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Events, deaths, births, of 21 JUN
v.7.50
[For events of Jun 21 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 011700s: Jul 021800s: Jul 031900~2099: Jul 04]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” JUN 21   wikipedia
• Civil rights investigators disappear... • Benazir Bhutto is born...• France withdraws navy from Nato... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Pope Paul VI... • Amerindians kill Mormon soldier... • Peninsular war ends... • US Constitution is ratified... • French navy quits NATO..
DOX 4-year price chart^  On a 21 June:
2003 In Peekskill NY, late in the day, Willie Williams barges into his ex-mate's 7th-story apartment intending to persuade her to get back together with him. They argue and Williams dangles their 10-month-old baby daughter out a window. The mother calls 911 and Williams drops the girl. “Oh, my God!” the mother tells the 911 operator, “He killed my baby.” The infant survives the 24-meter fall, crashing through several tree branches before landing on the ground with only cuts and bruises. Williams then leaves the apartment, picks up the baby and drives her to a nearby hospital. Williams would be arrested on 23 June 2003, charged with attempted murder, assault, and unlawful imprisonment.
2002 The stock of computer software and programming company Amdocs Limited (DOX) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from “Long Term Buy” to “Long Term Neutral”, by JP Morgan from “Long Term Buy” to “Market Perform”, by Robertson Stephens and by Deutsche Securities from “Buy” to “Market Perform”, by USB Piper Jaffray from “Outperform” to “Market Perform”, by Legg Mason from “Buy” to “Hold”, by Salomon Smith Barney from “Buy” to “Neutral”, by Janney Montgomery Scott from “Buy” to “Sell”, by CSFB from “Strong Buy” to “Buy”. From the previous close of $14.56 DOX drops to an intraday low of $8.50 and closes at $8.76. Its previous all-time low was $8.50 on 31 Aug 1998, not long after its start on 22 June 1998 at $14. But then it had surged to $89.75 by 20 March 2000. [4-year price chart >]
2001 Total solar eclipse of 4m57s visible first in South Atlantic, then it hits land in Angola at 12:38 UT, and travels across Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Madagascar, getting shorter along the way.
2000 North Korea promised to refrain from long-range missile tests after the United States lifted some economic sanctions against it.
1997 Free speech protected on Web
      Judges in New York and Georgia overturn state laws banning indecent and anonymous speech online. The cases foreshadow the pending Supreme Court case that challenges the constitutionality of the Communications Decency Act, which made it a crime to provide pornography to minors on the Web.
1996 European leaders agreed to gradually lift a global ban on British beef exports imposed nearly three months earlier following a scare over "mad cow" disease.
^ 1994 Test version of Windows 95 is shipped
      Microsoft ships a test version of Windows 95, code named "Chicago," for user testing by some twenty thousand customers. Further refinements of the program would keep it under development for another year.
1993 El Estado español adquiere la colección Thyssen de pintura por 350 millones de dólares.
1992 Primeras elecciones generales democráticas en Etiopía, en las que 33 millones de ciudadanos votaron un Gobierno de corte federal.
1991 Narasimha Rao, investido primer ministro de India, forma un Gobierno de catorce ministros.
1991 Congress requires Caller ID blocking
      Panels in the House and Senate passed bills requiring phone companies to offer customers a way to block Caller ID systems from identifying and displaying their phone numbers. Requiring the phone company to provide such blocking services for free, the bills sought to protect consumer privacy from telemarketers who used Caller ID to capture information about callers and enhance their mailing lists.
1990 US House of Reps vote 254-177 to stop US flag burning, doesn't pass
1989 The US Supreme Court rules that burning the US flag as a form of political protest is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution.
1985 American, Brazilian and West German forensic pathologists confirm that skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil were Nazi Dr Josef Mengele
1983 España ingresa en el Centro Europeo de Investigación Nuclear.
^ 1982 Hinckley Not Guilty, by reason of insanity
      John W. Hinckley, Jr., who, on 30 March 1981, shot President Ronald Reagan and three others outside a Washington, D.C., hotel, is found not guilty of attempted murder, by reason of insanity. Hinckley’s defense attorneys had argued that their client was schizophrenic, citing medical evidence, and also claimed that he had a pathological obsession with the 1976 film Taxi Driver, in which the main character attempts to assassinate a fictional senator. His attorneys argued that Hinckley saw the movie over a dozen times, was obsessed with the lead actress, Jodie Foster, and had attempted to reenact the events of the film in his own life. Thus the movie, not Hinckley, they argued, was the actual planning force behind the events that occurred on 30 March 1980.
     On that day, in front of the Washington Hilton, Hinckley had fired six shots toward the president, felling Reagan and three of his attendants, including Press Secretary James Brady, who was shot in the head and suffered permanent brain damage. The president was shot in the left lung, and the .22-caliber bullet just missed his heart. However, he recovered quickly and completely, and two weeks later returned to the White House.
      Hinckley was immediately arrested and booked. The verdict eventually pronounced against him, “not guilty by reason of insanity,” aroused widespread public criticism, and many were shocked that a would-be presidential assassin could avoid been held accountable for his criminal actions. However, because of his obvious threat to society, he was placed in a high security mental hospital. In the late 1990s, Hinckley attorney began arguing that his mental illness was in remission, and thus he had he a right to return to a normal life, but under the recommendation of a judge he remained isolated and under tight security.
1981 12-bottle case of 1979 Napamedoc Cabernet wine auctioned for $24'000
1978 Comienza en Madrid el primer congreso de Comisiones Obreras.
1977 Former White House chief of staff HR Haldeman enters prison.
1977 Menachem Begin (Likud), becomes Israel's 6th PM
1973 The US Supreme Court ruled that states may ban materials found to be obscene according to local standards.
1969 Pompidou président Après son élection facile (presque 58 % contre un peu plus de 42 % à Alain Poher), Georges Pompidou entre en fonction.
1968 Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren resigns
^ 1966 Bombing of North Vietnam continue
      US planes strike North Vietnamese petroleum-storage facilities in a series of devastating raids. These missions were part of Operation Rolling Thunder, which had been launched in March 1965 after President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered a sustained bombing campaign of North Vietnam. The operation was designed to interdict North Vietnamese transportation routes in the southern part of North Vietnam and to slow infiltration of personnel and supplies into South Vietnam. During the early months of this campaign, there were restrictions against striking targets in or near Hanoi and Haiphong. In 1966, however, Rolling Thunder was expanded to include the bombing of North Vietnamese ammunition dumps and oil storage facilities. In the spring of 1967, it was further expanded to include power plants, factories, and airfields in the Hanoi and Haiphong area. The White House closely controlled operation Rolling Thunder and at times President Johnson personally selected targets. From 1965 to 1968, about 643,000 tons of bombs were dropped on North Vietnam. The operation continued, with occasional suspensions, until President Johnson halted it on 31 October 1968, under increasing domestic political pressure.
^ 1963 French withdraw navy from NATO
      The French government shocks its allies by announcing that it is withdrawing its navy from the North Atlantic fleet of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The French action was viewed in the West as evidence that France would be pursuing an independent policy regarding its nuclear arsenal. In the months prior to the French action, the United States had been pushing its NATO allies to accept a plan whereby the NATO North Atlantic fleet would be armed with Polaris nuclear missiles. The ships would have crews made up of personnel from various NATO nations. This plan, however, conflicted with a French plan to base much of their nation's nuclear arsenal in their navy. Obviously, France wished to maintain absolute control over its ships to carry out this program. Thus, French President Charles de Gaulle's government issued a brief statement indicating that the French ships in the NATO North Atlantic fleet were being withdrawn.
      Many NATO members expressed surprise over the French action. In the United States, surprise was also mixed with dismay and no small degree of anger. The French announcement came just as President John F. Kennedy was preparing to go to Europe for a series of talks with America's allies. Privately, some Kennedy advisors were quite vocal in condemning de Gaulle's highly nationalistic independence in moving away from his nation's NATO commitments, thereby threatening the security of France's European allies. And, although the French withdrawal from the NATO North Atlantic fleet did not drastically affect the fleet's military effectiveness, the United States worried that France's action might set a disturbing precedent. NATO was still considered by US officials as the first line of defense against communist aggression in Europe, and France's "defection" was distressing. Kennedy, during his European sojourn, attempted to persuade the French to rethink their position, but de Gaulle stood firm in his decision. America's fears were unrealized, however, as no other nations followed France's example. French naval forces never rejoined the NATO fleet.
^ 1963 In Rome, Italian Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini is elected Pope Paul VI.
