<< Jun 17|         HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Jun 19 >>
Events, deaths, births, of JUN 18
v.7.50
[For events of Jun 18 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 281700s: Jun 291800s: Jun 301900~2099: Jul 01]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” JUN 18   wikipedia
• “La France n'a pas perdu la guerre”... • “Their finest hour”... • Strategic Arms Limitation... • War of 1812... • Netanyahu Prime Minister of Israel... • British leave Philadelphia... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • US general killed on Okinawa... • Sally Ride's ride in space... • Peppermint Patty takes charge...
FWHT price chart^  On an 18 June:

2003 Findwhat.com (FWHT) announces an agreement for a merger with privately-owned, European-based Espotting Media, expected be made in the fourth quarter of 2003, subject to customary closing conditions. FWHT is upgraded by Legg Mason from Hold to Buy. On the NASDAQ 5 million of the 19 million FWHT shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $13.69 to an intraday high of $18.90 and closing at $18.57. They had traded as low as $2.75 as recently as 08 October 2002 and never even near the levels reached today except for a brief spike to $16.50 on 13 March 2000, its all-time high before today's. FWHT was formed in March 1998 and its shares started being traded publicly on 14 June 1999, at $6.81. [5~year price chart >] FWHT develops and markets performance-based advertising services for the Internet. Clients pay the Company for each visitor delivered to their web sites. Espotting was formed in February 2000, and launched its similar service in the UK in September of that year.

