a 28 June:
In Rome's Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls,
at First Vespers of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul
Pope Benedict XVI opens the Jubilee Year of Saint Paul,
who was born in 0008 approximately.
The Year of Saint Paul ends on 29 June 2009.
The Pope's 28 June 2007 homily
2000 ["Physician, cure yourself" department] The Colfax, Washington, firestation is devastated by a fire, probably not arson.
2000 Seven months after being shipwrecked and orphaned of mother while fleeing Cuba for the US, Elián González [06 Dec 1993~], is taken back to Cuba by his father, after US Attorney General Janet Reno [21 July 1938~] (of Waco and Ruby Ridge fame), instead of leaving the custody dispute to a family court, has the little boy snatched at gunpoint from his Miami relatives, who were giving him a home in the US, honoring the obvious intentions of Elian's dead mother. Fidel Castro [13 Aug 1926~] gloats over his propaganda victory.
2000 The US Supreme Court struck down Nebraska's so-called "partial-birth" abortion law.
2000 The US Supreme Court ruled the Boy Scouts can bar homosexuals from serving as troop leaders.
1995 Webster Hubbell, former No. 3 official at the US Justice Department, is sentenced to 21 months in prison for defrauding clients of the law firm where he and Hillary Rodham Clinton were partners.
1990 En España, el Pleno del Congreso de los Diputados aprueba el Proyecto de Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo.
1984 Los restos mortales de Alfonso Rodríguez Castelao, escritor, dibujante y nacionalista gallego, son enterrados en el Panteón de Gallegos Ilustres, en el convento de Santo Domingo de Bonaval (Santiago de Compostela).
1978 US Supreme Court orders the University of California at Davis Medical School to admit Allan Bakke, a White man claiming reverse discrimination when his application was rejected.
1977 US Supreme Court allows Federal control of Nixon's tapes and papers
1976 Las islas Seychelles, nuevo país independiente tras 162 años de dominación británica.
1976 El general Ramalho Eanes, elegido presidente de Portugal por amplia mayoría.
| 1972 US President Nixon announces that no more draftees
will be sent to Vietnam unless they volunteer for such duty. He also announced
that 10,000 US soldiers would be withdrawn by 01 September, which would
leave a total of 39'000 in Vietnam.
As the war in Vietnam wound down with the signing of the 1973 Paris
Peace Accords, the war in neighboring Cambodia was going from bad to worse.
1971 The US Supreme Court declares that state funding of nonreligious instruction in parochial schools is unconstitutional.
1967 Israel declares Jerusalem reunified under its sovereignty following its capture of the Arab sector in the June 1967 war.
1966 Juan Carlos Onganía se hace cargo de la presidencia de la República de Argentina mediante un golpe de Estado militar.
1965 first US ground combat forces in Vietnam authorized by Pres Johnson
1963 España ingresa en el GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) o Acuerdo General de Aranceles Aduaneros y Comercio.
1962 The Lutheran Church in America (LCA) was formed with the merger of four Lutheran synods: the United Lutheran Church in America, the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, the American Evangelical Lutheran Church and the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church.
1954 French troops begin to pull out of Vietnam's Tonkin Province.
1954 Chu Enlai y Nehru proclaman Los cinco principios de coexistencia pacífica.
1950 North Korean forces capture Seoul, South Korea. General Douglas MacArthur arrives in South Korea. A year after leaving West Point, Lt. Joe Kingston was en route to Korea, where he found himself retreating and advancing in a single day.
1950 China Popular confisca las grandes propiedades territoriales y requisa las de la Iglesia.
1945 General Douglas MacArthur announces the end of Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
1945 Polish Provisional Government of National Unity set up by Soviets
1942 Los alemanes conquistan la fortaleza de Tobruk (África del Norte).
1941 II Guerra mundial: Albania declara la guerra a la URSS.
1940 Romania cedes Bessarabia to Soviet Union
1938 US Congress creates the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to insure construction loans.
1936 Aprobado en referéndum el Estatuto de Autonomía de Galicia.
1931 Se realizan en España elecciones generales para la formación de Cortes constituyentes durante la II República, en las que los partidos de izquierda obtienen una gran mayoría.
