• Hitler invades USSR... • Appel du général de Gaulle... • Angolan cease fire... • Santa Anna dies... • Napoléon's final abdication... • Louis XVI arrêté à Varennes... • Galilée condamné par l'Inquisition... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Bataille de Morat... • Rough Riders land in Cuba... • Continental paper money...
a 22 June:
2004 The massif des “calanques” (deep creeks) of Cassis [town and calanques >], near Marseille, France, is reopened after being, on 20 and 21 June 2004 as well as for 10 days earlier in the month, closed to visitors who enjoyed its rocks and beaches. The public was terrorized (or entertained), since 01 June 2004, by repeated reports of sightings of a black panther. Searchers deployed to hunt it confirmed on 19 June that it was a small panther, but on 21 June, after more careful observation through binoculars, determined that it was an enormous house cat, estimated at 60 cm in length and 10 kg in weight, which they were unable to capture.
2000 Independent Counsel Robert Ray ended his investigation of the 1993 firings in the White House travel office, issuing no indictments but saying he'd found "substantial evidence" that First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton played a role in the dismissals."
1998 Online Privacy Alliance is founded
Newspapers report that some fifty large online retailers have banded together to form the Online Privacy Alliance. The group hoped to convince the government that online merchants could protect consumer privacy without government interference. The new association failed to say how the group would discipline members that did not adhere to its privacy principles.
1996 At their first summit in six years, Arab leaders meeting in Cairo, Egypt, urge Israel to prove its commitment to peace by resuming negotiations without delay.
1994 Rusia firma su adhesión a la Asociación para la Paz de la OTAN, como miembro número 21.
1992 El presidente de España, Felipe González designa a Javier Solana ministro de Asuntos Exteriores y a Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba ministro de Educación.
1990 Desmantelado el Checkpoint Charlie, el más conocido punto de cruce en el Muro de Berlín.
1991 Underwater volcano, Mount Didicas, erupts in Philippines
1990 Florida passes a law prohibits wearing nothing more than a thong bathing suit.
1989 Cease-fire established in Angolan
After nearly 15 years of civil war, opposing factions in Angola agree to a cease-fire to end a conflict that had claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The cease-fire also helped to defuse US-Soviet tensions concerning Angola. Angola was a former Portuguese colony that had attained independence in 1975. Even before that date, however, various factions had been jockeying for power. The two most important were the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which was favored by the United States, and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), which was supported by the Soviets. Once independence became a reality in November 1975, the two groups began a brutal contest for control, with the Soviet-supported MPLA eventually seizing control of the nation's capital. UNITA found support from Zaire and South Africa in the form of funds, weapons, and, in the case of South Africa, troops. The United States provided covert financial and arms support to both Zaire and South Africa to assist those nations' efforts in Angola. The Soviets responded with increasingly heavy support to the MPLA, and Cuba began to airlift troops in to help fight against UNITA. The African nation quickly became a Cold War hotspot. President Ronald Reagan began direct US support of UNITA during his term in office in the 1980s. Angola suffered through a debilitating civil war, with thousands of people killed. Hundreds of thousands more became refugees from the increasingly savage conflict. In 1988, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev set into motion a series of events that would lead to a cease-fire the following year. Gorbachev was desperately seeking to better Soviet relations with the United States and he was facing a Soviet economy that could no longer sustain the expenses of supporting far-flung "wars of national liberation" like in Angola. He therefore announced that the Soviet Union was cutting its aid to both the MPLA and Cuba. Cuba, which depended on the Soviet subsidy to maintain its troops in Angola, made the decision to withdraw, and its forces began to depart in early 1989. South Africa thereupon suspended its aid to UNITA. The United States continued its aid to UNITA, but at a much smaller level. UNITA and the MPLA, exhausted from nearly 15 years of conflict, agreed to talks in 1989. These resulted in a cease-fire in June of that year. It was a short-lived respite. In 1992, national elections resulted in an overwhelming victory for the MPLA, and UNITA went back on the warpath.
| 1986 El PSOE obtiene, por segunda vez consecutiva, la
mayoría absoluta en las elecciones legislativas y también consigue la mayoría
en las autonómicas de Andalucía.
