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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 25
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” JUN 25   wikipedia
• Canada's short~term woman PM... • Dean testifies against Nixon... • The last true Packard... • Korean War... • Gompers of the AFL... • Immorality outlawed... • Custer's last stand... • Montfort tué d'une pierre... • Orwell is born... • Mountbatten is born... • Les Fleurs du Mal...
WCOM price chart^  On a 25 June:
2002 In the evening WorldCom announces that an internal audit has uncovered that $3.85 billion in ordinary business expenses had been improperly booked as capital expenditures for all of 2001 and the first quarter of 2002, and that it has fired its Chief Financial Officer Scott Sullivan (long-time CEO Bernie Ebbers had been ousted two months earlier). WorldCom also announces 17'000 layoffs. With more than $30 billion in debt, $4.5 billion of which is due in the next three years, WorldCom will have difficulty avoiding bankruptcy (its bonds trading at 15 cents on the dollar indicate that investors expect bankruptcy). From a tiny long-disance phone service reseller in Mississippi it expanded spectacularly by more than 60 acquisition. But when it acquired MCI, regulators warned that this was the end, and they blocked WorldCom's 2000 attempt to buy Sprint. WorldCom stock (which traded as high as $64.50 on 21 June 1999) had closed at 83 cents before the announcement. The next day it would sink as low as 14 cents in pre-market trading, and vould not be allowed to be traded on the market.. On 14 April 2003.WorldCom would change its name to MCI.

2002
Tamara A. Waddell, 22, of Bloomington, Indiana, is sentenced to 10-to-20 years in prison (minus the 8 months she has already been imprisoned), the maximum sentence for the charge to which, on 16 May 2002, she pleaded guilty to — battery resulting in serious bodily injury to a person less than 14 years of age, a Class B felony — under a plea agreement that spared her the penalty she could have gotten for the 03 November 2001 murder of the youngest of her four children, Leo Waddell, 4 months old. When he died (of asphyxia), Leo had 13 bone fractures to his arms, legs, ribs, and skull, inflicted possibly 4 to 6 weeks earlier. His mom admitted that she put her hand over Leo's mouth and nose to stop his crying. See details at http://www.hoosiertimes.com/

2002 The Mont-Blanc tunnel between France and Italy is re-opened to trucks, to which it had been closed since the 24 March 1999 fire which caused 39 deaths.

