a 17 June:
2006 Local government elections in Slovakia. —(060529)
2003 The previous evening, Canadian cancer-drug company Biomira (BIOM) announced disappointing Phase III trial results for its Theratope vaccine for women with metastatic breast cancer. On the NASDAQ, 27 million of the 54 million BIOM shares are traded, plunging from their exuberant previous close of $4.00 to open at $1.38, the intraday low, and closing at $1.49. They had traded as high as $4.84 as recently as 12 June 2003 (more than double what they had traded at recently, until 09 June), as low as $0.55 on 04 October 2002, and as high as $19.25 on 28 February 2000, having started being traded on 15 March 1999 at $3.66 . [4~year price chart >]
2000 JP Morgan downgrades the stock of air courier company Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings (CGO) from Market Perform to Market Underperform. This holding company is a cargo carrier that provides airport-to-airport air transportation services throughout the world to major international airlines. On this day on which the stock indices are in a strong uptrend (DJI up 2.25%), the CGO stock, which closed at $6.05 in the previous session, makes an intraday low of $3.30 and closes at $3.55. It had traded as high as $45.89 on 14 Aug 2000. [< 5~year price chart].
2000 In Cuba, more than 300'000 persons turn out to protest the continued stay of Elian González in the United States; it is the largest such demonstration since the previous December, when Cuba launched a national campaign of mass gatherings demanding the boy's return.
1998. Le président russe Eltsine demande à Anatoly Tchoubaïs de négocier un plan d'urgence avec les institutions financières internationales.
| 1998 Digital
wins keyboard injury case
A jury exonerates Digital Equipment Company from charges of negligence in a keyboard injury case. The plaintiffs, one of whom had already won a large jury verdict against Digital, contended that the company should have placed warnings of possible injury on its equipment. The case was watched closely by the computer industry. A jury exonerated Digital Equipment Company from charges of negligence in a keyboard injury case. The plaintiffs, one of whom had already won a large jury verdict against Digital, contended that the company should have placed warnings of possible injury on its equipment. The case was closely watched by the computer industry, which had come under fire as excessive keyboard usage was linked in some cases to repetitive motion syndrome in office workers.
1994 O. J. Simpson arrested after
flight from justice
After a dramatic flight from justice witnessed by millions on live television, former football star and actor Orenthal James Simpson (born 09 July 1947, San Francisco) surrenders outside his Rockingham estate to Los Angeles police, who charged him with the June 12 double-murder of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend, Ronald L. Goldman.
Earlier in the day, after learning he was to be arraigned on the charges, Simpson attempted to escape Los Angeles, but the police located him in a vehicle being driven by his friend, former professional football player Al Cowlings. Cowlings, speaking on a cellular phone to the police, explained that Simpson had a gun and was suicidal, and the police agreed to not forcibly stop his vehicle. Los Angeles news helicopters soon learned of the event unfolding on their freeways, and live television coverage of Simpson’s attempted flight began. As millions watched, Cowling’s white Ford Bronco, escorted by a phalanx of police cars, drove across Los Angeles while Simpson cowered in the back seat, allegedly with a gun to his head. Finally, after nearly nine hours on the road, the Bronco returned to Simpson’s Rockingham estate, and a tense ninety-minute standoff in the driveway ensued before Simpson finally surrendered.
In the vehicle and on his person were discovered the gun, a mustache and goatee disguise, and his passport. His lengthy criminal trial became a sensational media event that brought to light racial divisions present in America, while, some believed, calling the US justice system into question. In polls, a majority of African Americans consistently believed Simpson, who was black, to be innocent of the murder of the white victims, while the vast majority of white Americans, supported by the media and law enforcement, maintained Simpson’s guilt.
Although the evidence appeared to be pointing almost indisputably towards Simpson’s guilt, on 03 October 1995, the jury of nine African Americans, two whites, and one Hispanic took just four hours of deliberation to reach their verdict of not guilty on all charges. However, in 1997, Simpson was found liable for several charges related to the slayings in a civil trial, and was forced to award millions in compensatory and punitive damages to the victims’ families.