     He becomes the 261st pontiff of the Catholic Church, succeeding John XXIII
     Le Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini succède à Jean XXXIII, à l’âge de 65 ans. Il règnera 15 ans durant. L’image de Paul VI restera liée aux voyages qu’il a entrepris. La plupart d’entre eux furent spectaculaires et tous avaient une portée symbolique : - Le voyage à Jérusalem et le baiser de paix au patriarche Athénagoras sur le mont des Oliviers (1969) - Bombay et l’attention portée à la fois au tiers monde et aux religions non chrétiennes (1964) - New York et le discours à l’ONU (1965), - Fatima (1967), Istanbul et Éphèse (1967), - Bogotá et le message à l’Amérique latine (1968) - Genève et la visite aux Organisations internationales du travail, ainsi qu’au Conseil œcuménique des Églises (1969) - Ouganda et le message à l’Afrique (1969) - l’Extrême-Orient avec 48'850 kilomètres de parcours et des escales dans huit pays (1970)
      Le contraste est saisissant entre cette aptitude à poser des gestes symboliques et la difficulté qu’éprouva Paul VI à se faire entendre par l’ensemble des catholiques et par l’ensemble des peuples. Il avait choisi la voie officielle, la voie dilomatique et c’est peut-être trop éloigné du peuple. Mais par contre il se battit toute sa vie pour que a paix dans le Tiers-Monde soit garante de plus de Justice.
Some Writings and Addresses of Paul VI
  • Ecclesiam Suam — On the Church (06 Aug 1964)
  • Mense Maio — On Praying to Mary During May (30 Apr 1965)
  • Mysterium Fidei — On the Holy Eurcharist (03 Sep 1965)
  • Address to the last meeting of the Second Vatican Council — (1965)
  • Christi Matri — On Prayers to Mary for Peace (15 Sep 1966)
  • Populorum Progressio — On the Development of Peoples (26 Mar 1967)
  • Signum Magnum — On Our Lady (1967)
  • Sacerdotalis Caelibatus — On the Celibacy of the Priest (24 Jun 1967)
  • Indulgentiarum Doctrina — Apostolic Constitution on Indulgences (1 Jan 1967)
  • Humanae Vitae — On the Regulation of Birth (25 Jul 1968)
  • Credo of the People of God — (03 Jun 1968)
  • Apostolic Constitution on the Sacrament of Anointing the Sick — (30 Nov 1972)
  • Marialis Cultus — On Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary (02 Feb 1974)
  • Evangelii Nuntiandi — On Evangeliation in the Modern World (08 Dec 1975)
  • ^ 1956 Arthur Miller refuses to name communists
          Playwright Arthur Miller defies the House Committee on Un-American Activities and refuses to name suspected communists. Miller's defiance of McCarthyism won him a conviction for contempt of court, which was later reversed by the Supreme Court. His passport had already been denied when he tried to go to Brussels to attend the premiere of his play The Crucible, about the Salem witch trials.
          Miller was born in 1915 to a well-off German-Jewish family with a prosperous clothing store. However, the store went bankrupt after the stock market crash in 1929, and the family moved to Brooklyn. Miller finished high school at 16 and decided to become a writer after reading Dostoyevsky's The Brothers Karamazov. Miller worked for two years in an automobile-parts warehouse before he attended the University of Michigan, where he studied journalism and playwriting. His student plays, largely studies of Jewish families, won awards.
          His first literary success was a novel called Focus (1945), about anti-Semitism. His first hit Broadway play, All My Sons, was produced in 1947. In 1949, Death of a Salesman was produced and won a Pulitzer Prize. In 1956, Miller divorced his first wife and married glamorous movie star Marilyn Monroe. The couple remained married until 1961, the same year she starred in the movie he wrote for her, The Misfits. In 1962, he married his third wife, photographer Ingeborg Morath, and continued to write hit plays.
    ^ 1948 First computer with stored memory
         A tiny experimental computer, lacking a keyboard or printer, successfully tests a memory system developed at Manchester University in England. The system, based on a cathode-ray tube, could store programs, whereas previous electronic computers had to be rewired to execute each new type of problem. The Manchester computer proved theories set forth by John von Neumann in a report that proposed modifications to ENIAC, the electronic computer built at the University of Pennsylvania in the mid-1940s. The report also proposed the use of binary instead of decimal numbers.
    1948 Dr Peter Goldmark of CBS demonstrates "long playing record" Columbia commits to 33 1/3 rpm records, plans to phase out 78's
    1945 Japanese forces on Okinawa surrender to US during WW II US soldiers on Okinawa found the body of the Japanese commander, Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, who had committed suicide
    1943 Arrestation de Jean Moulin Le chef du Conseil national de la Résistance, Jean Moulin, trahi, est arrêté à Caluire dans la banlieue de Lyon, le lendemain de son 44ème anniversaire. Le nazi Klaus Barbie commence àl'interroger. Quelques jours plus tard, le 08 Jul, à Metz, dans le train qui part pour un camp de la mort dans lequel on a déposé son corps torturé, Jean Moulin meurt.
    1942 54ºC, Tirat Zevi, Israel (Asian record)
    ^ 1942 Tobruk surrenders to Rommel
          General Erwin Rommel turns his assault on the British-Allied garrison at Tobruk, Libya, into victory, as his panzer division occupies the North African port. Britain had established control of Tobruk after routing the Italians in 1940. But the Germans attempted to win it back by reinforcing Italian troops with the Afrika Korps of Erwin Rommel, who continually charged the British Eighth Army in battles around Tobruk, finally forcing the Brits to retreat into Egypt. All that was left to take back the port was the garrison now manned by the South African Division, which also included the Eleventh Indian Brigade.
          With the use of artillery, dive-bombers, and his panzer forces, Rommel pushes past the Allies. Unable to resist any longer, South African General Henrik Klopper orderes his officers to surrender early on the morning of the 21st. Rommel takos more than 30'000 prisoners, 2000 vehicles, 2000 tons of fuel, and 5000 tons of rations. Adolf Hitler would award Rommel the field marshal's baton as reward for his victory. "I am going on to Suez," is Rommel's promise, which he would not be able to keep.
    ^ 1941 Hitler attaque l'U.R.S.S.
         Bien que l’U.R.S.S. exécute scrupuleusement, au bénéfice de l’Allemagne, les clauses économiques du pacte germano-russe, Hitler a décidé de la bouter hors de l’Europe avant de se retourner vers la Grande-Bretagne pour l’explication finale. Le 21 juin 1941, sans déclaration de guerre, la Wehrmacht attaque l’Armée Rouge. Hitler espère ainsi donner à l’Allemagne, comme il l’a écrit dans Mein Kampf, son " espace vital " dans la direction tracée autrefois par les chevaliers Teutoniques. Il désire enfin s’assurer les matières premières et les produits alimentaires – pétrole et blé – qui manquent par nature à l’économie allemande. Malgré des succès significatifs, il ne peut terminer la guerre-éclair, comme en 40 en France et en Belgique. Il doit prendre les quartiers d’hiver. Et le terrible hiver russe aura raison de son armée, comme de celle de Napoléon.
    1940 L'héroïque résistance des 2000 cadets de Saumur, commencée le 18, atteint à sa fin ce jour-même. — A Rethondes, Hitler reçoit les plénipotentiaires français.
    1940 Armistice entre la France et l’Allemagne. A la demande express d’Hitler, il sera signé dans le wagon même qui a servi à signer le 11 Novembre 1918 l’Armistice entre les Alliés et l’Allemagne vaincue. C’est symbolique dans l’esprit d’Hitler qui voulait prendre sa revanche d’une défaite qu’il jugeait honteuse et surtout des conditions inégales.
    1940 II Guerra Mundial. El Gobierno del general Pétain autoriza a deponer las armas al jefe de los ejércitos franceses del Este, al estar cercados por seis divisiones y dos mil carros blindados alemanes.
    1940 Formación de un Gobierno polaco en el exilio en Londres.
    1939 Doctors reveal Lou Gehrig has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    1937 Le Sénat a refusé à Léon Blum, président du Conseil du Front populaire, les pleins pouvoirs économiques. Blum n'a d'autres choix que de démissionner. —  En Francia, dimite el Gobierno del Frente Popular presidido por León Blum.
    1933 Hitler prohibe el Partido Socialdemócrata en Alemania.
    1923 Marcus Garvey sentenced to 5 years for using the mail to defraud
    1919 Germans scuttle their own fleet — Los alemanes hunden setenta barcos de guerra de su flota fondeada en Scapa Flow (islas Órcadas) para no entregarlos a los ingleses, en lo que supone una violación flagrante de las condiciones del armisticio.
    1908: 250'000 mujeres se reúnen en Hyde Park (Londres) para reclamar su derecho al voto.
    1906 El Senado estadounidense decide la construcción del Canal de Panamá con esclusas.
    1903 Sherlock Holmes Adventure of The Mazarine Stone takes place
    1894 Workers in Pittsburgh strike Pullman sleeping car company
    1879 F W Woolworth opens first store (failed almost immediately)
    ^ 1871 Bartholdi imagine la Statue de la Liberté
         Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, artiste sculpteur, né le 02 Apr 1834 à Colmar, s’engage dans la Garde Nationale lors des événements de la Commune et de la prise de Paris (1870). Il est déjà célèbre pour de multiples œuvres, dont la très belle statue de Vercingétorix à Clermont-Ferrand.
          Il se rend à New-York. Et c’est le 21 Juin 1871, en entrant dans cette baie de l’Hudson qu’il imagine " La Liberté éclairant le monde ". Il faudra cependant plusieurs années pour qu’un Comité de l’union franco-américaine, sous la présidence d’Édouard de Laboulaye, puisse recueillir, par souscriptions et manifestations mondaines, les fonds nécessaires à la colossale entreprise.