2000 Etiopía y Eritrea firman en Argel un plan de paz acordado bajo el auspicio de la Organización para la Unidad Africana (OUA), por el que se acepta el inmediato cese de las hostilidades.
^ 1998 Mickey’s portal
      By the late 1990s portals—typically snappy industry jargon for web-based guides and search engines—had become one of the hottest flavors in the field of web development.
      On this day, the "traditional" media giant, Walt Disney Co., entered the fray by snapping up a minority stake in the Infoseek Corp., which produced the popular portal, Infoseek.com. In return for 43% interest in Infoseek, Disney handed over control of Starwave Corp., a new media company which produces ESPN.com, and $70 million in cash. While other portal companies like Yahoo had yet to yield a penny in profit, Disney honcho Michael Eisner was bullish on the Internet’s fiscal prospects. In his eyes, the acquisition of Infoseek left Disney "well-positioned to take advantage" of the medium as it blossomed into "commercial maturity." Shortly after inking the deal, Eisner led Disney and Infoseek web teams back to the lab to give their portal a thorough overhaul. The revised site, complete with new graphics, snazzy functionality and catchy name—Go.com—was launched with a full dose of hype and marketing hoopla in 1999.
1997 Pol Pot, líder histórico del Jemer Rojo e impulsor del genocidio de dos millones de personas en Camboya entre 1975 y 1979, se rinde después de una persecución de varios días por la selva.
^ 1996 Netanyahu inaugurated as Israeli Prime Minister
      Following his party’s victory in national elections the previous month, Benjamin Netanyahu is sworn in as the youngest Israeli prime minister in his country’s fifty-year history. On 31 May 1996, in what was regarded as a setback for the Middle East peace process, Prime Minister Shimon Peres’ Labor party was narrowly defeated in national elections by Netanyahu’s conservative Likud party. Peres had become prime minister in 1995 after Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a right-wing Jewish extremist in Tel Aviv. In 1996, with Palestinian terrorist attacks in Israel on the rise, Netanyahu had successfully run for the Israeli leadership on the promise to be tough on terrorism and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
      Born in Tel Aviv in 1949, Netanyahu served in the Israel Defense Forces, and during the 1980s was Israel’s ambassador to the United Nations. In 1988, he was elected to the Israeli parliament and served as deputy minister of foreign affairs from 1988 to 1991. In 1993, he became the Likud leader, and in 1996, Israel’s prime minister. On 18 May 1999, after serving three years as prime minister, a stalled peace process and epidemic political in-fighting within his cabinet led to his electoral defeat by Labor challenger Ehud Barak. During his concession speech that evening, Netanyahu also resigned as Likud party leader.
1994 Se despiden las tropas de Estados Unidos, Francia y Gran Bretaña, encargadas de la defensa del sector occidental de Berlín desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial.
^ 1993 Sculley quits Apple Computer.
      John Sculley officially resigns as president of Apple Computer, while retaining his title as chairman of the board. Sculley says he wants to concentrate on strategy, while new president Michael Spindler runs day-to-day operations. However, the following September, Sculley would file a wrongful-dismissal lawsuit claiming he had been forced to step down by hostile directors. He claimed his dismissal was a breach of contract, as well as a case of age discrimination. Sculley had served as president since 1983. During his term, Apple released the Macintosh computer and the PowerBook. The Newton, Apple's ill-fated handheld computer, was a pet project of Sculley's. In 1985, he essentially fired Steve Jobs, asking him to step down as president while retaining the title of chairman-ironically, the same situation he himself was placed in by Apple's board of directors eight years later.
1992 Los irlandeses aprueban en referéndum la ratificación del Tratado de Maastricht con el 69% de los votos.
1989 Derrota de los socialistas de Papandreu en las elecciones legislativas griegas y triunfo de la derecha de Konstantinos Mitsotakis, que consigue el 45,2 porciento de los votos.
1989 Alta abstención y giro a la izquierda, notas destacadas de las elecciones al Parlamento Europeo, tras los comicios celebrados hoy en Alemania Occidental, Bélgica, Francia, Grecia, Italia, Luxemburgo y Portugal.
1984 El presidente de la Generalidad de Cataluña, Jordi Pujol, comienza un nuevo mandato de cuatro años.
1983 Li Xiannián es elegido Presidente de la República de China.
^ 1983 Sally Ride's ride in space, first by a US woman.
      From Cape Canaveral, Florida, the space shuttle Challenger is launched into space on its second mission. Aboard the US spacecraft Dr. Sally Ride, as space shuttle crewmember becomes the first American woman to ever travel into space. During the mission, Ride, an astrophysicist from Stanford, operates the shuttle’s robot arm, which she helped design.
      Her historic journey was preceded almost twenty years to the day by cosmonaut Valentina V. Tereshkova of the Soviet Union, who on 6 June 1963, became the first female to ever travel into space. Two years before Tereshkova’s historic flight aboard Vostok 6, NASA had successfully screened thirteen women along with the famous all-male "Mercury 7" astronauts, but then ended any possibility of these women flying in space after deciding that only military jet pilots could qualify for space travel. On 16 January 1978, NASA announced that they had finally approved six women to become the first female astronauts in the US space programs. The new astronauts had been chosen out of the some 3000 original applicants. Among the six was Sally Ride, who in 1983 was the first American woman in space, and Shannon W. Lucid of Oklahoma, who in 1996 set a new space endurance record for an American and a world endurance record for a woman, during her 188-day sojourn on the Russian space station Mir.
1983 IRA's Joseph Doherty arrested in NYC
1982 Voting Rights Act of 1965 extended by Senate by 85-8 vote
1981 Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart retires (replaced by Sandra Day O'Connor, first woman on high court) 1980 Mrs Shakuntala Devi mentally multiplies two 13-digit numbers in 28 seconds.
^ 1979 Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT-II treaty
      During a summit meeting in Vienna, President Jimmy Carter and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev sign the SALT-II agreement dealing with limitations and guidelines for nuclear weapons. The treaty, which never formally went into effect, proved to be one of the most controversial US-Soviet agreements of the Cold War. The SALT-II agreement was the result of many nagging issues left over from the successful SALT-I treaty of 1972. Though the 1972 treaty limited a wide variety of nuclear weapons, many issues remained unresolved. Talks between the United States and the Soviet Union began almost immediately after SALT-I was ratified by both nations in 1972. Those talks failed to achieve any new breakthroughs, however. By 1979, both the United States and Soviet Union were eager to revitalize the process. For the United States, fear that the Soviets were leaping ahead in the arms race was the primary motivator. For the Soviet Union, the increasingly close relationship between America and communist China was a cause for growing concern. I
      n June 1979, Carter and Brezhnev met in Vienna and signed the SALT-II agreement. The treaty established numerical equality between the two nations in terms of nuclear weapons delivery systems. It also limited the number of MIRV missiles (missiles with multiple, independent nuclear warheads). In truth, the treaty did little or nothing to stop, or even substantially slow down, the arms race. Nevertheless, it met with unrelenting criticism in the United States. The treaty was denounced as a "sellout" to the Soviets, one that would leave America virtually defenseless against a whole range of new weapons not mentioned in the agreement. Even supporters of arms control were less than enthusiastic about the treaty, since it did little to actually control arms. Debate over SALT-II in the US Congress continued for months. In December 1979, however, the Soviets launched an invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviet attack effectively killed any chance of SALT-II being passed, and Carter ensured this by withdrawing the treaty from the Senate in January 1980. SALT-II thus remained signed, but unratified. During the 1980s, both nations agreed to respect the agreement until such time as new arms negotiations could take place.