1991 The remains of President Zachary Taylor were briefly exhumed in Louisville, Ky., to test a theory that Taylor had died of arsenic poisoning. (Results showed death was from natural causes.)
1988 Women sentenced to 90 years in first product tampering murder case
1986 Chief Justice Warren Earl Burger resigns Antonin Scalia nominated.
1982 Pres Reagan first UN Gen Assembly address ("evil empire" speech)
1982 President Galtieri resigns after leading Argentina to defeat.
1975 Voters in Northern Mariana Is approve commonwealth status with US.
1972 US President Nixon's eventual downfall began with the arrest of five burglars inside Democratic national headquarters in Washington, D.C.'s Watergate complex.
1972 CREEPy Watergate
Five burglars are arrested in the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C. James McCord, Frank Sturgis, Bernard Barker, Virgilio Gonzales, and Eugenio Martinez are apprehended in the early morning after a security guard at the Watergate noticed that several doors leading from the stairwell to various hallways have been taped to prevent them from locking. The intruders are wearing surgical gloves and carrying walkie-talkies, cameras, and almost $2300 in sequential $100 bills. A subsequent search of their rooms at the Watergate turns up an additional $4200, burglary tools, and electronic bugging equipment.
The story of the Watergate break-in, which seemed like a minor event, is handed to two young reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, by their Washington Post editor-in-chief, Ben Bradlee. The reporters pursue the story tirelessly and would breake the scoop of White House involvement in a pattern of unethical practices against political enemies. The pair later wrote the bestselling book All the President's Men (1974), about the journalistic process of exposing the Watergate scandal.
Although there was no immediate explanation as to the objective of the break-in, an extensive investigation ensued, eventually unveiling a comprehensive scheme of political sabotage and espionage designed to discredit Democratic candidates. McCord, who was one of the burglars, was also Richard Nixon's security chief for the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP); Nixon campaign funds were ultimately traced back to the Watergate break-in; In addition, equipment used during the burglary had been borrowed from the CIA.
In the fall of 1972, Nixon was re-elected into office, but the probe continued. FBI agents soon established that hundreds of thousands of dollars in Nixon campaign contributions had been set aside to pay for a massive undercover anti-Democratic operation. According to federal investigators, CREEP had forged letters and distributed them under Democratic candidates' letterhead, leaked false and manufactured information to the press, seized confidential Democratic campaign files, and followed Democratic candidates' families in order to gather damaging information.
During a hearing of the Senate select Watergate committee on 13 July 1973, former White House aide Alexander Butterfield revealed that Nixon had been taping all of his conversations and telephone calls in the White House since 1971. After losing a battle in the Supreme Court to keep these tapes private, Nixon was heard approving the cover-up of the Watergate burglary less than a week after it happened. During the 20 June 1972, discussion of the Watergate scandal between the president and former White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman, an 18 ¼-minute gap had been inexplicably erased, causing frustration and speculation from investigators. On August 9, 1974, President Nixon resigned-the first US president to do so. However, newly elected President Gerald Ford pardoned Nixon a month later, saving him from facing criminal charges.
Five men are arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. Senate investigations eventually revealed that President Richard Nixon had been personally involved in the subsequent cover-up of the break-in; additional investigation uncovered a related group of illegal activities that included political espionage and falsification of official documents, all sanctioned by the White House. Nixon became increasingly embroiled in the political scandal. On 29 July and 30 July 1974, the House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment, charging that Nixon had misused his powers to violate the constitutional rights of US citizens, obstructed justice, and defied Judiciary Committee subpoenas. To avoid almost certain impeachment, Nixon resigned from office on 09 August. The Watergate affair had a far-ranging impact, both at home and abroad. In the United States, the scandal shook the faith of the American people in the presidency. In the final analysis though, the nation survived the constitutional crisis, thus reinforcing the system of checks and balances and proving that not even the president is above the law. Nixon's resignation had dire consequences for the Vietnam War. Nixon had always promised that he would come to the aid of South Vietnam if North Vietnam violated the terms of the Paris Peace Accords. With Nixon gone, there was no one left to make good on those promises. When the North Vietnamese began their final offensive in 1975, the promised US support was not provided and the South Vietnamese were defeated in less than 55 days.