          Bartholdi découvre le modèle espéré en Jeanne-Émilie Baheux de Puysieux qu’il épousera, mais il prête à la Liberté le visage grave de sa mère. Il conçoit une statue ayant 33 mètres de haut, la plus grande du monde, exécutée en plaques de cuivre martelées et rivées, soutenues par une armature de fer très savamment calculée par Gustave Eiffel pour résister aux vents les plus forts.
          Le bras de la statue, tenant le flambeau, est envoyé, en 1876, à l’exposition de Philadelphie où il déchaîne tantôt l’enthousiasme tantôt la suspicion et les moqueries des Américains qui doutent que l’œuvre soit jamais réalisée en son entier. Elle devait l’être assez rapidement. Dressée dans la rade, elle est offerte officiellement par la France le 04 Jul 1884. Sa célébrité est universelle, et peu d’œuvres sont autant reproduites (réduction en cuivre martelé, sur le pont de Grenelle à Paris) et prises à parti dans les dessins humoristiques des journaux et sur les affiches politiques ou publicitaires.
         The Statue of Liberty is Bartholdi's best-known work, but his masterpiece is the "Lion de Belfort" (completed 1880), which is carved out of the red sandstone of a hill that towers over the city of Belfort in eastern France. Bartholdi died 04 October 1904, in Paris.
    1867 La Cámara Portuguesa vota la abolición de la pena de muerte por delitos civiles.
    1864 Christopher Memminger resigns as Confederate Secretary of the Treasury
    ^ 1864 Grant extends the Petersburg line
          Union General Ulysses S. Grant stretches his lines further around Petersburg, Virginia, accompanied by his commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln. After six weeks of heavy fighting between his Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in a series of battles around Richmond, Grant chose a different strategy. Now south of Richmond, outside of Petersburg, he was no longer willing to wage the destructive open-field battles that had lost so many lives. Grant was content to starve out Lee and his men. After the disastrous attack at Cold Harbor, he pulled further south in an attempt to sever Confederate supply lines at the rail center at Petersburg. On 21 June, Grant moved closer to a siege when he sent his Second and Sixth Corps to extend the left flank of his position. The goal was to take control of the Weldon Railroad, which ran into Petersburg from the south, and run the Union line to the Appomattox River. This would complete a semicircle around the city and effectively bottle Petersburg and Richmond. The Confederates, however, halted this attempt the next day and saved a vital lifeline into Petersburg.
    1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
    1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
    1858 Louisiana chess prodigy Paul Morphy arrives in Europe
    1837 Proclamación de Victoria I como reina de Gran Bretaña.
    1815 L'empereur Napoléon rentre à Paris, crotté et épuisé. " Il y avait trois jours que je ne mangeais pas ! J'étais très fatigué. En arrivant, je me suis jeté au bain et j'ai mangé. " Les vivats et les applaudissements des Parisiens ne lui laissent cependant aucune illusion. Au soir, il écrit à la fin d'un message à la Chambre des représentants : "Ma vie politique est terminée. "
    1814 Fernando VII restablece la Inquisición en España.
    ^ 1813 Peninsular War ends
          At Vitoria, Spain a massive allied British, Portuguese, and Spanish force under British General Arthur Wellesley defeats the French under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean Jourdan, effectively ending the Peninsula War. The Spanish phase of the Peninsular War had begun on 16 February 1808, when Napoléon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal. Over the next few weeks, the invading French troops captured Pamplona and Barcelona, and on 23 March, four days after a palace coup deposed King Charles IV of Spain, they entered Madrid under Joachim Murat.
          Charles and the new Spanish king, Ferdinand VII, were subsequently called to Bayonne, France, by Napoléon, and in early May, were forced to abdicate in favor of Napoléon’s brother, Joseph. Meanwhile, a bloody uprising broke out against the French in Madrid, and Murat brutally suppressed the Spanish rebels. On 15 June, Joseph Napoléon was proclaimed king of Spain, leading to a general anti-French revolt across the Iberian Peninsula.
          In August, a British expeditionary force under Arthur Wellesley, later the Duke of Wellington, landed on the Portuguese coast and by mid 1809 it had driven the French out of the country. Thus began a long series of seesaw campaigns between the French and British in Spain, where the British were aided by small bands of Spanish irregulars, known as guerillas. Finally, on 21 June, 1813, 80'000 allied troops under Wellesley routed the 66'000-man army of Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdan at Vitoria, 280 km northeast of Madrid. By October, the Iberian Peninsula was liberated, and Wellesley launched an invasion of France. The allies had penetrated France as far as Toulouse when news of Napoléon’s abdication reached them in April of 1814, ending their advance towards Paris.
         En Vitoria el ejército francés es derrotado y expulsado definitivamente de España, lo que supuso el fin de la Guerra de Independencia española.
    1808 Guerra española de la Independencia. La Junta de Asturias firma la paz con Inglaterra, ante la actitud de ésta de luchar al lado de España contra Napoleón.
    1795 (03 messidor an III) TAILLART Antoine, domicilié à Paris, perruquier, est condamné à la déportation,par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos incendiaire, en disant que Robespierre et la commune de Paris, du 9 thermidor avaient été sacrifiés, que Louis XVI, sous son régime, n'avait jamais tant fait de mal que les députés de la Convention en un seul jour; et de s'être montré participant de la révolte contre la Convention le 4 prairial an 3
    ^ 1788 US Constitution is ratified
          New Hampshire became the ninth and last necessary state to ratify the new Constitution of the United States, thereby making the document the law of the land. In 1786, defects in the post-Revolutionary Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce. Congress endorsed a plan to draft a new constitution, and on 25 May 1787, the Constitutional Convention began its proceedings at Independence Hall.
          On 17 September 1787, after three months of debate moderated by convention president George Washington, the new US constitution, which created a strong federal government with an intricate system of checks and balances, was signed by thirty-eight of the forty-one delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine out of the thirteen states. Beginning on 07 December, five states — Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut — ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document as it failed to reserve powers not delegated by the Constitution to the states, unless specifically prohibited, and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press, and the right to bear arms.
          In February of 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On 21 June, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on 04 March 1789. At the first session of the US Congress, held in New York City on the appointed day, only nine of twenty-two senators and thirteen of fifty-nine representatives showed up to begin negotiations for the Constitution's amendment. Six months later, the first Congress of the United States adopted twelve amendments to the US Constitution — the Bill of Rights — and sent them to the states for ratification. This action led to the eventual ratification of the Constitution by the last of the thirteen original colonies: North Carolina and Rhode Island.
    1666 Pose de la première pierre de la cathédrale Saint Paul, à Londres Elle est bâtit sur l'emplacement où se trouvait un temple dédié à Diane. Les plans de la cathédrale, durement touchée par les bombes durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, sont dus à l'architecte Wren, inhumé dans la crypte de l'édifice.
    1633 Galileo Galilei [15 Feb 1564 – 08 Jan 1642] is forced by Inquisition to "abjure, curse, and detest" his Copernican heliocentric views.
    1498 Jews are expelled from Nurenberg, Bavaria, by Emperor Maximillian
    0431 Début du Concile d’Ephèse. Fixé pour le 07 Jun, il ne commence que le 21, alors que manquent encore quelques évêques africains et romains.
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    < 20 Jun 22 Jun >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 21 June:

    2006 Special Agent William "Buddy" Sentner, 44, of the U.S. Justice Department's Office of the Inspector General, and Ralph Hill, 43, a guard at the federal women's prison in Tallahassee, Florida, who shoots Sentner and is then shot by the other special agents who had come to arrest Hill together with five other guards: Hill, Alfred Barnes, Gregory Dixon, Alan Moore, and E. Lavon Spence indicted on charges of having sex with eight prisoners in exchange for contraband (such as drugs, alcohol, money); and Vincent Johnson, charged with silencing two prisoner victims by intimidation, showing them a computer system that tracked inmates in the prison. — (060622)
    2006 Khamis al-Obeidi, a lawyer for Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937~] (since 19 October 2005 on trial for mass murders), abducted at 07:00 from his home in Baghdad, Iraq, by men wearing police uniforms, and shot at 07:50 (03:50 UT). — (060621)
    2005 Train driver Leonid Turek, 49; truck driver Leonid Galinski, 51; passengers Rabbi Yoseph Derner, 56; First Sgt. Major Nir Sarusi, 33; Olga Akanayev, 20; woman Sgt. Adi Amono, 19; and two other passengers of a Tel Aviv to Be'er Sheva train which crashes into a 40-ton coal truck at 15:30 (12:30 UT) at an unguarded crossing near Kibbutz Revadim, Israel. Some 200 persons are injured. — (060618)
    2005 George Hawi (or Georges Haoui) [1938–], former head (1979-1993) of the Lebanese Communist Party, at 09:30 (06:30 UT), killed by a remote-control bomb under the front passenger seat of his car, in Beirut. His driver survives with light injuries. Syrian agents are suspected of the crime. Hawi had turned against the Syrian occupiers after the assassination of Rafik Hariri [01 Nov 1944 – 14 Feb 2005].