1972 Les "plombiers" de Nixon cambriolent les Bureaux du Parti Démocrate à Washington dans l'immeuble "Watergate", ce qui créera l’affaire du "Watergate" ; laquelle aboutira, deux ans plus tard, à la démission du président Nixon.
1968 US Supreme Court bans racial discrimination in sale and rental of housing.
^ 1968 Peppermint Patty takes charge at camp
Peppermint Patty introduces herself
1966 Westmoreland requests more troops
      Gen. William Westmoreland, senior US military commander in Vietnam, sends a new troop request to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Westmoreland stated that he needed 542'588 soldiers for the war in Vietnam in 1967--an increase of 111'588 men to the number already serving there. In the end, President Johnson acceded to Westmoreland's wishes and dispatched the additional troops to South Vietnam, but the increases were done in an incremental fashion. The highest number of US troops in South Vietnam was 543'500, which was reached in 1969.
^ 1965 SAC B-52s are used for the first time in South Vietnam
      For the first time, 28 B-52s fly-bomb a Viet Cong concentration in a heavily forested area of Binh Duong Province northwest of Saigon. Such flights, under the aegis of the Strategic Air Command (SAC), became known as Operation Arc Light. The B-52s that took part in the Arc Light missions had been deployed to Andersen Air Force Base in Guam and more bombers were later deployed to bases in Okinawa and U-Tapao, Thailand. In addition to supporting ground tactical operations, B-52s were used to interdict enemy supply lines in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, and later to strike targets in North Vietnam. Releasing their bombs from an altitude of 10'000 meters, the B-52s could neither be seen nor heard from the ground as they inflicted awesome damage. B-52s were instrumental in breaking up enemy concentrations besieging Khe Sanh in 1968 and An Loc in 1972. Between June 1965 and August 1973, 126,615 B-52 sorties were flown over Southeast Asia. During those operations, the Air Force lost 29 B-52s: 17 from hostile fire over North Vietnam and 12 from operational causes.
1963 3000 blacks boycot Boston public school
1957 John Diefenbacker (C) takes office as PM of Canada
1956 Los ingleses abandonan definitivamente Egipto, después de un período de dominio de 74 años. Last of foreign troops leaves Egypt
1955 Los ingleses evacuan el Canal de Suez.
1953 Proclamación de la República de Egipto por un grupo de oficiales del Ejército, tras la abdicación del rey Faruk. — Egypt proclaimed a republic, General Neguib becomes president
1948 UN Commission on Human Rights adopts International Declaration of Human Rights
1948 US National Security Council authorizes covert operations for first time
1946 Proclamación de la República de Italia. El rey Humberto II se exilia en Portugal.
1945 William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) British (Irish) radio traitor charged with treason
1942 Eric Nessler of France stays aloft in a glider for 38h21m
1940 Though the British Empire was not to last 1000, or even 20 years, yet ...
     After the fall of France to the Nazis, Prime Minister concludes his speech to the House of Commons with:
     ... I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this Island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, “This was their finest hour.”
1940 De Londres, premier appel du Général de Gaulle aux Français -- Héroïque résistance des 2000 cadets de Saumur commence et durera jusqu'au 21.
^ 1940 “La France a perdu une bataille, elle n’a pas perdu la guerre !”
      La veille, le maréchal Pétain s'était adressé à la France et avait annoncé qu'il demandait l'armistice. Charles de Gaulle, général à titre temporaire, s’envola pour Londres, en laissant l'unité sous son commandement bizarrement, en plein combat et sans ordre. En dépit des réticences de son cabinet, le Premier ministre britannique, sir Winston Churchuill, a donné l'autorisation au général de Gaulle de parler à la BBC. Vers 20 h, ce jour, il lance l'appel reproduit ci-dessous.
      Tandis que s’envolent "les mots irrévocables", il est jeté "d’un coup hors de toutes les séries", comme il l’a écrit dans ses mémoires. Mais il assume pleinement et va devoir porter seul, au plus fort de la tempête qui secoue l’Europe et le monde, le poids de la France. Il le portera ce poids, contre l’Angleterre, souvent, contre les E.U. et Roossevelt, contre les Russes, contre le gouvernement français légitime (?) de Vichy (Pétain).
      Mais, la dissidence où il entre, il s’y est longtemps préparé. Il s’est toujours rebellé contre la hiérarchie trop statique, aveugle. Dressé contre ses instructeurs de l’École supérieure de guerre; face à Pétain, lui réclamant la paternité d’un texte écrit dans le cadre de ses fonctions d’état-major; tentant d’imposer aux théoriciens les plus illustres ses vues révolutionnaires sur la stratégie des chars et la professionnalisation de l’armée; et, en pleine guerre, lançant contre le haut état-major ce brûlot qu’est le "mémorandum" de janvier 1940, il est vraiment un rebelle-né, homme supérieur qui se dit tel et ne s’encombre d’aucune hiérarchie, se croyant assez puissamment accordé à l’intérêt national pour trouver à chacun de ses gestes les justifications d’une mystérieuse légitimité.
      Cet appel du 18 Juin, c’est l’invitation à tous les Français à refuser la collaboration avec le gouvernement pro-Allemand de Pétain, et à entrer en Résistance à ses côtés, lui, de Gaulle qui incarne la France Libre. Cet appel est déterminant car pour des millions de Français (dont très peu sont à l'écoute le jour de l'appel), il incarnera la Résistance. Il prépare déjà la future après-guerre. Il invite les Français à une Résistance intérieure; cet esprit évoluera avec les circonstances, mais c’est bien cet appel qui en marque le point de départ. Il marque aussi le point de départ de cette Résistance Extérieure, Officielle en quelque sorte, presque légitime, et que la Victoire légitimera.
     L'Appel est rediffusé le lendemain et publié dans la presse encore libre du sud de la France, notamment La Dépêche de Toulouse. Il survient dans un moment d'immense détresse nationale. Suite à une offensive des armées allemandes, les troupes franco-anglaises se débandent ou gagnent l'Angleterre. Huit millions de civils fuient sur les routes de l'exode. Charles de Gaulle (49 ans), sous-secrétaire d'Etat à la Défense, a tenté de convaincre son gouvernement de résister jusqu'au bout. De retour d'une visite à Londres auprès du Premier ministre Winston Churchill, il a appris le 16 juin que le maréchal Philippe Pétain (84 ans), partisan de l'armistice, était le nouveau chef du gouvernement. Le 17 juin, il a repris l'avion pour Londres cependant que Pétain annonçait à la radio sa décision de cesser le combat. De Gaulle place ses espoirs dans la mondialisation du conflit, plus lucide en cela que la plupart de ses contemporains, qui croient à une victoire inéluctable de l'Allemagne. A Churchill, il fait part de son intention de lancer un appel à la résistance mais il n'a accès que le lendemain aux studios de la BBC. C'est que le cabinet britannique reste hésitant. Il veut éviter une rupture avec le gouvernement de Pétain, dans la crainte que la flotte française ne soit livrée à l'ennemi. L'Appel arrive trop tard pour enrayer la ferveur des Français envers celui qui ne sera bientôt plus appelé que «Le Maréchal». Mais jour après jour, à la radio de Londres, de Gaulle va bâtir sa légitimité contre les «traîtres de Vichy». Par son verbe, il lavera la honte de la défaite.