In the early morning of 17 June 1972, five men are arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate, an office-hotel-apartment complex in Washington, D.C. In their possession were burglary tools, cameras and film, and three pen-size tear gas guns. At the scene of the crime, and in rooms the men rented at the Watergate, sophisticated electronic bugging equipment was found. Three of the men were Cuban exiles, one was a Cuban American, and the fifth was James W. McCord, Jr., a former CIA agent. That day, the suspects, who said they were "anti-communists," were charged with felonious burglary and possession of implements of crime. On June 18, however, it was revealed that James McCord was the salaried security coordinator for President Richard Nixon's reelection committee. The next day, E. Howard Hunt, Jr., a former White House aide, was linked to the five suspects.
In July, G. Gordon Liddy, finance counsel for the Committee for the Re-election of the President, was also implicated as an accomplice. In August, President Nixon announced that a White House investigation of the Watergate break-in had concluded that administration officials were not involved. In September, Liddy, Hunt, McCord, and the four Cubans were indicted by a federal grand jury on eight counts of breaking into and illegally bugging the Democratic National Committee headquarters. In September and October, reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward of The Washington Post uncovered evidence of illegal political espionage carried out by the White House and the Committee for the Re-election of the President, including the existence of a secret fund kept for the purpose and the existence of political spies hired by the committee. Despite these reports, and a growing call for a Watergate investigation on Capitol Hill, Richard Nixon was reelected president in November 1972 in a landslide victory. In January 1973, five of the Watergate burglars pleaded guilty, and two others, Liddy and McCord, were convicted. At their sentencing on 23 March US District Court Judge John J. Sirica read a letter from McCord charging that the White House had conducted an extensive "cover-up" to conceal its connection with the break-in. In April, Attorney General Richard Kleindienst and two top White House advisers, H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, resigned, and White House counsel John Dean was fired.
On 17 May 1973, the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, headed by Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina, began televised proceedings on the rapidly escalating Watergate affair. One week later, Harvard Law professor Archibald Cox was sworn in as special Watergate prosecutor. During the Senate hearings, former White House legal counsel John Dean testified that the Watergate break-in had been approved by former Attorney General John Mitchell with the knowledge of White House advisers Ehrlichman and Haldeman, and that President Nixon had been aware of the cover-up. Meanwhile, Watergate prosecutor Cox and his staff began to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by the Nixon re-election committee, illegal wiretapping of thousands of citizens by the administration, and contributions to the Republican Party in return for political favors.
In July, the existence of what were to be called the Watergate tapes official recordings of White House conversations between Nixon and his staff was revealed during the Senate hearings. Cox subpoenaed these tapes, and after three months of delay President Nixon agreed to send summaries of the recordings. Cox rejected the summaries, and Nixon fired him. His successor as special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, leveled indictments against several high-ranking administration officials, including Mitchell and Dean, who were duly convicted. Public confidence in the president rapidly waned, and by the end of July 1974 the House Judiciary Committee had adopted three articles of impeachment against President Nixon: obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential powers, and hindrance of the impeachment process. On 30 July, under coercion from the Supreme Court, Nixon finally released the Watergate tapes. On 05 August transcripts of the recordings were released, including a segment in which the president was heard instructing Haldeman to order the FBI to halt the Watergate investigation. Four days later, Nixon became the first president in US history to resign. On 08 September, his successor, President Gerald Ford, pardoned him from any criminal charges.
| 1971 The United States and Japan signed a treaty under
which the United States would return control of the island of Okinawa.
1963 The US Supreme Court struck down rules requiring the recitation of the Lord's Prayer or reading of biblical verses in public schools.