1929 El Instituto Alemán de Física concede la Medalla Max Planck al propio Planck y a Albert Einstein, entre otros.
1928 Alfred E Smith (NY-Gov) nominated for president at Dem Convention
1921 Yugoslavia se constituye como Estado único centralista.
At Versailles Palace outside of Paris, France, Germany signs with the Allies the treaty that officially ends World War I. The German delegation, which has been forced to sign the punitive agreement, indicates its attitude by breaking the ceremonial pen.
On 19181111, the fair terms of US President Wilson’s peace proposal had encouraged the leaders of the Central Powers to agree to an armistice. Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” called for unselfish peace terms from the victorious Allies, including the restoration of territories conquered during the war, the right to national self-determination, and the establishment of a postwar world body to resolve future conflict.
On 18 January 1919, the international peace conference convened at Versailles, and Wilson, who represented the US, soon found himself at odds with other Allied leaders who were intent on punishing Germany. The final treaty, signed on 28 June 1919, calls for Germany’s relinquishment of substantial territory, the abolishment of its navy and overseas empire, and the payment of stiff war reparations to the Allied powers.
At the signing the one leader who showed remarkable foresight was General Smuts of South Africa, who signed under protest and filed a document declaring that the peace was unsatisfactory because. the indemnities stipulated could not be accepted without grave injury to the industrial revival of Europe there were territorial settlements which would need revision. The Chinese were not present, as they had a disagreement on Shantung.
These demanding terms would be regarded with increasing bitterness in Germany, and would directly contributed to the rise of Nazism and subsequent outbreak of World War II. Nevertheless, the creation of states based on Wilson’s principle of national self-determination and the formation of the League of Nations were both embodied in the Treaty of Versailles. In 1920, President Woodrow Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Price for his efforts.
full reports in The New York Times 19200628
KEYNES PREDICTS ECONOMIC CHAOS:
At the Palace of Versailles outside Paris, Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles with the Allies, officially ending World War I. The English economist John Maynard Keynes, who had attended the peace conference but then left in protest of the treaty, was one of the most outspoken critics of the punitive agreement. In his The Economic Consequences of the Peace, published in December 1919, Keynes predicted that the stiff war reparations and other harsh terms imposed on Germany by the treaty would lead to the financial collapse of the country, which in turn would have serious economic and political repercussions on Europe and the world. By the fall of 1918, it was apparent to the leaders of Germany that defeat was inevitable in World War I. After four years of terrible attrition, Germany no longer had the men or resources to resist the Allies, who had been given a tremendous boost by the infusion of American manpower and supplies.
In order to avert an Allied invasion of Germany, the German government contacted US President Woodrow Wilson in October 1918 and asked him to arrange a general armistice. Earlier that year, Wilson had proclaimed his "Fourteen Points," which proposed terms for a "just and stable peace" between Germany and its enemies. The Germans asked that the armistice be established along these terms, and the Allies more or less complied, assuring Germany of a fair and unselfish final peace treaty. On 11 November 1918, the armistice was signed and went into effect, and fighting in World War I came to an end. In January 1919, John Maynard Keynes traveled to the Paris Peace Conference as the chief representative of the British Treasury. The brilliant 35-year-old economist had previously won acclaim for his work with the Indian currency and his management of British finances during the war. In Paris, he sat on an economic council and advised British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, but the important peacemaking decisions were out of his hands, and President Wilson, Prime Minister Lloyd George, and French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau wielded the real authority.