     Le 16 juin 1940 au soir, le gouvernement français de Paul Reynaud démissionne. Le Maréchal Pétain est nommé chef du gouvernement par le président de la République Albert Lebrun. Le Maréchal Pétain demande l'armistice qui sera signé par lui le 22 juin 1940.
     
C'est dans ce contexte que le général de Gaulle prononce l'appel du 18 juin sur les ondes de la BBC de Londres, par lequel il exhorte les Français à la résistance contre l'occupation allemande.

De Gaulle au microAppel du Général de GAULLE
prononcé à la radio de Londres le 18 juin 1940

      Les chefs qui, depuis de nombreuses années, sont à la tête des armées françaises, ont formé un gouvernement.
      Ce gouvernement, alléguant la défaite de nos armées, s'est mis en rapport avec l'ennemi pour cesser le combat.
      Certes, nous avons été, nous sommes, submergés par la force mécanique, terrestre et aérienne, de l'ennemi.
      Infiniment plus que leur nombre, ce sont les chars, les avions, la tactique des Allemands qui nous font reculer.


    Ce sont les chars, les avions, la tactique des Allemands qui ont surpris nos chefs au point de les amener là où ils en sont aujourd'hui. 
     Mais le dernier mot est-il dit ?
     L'espérance doit-elle disparaître?
     La défaite est-elle définitive?
     Non! Croyez-moi, moi qui vous parle en connaissance de cause et vous dis que rien n'est perdu pour la France.
     Les mêmes moyens qui nous ont vaincus peuvent faire venir un jour la victoire.


Car la France n'est pas seule !
Elle n'est pas seule !
Elle n'est pas seule !
Elle a un vaste Empire derrière elle.

     Elle peut faire bloc avec l'empire britannique qui tient la mer et continue la lutte.
     Elle peut, comme l'Angleterre, utiliser sans limites l'immense industrie des Etats-Unis.

     Cette guerre n'est pas limitée au territoire malheureux de notre pays.
     Cette guerre n'est pas tranchée par la bataille de France.
     Cette guerre est une guerre mondiale.

     Toutes les fautes, tous les retards, toutes les souffrances, n'empêchent pas qu'il y a, dans l'univers, tous les moyens nécessaires pour écraser un jour nos ennemis.
      Foudroyés aujourd'hui par la force mécanique, nous pourrons vaincre dans l'avenir par une force mécanique supérieure.

Le destin du monde est là.

     Moi, Général de Gaulle, actuellement à Londres, j'invite les officiers et les soldats français qui se trouvent en territoire britannique ou qui viendraient à s'y trouver, avec leurs armes ou sans leurs armes, j'invite les ingénieurs et les ouvriers spécialistes des industries d'armement qui se trouvent en territoire britannique ou qui viendraient à s'y trouver, à se mettre en rapport avec moi.
      Quoi qu'il arrive, la flamme de la résistance française ne doit pas s'éteindre et ne s'éteindra pas.

      Demain, comme aujourd'hui, je parlerai à la Radio de Londres.