1983 Emanuela Orlandi [14 Jan 1968–], is abducted from the Vatican, where she lived as a citizen (daughter of an employee of the gift shops). She would never be found. Yet, during subsequent decades, the news media would report unsubstanted rumors, for example that, in May 2004, Emanuela Orlandi had been found living in an apartment overlooking the Vatican, or linking the case to assassin Mehmet Ali Agca [09 Jan 1958~], or to mafioso Enrico “Renatino” De Pedis [15 May 1954 – 02 Feb 1990] and Archbishop Paul Marcinkus [15 Jan 1922 – 20 Feb 2006].(originated on 14 March 2008 by Sabrina Minardi [1959 or 1960~], who had been a mate of De Pedis), and Roberto Calvi [13 Apr 1920 – 17 Jun1982]. — (080816)
1981 Mark David Chapman [10 May 1955~] pleads guilty to killing rock star John Lennon [09 Oct 1940 – 08 Dec 1980]. —(080816)
1981 El Congreso español aprueba la ley del divorcio.
1977 Former AG John Mitchell starts 19 months in Alabama prison
1965 Guerra de Vietnam: primer ataque aéreo estadounidense al norte de Hanoi.
1961 En el Congo, el general Mobutu libera a Moshé Tshombe, que se compromete a poner fin a la secesión de Katanga.
1954 Congress passes revised organic act for Virgin Islands.
1952 Entra en vigor en Polonia una nueva Constitución, estalinista, según la cual se sustituye el oficio del presidente por el Consejo del Estado y el estado recibe el nuevo nombre de República Popular Polaca.
1944 Ofensiva soviética contra los ejércitos alemanes del Centro.
1944 FDR signs "GI Bill of Rights" (Servicemen's Readjustment Act)
1943 La aviación aliada bombardea Rotterdam (Holanda).
1941 Alors que les armées d'Hitler envahissent l'URSS, Pierre Laval, du gouvernement de Vichy, déclare: "Je souhaite la victoire de l'Allemagne parce que, sans elle, le bolchevisme demain s'installerait partout ".
1941 Germany invades the USSR
Operation Barbarossa begins with over 3 million German troops invading Russia in three parallel offensives, in what is the most powerful invasion force in history. Nineteen panzer divisions, 3000 tanks, 2500 aircraft, and 7000 artillery pieces pour across a 1600-km front as Hitler goes to war on a second front. Despite the fact that Germany and Russia had signed a "pact" in 1939, each guaranteeing the other a specific region of influence without interference from the other, suspicion remained high. When the Soviet Union invaded Rumania in 1940, Hitler saw a threat to his Balkan oil supply. He immediately responded by moving two armored and 10 infantry divisions into Poland, posing a counterthreat to Russia.
But what began as a defensive move turned into a plan for a German first-strike. Despite warnings from his advisers that Germany could not fight the war on two fronts (as Germany's experience in World War I proved), Hitler became convinced that England was holding out against German assaults, refusing to surrender, because it had struck a secret deal with Russia. Fearing he would be "strangled" from the East and the West, he created, in December 1940, "Directive No. 21: Case Barbarossa"--the plan to invade and occupy the very nation he had actually asked to join the Axis only a month before! On 22 June, 1941, having postponed the invasion of Russia after Italy's attack on Greece forced Hitler to bail out his struggling ally in order to keep the Allies from gaining a foothold in the Balkans, three German army groups struck Russia hard by surprise.
The Russian army was larger than German intelligence had anticipated, but they were demobilized. Stalin, unwisely believing that Hitler would never open another front until Britain was subdued, had shrugged off warnings from his own advisers, even Winston Churchill himself, that a German attack was imminent. (Although Hitler had signaled his territorial designs on Russia as early as 1925--in his autobiography, Mein Kampf.)