2000
US Navy resumes live-fire training on the Vieques, Puerto Rico, range in the largest exercises since a fatal accident prompted a yearlong occupation by protesters.
2000 Philip Morris announces that it is buying Nabisco for $14.9 billion.
1998. La Bourse russe chute de nouveau.
1997 Domain name assignment to change
      The National Science Foundation announces that a nonprofit organization will take over the assignment of Internet domain names. The plan varied from an earlier plan endorsed by the NSF to turn domain name assignment over to the Internet community and free market forces.
1996 American Airlines sells tickets online
      American Airlines announces its Internet ticket purchasing system is ready for prime time. The airline also said it would introduce ticketless travel in September, freeing its customers from worry about losing their airline tickets.
1994 Los soldados rusos desfilan por Berlín antes de su retirada definitiva del sector este de la ciudad, donde han permanecido 50 años.
^ 1993 Kim Campbell takes office as leader of Canada
      In Ottawa, Kim Campbell is sworn in as Canada’s nineteenth prime minister, becoming the first woman to hold the country’s highest office. Born in Port Alberni, British Columbia, in 1947, Campbell was educated in law and political science before entering Canadian politics during the 1980s. In 1986, she was elected to the British Columbia legislature as a Conservative, and two years later she was appointed minister of Indian affairs by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. In 1988, she became the first female to hold the office of Canadian attorney general, and proved instrumental in the movement to increase gun control in Canada. In 1993, Campbell was appointed minister of national defense and veterans’ affairs.
      Two months later, Prime Minister Mulroney announced his resignation, and Campbell was encouraged to run for the Conservative party leadership. In a close contest she was elected at a national convention on 13 June, and on 25 June took office as Canada’s first female prime minister. Although Prime Minister Campbell won widespread public approval, the Conservative mandate to govern had nearly expired, and she was forced to call for a general election to be held in October.
      On 25 October 1993, despite their popular new prime minister, the Conservatives’ questionable nine-year standing as Canada’s ruling party came to a decisive end. Suffering an extraordinary electoral defeat, they were reduced to just two seats in the House of Commons. Campbell herself lost her Vancouver seat and retired from politics. She returned to academia, accepting a fellowship at Harvard.
1993 Fernando Arrabal galardonado con el Premio Teatro de la Academia Francesa, primer dramaturgo español que lo consigue.
1993 La Grèce expulse de son territoire plusieurs dizaines de milliers d’Albanais, provoquant un dépôt de protestation aux Nations-Unies. La Grèce a failli être condamnée. Il a fallu l’appui de ses alliés de l’OTAN pour éviter cet affront. Ce qui ne faisait pas l’affaire des Albanais, expulsés de la même façon que les Croates de Serbie, que les Kossovars du Kossovo. Contre les Serbes, l’on nomme ces expulsions "Purification Ethnique". Chez les Grecs (nos alliés) on appelle cela une pacification "Justice en deça, injustice en-delà", disait déjà Montaigne !!!
1991 Following months of unsuccessful talks among Yugoslavia's six republics about the future of the federation, the western republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence.
1991 Croacia se proclama nación independiente de la federación yugoslava tras un referéndum popular a favor de dicha decisión. Eslovenia se independiza de Yugoslavia al proclamarse Estado soberano.
1989 Teodoro Obiang Nguema, reelegido presidente de Guinea Ecuatorial, tras las primeras elecciones presidenciales por sufragio universal celebradas en este país.
1987 Pope John Paul II receives Austrian President Kurt Waldheim
1986 US Congress approves $100 million in aid to the Contras fighting in Nicaragua.
1981 US Supreme Court upholds male-only draft registration, constitutional
1975 Mozambique gains independence from Portugal (National Day)
^ 1973 Dean testifies against Nixon
      During the Watergate affair, John Dean, a former White House legal counsel, begins testifying before the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities. In three days of televised testimony, Dean directly implicates President Richard M. Nixon, himself, and a number of other White House officials in the cover-up of the Watergate break-in the occurred on 17 June 1972.
      On that night, seven men, including two members of the Nixon reelection campaign, were arrested for breaking into and illegally wiretapping the Democratic National Convention headquarters in Washington’s Watergate Hotel. Journalists and the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities discovered a higher echelon conspiracy surrounding the incident, and a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude erupted.
      On 17 May 1973, the special Senate committee began televised proceedings on the rapidly escalating Watergate affair, and one week later, Archibald Cox, a professor at Harvard Law School, was sworn in as special Watergate prosecutor. During the Senate hearings, John Dean testified that the Watergate break-in had been approved by former Attorney General John Mitchell with the knowledge of chief White House advisers John Ehrlichman and H. R. Haldeman, and that President Nixon had been aware of the cover-up. Meanwhile, Cox and his staff began to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by the Nixon reelection committee, illegal wiretapping of thousands of citizens by the administration, and corporate contributions to the Republican Party in return for political favors. In July, the existence of what were to be called the Watergate tapes, official recordings of White House conversations between Nixon and his staff, was revealed at the Senate hearings. Cox subpoenaed these tapes, and after three months of delay, President Nixon agreed to send summaries of the recordings. Cox rejected the summaries, and Nixon fired him.
      His successor as special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, levels indictments against several high-ranking administration officials, including Mitchell and Dean, who were duly convicted. Public confidence in the president rapidly waned, and on 30 July 1974, the day that Nixon finally released the Watergate tapes under coercion from the US Supreme Court, the House Judiciary Committee adopted three articles of impeachment against President Nixon: obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential powers, and hindrance of the impeachment process. On 09 August 1974, Richard M. Nixon became the first president in US history to resign from office. One month later, he was pardoned by his successor, President Gerald Ford.
1966 Yugoslavia y el Vaticano restablecen relaciones diplomáticas, rotas en 1952.
1964 President Lyndon Johnson orders 200 US Navy men to Mississippi to assist in finding three missing civil rights workers.
1962 The US Supreme Court rules that the use of an unofficial, non-denominational prayer in New York State public schools is unconstitutional.
1961 Iraq announces that Kuwait is a part of Iraq (Kuwait disagrees)
1959 The Cuban government seizes 950'000 hectares under a new agrarian reform law.
1957 During a convention in Cleveland, Ohio, the United Church of Christ (UCC) is formed by a merger of the Congregational Christian Church and the Evangelical and Reformed Church.
^ 1956 Last “true” Packard manufactured
      The last 1956 Packard automobile was produced, marking the end of production at Packard’s Connor Avenue plant in Detroit, Michigan. Packard would continue to manufacture cars in South Bend, Indiana until 1958, but for those familiar with Packard, the last 1956 model is considered the last true Packard car.
      In 1902, a group of Detroit investors led by Henry Joy purchased Packard from its founder James Ward Packard and moved the company to Detroit. The following year Joy hired industrial designer Albert Kahn, the pioneer of reinforced concrete, to build a new production facility for the Packard Motor Company. The first Packard cars--including “Old Pacific,” the first car to travel across the United States--were affordable, durable single-cylinder vehicles.
      But Packard quickly moved up the pricing ladder, offering four-cylinder engines. By the 1916 release of the revolutionary V-12 Twin Six, Packard had established itself as the country’s leading luxury car manufacturer, renowned for its hand-finished attention to detail. The release of the Twin Six allowed Packard to quadruple output over a period of one year, and Packard quickly became the largest truck supplier to the Allied Forces during World War I.
      The 1920s were the company’s hey-day. Huge, sleek Packards were a perfect fit for the decadent US market. Conversely, the Depression heavily damaged Packard’s part of the market. By the middle thirties Packard sales had dropped dramatically, leading Packard President Alvan Macauley to make the drastic decision to develop and produce a lower-priced car. Although the move would initially bolster Packard’s sales considerably, historians argue that producing lower quality cars heavily damaged the most valuable brand reputation in the automobile industry.
      World War II saw Packard convert to war production earlier than most companies. Packard’s Twin Six was adapted into the Liberty Aircraft engine, by far the most important single output of America’s war time “arsenal for democracy.” Though Packard was only the third largest producer of the engine, the Liberty enhanced Packard’s reputation considerably.
      After the war, Packard had a difficult time converting back to passenger car production. The post-war “seller’s market” kept Packard alive, but it soon became clear that the independent car companies without specialization were doomed by their relatively high production costs relative to the so-called “Big Three” of auto production (Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler). Had Packard remained strictly a luxury car company, it may have been able to catch hold of a post-war niche, but instead, by 1954, Packard’s output had fallen to a dismal low.
      General Motors and Ford were engaged in a brief price war that took its toll on the independents. Packard merged with the much larger Studebaker Corporation with the hope of cutting its production costs. Together, Packard-Studebaker was the fourth largest manufacturer of cars. The merger failed to help the fate of either company, however, and in 1956 Packard-Studebaker President James Nance suspended Packard’s manufacturing operations in Detroit.
1953 86ºF in Anchorage Alaska
1953 first passenger to fly commercially around the world < 100 hours
1951 First color television broadcast