    Cardinal Sin^ 2005 Cardinal Jaime Lachica Sin.
    [< photo]
          He was born on 31 August 1928, the 14th of the 16 children in an ethnic Chinese family in the Philippines. He was ordained a priest on 03 April 1954 and consecrated as an auxiliary bishop for the Jaro diocese on 18 March 1967. He succeeded as archbishop of Jaro on 08 October 1972, and was appointed archbishop of Manila on 21 January 1974. Pope Paul VI [26 Sep 1897 – 06 Aug 1978] made him a cardinal on 24 May 1976. Sin retired as Manila's archbishop on 15 September 2003, suffering from diabetes and associated kidney problems.
         Cardinal Sin was one of the few Catholic prelates who has been allowed to visit Communist China. During the 1980s he established the Lorenzo Ruiz Institute in Manila to train priests for service to the Church in China, for when the government there would allow their entry. For now, most of the priests trained at that Institute serve in ethnic-Chinese parishes in the Philippines.
          In 1986 Cardinal Sin became a leader of the "People Power" revolt against the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos [11 Sep 1917 – 28 Sep 1989], and in February 1986, he drew together 1 million people to form a human barricade, blocking the progress of tanks that had been sent into Manila to suppress a military mutiny. Corazon Aquino [25 Jan 1933~] became president in replacement of Marcos, who had ordered the murder of her husband Nino Aquino [27 Nov 1932 – 21 Aug 1983]. In 2001, Cardinal Sin was instrumental in the fall of President Joseph Estrada because of political corruption.
          The death of Cardinal Sin leaves 181 cardinals. Of the 115 of them below the age of 80 and thus entitled to vote in a conclave, the oldest are Marco Cé [08 Jul 1925~], former Patriarch of Venice, and Francisco Alvarez Martínez [14 Jul 1925~] former archbishop of Toledo.
         — Cardinal Sin was not related to any cardinal sin (pride; greed; lust; envy; gluttony; anger; sloth; according to the Summa Theologica of Saint Thomas Aquinas), though, like all humans except Jesus and Mary, he was born affected by original sin. Nor was he related to Sin, the ancient Mesopotamian god of the moon.
    CARDINAL SINS, NOT RELATED TO CARDINAL SIN
    pride greed lust envy
    gluttony anger sloth
    2003 Abdullah Qawasme, head of the military wing of Hamas in Hebron, West Bank, shot at 21:15 at the entrance of a mosque in the center of Hebron, by 15 Israeli policemen who had just jumped out of three unmarked cars.
    2003 Leon Uris, born on 03 August 1924, US Jewish author of Exodus (1958, a story of European Jewry from the turn of the century to the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948), Topaz (1967, about Russian espionage during the Cuban missile crisis), Trinity (story of three Irish families from the mid-19th century to the Easter Rising of 1916), Battle Cry (1953, based on his Marine experiences), The Angry Hills (1955, spy novel based loosely on the diary of an uncle who had fought in World War II in Greece as a member of the British Army's Palestine Brigade), Armageddon: A Novel of Berlin" (1964, about its various crises from the end of WW2 until the airlift); and O'Hara's Choice (October 2003). Uris' other novels include Trinity (about Ireland's 19th-century struggle for independence) and its sequel Redemption (1995); QBVII, a courtroom drama based on his legal troubles with the movie adaptation of Exodus; The Haj (1984, about the birth of Israel as viewed by a Palestinian); A God in Ruins (1999, about an Irish Catholic US presidential candidate opposed to guns who turns out to be Jewish); and Mila 18 (1961, about the Jewish uprising in Warsaw during World War II). Uris' most personal novel, Mitla Pass (1988) closely follows the lives of the author and his family. The book begins in Israel in 1956 during the time of the Suez Canal crisis and centers on the experiences of Gideon Zadok, a writer covering the incident. The novel then traces Zadok's ancestry back to the 1880s, allowing various relatives to tell their stories. Uris loaded his novels with excessive exposition and information. He was not as good a writer as Pynchon, Barthelme, or Nabokov; but he was a better storyteller.
    2003 Moshe Kupferman (or Kupperman) Israeli abstract painter, born in Poland in 1926. — MORE ON KUPFERMAN AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    2002 Adnan Auda, 22, Palestinian, shot in the chest by Yosef Cohen, one of a group of Jewish settlers rampaging through Palestinian villages near Nablus, setting fire to homes and cars, after the funeral of the five Itamar settlers murdered the previous day by two Palestinian gunmen.
    2002 Mahmoud Massir, and two innocent Palestinian workers, at the Erez crossing in the Gaza Strip, by Israeli Border Police officers firing back at Massir after he throws hand grenades and fires at them. A third Palestinian worker is seriously injured.
    2002 Abed a-Samed Samalah, 10, Palestinian, by Israeli shelling while he was at home in the northern Gaza strip. A mother and three of her children were wounded.
    2002 Ahmed Ghazawi, 6, his brother Jamil Ghazawi, 12, girl Sajedah Famahwi, 6, and Helal Shetta, 50, deputy director of the department of education of Jenin, West Bank, by Israeli tank shells fired in a Jenin market where a group of Palestinian had come to buy food, thinking that the round-the-clock curfew imposed by the Israeli invaders which is starving them, had been temporarily lifted.
    2002 “Clifford Possum” Tjapaltjarri, Australian aborigine painter born in 1932. — MORE ON POSSUM AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1992 Joan Fuster, escritor y ensayista español. .
    1990 25'000 in Iranian earthquake.
    1989 Leo E. Edwards, in the Mississippi the gas chamber for a 1980 robbery and murder.
    1986 Al menos 200 personas mueren sepultadas bajo un alud de tierra en una carretera de la provincia ecuatoriana de Putumayo.
    1985 Tage Erlander, ex-primer ministro sueco.
    1975 Émile Grau-Sala, French painter born on 22 June 1911. — links to two images.
    1970 Ahmed Sukarno, estadista indonesio.
    ^ 1969 Many Communists attacking US base and a few US defenders.
          Approximately 600 Communist soldiers storm a US base near Tay Ninh, 80 km northwest of Saigon and 20 km from the Cambodian border. The North Vietnamese had been shelling the base for two days, followed by six attacks on the city itself and the surrounding villages. About 1000 civilians fled their homes as Allied and Communist troops fought in the city streets. The US troops eventually prevailed and it was reported that 146 Communist soldiers were killed in the bitter street fighting. Ten Americans were killed and 32 were wounded. Total Communist losses around Tay Ninh during the two-day battle were put at 194 killed.
    ^ 1964 Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, civil rights activists, shot by a Ku Klux Klan lynch mob near Meridian, Mississippi.
          The three young civil rights workers were working to register black voters in Mississippi, thus inspiring the ire of the local Klan. The deaths of Schwerner and Goodman, white Northerners and members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), causes a national outrage.
          When the desegregation movement encountered resistance in the early 1960s, CORE set up an interracial team to ride buses into the Deep South to help protest. These so-called Freedom Riders were viciously attacked in May 1961 when the first two buses arrived in Alabama. One bus was firebombed, the other boarded by KKK members who beat the activists inside. The Alabama police provided no protection. Still, the Freedom Riders were not dissuaded, and they continued to come into Alabama and Mississippi.
          Michael Schwerner was a particularly dedicated activist, living in Mississippi while he registered blacks to vote. Sam Bowers, the local Klan's Imperial Wizard, decided that Schwerner was a bad influence and had to be killed. When Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney, a young black man who was acting as a liaison to the black community, were coming back from a trip to Philadelphia, Mississippi, deputy sheriff Cecil Price, who was also a Klan member, pulled them over for speeding. He then held them in custody while other KKK members prepared for their murder.
          Eventually released, the three activists were later chased down in their car and cornered in a secluded spot in the woods where they were shot and then buried in graves that had been prepared in advance. When news of their disappearance got out, the FBI converged in Mississippi to investigate. With the help of an informant, federal agents learned about the Klan's involvement and found the bodies. Since Mississippi refused to prosecute the assailants in state court, the federal government charged 18 men with conspiracy to violate the civil rights of Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney. Bowers, Price, and five other men were convicted; eight were acquitted; and the all-white jury deadlocked on the other three defendants. Setting a precedent, the verdict against Klan members helped to push Southern society toward racial equality.
    In Neshoba County in central Mississippi, three civil rights field workers disappear after investigating the burning of an Black church by the Ku Klux Klan. Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, both white New Yorkers, had traveled to heavily segregated Mississippi in 1964 to help organize civil rights efforts on behalf of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The third man, James Chaney, was a local Black man who had joined CORE in 1963. The disappearance of the three young men garnered national attention and led to a massive FBI investigation that was code-named MIBURN, for "Mississippi Burning." Michael Schwerner, who arrived in Mississippi as a CORE field worker in January 1964, aroused the animosity of white supremacists after he organized a successful black boycott of a variety store in the city of Meridian and led voting registration efforts for Blacks. In May, Sam Bowers, the Imperial Wizard of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, sent word that the 24-year-old Schwerner, nicknamed "Goatee" and "Jew-Boy" by the KKK, was to be eliminated. On the evening of 16 June two dozen armed Klansmen descended on Mt. Zion Methodist Church, an Black church in Neshoba County that Schwerner had arranged to use as a "Freedom School." Schwerner was not there at the time, but the Klansmen beat several Blacks present and then torched the church.