By the end of the first day of the invasion, the German air force had destroyed more than 1000 Soviet aircraft. And despite the toughness of the Russian troops, and the number of tanks and other armaments at their disposal, the Red Army was disorganized, enabling the Germans to penetrate up to 500 km into Russian territory within the next few days.
Aided by its greatly superior air force, the German Wehrmacht raced across the Russian plains, inflicting terrible casualties on the Red Army and the Soviet population. Aided by their Rumanian, Finnish, Hungarian, and Italian allies, the Germans conquered vast territory, and by mid-October, the great Russian cities of Leningrad and Moscow were under siege. However, like other great military leaders before him, Hitler failed to take into account the Russian people’s historic ability to resist the invader. Although millions of Soviet soldiers and citizens perished by the year’s end, and to the rest of the world it seemed certain that the USS.R would fall, the defiant Red Army and bitter Russian populace were steadily crushing Hitler’s hopes for a quick victory.
The German offensive against Moscow stalled only thirty kilometers from the Kremlin, Leningrad’s spirit of resistance remained unbroken, and Soviet industry--transported by train to the safety of the east--was carrying on oblivious of the war. Finally, what the Russians call “General Winter” rallied again to their cause, crippling the Germans’ ability to maneuver and decimating the ranks of the divisions ordered to hold their positions until the next summer offensive.
Hitler failed to learn a lesson from history. Exactly 129 years and one day before Operation Barbarossa, another "dictator" invaded Russia--making it all the way to the capital. But despite this early success, Napoléon would be beaten back to France--by Russian troops.
Les troupes allemandes pénétrent en Union soviétique sur un ordre de Hitler. Cette attaque surprise, dénommée «Barbarossa», survient juste un an après l'armistice entre la France et l'Allemagne. Désarçonné par la perfidie de son ancien allié, Staline sombre dans une dépression profonde. Le dictateur soviétique reste cloîtré dans sa datcha pendant plusieurs jours. Pendant ce temps, la Wehrmacht remporte des succès spectaculaires face à une Armée rouge démoralisée et décapitée par les purges staliniennes. Avec 3 millions d'hommes, 3.600 chars et 4.200 avions lancés vers l'est, les envahisseurs prennent Kiev sans coup férir et entament le siège de Léningrad (aujourd'hui Saint-Pétersbourg). Celui-ci durera 900 jours. Sur le terrain, la guerre se fait impitoyable. Les nazis maltraitent les prisonniers, multiplient les exécutions sommaires et, surtout, entament l'extermination des juifs. Mais la Wehrmacht est arrêtée par l'hiver avant d'avoir eu le temps d'atteindre Moscou. Pour la première fois depuis le début de la guerre, elle va céder du terrain devant l'ennemi. Dans le même temps, les Etats-Unis vont entrer dans le conflit suite à l'attaque japonaise sur Pearl Harbor. Ce sera le tournant de la deuxième guerre mondiale.
