was responsible for a reorganization of the Roman Inquisition.
          Despite his violent antipathies, austerity, uncompromising reformism, and exalted concept of papal authority, Carafa was elected pope on 23 May 1555, through the influence of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese [07 Oct 1520 – 02 Mar 1589]. Even the veto of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V [24 Feb 1500 – 21 Sep 1558] was ignored. When Paul IV's excessive violence in orthodoxy and reform was carried over into politics,his pontificate was destined to be strife ridden. He succumbed to the counsels of his nephews, whom he elevated, and to his hatred of the Habsburgs and of the Spaniards, whom he attempted to drive from Naples by allying with France in December 1555. Thus, he provoked war against Charles V and King Philip II [21 May 1527 – 13 Sep 1598] of Spain.The Spanish victory in August 1557 at Saint-Quentin, France, and the advance upon Rome by the Duke of Alba forced Paul IV to come to terms with Spain; peace was made on 12 September 1557. He continued his animosity toward Spain and the Habsburgs, however, by refusing to recognize the abdication of Charles V and the election of his brother Ferdinand I (1558) as successor on grounds that the imperial transaction was effected without papal approval.
          Paul IV's handling of the Protestant question was as disastrous as his politics. He denounced as a pact with heresy the Peace of Augsburg, the first permanent legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism and Catholicism in Germany. In England he ruined Cardinal Reginald Pole [03 Mar 1500 – 17 Nov 1558], archbishop of Canterbury, who had infuriated Paul IV by trying to prevent the conflict between France and the Habsburgs. In April 1557 Paul IV deprived Pole of his authority and in the following June, after England's declaration of war on France, summoned him to Rome on protests of heresy. Queen Mary I of England intervened, saving Pole from the fate suffered by his friend Cardinal Giovanni Morone, whom Paul IV imprisoned on illegitimate charges of unorthodoxy. He facilitated the ultimate victory of Protestantism in England by insisting upon the restitution of monastic lands that had been sold and by requiring Elizabeth I to submit her claims to the English throne to him.
          An enemy to conciliar methods, Paul IV did not reassemble the Council of Trent (which had been suspended since 1552), preferring instead to work through commissions or congregations. But without a council he stopped many ecclesiastical abuses in Rome, disciplined vagrant clergy, and introduced firmer asceticism in the papal court.
          Under him, the Roman Inquisition, established in 1542, launched a reign of terror. Following the trend in the Roman Catholic church that wrongly suspected Jews of influencing the Reformation to some degree, Paul IV in 1555 established the ghetto at Rome. He enforced perpetual wearing of the Jewish badge and drastic separation of Jews from Christians. The antagonisms he aroused proved fatal to his reforming cause.

     
    Holidays  Malta : Mnarja Day — recreate customs of Middle Ages

    Religious Observances  Ang, RC, Luth : St Ireneus, Bishop of Lyons, martyr / Santos Pablo I, Papa; Benigno, Argimiro, Plutarco e Ireneo.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “The only rose without thorns is friendship.”
    “My boat was sunk when my only friend's ship without horns rose out of the fog.”
    “Doveryay, no proveryay.”
    — Old Russian saying quoted by, among others, Lenin [22 April 1870 – 21 Jan 1924], Gorbachev [02 Mar 1931~], Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004]
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