Germany had no role in the negotiations deciding its fate, and lesser Allied powers had little responsibility in the drafting of the final treaty. It soon became apparent that the treaty would bear only a faint resemblance to the Fourteen Points that had been proposed by Wilson and embraced by the Germans. Wilson, a great idealist, had few negotiating skills, and he soon buckled under the pressure of Clemenceau, who hoped to punish Germany as severely as it had punished France in the Treaty of Frankfurt that ended the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. Lloyd George took the middle ground between the two men, but he backed the French plan to force Germany to pay reparations for damages inflicted on Allied civilians and their property. Since the treaty officially held Germany responsible for the outbreak of World War I (in reality it was only partially responsible), the Allies would not have to pay reparations for damages they inflicted on German civilians. The treaty that began to emerge was a thinly veiled Carthaginian Peace, an agreement that accomplished Clemenceau's hope to crush France's old rival. According to its terms, Germany was to relinquish 10% of its territory. It was to be disarmed, and its overseas empire taken over by the Allies. Most detrimental to Germany's immediate future, however, was the confiscation of its foreign financial holdings and its merchant carrier fleet.
The German economy, already devastated by the war, was thus further crippled, and the stiff war reparations demanded ensured that it would not soon return to its feet. A final reparations figure was not agreed upon in the treaty, but estimates placed the amount in excess of $30 billion, far beyond Germany's capacity to pay. Germany would be subject to invasion if it fell behind on payments. Keynes, horrified by the terms of the emerging treaty, presented a plan to the Allied leaders in which the German government be given a substantial loan, thus allowing it to buy food and materials while beginning reparations payments immediately. Lloyd George approved the "Keynes Plan," but President Wilson turned it down because he feared it would not receive congressional approval. In a private letter to a friend, Keynes called the idealistic American president "the greatest fraud on earth." On 05 June 1919 Keynes wrote a note to Lloyd George informing the prime minister that he was resigning his post in protest of the impending "devastation of Europe." The Germans initially refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, and it took an ultimatum from the Allies to bring the German delegation to Paris on June 28. It was five years to the day since the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, which began the chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. Clemenceau chose the location for the signing of the treaty: the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles Palace, site of the signing of the Treaty of Frankfurt that ended the Franco-Prussian War. At the ceremony, General Jan Christiaan Smuts, soon to be president of South Africa, was the only Allied leader to protest formally the Treaty of Versailles, saying it would do grave injury to the industrial revival of Europe. At Smuts' urging, Keynes began work on The Economic Consequences of the Peace. It was published in December 1919 and was widely read. In the book, Keynes made a grim prophecy that would have particular relevance to the next generation of Europeans: "If we aim at the impoverishment of Central Europe, vengeance, I dare say, will not limp. Nothing can then delay for very long the forces of Reaction and the despairing convulsions of Revolution, before which the horrors of the later German war will fade into nothing, and which will destroy, whoever is victor, the civilisation and the progress of our generation." Germany soon fell hopelessly behind in its reparations payments, and in 1923 France and Belgium occupied the industrial Ruhr region as a means of forcing payment. In protest, workers and employers closed down the factories in the region. Catastrophic inflation ensued, and Germany's fragile economy began quickly to collapse. By the time the crash came in November 1923, a lifetime of savings could not buy a loaf of bread. That month, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler launched an abortive coup against Germany's government. The Nazis were crushed and Hitler was imprisoned, but many resentful Germans sympathized with the Nazis and their hatred of the Treaty of Versailles.
A decade later, Hitler would exploit this continuing bitterness among Germans to seize control of the German state. In the 1930s, the Treaty of Versailles was significantly revised and altered in Germany's favor, but this belated amendment could not stop the rise of German militarism and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. In the late 1930s, John Maynard Keynes gained a reputation as the world's foremost economist by advocating large-scale government economic planning to keep unemployment low and markets healthy. Today, all major capitalist nations adhere to the key principles of Keynesian economics. He died in 1946.
Le traité de Versailles met fin (formellement) à la Guerre de 1914 – 1918, suspendue depuis l’Armistice du 11 Novembre 1918. La République a voulu que ce soit dans la Galerie des glaces du château de Versailles, à l'endroit même où cinquante ans plus tôt a été proclamé l'Empire allemand, que la signature de ce traité qui a imposé des mois de négociations ait lieu. Les contractants sont la France et ses alliés, Belgique, Angleterre (au nom du Commonwealth), et en face, l’Allemagne. Autour de Clemenceau pour la France, Lloyd George pour l'Angleterre et le président Woodrow Wilson pour les Etats-Unis, Orlando pour l'Italie signent avec l'Allemagne défaite sur la base des quatorze points de Wilson qui, entre autres, affirment le principe des nationalités.