      CBS broadcasts the first color television program. The program was strictly experimental, as no viewers have color televisions yet. The four-hour program can only be viewed on the forty color television sets at CBS. The program is broadcast in Baltimore, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington DC. It would take another five years until television stations switched to color broadcasting. The first all-color station, WNBQ-TV in Chicago, began showing color programs on 03 November 1955, and switched to color entirely, even for local programs, by 15 April 1956.
^ 1950 The Korean War begins
      At dawn, nearly 100'000 Communist troops of the North Korean People’s Army invade South Korea across the thirty-eighth parallel, catching the Republic of Korea forces completely off guard and throwing them into a hasty southern retreat.
      In the aftermath of World War II, foreign ministers from the former Allied nations of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones and govern the nation for five years. The country was split along the thirty-eighth parallel, with Soviet forces occupying the northern zone, and Americans stationed in the south. Although the border was defended on both sides, the South Koreans were unprepared for the hordes of North Korean troops and Soviet-made tanks that rolled across the thirty-eighth parallel on 25 June 1950.
      When word of the attack reached Washington, US President Harry S. Truman ordered additional US forces to Korea, and on 27 June, announced to the nation and the world that America would intervene in order to stem the spread of communism. The next day, the United Nations (UN) Security Council met, and in the absence of the Soviet Union, which was boycotting the council, a resolution was passed approving the use of force against North Korea.
      On 30 June Truman authorized the use of US ground forces in Korea, and on 07 July, the Security Council recommended that all UN forces sent to Korea be put under US command. The next day, General Douglas MacArthur was named commander of all UN forces in Korea. In the opening months of the war, the US-led UN forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but in October, Chinese Communist troops entered the fray, throwing the Allies into a general retreat.
      On 27 July 1953, a peace agreement was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today. American casualties in the Korean War included 170'000 killed, wounded, or missing in action.
1942 Eisenhower SACEUR
      General Dwight D. Eisenhower first showed his skills in coordinating Anglo-American forces in North Africa, and on this day, Churchill and Roosevelt place him in charge of European operations. Ike's careful planning and ability to mediate proved essential to the success of the Allied invasion of Western and Northern Europe. After the war, he was called back to Europe to organize and lead the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
1942 British RAF makes a 1000 bomber raid on Bremen Germany (WW II)
1941 FDR issues Executive Order 8802 forbidding discrimination
1940 Entrée en vigueur des deux armistices (France-Allemagne, France-Italie), journée de deuil national
1938 US Federal minimum wage law guarantees workers 40 cents per hour
1929 Pres Hoover authorizes building of Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam)
1925 Golpe militar en Grecia, encabezado por el general Pangalos.
^ 1921 Gompers AFL president for the 40th time
      Labor leader Samuel Gompers is elected to his fortieth term as the President of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Gompers was an English immigrant who spent a good chunk of his childhood working alongside his father in New York's cigar shops. But, Gompers soon became involved in burgeoning labor movement, and eventually rose to prominence in the cigar makers' union.
      In 1886, Gompers spearheaded the cigar union's departure from the Knights of Labor, opting instead to form a new union, the American Federation of Labor. As chief of the AFL, Gompers eschewed labor's left leaning tendencies in favor of more conservative tactics. Indeed, Gompers believed in labor action—namely strikes and boycotts—tempered by responsibility and reason; he focused on economic goals and hailed binding contracts, rather than overt political affiliations, as the key to improving the lives of workers.
      However, Gompers’ policies sometimes seemed ineffectual in the face of labor's struggles; his reluctance to lend significant fiscal or political support to the Pullman Car strike of 1894 helped derail the train workers' battle for wages and rights. And, in 1895, the AFL's rank and file, swayed by a burst of socialist sentiment, ousted Gompers from office. That defeat proved to be temporary, however: Gompers regained the reins of the AFL in 1896 and didn't let go until his death in 1924.
1920 The Greeks take 8000 Turkish prisoners in Smyrna.
^ 1910 The US attempts to enforce national morality
[June 25, 1910, ch. 395, 36 Stat. 825 (See Title 18, Sec. 2421-2424)]
      Congress passes the Mann Act, also known as the White Slave Traffic Act, in one of the strangest attempts to enforce morality in US history. The law actually had little to do with slavery; it was aimed at stopping the supposed problem of innocent girls being lured into prostitution.
      The outrage over "white slavery" began with a commission appointed in 1907 to investigate the problem of immigrant prostitutes. Allegedly, women were brought to America for the purpose of being forced into sexual slavery; their presence was corrupting the nation and bringing about its "moral degradation." The Congressional committees that debated the Mann Act apparently found it impossible to believe that a girl would ever choose to be a prostitute unless she was drugged and held hostage. The law made it illegal to "transport any woman or girl" across state lines "for any immoral purpose."
      This last clause may not have seemed important to the drafters believing that they were striking at prostitution. However, "for any immoral purpose" began to take on a much greater meaning. In 1917, the Supreme Court upheld the conviction of two California men, Drew Caminetti and Maury Diggs, who had gone on a romantic weekend getaway with their girlfriends to Reno, Nevada. Following this decision, the Mann Act was used in all types of cases: someone was charged with violating the Mann Act for bringing a woman from one state to another in order to work as a chorus girl in a theater; wives began using the Mann Act against girls who ran off with their husbands.
      The law was also used for nefarious purposes: Jack Johnson, heavyweight champion of the world in boxing, was prosecuted simply because he was black and his girlfriend was white. The most famous prosecutions under the law were those of Charlie Chaplin in 1944 and Chuck Berry in 1962, who took unmarried women across state lines for "immoral purposes." Chaplin was acquitted but left the country under FBI director J. Edgar Hoover's threats. Berry was convicted and spent two years in the prime of his musical career in jail. After Berry's conviction, the Mann Act was enforced only sparingly and was finally removed from the books in 1986.
     However the current (I think) United States Code) reads:
18 USC Sec. 2421 01/05/99 -- TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PART I - CRIMES CHAPTER 117 - TRANSPORTATION FOR ILLEGAL SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND RELATED CRIMES -- Sec. 2421. Transportation generally -STATUTE- Whoever knowingly transports any individual in interstate or foreign commerce, or in any Territory or Possession of the United States, with intent that such individual engage in prostitution, or in any sexual activity for which any person can be charged with a criminal offense, or attempts to do so, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
1876 La columna del general estadounidense George A. Custer es aniquilada en Little Bighorn por los indios sioux.
1870 En su exilio de París, Isabel II firma su abdicación a favor de su hijo, futuro rey Alfonso XII.
1868 Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were re-admitted to the Union.
1868 The US Congress enacts legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the federal government
1864 Union troops surrounding Petersburg, Virginia begin building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines. With the Army of Northern Virginia stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut its vital rail lines.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege on Vicksburg, Mississippi continues.
1861 Francia reconoce a Víctor Manuel II como rey de Italia.
^ 1807 Paix de Tilsit
      Un radeau sur lequel un pavillon a été aménagé est amarré sur le Niemen. C'est là que, dix jours après la bataille de Friedland, Napoléon Ier, empereur des Français, et Alexandre Ier, tsar de Russie, se rencontrent. Le tsar assure : "Je hais les Anglais autant que vous." La réponse de Napoléon : "En ce cas, la paix est faite." Au soir de la rencontre, Napoléon note : "J'ai été fort content de lui ; c'est un beau, bon et jeune empereur ; il a de l'esprit plus qu'on ne pense communément." Pendant vingt jours, ils rêvent d'un partage du monde : l'Occident irait à la France, l'Orient à la Russie. It is not recorded whether they shared a piece of Tilsit (cheese) at the Peace of Tilsit.
1798 US passes Alien Act allowing president to deport dangerous aliens
1792 Comienza la medición del meridiano de París, que va de Dunkerque a Barcelona, y que constituyó el origen del establecimiento del Sistema Métrico Decimal.
1791 Tras su frustrada fuga, Luis XVI y toda la familia real entran en París.
1788 Virginia becomes 10th state to ratify US constitution
1786 The great Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes [30 Mar 1746 – 16 Apr 1828] is named Royal Painter. — links to images.
1767 Mexican Amerindians riot as Jesuit priests are ordered home.
1749 General fast because of drought in MA
1744 The first Methodist conference convenes, in London. This new society within Anglicanism imposed strict disciplines upon its members, formally separating from the Established Church in 1795.
1638 A lunar eclipse becomes the first astronomical event recorded in the British American colonies.
1658 Aurangzeb proclaims himself emperor of the Moghuls in India.
1621 Capitulation à Saint-Jean-d'Angély des protestants qui luttaient contre les troupes du roi Louis XIII (lequel avait le 27 avril 1621 annoncé qu'il ne veut pas révoquer l'Édit de Nantes, en nommant Luynes connétable).
1630 Fork introduced to American dining by Governor Winthrop
1580 The German Book of Concord is published, containing all the official confessions of the Lutheran Church. (English translations of the entire work were not available before 1851.)
1178 5 Canterbury monks report something exploding on Moon
1115 Saint Bernard, 25, founds a monastery in Clairvaux, France. It afterward would become a strategic center for the Cistercians.
0841 Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeat Lothar at Fontenoy.
0253 Saint Lucius I is consecrated Pope, succeding Saint Cornelius. Lucius died on 05 March 254.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 25 June:

2006 First Lt. Hanan Barak, 21; and Staff Sgt. Pavel Slutsker, 20; Israelis killed before dawn by Palestinians attacking their tank positioned at the Gaza Strip border. Another member of the 4-man tank crew, French-Israeli Cpl. Gilad Shalit, 19, is lightly wounded, taken prisoner, and held as hostage. — (060627)
2003 Lester Maddox, born on 30 September 1915, Georgia's 75th governor from 1967 to 1971. An old-style Southern Democrat and segregationist who was supported by the Ku Klux Klan, Maddox gained national notoriety in the 1960s when he chased black students out of his chicken restaurant in Atlanta. The students sued Maddox, who was ordered to desegregate. But rather than integrate, Maddox closed his restaurant. Despite his segregationist views, Maddox named a number of Blacks to positions in state government. He made unsuccessful attempts to regain the governor's office in 1974 and 1990.
2003 US Sgt. 1st Class Gladimir Philippe, 37, of Linden NJ, and Pfc. Kevin Ott, 27, of Columbus, Ohio, are killed after they disappear along with their Humvee from Balad, Iraq
1997 Jacques Ives Cousteau, oceanógrafo francés y "padre" de la inmersión submarina.
1996 Nineteen US servicemen by a truck bomb at the Khobar Towers US military residence in Dhahran. Hundreds are injured. The US military initially linked Osama bin Laden to the attack but now believe a Saudi Shiite group was responsible. US investigators still believe bin Laden was somehow involved.
1995 Warren Burger, the 15th chief justice of the United States, died in Washington at age 87.
1995 William Layton, dramaturgo estadounidense.
1995 Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton, físico irlandés
1988 American-born Mildred Gillars, better known during World War II as "Axis Sally" for her Nazi propaganda broadcasts, died in Columbus, Ohio, at age 87. (Gillars had served 12 years in prison for treason.)
1984 Michel Foucault, filósofo francés.
1978 Hsien Chung Wang, Chinese US mathematician born on 18 April 1918. In algebraic topology he discovered the Wang Sequence, an exact sequence involving homology groups associated with fibre bundles over spheres.
1974 Kornél Lánczos, Jewish Hungarian mathematician born Kornél (=Cornelius) Löwy on 02 February 1893. He worked on relativity and mathematical physics and invented what is now called the Fast Fourier Transform.
1959 Charles Starkwether executed.
1958 Charles Spencelayh, British artist born on 26 October 1865.
1956:: 51 die in collision of Andrea Doria and Stockholm at 23:10 EDT (40º30' N, 69º53'W, off Cape Cod). The dead include 46 of the 1134 passengers of the Andrea Doria (none of its crew of 571) and 5 of the 213 crew members of the Stockholm (none of its 534 passengers). Norman Di Sandro and Alf Johansson died of head injuries after being evacuated by helicopter. Carl Watres died of a heart attack after being rescued by the Stockholm.
1955 Max Hermann Pechstein, German Expressionist painter born on 31 January 1881. — LINKSBathersFlute Playing in the Country
1952 Sveinn Björnsson, primer presidente de la República de Islandia.
1941 Alfred Pringsheim, German Jewish mathematician born on 02 September 1850. He became a refugee in Switzerland, where he died.
1916 Thomas Couperthwaite Eakins, US painter born on 25 July 1844. — MORE ON EAKINS AT ART “4” JULY with links to images. —(070624)
1912 Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Dutch English Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 08 January 1836. — MORE ON ALMA~TADEMA AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1909 Emilia Álvarez Mijares del Real, escritora española.
1906 Architect Stanford White, 52, shot dead atop Madison Square Garden, which he designed, by Harry Thaw jealous husband of Evelyn Nesbit.
1904 Anthony Frederick Augustus Dandys, British artist born in the period 1829-1832.
1898 Nikolai Grigorevich Svertschkoff, Russian artist born on 06 March 1817.
1886 Friedrich Johannes Voltz, German artist born on 31 October 1817.
^ 1876 Custer, 264 soldiers of his 7th Cavalry, and some Amerindian warriors
      In the worst defeat of the US Army in its long history of warfare with the Amerindians, Lieutenant Colonel Armstrong Custer’s Seventh Calvary is annihilated by a larger Sioux force at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
      In 1868, the US government signed the Fort Laramie Treaty with the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho, granting the three tribes permanent possession of a large region to the west of the northern Missouri River. However, in 1872, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, located along the border of South Dakota and Wyoming, and white prospectors began moving into the Sioux territory. In 1874, Lieutenant Colonel Custer, who had distinguished himself as the youngest Union general of the Civil War, led his Seventh Calvary into the region and confirmed the gold strike. Over the next few months, thousands of miners rushed into the Black Hills.
      In September of 1875, representatives of the US government met with Sioux and other tribal leaders, and offered to purchase the land. The Amerindians refused, so in December, US authorities ordered all Sioux raiding and hunting parties to report to a reservation agency by January 31, 1876, or consider themselves at war with the United States. In response, thousands of Sioux left the reservations to join Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and other war leaders meeting along the Powder River in present-day Wyoming. They were joined by the Arapaho, the northern Cheyenne, and warriors from other scattered tribes.
      Meanwhile, US General Philip H. Sheridan organized three powerful Army columns to suppress the Amerindians. In March, General George Crook’s column fought an indecisive battle with the Sioux along the Powder River, and in June, Crook defeated a Sioux force at the Battle of Rosebud Creek. In the same month, the two other Army columns, under the command of General Alfred H. Terry and Colonel John Gibbon, met up at the mouth of Rosebud Creek and prepared to attack a large Sioux camp reported on Little Bighorn River to the southwest. General Terry ordered Custer to lead his Seventh Calvary down the valley and flush the Sioux out toward the two Army columns, which were to block the Amerindians’ southern retreat route. On June 22, Custer set out with some six hundred men for Little Bighorn.
      On 25 June, at dawn, his scouts spotted the Amerindian camp, and at noon, Custer commenced his attack. As the village appeared to be only moderately sized, apparently without a large force of defenders, he divided his command into four parts, two of which were to attack the village, one of which was to remain behind as a supply column, and another which was to scout to the south. It was a fatal mistake. Across the river lay hidden a Sioux and Cheyenne force of nearly 2000 warriors under Crazy Horse, Two Moon, and Gall.
      The 175-man detachment under US Major Marcus Reno was the first to attack the village, but encountering the large Amerindian force they retreated back across the river with moderate loss of life. Meanwhile, Custer, who had intended to attack the village from the north, was cut off in rough ground with 210 men. Suddenly, Custer was assaulted by Amerindians pouring across the river both north and south of him. What became known as “Custer’s Last Stand” lasted less than an hour, and not one of his 210 men survived the Amerindian attack.
      Upstream, the two scouting and supply detachments met up with Reno’s force, and over the next twenty-four hours succeeded in holding off repeated Amerindian assaults at the cost of forty-seven killed and fifty-three wounded. On June 26, with the large Army columns of Terry and Gibbon approaching, the villagers retreated, followed several hours later by the warriors, who set the prairie grass afire to cover their retreat. The Battle of Little Bighorn was one of the most infamous military disasters in US history, and cost 265 members of the Seventh Cavalry. With the exception of Custer, whose remains were later reinterred at West Point, the bodies of the slain men are still buried on the battlefield, now a national monument in Montana.
     George Armstrong Custer was born on 05 December 1839 in New Rumley, Ohio. He was a US cavalry officer who distinguished himself in the American Civil War(1861–1865) but later led his men to death in one of the most controversial battles in US history.
      After graduation from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point NY (1861), Custer served in the IS Civil War, attached to the staff of General George B. McClellan. At 23 he became brigadier general of volunteers in command of a Michigan cavalry brigade. He distinguished himself in numerous battles, and, during the closing days of the war, his relentlesspursuit of the Confederate commander in chief, General Robert E. Lee, helped to hasten Lee's surrender at Appomattox, Virginia, on 09 April 1865.
      In 1866 Custer was ordered to Kansas to take part in General Winfield S. Hancock's expedition designed to awe hostile Plains Indians with the military strength of the US Army. Instead of waiting for supplies to be loaded at Ft. Harker, he went to Ft. Riley to visit his wife and was court-martialled in 1867 at Ft. Leavenworth and suspended for one year without pay. Increased hostility of the Plains Indians, however, led to his reinstatement, and in September 1868 he rejoined the 7th Cavalry in Kansas. In November his command surprised and destroyed the Cheyenne chief Black Kettle's village on the Washita River.
      In 1874 Custer led an expedition to investigate rumors of gold deposits in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The region had been recognized by treaty as the sacred hunting ground of the Amerindians, primarily the Sioux and Cheyenne. The gold rush was on, however, and the US government directed that all Amerindians move onto reservations by 31 January 1876, or be deemed hostile.
      In their remote and scattered winter camps, it was likely that many Amerindian tribes did not receive these orders and could not have reached the government agencies with their women and children if they had. When the hunting season arrived in the spring, the tribes moved out to join Sitting Bull's encampment on the Little Bighorn River in Montana.
      Custer, now a lieutenant colonel in command of one column of a projected two-pronged attack under the command of General Alfred Terry, arrived near the Little Bighorn on the night of 24 June 1876. Terry's column was to join him in two days. Instead of waiting for Terry, Custer decided to attack on 25 June, possibly in the belief that his presence was known to the Amerindians. Of the more than 200 men who followed Custer into battle, not one lived to tell the story. A single horse, Comanche, survived and for many years thereafter appeared in 7th Cavalry parades, saddled but riderless. Custer was given a hero's burial at West Point.
^      Le Chef sioux de la tribu Oglala, Ta-Sunko-Witko, que les soldats des armées nord-américaines appelaient Crazy Horse, se fait remarquer comme jeune chef dès 1865. Il refuse les plans établis par Washington pour ménager aux pionniers une route d’accès aux champs de prospection aurifère du Montana ; sa tribu vivait dans le nord des Grandes Plaines (lui-même était probablement né dans l’actuel Dakota du Sud) et les territoires de chasse devaient servir de lieu de passage aux Blancs en route vers l’Ouest.
      En 1866, Crazy Horse fait partie du groupe d’Indiens qui anéantit la compagnie du capitaine William J. Fetterman, qui avait longtemps demandé qu’on lui donne la possibilité de s’attaquer avec seulement quatre-vingts hommes aux groupes de guerriers sioux et de démontrer l’efficacité tactique des troupes régulières nord-américaines. Mais comme ses hommes disposaient de fusils dont la recharge demandait plusieurs opérations manuelles, ils furent anéantis par les flèches de leurs adversaires.
      Refusant de se maintenir dans les réserves imposées aux Sioux, Crazy Horse mène ses hommes dans les régions de chasse des tribus sioux, guerroyant à l’occasion contre les détachements de troupes régulières et leurs auxiliaires indiens. La découverte d’or sur le territoire du Dakota en 1874 fit que les prospecteurs ignorèrent les traités signés entre les Sioux et le gouvernement nord-américain et envahirent leur réserve ; au lieu de contenir les chercheurs d’or, le général Crook contraignit Crazy Horse à évacuer ses campements d’hiver pour installer ceux-ci près des rivières au Montana.
      Échappant au contrôle des troupes de Washington, Crazy Horse et les siens se réfugièrent dans les collines, joignirent les Cheyennes et, le 17 juin 1876, contraignirent le corps d’armée de Crook à la retraite. Crazy Horse fit ensuite jonction avec la plus grande partie de la nation sioux, réunie autour de Sitting Bull sur les bords de la Little Bighorn River (25 juin 1876). La bataille fut féroce. Les troupes de Custer subirent de nombreuses pertes.
      Les tribus alors se séparèrent. Réfugiés dans les collines, harcelés par les troupes américaines qui voulaient les contraindre à s’établir dans les "agences" créées pour recevoir les Indiens, les hommes de Crazy Horse succombèrent au froid et à la faim ; en 1877, Crazy Horse et les siens se rendaient au général Crook. Retenu au fort Robinson, le chef indien, torturé et humilié, tenta quelques mois plus tard de s’échapper, mais il fut assassiné par des agents du gouvernement fédéral dans la confusion générale que provoqua son évasion
Argument that the accepted story of Custer's Last Stand reflects a cover-up by surviving officers in charge of sepate detachments. These would have failed to support a theorized attack by Custer's unit on the Amerindian tent village (where it would have been killing women and children).
^  From the Amerindians' point of view:
     In 1874, George Armstrong Custer, who six years before had slaughtered Black Kettle's Southern Cheyennes on the Washita River, brought all the western Sioux face-to-face with another crisis. Ignoring the Treaty of 1868, which guaranteed the Sioux the western half of present-day South Dakota as a reservation for their perpetual and exclusive use, General Sheridan sent Custer and a large reconnaissance expedition into the Black Hills, in the heart of the reservation, to locate a site for a new fort.