1957 Tuskegee boycott begins (Blacks boycotted city stores)
1954 Televised Senate Army McCarthy hearings end.
| 1950 first kidney transplant (Chicago)
1945 Day of Unity in West Germany (National Day)
1942 first WW II American expeditionary force lands in Africa (Gold Coast)
1925 Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of Poisonous Gases and Bacteriological Methods of Warfare
1897 William Frank Powell, NJ educator, named US minister to Haiti
1894 first US poliomyelitis epidemic breaks out, Rutland, Vermont
1885 Statue of Liberty arrived in NYC aboard French ship Isère.
1884 Création du Protectorat français sur le Cambodge. Protectorat ou colonie. La différence juridique est mince. Mais les conditions d’obtention de ce Protectorat sont claires. Le roi Norodom est déporté dans les colonies pénitentiaires françaises, où il signe l’accord Franco-Cambodgien et perd sa souveraineté. Obligé d’accepter, Norodom garde le pouvoir mais ne peut refuser aucune réforme française ! ! !
1864 First attack on Petersburg, Virginia continues
1863 Engagement in Warsaw Sound, Georgia
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Battle of Aldie, Confederates fail to drive back the Union in Virginia
1861 Engagement at Boonville, Missouri
1861 Action at Vienna, Virginia
1856 Republican Party opens its first national convention in Philadelphia
1837 Charles Goodyear obtains his first rubber patent
1791 La Révolution Française se voulait d’offrir à tous les Français ainsi qu’au reste du monde la Liberté, l’Egalité et la Fraternité. Au milieu de la Terreur et des exécutions, une loi va quand même dans ce sens et abolit une des grandes institutions de l’Ancien Régime, les Corporations (d'artisans). La Loi Le Chapelier, votée le 17 Juin, 1791 condamne tout ce qui peut s’opposer à la Liberté individuelle. C’est le fondement même de nos constitutions démocratiques, notre Loi la plus fondamentale. Avec une restriction cependant, le Droit de Grève est formellement dénié ! Il ne sera admis que plus d'un siècle plus tard. Des centaines d’Etat depuis lors tentent de suivre cet exemple.
1745 American colonials capture Louisburg, Cape Breton I from French
2006 Reggie Dantzler, 19; Iruan Taylor, 19; Marquis Hunter, 19; Arsenio Hunter, 16; and Warren Simoen, 17; shot in a Ford Explorer SUV at the intersection of Danneel and Josephine streets in the New Orleans working class neighborhood Central City, just before dawn. Dantzler was arrested on 20 May 2006 on a marijuana possession charge for which he was to have a 06 July 2006 court hearing. — (060619)
2006 Abdul-Halim Abu-Salamovich Sadulayev (or Abdul-Khalim; Sadulaev, Saidulaev, Saidulayev, Saidullaev, Saidullayev, Saydullayev) and 2 Russian secret police agents, of those who, with Chechen puppet policemen, attacked Sadulayev in his native town, Argun. Born in 1967, he was the successor of Aslan Maskhadov [21 Sep 1951 – 08 Mar 2005] as president of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. — (060618)
2004 A Hungarian soldier of the occupying forces, by a roadside bomb south of Baghdad, Iraq.
2004 Six members of the Iraqi puppet Civil Defense Corps, by the explosion of a car bomb near Balad, Iraq, in the afternoon.
2004 Some 40 persons, most of them waiting to apply for employment in the Iraqi puppet Civil Defense Corps, by the 09: 10 explosion of a terrorist suicide car loaded with artillery shells. Some 150 are wounded.
2003 Noam Leibovitch, 7, Israeli girl, by gunfire from the outskirts of Qalqilyah, across the West Bank border, to the car in which whe was, which was exiting the Trans-Israel Highway near the Kibbutz Eyal junction, in the evening. Noam's sister, 5, is seriously wounded; their grandfather is wounded.
2003 Pvt. Shawn Pahnke, 25, of the US 37th Armored Regiment, while in an vehicle on patrol in Bahdad wearing body armor, by a small caliber bullet in the back.
2002 Walid Sbeich, 30, Palestinian militant, killed by Israeli forces, in Al Khader, south Jerusalem.
2002 Oswaldo Martínez, 28, Panamanian, eaten by a crocodile while swimming across the River Terraba in southern Costa Rica, intending to return to Panama after escaping from a prison in Costa Rica, to where he had fled, but was captured, after murdering judge Harmodio Mariscal on 05 June during a failed robbery in Panama City.