          On 20 June 1964Schwerner returned from a civil rights training session in Ohio with 21-year-old James Chaney and 20-year-old Andrew Goodman, a new recruit to CORE. The next day, 21 June 1964, the three went to investigate the burning of the church in Neshoba. While attempting to drive back to Meridian, they were stopped by Neshoba County Deputy Sheriff Cecil Price just inside the city limits of Philadelphia, the county seat. Price, a member of the KKK who had been looking out for Schwerner or other civil rights workers, threw them in the Neshoba County jail, allegedly under suspicion for church arson. After seven hours in jail, during which the men were not allowed to make a phone call, Price released them on bail. After escorting them out of town, the deputy returned to Philadelphia to drop off an accompanying Philadelphia police officer. As soon as he was alone, he raced down the highway in pursuit of the three civil rights workers. He caught the men just inside county limits and loaded them into his car. Two other cars pulled up filled with Klansmen who had been alerted by Price of the capture of the CORE workers, and the three cars drove down an unmarked dirt road called Rock Cut Road. Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney were shot to death and their bodies buried in an earthen dam a few kilometers from the Mt. Zion Church. The next day, the FBI began an investigation into the disappearance of the civil rights workers. On 23 June the case drew national headlines, and federal agents found the workers' burned station wagon. Under pressure from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, the FBI escalated the investigation, which eventually involved more than 200 FBI agents and scores of federal troops who combed the woods and swamps looking for the bodies.
          The incident provided the final impetus needed for the 1964 Civil Rights Act to pass Congress on 02 July, and eight days later FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover came to Mississippi to open a new Bureau office. Eventually, Delmar Dennis, a Klansman and one of the participants in the murders, was paid $30'000 and offered immunity from prosecution in exchange for information. On 04 August the remains of the three young men were found. The culprits were identified, but the state of Mississippi made no arrests. Finally, on 04 December, nineteen men, including Deputy Price, were indicted by the US Justice Department for violating the civil rights of Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney (charging the suspects with civil rights violations was the only way to give the federal government jurisdiction in the case). After nearly three years of legal wrangling, in which the US Supreme Court ultimately defended the indictments, the men went on trial in Jackson, Mississippi. The trial was presided over by an ardent segregationist, US District Judge William Cox, but under federal pressure from federal authorities and fearing impeachment, he took the case seriously. On 27 October 1967 an all-white jury found seven of the men guilty, including Price and KKK Imperial Wizard Bowers. Nine were acquitted and the jury deadlocked on three others. The mixed verdict was hailed as a major civil rights victory, as no one in Mississippi had ever before been convicted for actions taken against a civil rights worker. In December, Judge Cox sentenced the men to prison terms ranging from three to 10 years. After sentencing, he said, "They killed one nigger, one Jew, and a white man. I gave them what I thought they deserved." None of the convicted men served more than six years behind bars.
         On 06 January 2004, one of the 18 men who were tried on federal conspiracy charges still alive, klansman Edgar Ray Killen, 79, was arrested for the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner. It was the first time the state has sought criminal charges in the case that outraged a nation. Killen was selected “because he was high profile and we knew where he was.”

    Schwerner Michael Schwerner, born on 06 November 1939, "Goatee" to the klan of Neshoba and Lauderdale counties, was the most despised civil rights worker in Mississippi. Klan Imperial Wizard Sam Bowers ordered Schwerner's "elimination" in May 1964. The Klan finally got its chance to carry out the elimination order on 21 June 1964. Because James Chaney and Andy Goodman were with Schwerner, and would know too much if they were not killed, they also had to die.
          Twenty-four-year-old Schwerner had come to Mississippi in January of 1964 with his wife Rita after having been hired as a CORE field worker. In his application for the CORE position, Schwerner, a native of New York City, wrote "I have an emotional need to offer my services in the South." Schwerner added that he hoped to work for an integrated society for "the rest of his life" (it was shorter than he had a right to expect, but he did). On 15 January 1964, Michael and Rita left New York in their VW Beetle for Mississippi. After talking with civil rights leader Bob Moses in Jackson, Schwerner was sent to Meridian to organize the community center and other programs in the largest city in eastern Mississippi. Schwerner became the first white civil rights worker to be permanently based outside of the capitol of Jackson.
          Once in Meridian, Schwerner quickly earned the hatred of local KKK by organizing a boycott of a variety store until the store, which sold mostly to Blacks, hired its first Black. He also came under heavy attack for his determined efforts to register Blacks to vote. After a few months in Meridian, despite hate mail and threatening phone calls and police harassment, Schwerner believed he made the right decision in coming to Mississippi. Mississippi, he said, “is the decisive battleground for America. Nowhere in the world is the idea of white supremacy more firmly entrenched, or more cancerous, than in Mississippi.”.

    GoodmanAndrew Goodman, born on 23 November 1943, died on what ought to have been his first full day in Mississippi. Goodman had arrived in the state early the previous morning after attending a three-day training session in Ohio for volunteers for the Mississippi Summer Project. Goodman arrived in Mississippi excited and anxious to get to work.
          Andy Goodman was intelligent, unassuming, happy, and outgoing. He grew up as the second of three sons in a liberal household on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Goodman attended the progressive Walden School, widely known for its anti-authoritarian approach to learning. While a high school sophomore at Walden, Goodman had gone to Washington DC to participate in the "Youth March for Integrated Schools." As a senior, he and a classmate visited a depressed coal mining region in West Virginia to prepare a report on poverty in the US.
          After graduating from Walden, Goodman enrolled at Queens College in part because of its strong drama department. Soon, however, his longing for commitment led him away from his interest in drama and back to politics. In April 1964, Goodman applied for and was accepted into the Mississippi Summer Project. Although not seeing himself as a professional reformer, Goodman knew that his life had been somewhat sheltered and thought that the experience would be educational and useful.

    ChaneyJames Earl Chaney was born on 30 May 1943 in Meridian, Mississippi to Ben and Fannie Lee Chaney. In 1963, he joined the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). In 1964, CORE led a massive voter registration and desegregation campaign in Mississippi called Freedom Summer. As part of the Freedom Summer activities, Chaney was riding with Schwerner and Goodman when all three were attacked and killed by the Ku Klux Klan.
          Chaney was twenty-one when he died on Rock Cut Road. Chaney had begun volunteer work at the new CORE office in Meridian in October, 1963, after a girlfriend introduced Chaney to Matt Suarez, the office's first director. Chaney soon became Suarez's chief aide, guide, and companion. His work ranged from constructing bookshelves at the community center to traveling to rural counties to set up meetings. Chaney, being black, was able to go places white CORE members were afraid to go. To Mississippi Whites, Chaney was "as inconspicuous as an alley cat." When the Schwerners arrived in January to assume direction of the Meridian office, they found Chaney to be their most willing volunteer.
          Chaney was a native of Meridian and the eldest son in a family of five children. His mother, a domestic servant, was protective; his father, a plasterer, left his mother when James was in his mid-teens. He was slightly built, but athletic. He was described as shy in public, but a cutup in his home.
          Chaney first encountered problems at the Catholic school for Negroes he attended in 1959, when he was sixteen. Chaney was suspended for a week when he refused to remove a yellow paper NAACP "button." The next year he was expelled from school for fighting. Chaney tried to join the army, but his asthma resulted in a 4-F disqualification. Unemployed and restless, Chaney joined the Negro plasterer's union, where he apprenticed with his father. His work as a plasterer ended in 1963 after a fight with his father.
    1949 Edward Alexander Wadsworth, British painter born on 29 October 1889. — MORE ON WADSWORTH AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1948 D'Arcy Thompson, mathematician.
    1943 Federal troops put down racial riot in Detroit 30 dead.
    1940 Edouard Vuillard, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 11 November 1868. — MORE ON VUILLARD AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1938 Eduardo Castillo Gálvez, 49, víctima de la morfina. poeta colombiano. Nacido en 1889, Eduardo Castillo fue co-autor de Duelo lírico (1918). Tradujo La parábola del resucitado, de Oscar Wilde. Aparecieron sus poemas Desfile blanco (1920), Réplica a Rivera y Guillermo Valencia (1921), La coronación de Julio Flórez, Visión prerrafaelita. El árbol que canta, su texto más conocido, aparece en 1928. Los poemas La Tisana y Leticia -homenaje a Leticia Velásquez- en 1825. Autor de poemas infantiles tales como La dulzaina y El grillo cautivo (1935), fueron sus últimas obras el poema Entre el cielo y el mar y el ensayo En torno a Delio Seravile (1936). Apareció poco después de su muerte su libro de poemas Los siete carrizos.
    1929 Ferdinand Rudio, German mathematician born on 02 August 1856. He worked on group theory, algebra and geometry. He is best remembered for his work in the history of mathematics.