1941 Moscou tombe Hitler Le fürher a vu trop grand : abattre l’empire soviétique. C’est le principal objectif du dictateur depuis deux ans. Il s’y préparait depuis six ans, avant même le déclenchement de la guerre. Staline, qui était au pouvoir de la principale puissance communiste dans le monde, ne l’ignorait pas et s’y préparait lui aussi. Le pacte qu’il signa quelques mois auparavant avec Hitler n’avait pour objectif que de gagner du temps. Lorsque ce 22 juin 1941, le fürher décida d’attaquer l’URSS, c’est tout le pays qui l’attendait. Hitler fit pourtant les choses en grand : il déploya ses troupes sur un front de 4500 km. Cela permit aux militaires nazis d’entrer profondément en territoire soviétique et de s’y installer. Ils prennent Kiev et encerclent Leningrad. Et rien ne semble les arrêter : à Briansk et à Viazma, la Wehrmacht (l’armée allemande) avait vaincu neuf armées soviétiques et fait 673'000 prisonniers. En octobre 1941, elle s’approche dangereusement de Moscou et n’est plus qu’à une trentaine de kilomètres du Kremlin. Hitler va-t-il s’emparer de l’URSS ? La bataille de Moscou s’engage. Violente. Incertaine. Décisive. Hitler met tout son poids dans la bataille. Un allié d’envergure se présente alors aux Soviétiques : l’hiver, précoce cette année-là. Les chutes de neige, le sol impraticable et le froid empêchent la Wehrmacht de progresser sur un terrain transformé en marécage. L’infanterie sibérienne oppose une résistance farouche. L’armée allemande recule. C’est le moment que choisit le général Joukov pour organiser la défense de Moscou assiégée. Les choses s’inversent : les nazis en sont réduits à organiser seulement leur défense et renoncent à attaquer. Ils reculeront petit à petit, et rappelleront au monde cette autre retraite militaire d’une armée historique : celle de la Grande Armée de Napoléon, lui aussi vaincu par l’hiver Moscou. Hitler venait de subir sa première grande défaite. Le mythe du monstre tombait. Mais l’URSS a payé un prix élevé dans sa guerre contre le nazisme : 20 millions de morts.
| 1941 Using the opportunity of Hitler's invasion of
the USSR, Finland starts to retake Karelia (which the Soviet Union had taken
from it at the conclusion of the Winter War of 1939-1940)
1940 France falls to Nazi Germany; armistice signed, France disarmed Signature de l'armistice entre la France et l'Allemagne à Rethondes par général Huntziger pour la France et le général Keitel pour le Reich. Hitler a voulu que cette cérémonie se passe dans le wagon-salon où, à Rethondes, Foch a signé avec l'allemand Erzberger le 11 novembre 1918, pour effacer cette humiliation. La France est divisée entre une zone occupée et une zone libre. Elle doit, en outre, payer 400 millions de francs par jour pour l'entretien des troupes d'occupation.
| 1936 Virgin Islands receives a constitution from US
1934 Estados Unidos ingresa en la Organización Internacional del Trabajo.
1925 Acuerdo franco-español para una ofensiva común en Marruecos.
1918 I Guerra Mundial: la ofensiva alemana es detenida a 70 kilómetros de París por el general Mangin.
1912 Theodore Roosevelt and his supporters secede from the Republican Party, to form that will be the Progressive Party, thus ensuring the election, in November, of a Democrat, Woodrow Wilson..
1911 King George V of England crowned in Westminster.
1910 1st airship with passengers sets afloatZeppelin Deutschland
1873 Prince Edward Island joins Canada.
1870 US Congress creates Department of Justice.
1868 Arkansas re-enters US
1866 Alzamientos de militares y paisanos en Madrid contra el Gobierno de Isabel II presidido por O'Donnell, pronto sofocado por éste.
1864 Skirmish at Ream's Station, Virginia on Wilson's Raid
1864 Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road begins in Virginia
1864 Battle of Kolb's Farm (Culp's Farm), Georgia.
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1848 Barnburners (anti-slavery) party nominates Martin Van Buren for President
1847 Doughnut created
| 1808 Zebulon Pike reaches his peak
1807 British board USS Chesapeake, a provocation leading to War of 1812
1675 Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II.
1559 In England, Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book is issued. During her 45-year reign, Elizabeth I rejected the Catholic faith, adopting instead the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Anglican Church.
0816 Stephen IV begins his reign as Pope
0431 Council of Ephesus (3rd ecumenical council) opens.
2005 Daniel Agosto, 6; Jesstin Pagan, 5; and Anibal Cruz, 11; suffocated in the Cramer Hill neighborhood of Camden, New Jersey, at 17:30 (21:30 UT) in the trunk of an old car into which they had climbed while playing, and which there was no way of opening after the cover fell shut. An extensive search is conducted for the boys, until their corpses are discovered two days later.