2001 Ten jailbreakers in Escuintla, Guatemala. Twin sisters Heidi and Jeni Porras, 22, "attractive middle-class women with short dyed-blonde hair," smuggle assault weapons and pistols into the fortress-like prison in the Escuintla departamento to free their kidnapper boyfriends who were serving life sentences there. The Porras twins then speed off with the two kidnappers and two more men in a sport utility vehicle after they shot their way out of the jail, followed by another 74 convicts. The kidnappers would later be killed in a Guatemala City shootout, presumably with a rival gang. The jailbreak leads President Alfonso Portillo to decree a two-month "state-of-alarm" giving security forces extra powers to stop, frisk and detain suspects while they hunt down the escapees in a massive nationwide search. Of the 78 convicts who fled the jail, 10 are killed during the escape or shortly afterward.
1994 Frank Yates, English mathematical statistician born on 12 May 1902. Author of Sampling Methods for Censuses and Surveys (1949).
1984 Donna Williams, abducted in Gary, Indiana, and murdered (probably the same day), it is believed that by Alton Coleman. Her body would be found in an empty Detroit building on 11 July 1984.
1966 James Oliver, bartender, and a customer, shot at about 02:30 by two men who enter the the Lafayette Bar & Grill, in Patterson, NJ. They also severely wound two other patrons Hazel Tanis (who would die a month later) and William Marins. Boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter's would be convicted for this crime and imprisoned until his conviction is overturned on 08 November 1985.
1913 Samuel Augustus Barnett, Anglican priest and social reformer born on 08 February 1844. He founded building programs and cultural centers (notably Toynbee Hall, 1884, which Barnett served as its first warden) in London's impoverished East End. In his teaching and writings he advanced a doctrine of Christian Socialism. Barnett House, Oxford, a center for the study of social sciences, was founded in his memory. Among his works is Practicable Socialism (1888), written with the aid of his wife, Henrietta Octavia Rowland, who was also active in Barnett's social reform efforts.
1900 Theodore van Schuz, German artist born on 26 March 1830.
1898 Sir Edward Coley baronet Burne~Jones, British painter born on 28 August 1833. MORE ON BURNE~JONES AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1887 Hugo Petterson Birger, Swedish artist born on 12 January 1854.
1631 San José galleon loaded with about 700 tons of treasure including silver and gold ingots bound for Spain, sinks after crashing into rocks off one of the Pearl Islands in the Pacific some 100 km south of Panama City. The aging ship had been sailing for 20 years in tropical waters, as part of the Spanish South Seas Armada. The San José had left Callao, Peru, making a stopover in Ecuador, before heading toward Panama City. During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Panama served as the central point for gold and silver shipments between the mines of Peru and imperial Spain. Galleons laden with treasure were offloaded in Panama City and transported across the isthmus by mule train to be set onto ships on the Caribbean coast headed for Spain. On 07 May 2002 Panama's National Culture Institute woulld announce that the exact position of the San José has been located.
0900 Foulques, archbishop of Reims, assassinated at the instigation of Count Baldwin II of Flanders, because of the efforts of Foulques to keep church property out of the hands of the nobles. For this, Baldwin was excommunicated by Pope Benedict IV [–Jul 903]. Foulques was leader of the opposition to the non-Carolingian Eudes king of the West Franks (i.e. France). Failing to establish his kinsman, Guy II of Spoleto, as king of the West Franks in 888, Foulques turned unavailingly to Arnulf, king of the East Franks, and then to the young Charles, son of the Carolingian Louis II le Bègue; he crowned Charles at Reims in 893. His view was that only one of Carolingian blood could rightfully become king. Although Charles had to yield to Eudes, he became king (as Charles III) on the latter's death in 898, and Foulques became his chancellor.
0676 Deusdedit III, Pope.
0653 St Martin I, Pope
1988 Microsoft releases MS DOS 4.0
1929 Tigran Petrosyan USSR, world chess champion (1963-1969)
1920 François Jacob, French biologist who, together with André Lwoff [08 May 1902 – 30 Sep 1994] and Jacques Monod [09 Feb 1910 – 31 May 1986], was awarded the 1965 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discoveries concerning regulatory activities in bacteria.