    1920 Gaetano Previati, Italian artist born on 31 August 1852.
    ^ 1916, 37 Mexican and 17 US soldiers at the battle of Carrizal
          The controversial US military expedition against Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa brings the US and Mexico closer to war when Mexican government troops attack US Brigadier General John J. Pershing’s force at Carrizal, Mexico. The Americans suffer seventeen casualties, and thirty-eight Mexicans are killed.
          Against the protests of Venustiano Carranza’s government, Pershing had been penetrating deep into Mexico in pursuit of Villa. After routing the small Mexican force at Carrizal, the US expedition continued on its southern course. In 1914, following the resignation of Mexican leader Victoriano Huerta, Pancho Villa and his former revolutionary ally Venustiano Carranza battled each other in a struggle for succession.
          By the end of 1915, Villa had been driven north into the mountains and the US government had recognized General Venustiano Carranza as the president of Mexico. In January of 1916, a group of US citizens were killed by unknown bandits in Chihuahua, and, on 09 March 1916, Villa, angered by President Woodrow Wilson’s support for Carranza, led a band of several hundred guerillas across the border and raided the town of Columbus, New Mexico, killing seventeen Americans. US troops pursued the Mexicans, killing fifty on US soil and seventy more in Mexico.
          On 15 March 1916, under orders from President Woodrow Wilson, General Pershing led 6600 soldiers over the border to capture Villa dead or alive. Over the next eleven months, Pershing, like Carranza, failed to capture the elusive revolutionary and Mexican resentment over the US intrusion into their territory led to a diplomatic crisis.
          On 21 June 1916, Mexican government troops attacked Pershing’s forces at Carrizal, but the US troops refused to withdraw. On 28 January 1917, having failed in their mission to capture Villa, and under increasing pressure from the Mexican government, the Americans were ordered home. Villa continued his guerilla activities in northern Mexico until Adolfo de la Huerta took power in Mexico and drafted a reformist constitution. Villa entered into an amicable agreement with Huerta and agreed to retire from politics. In 1920, the government pardoned Villa, but three years later he was assassinated at Parral

    1913 Gaston Tarry, French mathematician born on 27 September 1843. He is best known for his work on Euler's 36 Officer Problem, proving that two orthogonal Latin squares of order 6 did not exist. He also published an algorithm for exploring mazes, which is called after him.
    1908 Rimsky-Korsakov, compositor ruso.
    1900 Francesco Beda, Italian artist born on 29 November 1840.
    1898 Manuel Tamayo y Baus, dramaturgo español.
    ^ 1892 Lot Smith, Mormon soldier, killed by Amerindians
          Lot Smith, one of the leading soldiers in the Mormon's military confrontation with the United States Army, is killed by Navahos in Utah. Smith was born into a Mormon family in Oswego, New York. At the age of 16, he joined a contingent of Latter-day Saints who fought for the United States in the Mexican War in California. He then moved to Utah, where he joined Brigham Young's Territorial Militia and saw action in several campaigns against Native Americans who were hostile to the Mormon settlers. Though Smith won praise as a loyal defender of the Mormon settlement in Utah, the precise nature of Brigham Young's theocratic community was unclear: Was Utah an independent nation or a territory of the United States? During the 1850s, the ambiguous status of Utah led to an armed conflict between the United States Army and the Utah militia in which Smith played a central role. Determined to assert federal control over Utah, in 1857 President James Buchanan ordered US soldiers to Utah to ensure Mormon loyalty and acquiescence to federal authority. That July, a force of soldiers that became known as the Utah Expedition left Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and headed for Utah. Young feared that the soldiers were not a legitimate federal army but rather an armed mob of anti-Mormon fanatics. He directed his Mormon militia to impede the progress of the US Army. Fortunately, the Mormon militia found that the ill-prepared forces under the leadership of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston were easily stymied without having to resort to actual combat.
          Now serving as a major in the Utah militia, Smith was able to capture and burn two of Sidney's provision trains of 52 freight wagons and drive off most of the oxen and beef. Brutal weather combined with the Mormon's effective destruction of his supply lines forced Johnston to retreat to Fort Bridger, Wyoming. Smith's successful efforts, and those of other leaders of the Mormon militia, may have kept the conflict from turning into a full-scale war. By the following spring when Johnston's army again headed toward Salt Lake City, the passion for war on both sides had cooled. Brigham Young, who claimed he had always been loyal to the United States, accepted a new gentile governor for Utah Territory. If the Mormons had indeed once dreamed of creating an independent theocratic community in Utah, they now abandoned the idea and largely accepted federal authority. For his part, Smith went on to play an important role in expanding Mormon settlement in the West, leading a successful effort to colonize northern Arizona. He became a forceful, and some said autocratic, leader of the Mormon settlement at Tuba City, where he established his Circle S Ranch and may have taken as many as eight wives. In the 1890s, the Arizona Mormons came into increasing conflict with Navaho Indians who grazed their sheep on land that the Mormons claimed as their own. Smith apparently angered the Navaho by shooting several of their sheep he found grazing on land he claimed. On this day in 1892, a small band of Navaho retaliated by ambushing Smith and shooting him to death. He was 62 years old.
    ^ 1877 ten “Molly Maguires”, hanged for murder
          The nation’s increasingly embattled coal mines take center stage, as ten members of the "Molly Maguires" are hung for murder. A strident band of anthracite miners from Pennsylvania, the "Mollies" had formed a few years earlier in hopes of improving in the work conditions for their fellow miners. Indeed, coal miners received scant pay for toiling long hours in hot and hazardous conditions. The courts and other official channels offered the miners little refuge: mine operators used well-placed bribes to skirt around labor regulations and hold government inspectors at bay.
          The Mollies, who borrowed their nom de guerre from a radical Irish mining organization, chucked any notion of using official channels to effect change. Rather, like their Irish forebears, they donned women’s clothes and waged a campaign of violence and intimidation against the mine bosses. At first, the Mollies’ brutal tactics had their intended impact and struck great fear into the hearts of Eastern Pennsylvania’s mine officials.
          But, management soon fired back and hired an operative from the Pinkerton Detective Agency to infiltrate the group. The Pinkerton man was able to marshal enough evidence to bring twenty members of the Mollies to trial; though some labor historians still dispute the outcome of the case, ten of the Molly Maguires were nonetheless found guilty and executed. Duly cowed by this turn of events, the remaining members of the Molly Maguires swiftly disbanded their organization.
    1876 Antonio López de Santa Anna, 82, Mexican general (took Alamo)
    1828 Leandro Fernández de Moratín, dramaturgo español.
    1820 Aléxis-Thérèse Petit, Frenchman mathematical physicist born on 02 October 1791.
    1812 Johann-Friedrich-August Tischbein, German painter specialized in Portraits, born on 09 March 1750. — more with links to images.
    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    1794 (03 messidor an II):
    ROBERT Pierre, boulanger, soldat au ci-devant régiment de Brest, caporal dans les chasseurs des Cevennes, domicilié à Clermont (Loire), par la commission militaire de Bruxelles, comme émigré.
    JOURDAN René, domicilié à Bazougers (Mayenne), par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Laval, comme brigand de la Vendée.
    WILLEREZ Louis Joseph (dit père Jean François), prêtre récollet d'Arras, né le 21 mars 1738 à Marles, domicilié à Arras, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Cambrai
    Par la commission populaire séante à Orange:
    RAFFIER Joseph, cordonnier domicilié à Villeneuve, département du Gard, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission populaire d’Orange.
         ... domiciliés dans le département du Vaucluse,
    JONC Louis Nicolas (dit Desalos), maire d'Orange y demeurant, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
              ... domiciliés à Avignon:
    BIOULES Jean Jacques, menuisier tourneur, comme contre-révolutionnaire. — FELIN Jean Michel, cultivateur, comme fédéraliste. — GAILLARD Jean, aîné, fabricant, comme contre-révolutionnaire. — SERRE Joseph Alexis, greffier au tribunal de police. — SILVESTRE J.L. François, notaire, comme fédéraliste.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Arras (Pas-de-Calais):
    CANTZEL Adrien, faiseur de bas, né et domicilié à Fillièvres, comme ennemi du peuple français, ayant dit, en parlent de Capet, qu'on avait fait mourir l'innocence même, pour laisser vivre et régner les tyrans.
    DUBOIS Pierre Louis, 63 ans, né à Paris, officier retiré, domicilié à Arras, comme ennemi du peuple, traître à la patrie, ayant dit que si cela eut dépendu de lui, il aurait terrassé la Convention.
    LESCARDE César Louis Joseph, chirurgien, 50 ans, né et domicilié à Arras, comme ennemi du peuple, ayant caché son neveu émigré.
    CAUTREL Adrien, 52 ans, né à Fillièvres, fabricant de bas, époux de Remy Adrienne, guillotiné.
    MONEZ ou NOUEZ Marguerite, âgée de 40 ans, née à Aire, linguère à Arras, guillotinée.
    Domiciliés dans le département de la Gironde, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:
    CASTILLON Abraham (dit Duperron), 57 ans, né à Tours (Rhône et Loire), négociant et agriculteur, domicilié à Pessac, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    GAUVRI Jean, ex secrétaire au bureau de conciliation, 47 ans, né à Couture près de Monségur, domicilié à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire et généralement connu pour un mauvais citoyen.