Précédé du pacte de la Société des Nations, le traité comporte des clauses territoriales, militaires et financières. Les principaux décrets sont : Restitution de l’Alsace et de la Lorraine à la France. Administration de la Sarre (démilitarisée) par la S.D.N (Société des Nations = O.N.U.). Règlement du couloir de Dantzig (Oder-neisse), couloir Polonais vers la Mer Baltique. 20 milliards de Marks-Or à titre de réparations des dommages de guerre. C’est ce Traité que dénoncera Hitler dès son arrivée au pouvoir et qui lui inspirera son esprit "revanchard" et intransigeant lors des hostilités de 1940.
The acquiescence of the German people facilitated the rise of Hitler and the Nazis.
World War I document archive
1919 Keynes: Versailles Treaty will cause economic chaos
The day that the Treaty of Versailles was signed in Paris, John Maynard Keynes warns that the war reparations imposed on Germany in the punitive agreement would cause worldwide economic havoc. When catastrophic German inflation and a world depression proved him right, Keynes advocated government spending to create employment. A brilliant economist, the eventual establishment of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank owed much to his ideas.
| 1917, 14'500 soldats américains débarquent à Saint-Nazaire.
Parce qu'ils sont les neveux de l'Oncle Sam, on leur donne ce surnom: les
"sammies". Le 13 juin, le général Pershing les avait précédés
1913 Empieza la segunda guerra balcánica; ofensiva de Bulgaria contra Serbia y Grecia.
1909 Declarada obligatoria la enseñanza elemental en España.
1905 Russian sailors mutiny aboard the battleship Potemkin.
1902 Congress passes the Spooner bill, authorizing a canal to be built across the isthmus of Panama.
1898 Joshua Slocum llega a Nueva York tras conseguir dar la vuelta al mundo, por primera vez en solitario, a bordo de su yate Spray.
| 1865 CSS Shenandoah captures 11 whalers in the Bering
1863 US Major General George Meade replaces Joseph Hooker as head of the Army of the Potomac, three days before the Battle of Gettysburg. A college professor with strong convictions became Maine's greatest hero of the American Civil War.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues 1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Day 4 of the 7 Days-Battle of Savage's Station
1862 Action at Garnett's and Golding's Farms, Virginia
1862 Passage of Vicksburg batteries by Flag Officer D.G. Farragut's deep water fleet
1839 Cinque, originally Sengbe Pieh, and other Africans are kidnapped to be sold into slavery in Cuba. They will revolt on 02 July aboard the slave ship Amistad.
1838 Britain's Queen Victoria is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
1837 Juramento de la Constitución española de esta fecha, que serviría de modelo a la de 1876, la de mayor duración de España.
1820 Tomato is proven nonpoisonous
1794 Aigri par les accusations non seulement des royalistes, mais surtout de ses collègues Montagnards, Robespierre, qui déjà s'absente de la Convention, n'assistera plus aux réunions du Comité de Salut Publique jusqu'au 23 Jul.
1778 Battle of Monmouth, NJ El ejército de George Washington, apoyado por las fuerzas del francés La Fayette y el prusiano von Steuben, expulsa a los británicos de Filadelfia tras vencer en la batalla de Monmouth durante la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos. Mary Ludwig "Molly Pitcher" Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carries water to the soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth and, supposedly, takes her husband's place at his gun after he is overcome with heat.
1776 Colonists repulse a British sea attack on Charleston, South Carolina. In some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War, American and French troops failed to take Savannah.
1709 Battle of Poltava: Russians defeat the Swedes and Cossacks.
1675 Frederick William of Brandenburg crushes the Swedes
1632 Ordenanzas militares de Felipe IV, que rigieron en España durante casi un siglo.
1629 Paix d'Alès. Celle-ci confirme l'édit de Nantes. Les libertés de conscience et de culte sont maintenues mais les places protestantes sont démantelées et les assemblées politiques désormais interdites.