The intrusion was a violation of the treaty, which read, "No white person or persons, shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion of the territory, without the consent of the Amerindians.... and to pass through the same." To the Sioux, the sacred Paha Sapa, or Black Hills, were the spiritual center of their world, where their people withdrew from the hot plains to fast and pray, to cry for a vision, establish communion with the supernatural world, and, at the springs and among the cool, pine-covered hills, renew their strength and spiritual well-being. Compounding the affront to the Amerindians, Custer turned the illegal invasion into a gold-seeking expedition. When he found gold and trumpeted the news to the world, the results were predictable. Thousands of miners, entrepreneurs, and adventurers overran the Black Hills and the sacred sites of the Sioux, throwing up mining camps and towns, cutting down the woods, polluting the streams, and resisting successfully the army's halfhearted attemps to eject them. United in their outrage, the Sioux threatened war against the invaders, who, in turn, raised an outcry for the removal of the Sioux from what, in fact, was still the Amerindians' country.

The government's solution, overlooking the sacred nature of the Black Hills and regarding them as just another piece of real estate, was to try to buy them from the Amerindians. Red Cloud and a number of agency chiefs were summoned to Washington and, although bullied and threatened, insisted that all of the Sioux would have to be consulted. In September 1875, a special government commission finally met at the Red Cloud agency with some twenty thousand Sioux, most of them were from the agencies, but others representing the different "hostile" bands in the north. One after another, tribal spokesmen condemned the government. Typical were the remarks of a Lower Yanktonai chief, Wanigi Ska (White Ghost): You have driven away our game and our means of livelihood out of the country, until now we have nothing left that is valuable except the hills that you ask us to give up..... The earth is full of minerals of all kinds, and on the earth the ground is covered with forests of heavy pine, and when we give these up to the Great Father we know that we give up the last thing that is valuable either to us or the white people.
Tatanka Yotanka, or Sitting Bull, a great warrior and also a spritiual leader with strong powers, was not there, but Hunkpapas conveyed his warning: We want no white men here. The Black Hills belong to me. If the whites try to take them, I WILL fight..