    LESCURE Jean, ex notaire, 61 ans, né à St Macaire, domicilié à Bordeaux, comme convaincu d'avoir signé un écrit relatif à l'ouverture des églises, fortement soupçonné d'avoir fait dire la messe chez lui, et encore convaincu de n'avoir point de carte de civisme, et d'avoir refusé d'accepter la constitution républicaine de 1793.
    PEYRONNET Jean Louis, 63 ans, ex trésorier de France, ex noble, domicilié à Bordeaux, comme conspirateur.
    Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
    RENOU Jean Baptiste Charles, 28 ans et demi, ex vicaire de la commune de Prouvis, et depuis imprimeur, domicilié à Paris, né à Bonneval (Eure et Loire), par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir refusé de prêter le serment à la constitution civile du clergé, et d’obéir aux lois de la déportation.
    VILMAY Jacques Augustin, ex garde chasse, 52 ans, né à St Germain, domicilié à Echaboulin, comme ennemi du Peuple, en insultant la mémoire de Marat, le traitant de scélérat, et disant que tout individu, qui soutiendrait les intérêts de Marat, était un coquin.
    MAGNIÉ Louis Amable, 32 ans, marchand forain, né à Lille, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos injurieux contre les autorités constituées, notamment en disant, que les Parisiens étaient des gueux, qu'il chiait sur eux, et que les membres de la Convention étaient tous des scélérats.
    PIERRE Marguerite Nicole, brocanteuse, âgée de 22 ans, née et domiciliée à Paris, comme ennemie du peuple, ayant dit en passant devant un corps de garde: voilà un corps de garde, je n'en moque, et vive le roi.
    LESCANDEY C., 44 ans, né à Briqueville (Manche), substitut au ci-devant bailliage présidial de Coutances, y demeurant, et accusateur public, au district de la même comme conspirateur.
    CHANTIER Jean Raimond, né à Gionge (Marne), administrateur du district de Sézanne, domicilié aux Essarts (Marne), comme contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir fait l'éloge des députés fédéralistes, et avoir couvert d'invectives les amis de Marat.
    TURSAN André, (dit Despagnac), ex président à la cour des aides de Montauban, 51 ans, né et domicilié à Ladvéze-Rivière (Gers), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    BELGINGUE Jean Claude, cordonnier, soldat au 29ème régiment d'infanterie, domicilié à Besançon (Doubs), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    BIRANGUES Antoine Edmé, (dit Lamotte), ex noble, marchand de bois, domicilié à Montargis (Loiret), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    FORIEN Jean, déserteur, 27 ans, né et domicilié à Sentilly (Loiret), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
           ... nés à Caussade, canton de Montauban (Lot):
    GENIBRE Bertrand, journalier, 21 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    SAVIT-LABAT Jean, adjudant aux charrois de l'armée des Pyrénées Orientale 30 ans, comme ennemi du peuple, en disant que Capet n'était pas coupable et qu'il était mort innocent, et comme ayant assisté à une messe célébrée pour le tyran.
           ... domiciliés à Caussade:
    CLAVIERRE Jean Pierre, ex curé, 64 ans, né à Catelnon-Demoratier, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    LABAT Jean Savit, adjudant aux charrois, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
    LACROIX Dominique, aubergiste, 44 ans, né à Mautauban, comme contre-révolutionnaire et fanatique.
           ... nés et domiciliés à Caussade:
    PICHOLIER Jean François, juge de paix, 51 ans, comme ennemi du peuple, ayant dit que la Convention n'était composée que de coquins qui ne cherchaient qu'a mettre le désordre dans toute la France, et à faire égorger les citoyens.
    RIETTE Jean, cordonnier, 28 ans, comme ennemi du Peuple, ayant parcouru les rues de Caussade le 27 janvier 1793, en criant " nous n’avons plus de roi, il est mort ; A bas les cocardes nationales, il faut en prendre de noires ".
                   ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
    BASTIE Antoine Ange, 29 ans — BORIE Joseph journalier, 30 ans — BORIE Raimond, cordonnier, 19 ans — CALMETTE Moffré, chandelier, 36 ans — CASSAIGNES Jacques (dit Cauvin), 27 ans, tourneur — CASSAIGNES Jean (dit Cauvin), 28 ans, commis marchand — DELPECHE-ST-TOU, Raymond, père, 63 ans, vivant de son bien,comme contre-révolutionnaire. — DELPECHE-ST-TOU, fils, 38 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire. — FOUSSE-GRIVE François, épinglier, 27 ans — MOULET Pierre, fruitier, 50 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire et fanatique.
    1793:
    BESNARD Julien, laboureur, domicilié à Bain (Ille-et-Vilaine), comme contre-révolutionnaire par le tribunal criminel du département d'Ille-et-Vilaine.
    1661 Andrea Ouche Sacchi, Italian artist born on 30 November 1599.
    ^ 1527 Niccolò Machiavelli, 58 ans, à Florence.
          Machiavel, un des humanistes de la Renaissance, homme politique, philosophe, écrivain italien. Né à Florence le 03 May 1469 à Florence. Secrétaire de la République de Florence, il remplit de nombreuses missions diplomatiques (en Italie, en France, en Allemagne). Il réorganise l’armée qui avait subi quelques revers. Mais la révolution de 1513 place la riche famille des Médicis sur le trône. Il est éloigné du pouvoir.
          Durant cette retraite forcée, il écrit la plupart de ses livres (Discours sur l’Art de la Guerre, Histoire de Florence). Dans le "Prince", il développe ses théories politiques, fort éloignées de l’idéal grec, ce qui est assez rare, en cette période de redécouverte des valeurs de l’Antiquité et spécialement des démocraties grecques. Machiavel ne se préoccupe pas de concevoir le meilleur régime politique possible. Il dénonce l’influence de la Religion sur le Politique et met en valeur une société modene, basée sur les nécessités contemporaines, où la "Raison d’Etat" a pour objectif ultime l’amélioration de l’Homme et de la Société, un nouvel ordre moral, (politique et Social) libre et laïque. Il a laissé son nom à une façon d’agir très décriée, le Machiavélisme (qu’il expose dans "le Prince" justement). Pour lui, la fin justifie les moyens. La raison d’état influencera toutes les Monarchies Absolues des XVII° et XVIII° siècles.
    ^ — 217 BC The dead of Hannibal's Trasimene victory.
          Hannibal [247 BC – 182 BC] had crossed the Alps into Italy in 218 BC (with his one Asian elephant surviving while all 36 African elephants died). After a severe winter (in which he contracted an eye infection), Hannibal was able to advance in the spring of 217 as far as the Arno River. Although two Roman armies were now in the field against him, he was able to outmaneuver that of Gaius Flaminius at Arretium and reached Faesulae (modern Fiesole) and Perugia. By design, this move forced Flaminius's army into open combat, and, as it passed between the northern shore of Lake Trasimene and the opposite hills, Hannibal's troops from their prepared positions all but annihilated it, killing thousands and driving others to drown in the lake. Reinforcements of about 4000 cavalry under Gaius Centenius were intercepted before they arrived and were also destroyed. The Carthaginian troops were too worn to clinch their victories and march on Rome. Hannibal, furthermore, nurtured the vain hope that the Italian allies of Rome would defect and cause civil war.
    —      Hannibal, général Carthaginois, lors de la deuxième guerre Punique, après avoir passé les Alpes avec ses éléphants prend les Romains à revers et s’empare de la Gaule Cisalpine. Puis il s’avance vers l’Etrurie et défait les deux légions romaines du Consul Flaminius, le 21 juin, au lac Trasimène. Rome est à la merci des Carthaginois.
          Mais Hannibal ne profite pas de son avantage et se rend avec son armée dans une île devant Naples, à Capoue, dans le but de reposer son armée. Mais les soldats prennent si bien goût aux plaisirs de cette retraite dorée qu’ils perdent leur esprit de combat et se font à leur tour défaire par les Romains. Ceux-ci portent la guerre à Carthage et Hannibal est rappelé d’urgence. Rome est sauvée. Depuis lors, l’expression "tomber dans les délices de Capoue" signifie perdre son temps aux plaisirs plutôt qu’accomplir son devoir.

     
    < 20 Jun 22 Jun >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 21 June:

    Harry Potter2003 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (768 pages) by J. K. Rawlings, goes on sale at $17.97, with some one million copies already paid in advance. The 8.5 million copies printed are the largest first edition in history. The preceding books of the series were Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (1997), Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (1998), Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azbakan (1999), Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (July 2000)
    1966 Washoe Pan Satyrus is adopted by Drs. Beatrix T. and R. Allen Gardner. They would raise her in their home as if she were a human child. Washoe would be the first nonhuman to acquire a human language — American Sign Language. Washoe moved with Roger and Deborah Fouts to the University of Oklahoma in 1970 and came to Central Washington University in 1980. There she lived with fellow chimpanzees Moja Lemsip [18 Nov 1972 – 06 Jun 2002], Loulis Yerkes, Dar es Salaam, and Tatu Oklahoma CHCI chimpcam (M-F 09:00-12:00 and 13:00-15:30 — Sa 09:00-12:00 — Su 12:00-15:30 Pacific Time)
    1957 Berke Breathed breathed his first breath. He would become a cartoonist.
    ^ 1953 Benazir Bhutto first female leader of a Moslem nation (Pakistan), in Karachi, Pakistan, into a landowning family prominent in politics.