2005 The pilot of a U2 plane of the US 380th Air Expeditionary Wing, which, having completed its spying mission in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, crashes at 06:30 (02:30 UT) on its landing approach to its base at al-Dhafra near Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The U2 is very difficult to land. Some news stories repeat that the U-2 is capable of taking images in which an apple can be distinguished from an orange. But no one mentions what military value that has, or under the appearance of which fruit (instead of the etymological pomegranates) unlawful enemy combatants are more likely to disguise their hand grenades. Presumably that is top secret information, as is also whether the US military is reconsidering its shoot-first-ask-questions-later policy in the light of its inability to distinguish terrorists planting an improvised explosive device from a two-year-old playing in front of her home, or a humanitarian aid worker making a cell phone call from a jihadist readying a shoulder-fired missile, or a freed hostage on her way to the airport from a suicide car bomber, or allied troops on a night exercise from insurgents attacking a US base.
2005 Jassim al-Issawi, 51, and his son, shot by terrorists in the Shula neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq. Jassim al-Issawi, a judge, law professor at Baghdad University, and contributing editor of Al-Siyadah newspaper, was briefly on a list of Sunni Arabs seeking to join a parliamentary committee drafting Iraq’s new constitution.
2005 Two Iraqi policemen, by a roadside bomb in Madain, Iraq. Two other policemen in the same patrol are wounded.
2005 An Iraqi boy, 9, in a group of children on bicycles who run over a terrorist bomb buried east of Baqouba, Iraq. Two children, aged 6 and 7, are wounded.
2005 An Iraqi civilian, by a roadside bomb meant for a US military convoy. three others west of Ramadi, Iraq. Three other civilians are wounded.
2004 Spc. Patrick R. McCaffrey Sr., 34, and 1st Lt. Andre D. Tyson, 33, of the California National Guard, on patrol near Balad, Iraq, with Iraqi civil-defense trainees, two of whom shoot them. Until forced to admit the truth on 21 June 2006 by the intervention of US Senator Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.), the US military would lie that McCaffrey and Tyson were killed in an insurgent ambush. — (060622)
2004 Acting Ingush Interior Minister Abukar Kostoyev; and the health minister, and a deputy interior minister of Ingushetia; Nazran city prosecutor Mukharbek Buzurtanov; Nazran district prosecutor Bilan Oziyev; 42 other law enforcement officials and officers; humanitarian worker Magomed Getagazov; 2 attackers; and a few others; in attacks started the previous day at 23:45 by some 100 independentist Chechen fighters, mainly against the Ingush Interior Ministry but also against other government agencies in Nazran (the capital), and against border posts in the villages Karabulak and Yandare.
2003 One US soldier after a grenade attack on a military convoy, in Khan Azad, Iraq, 20 km south of Baghdad. The other wounded US soldier survives.
2002 Some 250 persons in earthquake of magnitude 6.3 with epicenter 10 km deep at 35º40'N 48º56' near the town of Bou'in-Zahra in Qazvin province, Iran, at 02:58 UT (07:28 local). Some 1300 are injured. The quake hits the northern, central and western provinces of Gilan, Tehran, Kurdestan, Qazvin, Zanjan and Hamedan and is followed by several aftershocks.
2002 Eppie Lederer, Ann Landers advice columnist, of multiple myeloma. Daughter of a Jewish immigrant from Vladivostok, she was born Esther Pauline Friedman on 04 July 1918, 17 minutes before her twin Pauline Popo Friedman, who who became Mrs. Phillips and advice columnist Abigail Van Buren Dear Abby at the San Francisco Chronicle. Popo was folloying the lead of Eppie who, in 1955 after the death of Ruth Crowler, writer of The Chicago Sun-Times advice column Ask Ann Landers had taken her place (in 1987 she switched to the Chicago Tribune). Owning the rights to the name, Ann Landers (Lederer) provided that she would not have a successor.
2001 Two Israeli soldiers and Palestinian suicide bomber Ismail Maoussabie, 27, of the Hamas organization, who had phoned to them for help from his explosive laden car, near the Jewish enclave settlement of Dugit in the northern Gaza Strip.