Red Cloud, trying to reassert his authority to speak for all, demanded six hundred million dollars for the Black Hills. The commisioners offered six hundred million dollars, and the council broke up without accomplishing anything. In November, at the instigation of President Grant, the government ordered all "hostile" bands to come into the Sioux agencies by January 31 or be driven in by troops. The belief was that once the militant Amerindians had been brought under control at the agencies, they could be induced to sell the Black Hills on the government's terms. But January 31 came and went, and the "hostile" hunting bands in the north either would not or could not come in, on such short notice in the dead or the Great Plains winter. In February 1876, as Uniter States prepared to celebrate the contennial of it's own freedom, General Sheridan set plans in motion for a three-pronged spring campaign to force the free bands to come to the agencies. But the Sioux nations would not be bullied. As the weather warmed, hundreds of warriors left the agencies and swelled the ranks of the fighting bands in the north. On June 17, at Montana's Rosebud River, a thousand Sioux warriors, led by Crazy Horse, stopped the first prong of thirteen hundred troops, commanded by General George Cook and accomplished by Crow and Shoshoni scouts, and forced their withdrawal to a base camp in the south. From the Rosebud, Crazy Horse's force crossed to the valley of the Little Bighorn River, known to the Amerindians as the Greasy Grass, and joined an enormous village of seven to ten thousand Lakotasm Yanktonais, Santees, Northern Arapaho, and Northern Cheyennes, whose camp circles stretched for almost three miles along the river. Farther north, the other two prongs of the ary's campaign-one coming from the west in Montana, the other from the Missouri River in the east-met and turned south, hoping to trap the "hostile" bands. Advancing ahead of the main body, the 7th Calvary, led by Custer-the man who had massacred Black Kettle's Cheyennes and had thought nothing of starting a gold rush into the Sioux's sacred country, sighted and prepared to attack the huge camp on the Little BigHorn. Feeling secure in their own country, the Sioux and their allies had taken no precautions to guard against a surprise attack, and it was not until the dust of the approaching cavalrymen rose from the ridges east of the river that they were aware of danger. Wooden Leg, a young Northern Cheyenne warrior, recalled the scene among the Cheyenne tipis, the northenmost in the line of camps:

Women were screaming and men were letting out war cries. Through it all we could hear old men calling," Soldiers are here! Young men, go out and fight them."

On the hills above the river, Custer divided his command, Some of the soldiers crossed the Little Bighorn south of the camps, turned north and opened battle by charging toward the Hunkpapa village, the southernmost of the Amerindian camps. As the soldiers came toward them, Sitting Bull rallied his men to protect the women and children. Runs-the-Enemy, a Cut Head Yanktonai Sioux with the Hunkpapas, remembered hearing him:

Sitting Bull....said..."A bird, when it is on it's nest, spreads it's wings over the nest and eggs and protests them.... We are here to protect our wives and children, and we must not let the soldiers get them." He was on a buckskin horse, and he rode from one end of the line to the other, calling out: "Make a brave fight!"

In the camps, the Amerindian women, and children and old people could hear sounds of battle among the hills and coulees across the river, but in the smoke and dust they could not see which side was winning. Led by Gall, the Hunkpapas broke off the fight on top of the bluffs where they had chased the first troops that had attacked them and, turning north, fell on the soldiers with Custer. At the same time, other Amerindians plunged across the river to attack Custer's men from the west. Among them were the Cheyennes under Two Moons. "We circled all around them swirling like water round a stone," He said later... Meanwhile, in the Oglala camp, Crazy Horse mounted his horse and called for his Oglala warriors to follow him. "Come on, Lakotas! It's a good day to die," He yelled. Crossing the river, they flanked Custer's men on the north and east, tightening the Amerindian circle around the soliers. Black Elk, a thirteen year old girl Oglala, watched the fighting village, "A big dust was whirling on the hill, and then the horses began coming out of it with empty saddles." he said. The fight against the men with Custer was all over in less than half an hour. "The shots quit coming from the soliders," Wooden leg recalled.. Sitting Bull's nephew, White Bull, was one of the several who thought he had killed Custer:

On the hill top, I met my uncle....He had been around Fort Abraham Lincoln and knew Custer by sight. When he came to the tall soldier lying on his back... he pointed him out and said,"Long hair thought he was the greatest man in the world. Now he lies there."

Throughout the rest of the day and that night, the Amerindians besieged the first troops who had attacked the Hunkpapa camp and whom they had chased back across the river and the bluffs. On the following day, Sitting Bulls scouts sighted a second army coming up the valley of the Little Bighorn. Firing the grass as a smoke screen, the Amerindian forces broke camp and headed toward the Big Horn Mountains. News of the battle reached the outside world on July 4th, 1876, casting a pall over the nation's celebration of it's hundredth anniversary of Independence.