1903 William Vallance Douglas Hodge, Scottish mathematician who died on 07 July 1975. He developed the relationship between geometry, analysis and topology and is best remembered for his theory of harmonic integrals.
1899 Fausto Pirandello, Italian artist who died in 1975.
1899 Grundlagen der Geometrie is published by David Hilbert [23 Jan 1862 – 14 Feb 1943], who sets out to give a rigorous axiomatic basis to Euclid's geometry.
1898 Maurits Cornelius Escher, US mathematical artist specialized in Optical Art, who died on 27 March 1972.. MORE ON ESCHER AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1882 (05 June Julian) Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky, Russian composer (The Firebird, Petrouchka, The Rite of Spring, The Wedding, The Soldier's Tale) who died on 06 April 1971 in New York. He had left Russia in 1910 when he started writing music for the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev [31 Mar 1872 – 19 Aug 1929] in Paris. The premiere of The Firebird at the Paris Opéra on 25 June 1910 was a great success. On 13 June 1911, it was the premiere of the ballet Petrushka. The first performance of The Rite of Spring at the Théâtre des Champs Élysées on 29 May 1913 provoked a riot among the audience. Stravinsky lived in Switzerland from 1914 to 1920, then again in France, where he became a citizen in 1934. He moved to the US in 1939 and became a US citizen in 1945.
1870 George Cormack, who would create "Wheaties" cereal
1870 Nishida Kitarô, Japanese philosopher who died on 07 June 1945. He exemplified the attempt by the Japanese to assimilate Western philosophy into the Oriental spiritual tradition.
1867 John Robert Gregg Ireland, inventor (shorthand)
1863 Travelers Insurance Co. of Hartford chartered (first accident insurer)
1859 Walter Frederick Osborne, British painter born on 24 April 1903. — more with links to images.
1789 Assemblée Nationale est née. Ce jour, le tiers travaille! La noblesse et le clergé ont refusé de participer (comme par hasard). Sur une motion de Sieyès [03 May 1748 – 20 Jun 1836], par 401 voix contre 119, il se proclame Assemblée Nationale.
1703 John Wesley, English founder of Methodism, who died on 02 March 1791. The systematic disciplines of the 'Holy Club,' which John and his brother Charles Wesley [18 Dec 1707 – 29 Mar 1788] founded, elicited the nickname 'Methodies' from their critics. Le mouvement prend de l'ampleur et rompt avec l'Église anglicane. Leur inépuisable charité, leur prise de position contre l'esclavage apportent aux Méthodistes des millions d'adeptes.
1682 Charles XII, who became king of Sweden at the death of his father, Charles XI [24 Nov 1655 – 05 Apr 1697] and who died on 30 November 1718 shot through the head at the siege of Fredrikshald (Halden), at an early stage in the invasion of Norway. He was an absolute monarch who defended his country for 18 years during the Great Northern War and promoted significant domestic reforms. He launched a disastrous invasion of Russia (1707–1709), resulting in the complete collapse of the Swedish armies and the loss of Sweden's status as a great power.
1660 Jan van Mieris, Dutch painter who died on 17 March 1690. MORE ON VAN MIERIS AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1571 (infant baptism) Thomas Mun, English writer on economics who died on 21 July 1641. He gave the first clear and vigorous statement of the theory of the balance of trade.
1239 Edward I “Edward Longshanks”, king of England who died on 07 July 1307. He became king after the death of his father Henry III [01 Oct 1207 – 16 Nov 1272]. He reigned during a period of rising national consciousness. He strengthened the crown and Parliament against the old feudal nobility. He subdued Wales, destroying its autonomy; and he sought (unsuccessfully) the conquest of Scotland. His reign is particularly noted for administrative efficiency and legal reform. He introduced a series of statutes that did much to strengthen the crown in the feudal hierarchy. His definition and emendation of English common law has earned him the name of the “English Justinian.”