2001 Michael D. Kelly, 23, hangs himself with a 6-meter noose from a 60-meter construction crane in Atlanta, Georgia, at about 02:50. Kelly, deranged, had been on the crane since before 06:00 on 21 June, observed by police.
2000 Gary Graham, by lethal injection, for the 1981 killing of a man in a holdup outside a Houston supermarket; Graham insists to the end that he is innocent.
1995 Yves Marie-Joseph Congar, cardenal francés.
1974 Darius Milhaud, 81, in Geneva,. a principal French composer of the 20th century known especially for his development of polytonality.
1917 Kristian Peter Henrik Zahrtmann, Danish painter born on 31 March 1843. — more with link to an image.
1906 Fritz Shaudinn, Zoólogo y bacteriólogo alemán.
1892 Pierre Ossian Bonnet, French mathematician born on 22 December 1819.
1884 William Henry Haines, British artist born on 25 December 1812.
1865 Ángel de Saavedra Ramírez de Baquedano, duque de Rivas, escritor español.
1850 Vicente López Portaña, pintor español.
1845 Joseph Moessmer, Austrian artist born on 20 March 1780.
1813 Anton Graff van Dyck of Germany, Swiss German painter specialized in portraits, born on 18 November 1736. MORE ON GRAFF AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1646 Daniel Dumonstier (or du Monstier; Dumontier; Dumoustier; du Moustier), French portrait painter and draftsman baptized as an infant on 11 May 1574. more
1627 Les comtes de Montmorency-Bouteville et de Chapelles, exécutés en place de Grève.
1947 Jerry John Rawlings, presidente de Ghana.
1946 Józef Oleksy, político polaco.
1945 Pere Gimferrer, escritor y académico español.
1936 Juan José Alonso Millán, comediógrafo español.
1930 Francisco Fernández Ordóñez, político español.
1911 Émile Grau-Sala, Catalan French painter who died on 21 June 1975.. — links to two images.
1898 Erich Maria Remarque novelist (All Quiet on the Western Front)
1887 Sir Julian Huxley London, biologist/philosopher, Darwin's Bulldog.
1869 William McGregor Paxton, US artist who died in 1941.
1864 Hermann Minkowski, Lithuania-born German mathematician who died on 12 January 1909. He developed a new view of space and time and laid the mathematical foundation of the theory of relativity.
1861 Conde Von Spee, Maximilian, marino y estratega alemán.
1860 Mario Pieri, Lucca Italian mathematician who died on 01 March 1913.
1858 Giacomo Puccini Italy, operatic composer (Madama Butterfly)
1857 Max Gaisser, German artist who died in 1922.
1856 H Rider Haggard author (King Solomon's Mine, She)
1845 Richard John Seddon, político y abogado británico.
1837 Paul Morphy New Orleans, greatest chess player of his time (1857-1861), some say of all time
1837 Paul Gustav Heinrich Bachmann, German mathematician who died on 31 March 1920. His most important work is a complete survey of number theory giving both the results and an evaluation of the methods of proof: Zahlentheorie. Versuch einer Gesamtdarstellung dieser Wissenschaft in ihren Hauptteilen (5 volumes, 1892-1923). Other major works includeNiedere Zahlentheorie (2 volumes, 1902, 1910), Das Fermat-Problem in seiner bisherigan Entwicklung (1919).
1805 Giuseppe Mazzani, patriote écrivain italien, farouche partisan de l'unité italienne et de la libération de l'Italie du joug autrichien. En 1848, après la fuite du pape de Rome, Mazzani fait parti du triumvirat romain. Obligé de s'enfuir en Suisse, puis en Angleterre, il ne cesse pas de lutter pour l'unité de son pays.
1757 George Vancouver, who would survey the Pacific coast from San Francisco to Vancouver Island.
1636 Jan van de Venne, Dutch artist who died after 1672.