2005 All 16 US soldiers a MH-47 Chinook helicopter of the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, which is shot down by a rocket-propelled grenade of the Taliban guerillas as it was about to land ferrying troops to an ongoing battle (“Operation Redwing”) near Asadabad, Kunar province, Afghanistan, near the Pakistani border, at 3000 m elevation in the Hindu Kush mountains. — (050925)
2005 Dari al-Fayadh, 87, his son Hassan al-Fayadh, 3 bodyguards, and a suicide car bomber who attacks their 2-car convoy in the Rashidyah district of Baghdad, Iraq. Dari Al-Fayadh, a Shiite, was the oldest of the 275 members of Iraq's National Assembly and served as acting speaker in its first session on 16 March 2005.
2003 Christopher Patterson, 17, when the two-door Buick coupe in which he was riding in the back seat, crashes going west in the 1100 block of West Marquette Road, Chicago, and catches fire, at 02:35 (07:35 UT). The two other men passengers are injured, as is the woman driver Sheena Riley, 18, (of the 1400 block of West 71st Place) who was drunk and had neither driver's license nor insurance. The four were returning from a party.
2003 Some 25 persons, in explosion near Hadithah, Iraq, at depot of old Iraqui artillery, left unguarded by US occupation troops. Metal scavengers, some of them smoking, had dismantled 155mm artillery shells, spilling gun powder. 6 persons are injured.
2002:: 22 Afghan soldiers, 4 women, 3 children, 5 civilian men, by a 02:00 to 04:00 series of secondary explosions in an ammunition depot on the outskirts of Spin Boldak in southern Afghanistan near the Pakistan border, probably set off by a rocket fired by al Qaeda fugitives. Buildings and vehicles in a radius of about 2 km are damaged.
1995 Francisco Grande Covián, bioquímico español.
1984 Claude Chevalley, French mathematician born on 11 February 1909. He had a major influence on the development of several areas of mathematics including Ring Theory and Group Theory. His 1936 and 1941 introduction of the concepts of adèle and idèle led to major advances in class field theory and also in algebraic geometry. Chevalley's theorem was important in applications made in 1954 to quasi-algebraically closed fields and applications made the following year to algebraic groups. Chevalley groups play a central role in the classification of finite simple groups. His name is also attached to Chevalley decompositions and to a Chevalley type of semi-simple algebraic group. Author of (Theory of Lie Groups (3 volumes, 1946, 1951, 1955), Theory of Distributions (1951), Introduction to the theory of algebraic functions of one variable (1951), The algebraic theory of spinors (1954), Class field theory (1954), Fundamental concepts of algebra (1956), Foundations of algebraic geometry (1958).
1967 Fourteen persons are shot in race riots in Buffalo, New York.
1960 Jaume Vicens Vives, historiador español.
1956 Riots break out in Poznan Poland, 38 die
1954 Red deer dies in Milwaukee Zoo at 26; oldest known deer.
1943 Daniel Samuel Hirsh Vigderhaus [03 Jun 1930–], Feiga Fanny Vigderhaus (née Kreslawski) [06 Oct 1880–], Jacques Yankel Vigderhaus [14 Sep 1933–], Liba Vigderhaus (née Kreslawski) [17 Feb 1881–], Mendel Maurice Vigderhaus (Mendel, Maurice), [18 Feb 1876–], Victor Vigderhaus [15 Jan 1882–], gassed in the Auschwitz death camp to which they had been deported from France, where the two boys had been born in Paris. The adults were immigrants from Russia, where the two women had been born in Nievel (or Nevel) and the two men in Polotsk.
1943 Hélène Schwartz (née Steiner) [19 Apr 1902–], gassed in the Auschwitz death camp to which she had been deported from France, where she was an immigrant from Hungary, where she was born in Nagykanizsa.
1889 Maria Mitchell, 71, first US woman astronomer.
1874 The Freedmen's Bank, created to assist former slaves in the United States, closes. Customers of the bank lose $3 million.
1848 (11 June?) Jean-Baptiste Debret, French painter and draftsman, active in Brazil, born on 18 April 1768. MORE ON DEBRET AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1836 James Madison 4th US president, dies in Montpelier, Virginia.