         Her father, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was often away from home, serving in various government posts. Benazir Bhutto was tutored by an English governess and enjoyed a pampered, upper-class upbringing. When she was 16 she came to the United States and attended Harvard's Radcliffe College. Bhutto received a BA cum laude in government in 1973, then went on to England and studied politics, philosophy and economics at Oxford.
          She returned to Pakistan in mid-1977, but within days of her arrival her father was ousted from power. He had been elected prime minister in parliamentary elections, but his opponents charged that the elections were fixed. When demonstrations occurred and civil order broke down, the military assumed power. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was imprisoned in September 1977, charged with conspiring to murder a party colleague, and in April 1979 was hanged by the military government of Gen. Zia Ul Haq. Benazir Bhutto was arrested by the military regime and repeatedly detained between 1977 and 1984. Finally in 1984, after being held for three years, she was allowed to leave Pakistan. She settled in London.
          After the execution of their father, Benazir Bhutto's brothers, Shahnawaz and Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, founded a clandestine anti-Zia resistance organization called Al-Zulfikar that was linked to terrorist activities. In 1985 her brother Shahnawaz died under mysterious circumstances — the French media suggested poisoning. Benazir Bhutto accompanied his body back to Pakistan for burial, took part in anti-government political rallies, and was again arrested. She was released in early November 1985. Martial law ended in Pakistan in December 1985.
          Political demonstrations resumed, and Bhutto returned to Pakistan in April 1986 to a tumultuous welcome from the public. She demanded that Gen. Zia step down, The following month she and her mother were elected co-chairwomen of the Pakistan People's Party. Once again, she was arrested but later released. Bhutto was elected prime minister in 1988, the first woman elected prime minister of an Islamic country. Her objective was to return Pakistan to civilian rule and oust the men who executed her father.
          In 1990 President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed her, but she ran on an anti-corruption campaign and was re-elected prime minister in 1993. Bhutto's brother Mir Murtaza, from whom Benazir had become estranged after the death of their father, returned to Pakistan after she was re-elected, and began publicly charging her with corruption. On 20 September 1996, he and six of his bodyguards were killed in a gun battle with police in Karachi. Police claimed that Murtaza's bodyguards had started the fight. His death led to widespread public criticism of Bhutto, but she claimed to have had no involvement in his death.
          Bhutto was dismissed from office for the second time in late 1996. In October, large street demonstrations shut down the capital, and Bhutto aroused criticism when she had arrested several rival party leaders who had participated in the demonstrations. Bhutto came under pressure from the press and public, who charged her government with corruption and mismanagement. On 05 November 1996, President of Pakistan Farooq Leghari dismissed Prime Minister Bhutto and dissolved the National Assembly.
          Bhutto's husband, Asif Ali Zardari, was the focus of much of the criticism. She had appointed him to the cabinet post of investment minister. He was accused of taking bribes and pocketing money from government contracts. President Leghari also charged that Zardari was responsible for "extrajudicial killings" in Karachi, where Bhutto rivals had been killed by police.
          Bhutto's platform has been leftist, including food for the hungry, health care, jobs, slum clearance and a monthly minimum wage. She has been opposed by Islamic fundamentalists who have been suspicious of the PPP because of its alleged leftist tendencies. There is also the threat of a military establishment capable of intervening to impose martial law in the name of preserving order. Bhutto ran in the national elections of February 1997 and was roundly defeated.
    1947 Fernando Savater, filósofo español.
    1935 Françoise Sagan France, novelist (Bon Jour Tristesse)
    1925 Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas, ex presidente de Bolivia.
    1925 Giovanni Spadolini, politico y escritor italiano
    1912 Mary McCarthy US, novelist (Group)
    1905 Jean-Paul Sartre (philosopher, writer: Being and Nothingness; playwright: No Exit, The Flies, The Age of Reason; rejected Nobel Prize for literature [1964])
    1903 Al Hirschfeld cartoonist (1975 Tony Award)
    1893 First Ferris wheel premieres (Chicago's Columbian Exposition)
    1892 Reinhold Niebuhr US, theologian (Nature and Destiny of Man)
    1882 Rockwell Kent painter, printmaker, illustrator, who died on 13 March 1971. Kent also wrote and illustrated books such as Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure in Alaska (1920) — Voyaging: Southward from the Strait of Magellan. (1922) — Salamina (1935) — Greenland Journal (1960) — his autobiography It's Me, O Lord (1955). — MORE ON KENT AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1880 Arnold Lucius Gessell, psicólogo y pediatra estadounidense.
    1859 Henry Ossawa Tanner, Black US Realist painter born in Pittsburgh PA, who died on 25 May 1937 in Paris, France. — MORE ON TANNER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1858 María Cristina de Austria, reina de España.
    1850 Johann Hamza, Austrian artist who died in 1927.
    1847 Wilhelm Velten, Russian German painter who died in 1929. — link to an image.
    1845 Luis Jiménez Aranda, Spanish Impressionist painter who died in 1928. — links to images.
    1834 Reaping machine patent obtained by Cyrus Hall McCormick.
    1828 Giuseppe Bruno, Italian philosopher, engineer, mathematician, who died on 04 February 1893
    1821 The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Zion Church is formally constituted in New York City. Nineteen clergymen were present, representing six African-American churches from New York City; Philadelphia; New Haven, CT and Newark, NJ.
    1819 Jacques Offenbach, compositor francés.
    1814 Charles-Théodore Frère “ frère Bey”, French painter specialized in Orientalism, who died on 24 March 1888. — MORE ON FRÈRE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1805 José María “El Tempranillo”, bandolero español.
    1781 Siméon Poisson, mathematician
    1774 Daniel D. Tompkins (D-R), 6th US vice-president (1817-1825)
    1773 Jorge Juan y Santacilia, matemático y físico español.
    1744 Wybrand Hendriks, Dutch artist who died on 28 January 1831. — more
    1640 Abraham Mignon, German painter who died in 1679. — MORE ON MIGNON AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1639 Increase Mather, in Dorchester, Massachusetts, Boston Congregational minister, author, and educator, influential in the councils of New England during the period when leadership passed to the first native-born generation. He published nearly 100 books including , and is credited with helping end executions for witchcraft in colonial America. He was the son of Richard Mather [1596 – 22 Apr 1669], son-in-law of John Cotton, and father of Cotton Mather [12 Feb 1663 – 13 Feb 1728]. Increase Mather died on 23 August 1723 in Boston.
    ^ 1215 The British Parliament
          Popular belief holds that the British Parliament began with the signing of the Magna Carta on 21 June, 1215, when the ineffectual King John was forced to sign the document that gave the people, especially the nobles, certain basic rights. Revolution in the seventeenth-century and reforms in the eighteenth-century guaranteed the primacy of Parliament and later democracy. The Parliament still consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons, and though only a formality, the royal assent is necessary for every bill to become law.

     
    Se produce el solsticio de verano, por lo que es el día más largo del año en el hemisferio norte.
    Holidays Hong Kong, Taiwan : Dragon Boat Festival / New Hampshire : Ratification Day (1788)
    Religious Observances RC : St Aloysius Gonzaga, religious, patron of youth / Luth : Onesimos Nesib, translator/evangelist / Santos Luis Gonzaga, Martín, Raimundo y Marcia.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “No one really knows enough to be a pessimist.”
    “No one really knows enough to be an optimist.”
    “No one really knows enough.”
    “No one really knows except really.” —
    {there is no “unreal knowledge”}
    “No one really knows whether anyone really knows enough.”
    “No one really knows what is a pessimoptimist.”
    “You know enough to be a pessimist if you know you want to be disappointed by happy events.”
    “You know enough to be an optimist if you know you'll be wrong 90% of the time.”
    “No one really knows enough optimists.”
    “No one really knows pessimists well enough.”
    “You're a pessimist if you think that they're serving you poison... in too small portions.”
    “You're an optimist if you think that they're serving you poison which will kill you before you have to pay the bill.”
    “You're an optimist if the doctor tells you that you have 24 hours to live, and you think that's good news.”
    “You're a pessimist if the doctor tells you that you have 24 hours to live, and you think that's yesterday's news.”
    “You're a pessimist if you think that nothing you do can make the future better.”
    “You're an optimist if you think that you need do nothing to make the future better.”
    “No one really knows enough to say whether anyone knows enough to be a pessimist or an optimist.”
    "Summer makes a silence after spring."
    — Victoria Sackville-West, English poet and author [09 Mar 1892 – 02 Jun 1962].— {The kissy birds outside my window don't feel bound by that, they keep making their loud kissing sounds}.
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    updated Thursday 21-Jun-2007 3:09 UT
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