^ 1940 Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich
      Benito Mussolini arrives in Munich with his foreign minister, Count Ciano, to discuss immediate plans with the Fuhrer, and doesn't like what he hears. Embarrassed over the late entry of Italy in the war against the Allies, and its rather tepid performance since, Mussolini wants to convince his Axis partner to exploit the advantage he has in France by demanding total surrender and occupying the southern portion still free. The Italian dictator clearly wants "in" on the spoils, and this is a way of reaping rewards with a minimum of risk.
      But Hitler, too, is in no mood to risk, and is determined to put forward rather mild peace terms to France. He needs to ensure that the French fleet remain neutral and that a government-in-exile is not formed in North Africa or London to continue the war. He also denies Mussolini's request that Italian troops occupy the Rhone Valley, and that Corsica, Tunisia, and Djibouti (adjacent to Italian-occupied Ethiopia) be disarmed. Ciano records in his diary that Mussolini left the meeting frustrated and "very much embarrassed," feeling "that his role is secondary." Ciano also records his newfound respect for Hitler: "Today he speaks with a reserve and perspicacity which, after such a victory, are really astonishing."
1940 En Wallonie, récemment occupée par les Nazis, création d’un mouvement clandestin : "Wallonie Libre". Il rassemble des personnalités militantes libérales et socialistes. Leur but à long terme : l’autonomie culturelle et politique de la Wallonie.
1928 Amelia Earhart is first woman (passenger) to cross Atlantic by air
1903 first US transcontinental auto trip begins in SF; arrives NY 3-mo later
1892 Macademia nuts first planted in Hawaii
1873 Susan B Anthony fined $100 for attempting to vote for US President
1870 Se aprueba la ley por la que se autoriza el Código Penal español.
1864 At Petersburg, Virginia, Grant ends 4 days of assaults
1863 After long neglect, Confederates hurriedly fortify Vicksburg. Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1837 La reina de España María Cristina de Borbón proclama la Constitución de 1837.
1822 Part of US-Canadian boundary is determined.
^ 1815 Napoléon meets his Waterloo (4th day: the end),
      100 Jours plus tôt, moins d'un an aprés son abdication, le 1er mars, Napoléon s'était échappé de l’île d’Elbe où il se trouvait en "résidence surveillée". Il débarqua au Golfe Juan et entama une marche triomphale sur Paris pour reprendre le pouvoir. Les Français, déçus de la restauration du Pouvoir Royal et de la fiscalité dévorante du nouveau Régime (Première Restauration : Louis XVIII). acclamèrent l’Empereur. Mais les Coalisés n’entendaient pas laisser Bonaparte reprendre son pouvoir et ses guerres contre l’Europe. De retour de l'île d'Elbe, Napoléon affronta, à la tête de son armée, aux abords d'un petit village de Belgique, une coalition allée--d'anglais, prussiens, et hollandais--commandée par Wellington
      Le matin, Napoléon disait: "Nous avons quatre-vingt-dix chances pour nous. Je vous dis que Wellington est un mauvais général, que les Anglais sont de mauvaises troupes, et que ce sera l'affaire d'un déjeuner." Il tombe des trombes d'eau. L'empereur ne donne le signal du combat qu'en fin de matinée. Les charges de Ney arrivent trop tôt et sont désordonnées. Les troupes de Grouchy tardent. Les prussiens de Blücher, en revanche, arrivent. Dans le jour qui tombe, on confond la débandade de quelques troupes de la Garde avec celles de la Vieille Garde. Les cris "Tout est perdu ! La Garde est repoussée !" se font entendre. C'est le sauve qui peut. Le lendemain, Napoléon confie : "J'avais en moi l'instinct d'une issue malheureuse." Cependant, il écrit au roi Joseph : "Tout n'est point perdu." Mais c’est la fin de l’Empire et le début d’une nouvelle restauration de la Monarchie. Napoléon was exiled to the island of St. Helena, where he died six years later.
      At Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon Bonaparte suffers defeat at the hands of the Duke of Wellington, bringing an end to the Napoleonic era of European history. The Corsica-born Napoleon, one of the greatest military strategists in history, rapidly rose in the ranks of the French Revolutionary Army during the late 1790s. By 1799, France was at war with most of Europe, and Napoleon returned home from his Egyptian campaign to take over the reigns of the French government and save his nation from collapse. After becoming first consul in February 1800, he reorganized his armies and defeated Austria. In 1802, he established the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804 was crowned emperor of France in Notre Dame Cathedral. By 1807, Napoleon controlled an empire that stretched from the River Elbe in the north, down through Italy in the south, and from the Pyrenees to the Dalmatian coast. Beginning in 1812, Napoleon began to encounter the first significant defeats of his military career, suffering through a disastrous invasion of Russia, losing Spain to the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula War, and enduring total defeat against an allied force by 1814. Exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean, he escaped to France in early 1815 and set up a new regime. As allied troops mustered on the French frontiers, he raised a new Grand Army and marched into Belgium. He intended to defeat the allied armies one by one before they could launch a united attack. On 16 June 1815, he defeated the Prussians under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at Ligny, and sent 33'000 men, or about one-third of his total force, in pursuit of the retreating Prussians.
      On 18 June Napoleon led his remaining 72'000 soldiers against the Duke of Wellington's 68'000-man allied army, which had taken up a strong position 20 km south of Brussels near the village of Waterloo. In a fatal blunder, Napoleon waited until mid-day to give the command to attack in order to led the ground dry. The delay in fighting gave Blücher's troops, who had eluded their pursuers, time to march to Waterloo and join the battle by the late afternoon. In repeated attacks, Napoleon failed to break the center of the allied center. Meanwhile, the Prussians gradually arrived and put pressure on Napoleon's eastern flank. At 18:00, the French under Marshal Michel Ney managed to capture a farmhouse in the allied center and began decimating Wellington's troops with artillery. Napoleon, however, was preoccupied with the 30'000 Prussians attacking his flank and did not release troops to aid Ney's attack until after 19:00. By that time, Wellington had reorganized his defenses, and the French attack was repulsed. Fifteen minutes later, the allied army launched a general advance, and the Prussians attacked in the east, throwing the French troops into panic and then a disorganized retreat. The Prussians pursued the remnants of the French army, and Napoleon left the field. French casualties in the Battle of Waterloo were 25'000 men killed and wounded and 9000 captured, while the allies lost about 23'000.
      Napoleon returned to Paris and on 22 June abdicated in favor of his son. He decided to leave France before counterrevolutionary forces could rally against him, and on 15 July he surrendered to British protection at the port of Rochefort. He hoped to travel to the United States, but the British instead sent him to Saint Helena, a remote island in the Atlantic off the coast of Africa. Napoleon protested but had no choice but to accept the exile. With a group of followers, he lived quietly on St. Helena for six years. In May 1821, he died, most likely of stomach cancer. He was only 51 years old. In 1840, his body was returned to Paris, and a magnificent funeral was held. Napoleon's body was conveyed through the Arc de Triomphe and entombed under the dome of the Invalides.
^ 1812 Second Anglo-American War Begins
      The day after the Senate followed the House of Representatives in voting to declare war against Great Britain, President James Madison signs the declaration into law, and the War of 1812 begins. The American war declaration, opposed by a sizable minority in Congress, has been called in response to the British economic blockade of France, the induction of American seaman into the British Royal Navy against their will, and the British support of hostile Indian tribes along the Great Lakes frontier.
      A faction of Congress, known as the "War Hawks," had been advocating war with Britain for several years, and had not hidden their hopes that a US invasion of Canada might result in significant territorial land gains for the United States. In the months after President Madison proclaimed the state of war to be in effect, American forces launched a three-point invasion of Canada, all of which were decisively unsuccessful.
      In 1814, with Napoleon Bonaparte’s French Empire collapsing, the British were able to allocate more military resources to the American war, and in August, Washington, D.C., fell to the British troops, who burned the White House, the Capitol, and other buildings in retaliation for the earlier burning of government buildings in Canada by US soldiers. However, in September, Thomas Macdonough’s American naval force won an impressive victory at the Battle of Plattsburg Bay on Lake Champlain, forcing the invading British army to retreat into Canada. The American victory, coupled with the fact that the end of the war against Napoleon had nullified the problem of US neutrality, led to the conclusion of peace negotiations in Ghent, Belgium.
      On 24 December 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed, formally ending the War of 1812. By the terms of the agreement, all conquered territory was to be returned and a commission would be established to settle the boundary of the US and Canada. However, British forces assailing the Gulf coast were not informed of the treaty in time, and on 08 January 1815, the US forces under Andrew Jackson achieved the greatest American victory of the war at the Battle of New Orleans. The American public heard of Jackson’s great victory and the Treaty of Ghent at approximately the same time, fostering a greater sentiment of self-confidence and shared identity throughout the young republic.
     Estalla la guerra entre Inglaterra y los Estados de la Unión norteamericana, tras la anexión por esta última de la Luisiana y la ocupación de la Florida.
1799 Coup d'Etat du 30 prairial. Le corps législatif, le Conseil des anciens et les Cinq-Cents avait demandé des explications sur la situation militaire de la part du Directoire, qui n'avait pas répondu. Sommé une nouvelle fois de répondre, il se contente d'une réponse dilatoire. A l'instigation de Sieyès, les Directeurs modérés que sont Merlin de Douai et La Révellière-Lépeaux sont cassés et remplacés par Roger Ducos et le général Moulin. Les républicains l'emportent. C'est un coup d'état en douceur.
1793 LEMASSON Joseph Marie, 65 ans, né à Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine) domicilié à St Servan, même département, chirurgien, est condamné à la déportation par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de la conspiration, connue sous le nom de "Bretagne", dont le ci-devant marquis de la Rouerie était le chef ou l'un des principaux agents sous l'autorisation et l'appui des frères du ci-devant, roi; et, le 8 messidor an 2 (26 Jun 1794), is sera condamnné à mort par le même tribunal, comme complice d'un complot dans la maison d'arrêt de Bicêtre où il était détenu, en attendant l'exécution de son premier jugement, tendant à forcer les porte et égorger la garde de cette maison, se porter de là aux comités de salut public et de sûreté générale assassiner les membres les plus marquants, leur arracher le cœur, le faire griller, et le manger.
^ 1778 The British abandon Philadelphia
      After almost nine months of occupation, the fifteen thousand British troops under Sir Henry Clinton evacuate Philadelphia, the former US capital. The British position in Philadelphia had become untenable after France’s entrance into the war on the side of the Americans. In order to avoid the French fleet, General Clinton was forced to lead his British-Hessian force to New York City by land. Other loyalists in the city sailed down the Delaware River to escape the Patriots, who returned to Philadelphia the day after the British departure.
      US General Benedict Arnold, who led the force that reclaimed the city without bloodshed was appointed military governor. On 24 June, the Continental Congress returned from its temporary capital of York, Pennsylvania. Nine months before, on 26 September 1777, Philadelphia was captured by the British following Patriot General George Washington’s defeats at the Battle of Brandywine and the Battle of the Clouds. British General William Howe had made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the focus of his campaign, but the Patriot government had deprived him of the decisive victory he hoped for by moving its operations to the more secure site of York one week before. In June of the next year, the British were forced to end their occupation and the Continental Congress returned.
^ 1583 First life insurance policy
       It is taken out on William Gibbons by Richard Martin of London. The premium is £383
      Dès la première moitié du XVème siècle étaient conclus des contrats d’assurance sur la vie de l’épouse ou des parents, ou même de tiers, garantissant le " contractant " à l’égard des pertes éventuelles que le décès de l’assuré pourrait entraîner. L’on a conservé une police délivrée le 18 juin 1583 à la Bourse de Londres par seize marchands qui appartenaient à la Chambre des assurances, créée quelques années auparavant ; il s’agissait d’une assurance "temporaire", souscrite pour une durée d’une année au taux de 8 %.
      Ces premières formes d’assurance se distinguaient toutefois assez mal des paris sur la mort ou la survie des hommes illustres comme le pape, les rois ou les empereurs, qui étaient alors de pratique courante. Aussi les grandes lois sur l’assurance, comme l’Ordonnance de Barcelone ou l’Ordonnance de Colbert de 1681, interdisent-elles l’assurance sur la vie en considération de son caractère de "spéculation sur la vie humaine", et parce qu’elle attribue à cette vie humaine un prix. Il faudra dès lors attendre le 18ème siècle et l’explosion des sociétés à capital (lors du développement du machinisme et de la Révolution Industrielle qui s’ensuivit), pour que se développent les assurances et qu’elles acquièrent un caractère légal, en Angleterre d’abord, en France ensuite.
1538 Tratado de Niza entre Carlos I y Francisco I, por el que se establece una tregua de diez años en las guerras que sostenían ambos reyes. — Ten-year Truce of Nice between Charles V and Francis I, which was negotiated by Pope Paul III. — La Paix de Nice est signée entre Charles Quint et François Ier. Elle conclut une trêve de dix ans et sera suivie par le traité d'Aigues-Mortes qui garde la Savoie au roi de France et donne le Milanais à l'empereur.
1464 Pius II leads a brief 'crusade' into Italy, against the Turks. However, he would soon become ill and die, before the rest of his allies arrive. Soon after, the three-centuries-old 'crusades mentality' among European Christians would come to an end.
1294 Un ghetto avant le mot: Un arrêt du Roi de France, Philippe le Bel, enjoint de "réunir" tous les Juifs de Paris dans un seul quartier bien séparé de la Ville et ceci "ad scandala evitanda". Et afin que les Chrétiens évitent les rapports avec les " infidèles ", l’on reprend un article du Concile de Latran (1215) : Sarrasins (Musulmans) et Juifs revêtiront un des habits particuliers qui les désignent clairement à leurs contemporains.
1178 Proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno: 5 Canterbury monks report explosion on the moon (only such observation known)
1155 En Roma el papa Adriano IV corona a Federico I como emperador de Alemania. — Frédéric Ier Barberousse couronné Empereur Romain de la Germanie par le Pape Adrien IV. Frédéric périra noyé dans le Cydnos, petit cours d’eau de Cilicie (Province du Sud-est de l’Asie-Mineure, près des monts Taurus), lors de la 3ème Croisade, en 1190.
1991 Pres Zachary Taylor's body is exhumed to test how he died
TO THE TOP
< 17 Jun 19 Jun >
^  Deaths which occurred on an 18 June:

Moqrin, dead2004 Abdulaziz al-Moqrin, 31; Faisal Abdul-Rahman al-Dikheel; Turki bin Fuheid al-Muteiry; Ibrahim bin Abdullah al-Dreiham; and a Saudi security agent of those who, in the evening, at a gasoline station in the central Riyahd district Malazz, confront al-Qaeda terrorists whom an informant had seen disposing of the body of Johnson (next), which is not found, and arrest twelve of them. Moqrin [photo >] was the leader. Two security agents are wounded.
2004 Paul M. Johnson Jr., born in 1955 (before 18 Jun), beheaded in Saudi Arabia by the Fallujah Brigade of al-Qaida, which had kidnapped him on 12 June 2004 and, on 15 June 2004, had threatened his death by today if the Saudi government did not release all al-Qaida prisoners. Johnson was a US citizen, who had been working for more than ten years in Saudi Arabia as a Lockheed Martin engineer, most recently on Apache attack helicopter systems, which are sometimes used against terrorists (often killing innocent civilians too).
2002 Muhmad Basharat, of Islamic Jihad, shot during an identity check at an Israeli army roadblock in Halhoul, north of Hebron, West Bank. Israel says that Besharat was involved in a series of terror attacks, including the March 2002 murder of two members of the TIPH observer force who patrol Hebron.
2002 Rahamim Zidkiyahu, 51, Gila Nekev, 55, Shiri Negari, 22, Tatiana Braselevsky, 41, Helena Ivan*, 63, Mendel Bereson, 72, Baruch Gruani, 58, Galila Bugala, 11, Boaz Aluf*, 54, Liat Yagen, 24, Leah Baruch, 59, Baiman Aazi Kabhah, 23, Moshe Gottlieb, 70, Shani Avitzedek, 15, Orit Hayla, 21, Yelena Plagov, 42, Michal Biazi, 23, Raphael Berger, 28, Raisa Dikstein*, 69 , and suicide bomber Muhamed Haza al-Ral, 22, at 07:52 on an Egged bus of line 32A , driven by Zidkiyadu, just pulling out from the stop where the bomber boarded, near the Pat Junction in Beit Safafa, an Arab neighborhood opposite Gilo (from where are all those listed but the first two). The Hamas bomber (named, appropriately, al-Ghoul by AP), who left a note mentioning that this is his third attempt, was from the al-Fara refugee camp near Nablus, West Bank, where his father and others rejoice. 74 persons are injured. Some of the victims are Arabs. The al-Aqsa intifada minimum body count now stands at 1403 Palestinians and 530 Israelis. [* = no photo]
[below: site of the suicide bombing]
Taiyo2002 Taiyo [photo >], 10 months old, of heart failure, giraffe at the Omoriyama Zoo in Akita, Japan. He had been given a bamboo leg (it was announced on 16 May 2002), because he had fallen and broken his right front leg in a run-in with a zebra in March 2002. Taiyo's leg was initially placed in a cast but it began showing signs of necrosis. Taiyo means Sun in Japanese. Taiyo was about 2.8 meters tall and weighed 200 kg.
2001 Danny Yehuda, 35, Jew shot by Palestinians. He was driving home to the West Bank enclave settlement of Chomesh when a Palestinian taxi passed in the opposite direction, did a U-turn, pursued the car and opened fire. The shots killed Yehuda and his car stopped. The taxi then pulled up alongside, the assailants got out and looked into the car. Lightly wounded passenger Alex Briskin, 17, feigned death and the attackers left.. A faction of Arafat's Fatah faction claimed responsibility for the shooting. This brings the body count of the al-Aqsa intifada, which started on 28 September, to 494 Palestinians and 113 Israelis.
2001 Some 80 Taliban fighters (according to the opposition).       ^top^
     An opposition alliance fighting Afghanistan's ruling Taliban militia reports heavy fighting in two northern districts that it says killed 80 Taliban fighters. It says that the two sides exchanged artillery and tank fire in two districts of northern Takhar province and that the opposition captured 45 Taliban soldiers. It says that five opposition fighters were wounded, but none died.
      The Taliban Islamic militia controls 95% of Afghanistan and is fighting the opposition for the remaining 5%. The civil war, combined with the worst drought in 30 years and the Taliban's medieval extremist so-called Islamic barbarity, has displaced hundreds of thousands of people and given Afghanistan the world's worst refugee problem.
1986 Joan Oliver o Pere Quart, poeta español.
1980 Kazimierz Kuratowski, Warsaw, Poland, mathematician born on 02 February 1896. He worked in topology and set theory. He is best known for his theorem giving a necessary and sufficient condition for a graph to be planar.
1978 Peter Stefan, Slovak mathematician refugee in England from Communism, born in 1941, dies in a fall while mountain climbing alone in Snowdonia National Park in North Wales, which has the highest mountain in England and Wales (1085 m), ominously named in Welsh Yr Wyddfa (The Tomb).
1975 Faisal Ibn Mussed Abdul Aziz Saudi prince, beheaded in Riyadh shopping center parking lot for killing his uncle the king.
1974 Georgi Zhukov, 78, Russian Marshal (WW II)
1964 Giorgio Morandi, Italian painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 20 July 1890, specialized in Still Life. — MORE ON MORANDI AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
^ 1945 Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, killed by Japanese artillery on Okinawa.
      On April 1, 1945, with his Tenth Army, he had launched the invasion of Okinawa, a strategic Pacific island located midway between Japan and Formosa. Possession of Okinawa would give the US a base large enough for an invasion of the Japanese home islands. Although there were over 100'000 Japanese defenders on the island, most were deeply entrenched in the island's densely forested interior, and by the evening of 01 April, 60'000 US troops had come safely ashore.
      However, on 04 April, Japanese land resistance stiffened and at sea Kamikaze pilots escalated their deadly suicide attacks on US vessels. Over the next month, the battle raged on land and sea, with the Japanese troops and flyers making the Americans pay dearly for every strategic area of land and water won. On 18 June, with US victory imminent, General Buckner, the hero of Iwo Jima, was killed by Japanese artillery. Three days later, his Tenth Army reached the southern coast of the island, and, on 22 June, Japanese resistance effectively came to an end. Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, the Japanese commander, with some of his officers and troops, committed suicide rather than surrender.
as the US Tenth Army overcomes the last major pockets of Japanese resistance on Okinawa Island, ending one of the bloodiest battles of World War II.
      The Japanese lost 120'000 troops in the defense of Okinawa, while the Americans suffered 12'500 dead and 35'000 wounded. Of the thirty-six Allied ships lost, most were destroyed by the 2000 or so Japanese pilots who gave up their lives in Kamikaze missions. With the capture of Okinawa, the Allies prepared for the invasion of Japan, a military operation predicted to be far bloodier than the 1944 Allied invasion of Western Europe. The plan called for invading the southern island of Kyushu in November of 1945, and the main Japanese island of Honshu in March of 1946.
Sergio Arboleda1932 Los dos principales responsables en el atentado contra Mussolini son ejecutados