1801 Francis Wheatley (or Wheatly), British painter born in 1747. MORE ON WHEATLEY AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1801 Martin Joachim Kremser Schmidt, Krems region Austrian painter born on 25 September 1718.
1776 Thomas Hickey, US sergeant convicted of treason, hanged.
1721 Isaac Sailmaker, British painter born probably in 1633. link to an image.
1708 Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros, administrador colonial español.
1670 (buried) Hendrick Maertenszoon Rokes Sorgh, Rotterdam painter born in 1611. MORE ON SORGH AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
0767 Saint Paul I, Pope. Immediately after the burial of his brother Pope Stephen II [–26 Apr 757], Paul was elected Pope by a large majority, and received episcopal consecration on 29 May 757.
0683 Pope Saint Leo II. Though elected pope a few days after the death of St. Agatho (10 Jun 681), he was not consecrated until 17 August 682, probably due to negottiations with the Byzantine Court which had to approve papal elections.
1954 Anna Birulés i Bertrán, política y economista española, ministra de Ciencia y Tecnología en el segundo gobierno de José María Aznar.
1947 Mark Helprin, novelist (Winter's Tale)
1940 José Sanchis, autor y director teatral español.
1927 F. Sherwood Rowland, científico estadounidense.
1927 Tibor Csernius, Hungarian artist.
1909 Francisco Grande Covián, bioquímico español.
1909 Eric Ambler, English suspense author and screenwriter who died on 22 October 1998. (Epitaph for a Spy, The Dark Frontier, Uncommon Danger, Journey into Fear)
1906 Maria Goeppert Mayer, Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
1902 Richard Rodgers, Hammels Station NY, the composer in the Rodgers and Hammerstein operetta team.
1894 Einar Carl Hille, US mathematician who died on 12 February 1980..
1892 E. H. Carr, English political scientist and historian who died on 03 November 1982.
1891 Carl Spaatz, first chief of staff of the US Air Force, who died on 14 July 1974.
1891 Esther Forbes, author (Johnny Tremain)
1891 Helmut Macke, German artist who died in 1936.
1887 Floyd Dell, US novelist and journalist who died on 23 July 1969.
1884 William Victor Higgins, US painter who died on 23 August 1949. MORE ON HIGGINS AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1875 Charles Constantin Joseph Hoffbauer, French US painter who died in 1957. links to images.
1873 Alexis Carrel, France, surgeon / sociologist / biologist (Nobel 1912, for the development of blood vessel suture technique)
1869 Mario Puccini, Italian artist who died on 18 June 1920.
1759 (02 June?) Jan Ekels II, Dutch painter and draftsman who died on 04 June 1793.
1616 Lucas Franchoys II, Mechelen Flemish painter and etcher who died on 03 April 1681. MORE ON FRANCHOYS AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1641 Marie-Casimire de la Grange d'Arquien, who, after the death of her first husband, would, on 05 July 1665, marry Jan Sobieski [17 Aug 1629 – 17 Jun 1696], who would be elected king of Poland on 28 May 1674. She died on 30 January 1716.
1609 Peter van Lint, Antwerp painter and draftsman who died on 25 September 1690.
1577 Pieter Pauwel Rubens, Flemish Baroque era painter who died on 30 May 1640. [click image for 1639 self-portrait >] MORE ON RUBENS AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1529 Bartolomeo Passerotti, Bolognese painter who died on 03 June 1592. MORE ON PASSEROTTI AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1491 Henry VIII, king of England from the death of his father Henry VII (28 Jan 1457 21 April 1509). Murderously mentally ill for some years, Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, survived by his 6th wife. He had beheaded or repudiated the first 5, starting the Church of England when pope Clement VII did not condone Henry VIII's repudiation of his first wife, and beheading anyone he fancied opposed him, including many who had served him well, such as Thomas More and Thomas Cromwell [1485 28 Jul 1540]. Henry was thus in contradiction with his earlier self, when he had written Assertio septem sacramentorum adversus Martinum Lutherum (1521) and pope Leo X had named him Defensor Fidei.