1862 Rebs and Yanks as the first of the Seven Days' Battles is fought indecisively at Oak Grove (French's Field), Virginia, with General Robert E. Lee [19 Jan 1807 – 12 Oct 1870] in command of the Confederate army. The hard-fighting 44th Georgia suffered some of the heaviest losses of any regiment in the Civil War.
1853 Richard Hume Lancaster
, British painter born in 1774. — links to images.
1667 Joris Georg van Son, Dutch artist born on 24 September 1623.
^ 1218 Simon de Montfort, 67 ans, chef de la Croisade contre les Albigeois, tué d’une pierre (la fronde était une arme de jet fréquemment employée à l’époque), au cours d’un siège de Toulouse.
      Il semble que l'hérésie Cathare a fourni à la monarchie Capétienne les motifs et les moyens nécessaires pour rattacher à la couronne ces riches territoires du Sud et du Sud-ouest. Comme dans toutes les Croisades, et comme dans toute oeuvre humaine, les motivations sont complexes. La question religieuse fut importante, mais certainement pas unique. A une époque où les Croisés mourraient en Orient pour "délivrer le tombeau du Christ du joug des infidèles", il était anormal de laisser se développer une hérésie en terre Chrétienne.
      Très tôt, l'Eglise officielle a combattu l'hérésie. Le mot "cathare" apparaît dans un texte de Nicolas, évêque de Cambrai (1164 - 1167) où il cite des condamnations enregistrées par les évêques de Tongres et de Liège vers 1151 et 1152, contre un certain "Jonas" accusé de cette hérésie. Bernard de Clairvaux, le plus célèbre et le plus actif des Cisterciens médiévaux, (qui s'opposa notamment au fameux philosophe Abélard) s'inquiétera des progrès de l'hérésie dans le sud et réfutera les doctrines erronées (manichéisme, catharisme). Il accompagnera même le cardinal-légat Albéric, vers 1145, pour poursuivre les hérétiques à Poitiers, Bergerac, Albi, Sarlat etc.
      Mais si l'Eglise a pris nettement parti contre le Catharisme, elle n'a pas pu apporter de réponse spirituelle aux élans, aux besoins religieux de tout un peuple qui à travers le monde occidental recherche une plus grande pureté, une plus grande justice, plus de vérité, un idéal semblable à l'idéal de l'Eglise primitive, et qui réclame une réforme spirituelle en profondeur.
      La civilisation raffinée, courtoise qui s'étendait sur l'Occitanie (où s'est aussi développé le catharisme), règnait également en Catalogne. Elle n'est pas étrangère à l'influence de la civilisation musulmane très présente dans la péninsule ibérique et dans le sud-ouest de la France, mais le catharisme s'est peu développé en Espagne même; il y a été combattu vigoureusement et sans pouvoir s’y étendre par Pierre II d’Aragon notamment.
      Il s’est beaucoup plus développé dans le nord de l'Italie (Lombardie) parce que c'était une des routes naturelles de ceux qui venaient d'orient et qui ont importé en occident les doctrines hérétiques à l'occasion des croisades d'une part, mais aussi des mouvements commerciaux d'autre part.
      L'on peut étudier les aspects politiques de la lutte contre les cathares, mais il est impossible d'omettre ou d’en séparer les aspects religieux ; ou même de les minimiser, ce serait nier un des caractères essentiels du Moyen-Âge. La société est chrétienne. L'homme y est chrétien de sa naissance à sa mort. Il n'y a pas d'autre possibilité. Le pouvoir religieux et le pouvoir civil se complètent mutuellement. L'unité de croyance fait la cohésion, l'équilibre de la Chrétienté. L'hérésie en est le plus grand danger qu'il faut combattre par tous les moyens.
      Certes le roi de France qui n'était guère que le roi d'une "petite" France au nord de la Loire, profitera de l'événement pour agrandir ses territoires, mais il n'aurait pas pu à cette époque mener une guerre sainte sans le soutien complet du Pape. Mais Philippe-Auguste était trop occupé par ses luttes dans le nord et l’ouest contre les Anglais pour ouvrir un deuxième front dans le sud. Le pape demande d'abord au comte Raymond VI de Toulouse de participer à la Croisade contre les Albigeois. Celui-ci est intéresssé car il pourrait ainsi "regagner" les terres de Roger Trencavel, vicomte d'Albi et de Béziers, qui "coupent" les siennes. Mais comme l'hérésie est très développée dans ses propres fiefs, Raymond refuse de participer à la Ligue (ce qui lui vaudra l'excommunication).
      Le Pape, Innocent III, devra alors faire appel à tous les chrétiens pour participer à la lutte armée. Il promet, en récompense, les terres confisquées. Philippe-Auguste se joint alors au mouvement général et fait nommer un jeune seigneur ambitieux d'Ile de France, Simon de Montfort à la tête de la Croisade. Plus tard, devant les succès des "Croisés" sous la conduite de Simon de Montfort, Raymond VI de Toulouse fera amende honorable et se joindra à eux (1209). Il ne recevra pas les terres de Trencavel, c'est Simon de Montfort, vassal direct du roi de France, qui les obtiendra en récompense de son activité.
      Pierre II d’Aragon, pourfendeur d’hérétiques et vainqueur des Maures à Las Navas de Tolosa (1212), quant à lui espérait certainement s’approprier une partie des territoires en jeu. Il a joué un rôle modérateur, essayant de faire condamner les "exactions" des Croisés du Nord (beaucoup de gueux, de sans terre qui ne venaient prêter main forte à leur seigneur pendant les 40 jours de prestation); mais comme le Pape donne raison aux Croisés, Pierre II devra les affronter à la bataille de Muret où il périra.
      Le Languedoc bascule vers la France. Même si par la suite Raymond VI puis son fils Raymond VII parviennent à reprendre toutes leurs terres à la famille des Montfort, l’orientation est donnée et le sud, qui avait longtemps échappé aux influences des Francs, se rattache désormais à la France. L’aspect politique est donc important au niveau des conséquences, mais il ne peut s’expliquer que par sa liaison intime aux aspects économiques, sociaux et religieux.
< 24 Jun 26 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on a 25 June:

1932 Peter Blake, English painter, printmaker and sculptor. — MORE ON BLAKE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1923 Samuel Lewis “Francis Sam”, US artist who died in 1994.
1908 Willard Van Orman Quine, US mathematical logician and philosopher who died on 25 December 2000. Among Quine's publications are works on logic, metaphysics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of logic. His 22 books include A System of Logistic (1934), Mathematical Logic (1940), Elementary Logic (1941), On What There Is (1948), From a Logical Point of View (1953), Word and Object (1960), Set Theory and Its Logic (1963), Philosophy of Logic (1970), The Time of My Life: an autobiography (1985), Quiddities (1990), and From Stimulus to Science (1995).
^ 1903 “George Orwell”  (Eric Arthur Blair), in Motihari, India, English novelist, essayist and critic,
     Orwell's parents were members of the Indian Civil Service, and, after an education at Eton College in England, Orwell joined (1922) the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, an experience that later found expression in the novel Burmese Days (1934). His first book, Down and Out in Paris and London (1933), was a nonfictional account--moving and comic at the same time--of several years of self-imposed poverty he had experienced after leaving Burma.
      He published three other novels in the 1930s: A Clergyman's Daughter (1935), Keep the Aspidistra Flying (1936), and Coming Up for Air (1939). His major works of the period were two documentaries: The Road to Wigan Pier (1937), a detailed, sympathetic, and yet objective study of the lives of nearly impoverished miners in the Lancashire town of Wigan; and Homage to Catalonia (1938), which recounts his experiences fighting for the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. Orwell was wounded, and, when the Communists attempted to eliminate their allies on the far left, fought against them and was forced to flee for his life.
      Orwell's two best-known books reflect his lifelong distrust of autocratic government, whether of the left or right: Animal Farm (1945), a modern fable attacking Stalinism, and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), a dystopian novel setting forth his fears of an intrusively bureaucratized state of the future. The pair of novels brought him his first fame and almost his only remuneration as a writer.
      His wartime work for the BBC (published in the collections George Orwell: The Lost Writings, and The War Commentaries) gave him a solid taste of bureaucratic hypocrisy and may have provided the inspiration for his invention of "newspeak," the truth-denying language of Big Brother's rule in Nineteen Eighty-Four.
      Orwell's reputation rests not only on his political shrewdness and his sharp satires but also on his marvelously clear style and on his superb essays, which rank with the best ever written. Politics and the English Language (1950), which links authoritarianism with linguistic decay, has been widely influential. The four-volume Collected Essays, Journalism, and Letters of George Orwell was published in 1968. Orwell died on 21 January 1950, in London.
^ 1900 Lord Louis Mountbatten, in Windsor, England, the fourth child of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife, Princess Victoria, granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
      He entered the Royal Navy at age 13. Among his many assignments was that of aide-de-camp to the then Prince of Wales in 1921. He attained the rank of captain in 1932 and became a French and German interpreter shortly thereafter. When the Second World War broke out, he was given the command of the destroyer Kelly, which was attacked by 24 German bombers off the coast of Crete and sunk in 1941. (Mountbatten swam to shore and took control of the rescue effort.)
      An able commander and a courageous soldier, Mountbatten was given ever greater responsibilities: first that of command of Combined Operations, then that of Supreme Allied Commander of Southeast Asia. His second cousin, King George VI, would have to fend off accusations of nepotism in granting such appointments, despite Mountbatten's gifts. Mountbatten led the capture of Burma from Japanese control and later accepted the surrender of Japanese land forces in September 1945.
      He then went on to become the last British viceroy of India and an able negotiator of independence for both India and Pakistan. He was created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma in 1946 and admiral of the Royal Mediterranean fleet in 1956. Other positions he later held include that of chief of the U.K. defense staff, chairman of the chiefs of staff committee, and finally governor and lord lieutenant of the Isle of Wight. Mountbatten's distinguished career came to an end on August 26, 1979, when an Irish Republican Army bomb exploded on his boat, killing him.
1894 Hermann Oberth Germany, founded modern astronautics
1869 Luis A. Martínez, escritor y político ecuatoriano.
1866 José Garnelo y Alda, pintor español.
1865 Robert Henri US painter, leader of the Ashcan school. — Reproductions of paintings by HENRI ONLINE: Salome GregoritaSegovia GirlSmiling Tom
1864 Walther Hermann Nernst Prussian physical chemist (Nobel 1920)
^ 1857 Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du Mal is published
      One of the most influential French poets of all time, Charles Baudelaire publishes his book Les Fleurs du Mal, leading to his conviction on charges of blasphemy and obscenity. Baudelaire was born (09 April 1821) into great expectations, anticipating a large inheritance. He studied law until 1840 but abandoned it to become a poet. He led a wild and dissolute life in Paris, became a heavy user of opium and hashish, and contracted syphilis, which would kill him years later. He ran through half his inheritance in two years and was later put on a strict monthly allowance.
      In 1844, he met the beautiful Jeanne Duval, for whom he wrote his Black Venus cycle of love poems. He began writing reviews and criticism, and became friends with such artists as Manet, Delacroix, and Daumier. Baudelaire developed a strong taste for the macabre and discovered Edgar Allen Poe in 1852. His translations helped popularize Poe in France at a time when the writer was not widely read even in his own country.
      In 1852, Baudelaire wrote his second love-poem cycle, this time inspired by Apollonie-Aglae Sabatier, his White Venus, which was followed by a third cycle, inspired by his Green Eyed Venus, actress Marie Daubrun. He collected his poems in Les Fleurs du Mal. The poems used lyrical poetic style to describe sometimes revolting subjects. Une Charogne, for example, describes a festering corpse.
      Baudelaire, as well as the publisher and printer, were found guilty of obscenity and fined. The book went out of print, and it was only after Baudelaire's death that he was recognized as one of the country's greatest poets. Destitute, he went on a lecture tour to Belgium and fell seriously ill in 1866. He returned to Paris and died in his mother's arms on 31 August 1867, poor and unrecognized, with almost no poetry still in print.
    BAUDELAIRE ONLINE: Petits Poèmes en Prose (Le Spleen de Paris)
1708 Pompeo Girolamo Batoni, Italian Rococo era painter who died on 04 February 1787; specialized in Portraits. — MORE ON BATONI AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1704 Johann Georg Platzer (or Plazer), Austrian painter and draftsman who died on 10 December 1761. — MORE ON PLATZER AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
 
Holidays Gibraltar : Spring Bank Holiday / Mozambique : Independence Day (1975) / Virginia : Ratification Day (1788)
Religious Observances Christian : St Prosper / RC : St William, abbot / Luth : the Augsburg Confession / Luth : Philipp Melanchthon, renewer of the Church / Santos Guillermo, Máximo y Sosípatro; Santas Orosia y Eva.
From Maxim O'Ronn's Dixshunnary: “Microsoft Works”
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Thoughts for the day:
“The weed of crime bears bitter fruit.”
“It's a crime to make bears bitter by feeding them weeds instead of fruit.”
“Love is friendship that catches fire.” —
Emmy Letterer “Ann Landers”
“Hate is fiend ship that catches you in its fire.” —
Amy Cipherer in “Ander's Annals”
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