1928 Roald Amundsen et ses co-équipiers de l’hydravion Latham-47. A son bord, le célèbre Amundsen. Il recherche les survivants de la catastrophe du dirigeable " Italia " (qui veut ouvrir la première liaison au-dessus du Pôle Nord). L’expédition se disparait "corps et biens" dans la Mer de Barrentz. — El explorador noruego Roald Amundsen desaparece en el Ártico cuando trataba de localizar el dirigible de Umberto Nobile

1920 Mario Puccini, Italian artist born ot 28 June 1869.
1916 Helmuth Johan Ludwig Von Moltke, general alemán y jefe del Estado Mayor.
1897 Karl Herpfer, German artist born on 30 November 1836.
1888 Sergio Arboleda de Pombo [< retrato], escritor y político colombiano. Sergio Arboleda nació el 11 de octubre de 1822. En 1876 fue jefe de la revolución en el Cauca, miembro de la Cámara Provincial de Popayán y secretario de la misma, vocal de las municipalidades de Popayán y Santander, diputado a las Legislaturas caucanas de 1857 y 1873, representante al Congreso en 1860 y, posteriormente, senador por el Tolima (1872, 73, 76). Publicó numerosos opúsculos políticos, religiosos o de temas científicos e industriales, destacándose su ensayo La República en la América española, suscrito con el anagrama Gabriel de Soroa, y un libro, Rudimentos de geografía, cronología e historia.
1865 Antoine Joseph Wiertz, Belgian painter born on 22 February 1806. He specialized in Historical Subjects. — MORE ON WIERTZ AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1844 Juan Bautista Alberdi, escritor y pensador argentino.
^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
1794 (30 prairial an II):
OREVE Pierre Julien, prêtre, domicilié à Bedée (Ille-et-Vilaine),par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme réfractaire à la loi.
A Arras la famille Dauchet, tous nés à Wailly:
PATOUL Marie Françoise, 50 ans, épouse de Dauchet Pierre Adrien, condamnée à mort —      ... les autres guillotinés:
DAUCHET Pierre Adrien, 55 ans, maçon, et leurs enfants: Pierre Joseph, 22 ans — Marie Augustine, 24 ans — Marie Séraphine, 27 ans.
1793:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
DELAUNAY Guillaume Maurice, 40 ans, ne et domicilié à Port-Malo (Ille-et-Vilaine), Lieutenant général de l’amirauté dudit Port, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
      ... comme conspirateurs:
FONTEVIEUX Jean Baptiste Georges, officier des chasseurs de Gévaudan, 34 ans, natif du duché des Deux Ponts, domicilié à Paris.
            ... complices de la conspiration de la ci-devant province de Bretagne, dont le ci-devant marquis de la Rouerie était chef ou l'un des principaux agents, sous l'appui des frères de Capet:
PONTAVIS Louis Anne, 26 ans, natif de Lamballe, officier au régiment d'Armagnac, domicilié à Paris.
ALLIN Michel Picot Limoélan, 59 ans, natif de St Malo, ci-devant gentilhomme breton.
               ... domiciliés dans le département d'Ille-et-Villaine:
GROUD Nicolas Bernard, (dit de la Motte), capitaine de vaisseau, 50 ans, né à Port-Malo, domicilié à St Coulon.
MOÊLIEN Thérèse (dit Fougères), fille d'un conseiller au parlement de Bretagne, âgée de 30 ans, née à Rennes, domiciliée à Fougères.
LOCQUET DE GRANDVILLE Félix Victor, 34 ans, ci-devant gentilhomme breton, natif de Fougerais (Ille-et-Vilaine), domicilié à Port-Malo.
VENCENT Georges Julien Jean, commissaire de marine et du commerce de Hollande, 48 ans, né et domicilié à Port-Malo.
DESILLES Angélique Françoise, femme La Fauchaire, âgée de 24 ans, née et domiciliée à Port-Malo.
               ... domiciliés dans le département des Côtes-du-Nord:
PICOT Michel Julien Alain, (dit Limoëlan), ci devant gentilhomme, 59 ans, natif de Saint-Malo, domicilié à Senignac.
MICAULT-MINVILLE Mathurin, homme de loi, ci-devant commissaire de marine et de commerce, 49 ans, natif de Lamballe, ... et complice de Laguyomarais.
LAMOTTE (de) LAGUYOMRAIS Pierre Joseph Gabriel François, ex gentilhomme breton, natif de Lamballe, 50 ans, domicilié à Laguyomarais.
MICAULT Marie Jeanne, femme Laguyomarais, âgée de 50 ans, native de Lamballe, domicilié à Laguyomarais.
THEBAULT Elie Alexandre (dit Lachauvenais), précepteur, 22 ans, né à St-Ignace, domicilié à Lagnyomarais.
1681 Cornelis Kick (or Kik), Dutch artist born in 1635.
1464 Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden, Flemish Northern Renaissance painter born in 1399 or 1400. — MORE ON VAN DER WEYDEN AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
 
< 17 Jun 19 Jun >
^  Births which occurred on an 18 June:

1937 John D (Jay) Rockefeller IV (Sen-III)
^ 1937 Gail Godwin, novelist, in Birmingham, Alabama.
      Godwin's father abandoned his family when Gail was very young. The family lived with Godwin's grandmother in Asheville, North Carolina, while Gail's mother worked as a teacher, newspaper reporter, and fiction writer. When Godwin was 16, her mother married a salesman, and the family moved frequently. Godwin attended five different high schools and ultimately invited her estranged father to her graduation. He not only attended but also offered to put her through college, which would have been financially impossible for Godwin's mother. Godwin attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and studied journalism. Her father, a longtime victim of depression, committed suicide her junior year--the first of many suicides to occur within her family. Godwin struggled with depression during much of her life.
      After college, she worked as a reporter writing obituaries for the Miami Herald but was fired for being "too ambitious," according to Godwin. She married briefly, divorced, moved to London, remarried again, and divorced a year later. In 1966, she returned to the US and pursued a doctorate in English at the University of Iowa, where she wrote her first novel, The Perfectionists, as her thesis. The book was published in 1970. She became a professor at the University of Illinois in Urbana and wrote four more books before publishing her first bestseller, A Mother and Two Daughters (1981), which sold more than her first five books combined. She continued writing novels that were both critical and popular successes, including A Southern Family (1987) and Father Melancholy's Daughter (1991).
1931 Fernando Henrique Cardoso, sociólogo y profesor, presidente de Brasil.
^ 1923 The Checker cab
      The first Checker cab is produced by the Checker Cab Manufacturing Company. Checker Cab has its origins as Chicago-based cab company that in 1920 began buying cars manufactured by the Commonwealth Motor Company. The car bodies for the Commonwealths were in turn manufactured by the Markin Autobody Company of Joliet, Illinois. In 1921 Morris Markin absorbed the Commonwealth Motor Company into his own enterprise, and subsequently discontinued all passenger car manufacturing. Markin moved the new company, which he named Checker Cab Manufacturing Company, to Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he was able to take over factories previously used by the Handley-Knight and Dort automobile companies.
      By 1925 Checker, with a production of over one thousand cabs per year, was the largest exclusive cab maker in the country. Their competition, John D. Hertz’s Yellow Cab companies, continued to manufacture passenger cars. In 1933 Checker briefly became a part of businessman E.L. Cord’s empire, until 1937 when the Securities and Exchange Commission charged E.L. Cord and Morris Markin with manipulating the stock of Checker, Parmalee Motors, and Chicago Yellow Cab. Both men denied the charges but agreed to abide by a court order forbidding them to engage in any trading that was violation of securities laws. The same day the court order was issued, Cord disposed of his shares in his far-flung automotive enterprises.
      Markin retained control of Checker, the only company that had been one of Cord’s holdings to survive the liquidation. In 1958 Checker released the Aerobus, a twelve-passenger stretch cab intended for use as a ferry for air travelers. The following year Checker returned to passenger car production with the introduction of the Marathon, a car similar to the company’s A8 taxi, introduced in 1956. Production of the Marathon never exceeded a few thousand units per year, and sales were limited to a handful of large cities, such as New York, and to the scattered few who liked the idea of owning a car that emphasized interior roominess and durability.
      Checker was one of the few automotive manufacturing companies that could boast a continuous run of production from the 1920s to the 1980s. In the early eighties, however, production fell to three thousand units per year and the company was losing money. Ironically, Checker had never enjoyed success in the replacement market because one of its earliest advertising claims—that "no Checker Cab has ever worn out"—was largely true. Economic conditions also saw the taxicab companies convert to smaller, more fuel-efficient standard Detroit cars: The 1800-kg Checker had become a dinosaur.
click to zoom in1916 Julio César Turbay Ayala, político colombiano
1913 Sylvia Porter financial writer (Sylvia Porter's Money Book)
1913 Paul Julius Oswald Teichmüller, German Nazi mathematician who died on (or soon after) 11 September 1943, fighting in the Wehrmacht in the Dnieper region of the USSR. His main contribution is in geometric function theory.
1886 George Mallory England, mountain climber ("because it is there")
1884 Charles Weatherburn, Australian mathematician who died on 1974. He worked on vector analysis and differential geometry. Author of An Introduction to Riemannian Geometry and the Tensor Calculus (1938).
1877 James Montgomery Flagg, US illustrator, poster artist, and portrait painter known for his illustrations of buxom girls and particularly for his "I WANT YOU" 1917 recruiting poster [click on image to enlarge >]. He wrote an autobiography, Roses and Buckshot (1946). He died on 27 May 1960.
^ 1871 Nicolae Iorga, scholar and statesman, Romania's greatest national historian, who also served briefly as its prime minister (1931–1932).
      Appointed professor of universal history at Bucharest (1895), Iorga early established his historical reputationwith his Geschichte des rumänischen Volkes (1905), his five-volume Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches (1908–1912), and studies of the Crusades.
      From the time of his first election to the Romanian Parliament (1907), he played an important role in national politics. He founded his own party, the National Democrats, and in 1931–1932 he served as prime minister and also minister of education. A man of enormous energy, he had already by 1933 written an estimated 800 books and 10'000 articles and founded a people's university at Valenii de Munte (1908), the Southeast European Institute (1913), and numerous periodicals. He subsequently published a monumental 10-volume national history (Istoria Românilor; 1936–1939). His strongly nationalist writings and lectures influenced all of Romanian intellectual life.
      Iorga supported the regime of his former student, King Carol II [15 Oct 1893 – 04 Apr 1953], who had returned from exile in 1930 to claim the national throne. On 28 November 1940 Iorga was assassinated by terrorists of the national Fascist Iron Guard.
-- 1869 Leo Putz, German painter who died on 21 July 1940. — more with links to images.
1868 Nicolás Horthy de Nagybanya, jefe de estado de Hungría.
1866 Marcelino Santa María y Sedano, Spanish artist who died in 1953.
1858 Andrew Russell Forsyth, British mathematician born on 02 June 1942. Author of Theory of functions of a complex variable (1893), A treatise on differential equations (1885), Theory of differential equations (6 six volumes 1890-1906), Lectures on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces (1912), Lectures introductory to the theory of functions of two complex variables (1914), Calculus of variations (1927), Geometry of four dimensions (1930), and Intrinsic geometry of ideal space (1935).
1845 Charles Louis Aphonse Laveran, médico, patólogo y parasitólogo francés.
1816 Léon Victor Dupré, French artist who died in 1879. — more with links to images.
1815 George Elliot, industrial y financiero inglés.
1812 Ivan Goncharov Russia, novelist/travel writer (Oblomov)
1808 Manuel María Mallarino, político y escritor colombiano.
1716 Joseph Marie Vien, French Neoclassical painter who died on 27 March 1809. — MORE ON VIEN AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1681 Feofan Prokopovich theologian, archbishop of Novgorod, westernizer.
1621 (infant baptism) Allart van Everdingen, Dutch landscape and marine painter who died on 08 November 1675. — MORE ON EVERDINGEN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
 
Holidays Egypt : Evacuation Day (1956)

Religious Observances RC : SS Mark and Marcellianus, martyrs / RC : St Ephrem, confessor, doctor / Ang : Bernard Mizeki, catechist, martyr in Rhodesia / Santos Ciriaco, Paula, Leoncio, Marcos, Amando y Germán. / Saint Léonce: Cet officier supérieur de l'armée romaine se convertit au christianisme au temps de Dioclétien. Il fut torturé et mis à mort à Tripoli, en Syrie.
click click

Thoughts for the day:
“Never borrow trouble, the interest is entirely too high.”
“Never borrow trouble, when you can own it outright.”
“Never borrow trouble, always bury trouble.”
“Never let borrowers trouble you, be known as a skinflint.”
“Never borrow trouble, burrow a way out of it.”
TO THE TOP
PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jun/h4jun18.html
http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4jun/h4jun18.html
http://www.geocities.com/hills4526/history/h4jun/h4jun18.html
updated Monday 18-Jun-2007 3:02 UT
Principal updates:
v.6.50 Saturday 17-Jun-2006 12:19 UT
v.5.50 Tuesday 14-Jun-2005 20:01 UT
Monday 28-Jun-2004 3:01 UT

safe site site safe for children safe site